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Sample records for advanced small rocket

  1. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Option 3: 110 1Bf Ir-Re Rocket, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  2. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  3. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  4. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  5. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  6. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  7. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  8. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Basic Program and Option 2: Fundamental Processes and Material Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Propellants, chamber materials, and processes for fabrication of small high performance radiation cooled liquid rocket engines were evaluated to determine candidates for eventual demonstration in flight-type thrusters. Both storable and cryogenic propellant systems were considered. The storable propellant systems chosen for further study were nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer with either hydrazine or monomethylhydrazine as fuel. The cryogenic propellants chosen were oxygen with either hydrogen or methane as fuel. Chamber material candidates were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rhenium protected from oxidation by CVD iridium for the chamber hot section, and film cooled wrought platinum-rhodium or regeneratively cooled stainless steel for the front end section exposed to partially reacted propellants. Laser diagnostics of the combustion products near the hot chamber surface and measurements at the surface layer were performed in a collaborative program at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. The Material Sample Test Apparatus, a laboratory system to simulate the combustion environment in terms of gas and material temperature, composition, and pressure up to 6 Atm, was developed for these studies. Rocket engine simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the materials under simulated combustor flow conditions, in the diagnostic test chamber. These tests used the exhaust species measurement system, a device developed to monitor optically species composition and concentration in the chamber and exhaust by emission and absorption measurements.

  9. Small Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

  10. Small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil; Reed, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Instrumented and optically-accessible rocket chambers are being developed to be used for diagnostics of small rocket (less than 440 N thrust level) flowfields. These chambers are being tested to gather local fluid dynamic and thermodynamic flowfield data over a range of test conditions. This flowfield database is being used to better understand mixing and heat transfer phenomena in small rockets, influence the numerical modeling of small rocket flowfields, and characterize small rocket components. The diagnostic chamber designs include: a chamber design for gathering wall temperature profiles to be used as boundary conditions in a finite element heat flux model; a chamber design for gathering inner wall temperature and static pressure profiles; and optically-accessible chamber designs, to be used with a suite of laser-based diagnostics for gathering local species concentration, temperature, density, and velocity profiles. These chambers were run with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) propellants, while subsequent versions will be run on liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/HC) propellants. The purpose, design, and initial test results of these small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers are summarized.

  11. Advanced liquid rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    A program to substitute iridium coated rhenium for silicide coated niobium in thrust chamber fabrications is reviewed. The life limiting phenomena in each of these material systems is also reviewed. Coating cracking and spalling is not a problem with iridium-coated rhenium as in silicide-coated niobium. Use of the new material system enables an 800 K increase in thruster operating temperature from around 1700 K for niobium to 2500 K for rhenium. Specific impulse iridium-coated rhenium rockets is nominally 20 seconds higher than comparable niobium rockets in the 22 N class and nominally 10 seconds higher in the 440 N class.

  12. Small rocket tornado probe

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A (less than 1 lb.) paper rock tornado probe was developed and deployed in an attempt to measure the pressure, temperature, ionization, and electric field variations along a trajectory penetrating a tornado funnel. The requirements of weight and materials were set by federal regulations and a one-meter resolution at a penetration velocity of close to Mach 1 was desired. These requirements were achieved by telemetering a strain gage transducer for pressure, micro size thermister and electric field, and ionization sensors via a pulse time telemetry to a receiver on board an aircraft that digitizes a signal and presents it to a Z80 microcomputer for recording on mini-floppy disk. Recording rate was 2 ms for 8 channels of information that also includes telemetry rf field strength, magnetic field for orientation on the rocket, zero reference voltage for the sensor op amps as well as the previously mentioned items also. The absolute pressure was recorded. Tactically, over 120 h were flown in a Cessna 210 in April and May 1981, and one tornado was encountered. Four rockets were fired at this tornado, missed, and there were many equipment problems. The equipment needs to be hardened and engineered to a significant degree, but it is believed that the feasibility of the probe, tactics, and launch platform for future tornado work has been proven. The logistics of thunderstorm chasing from a remote base in New Mexico is a major difficulty and reliability of the equipment another. Over 50 dummy rockets have been fired to prove trajectories, stability, and photographic capability. Over 25 electronically equipped rockets have been fired to prove sensors transmission, breakaway connections, etc. The pressure recovery factor was calibrated in the Air Force Academy blow-down tunnel. There is a need for more refined engineering and more logistic support.

  13. Small rocket research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-01-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  14. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

  15. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  16. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-08-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  17. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  18. Acoustic Measurements for Small Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Models have been developed to predict large solid rocket motor acoustic loads based on the scaling of small solid rocket motors. MSFC has measured several small solid rocket motors in horizontal and launch configurations to anchor these models. Solid Rocket Test Motor (SRTM) has ballistics similar to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) therefore a good choice for acoustic scaling. Acoustic measurements were collected during the test firing of the Insulation Configuration Extended Length (ICXL) 7,6, and 8 (in firing order) in order to compare to RSRM horizontal firing data. The scope of this presentation includes: Acoustic test procedures and instrumentation implemented during the three SRTM firings and Data analysis method and general trends observed in the data.

  19. Acoustic Measurements of Small Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Rocket acoustic noise can induce loads and vibration on the vehicle as well as the surrounding structures. Models have been developed to predict these acoustic loads based on scaling existing solid rocket motor data. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center acoustics team has measured several small solid rocket motors (thrust below 150,000 lbf) to anchor prediction models. This data will provide NASA the capability to predict the acoustic environments and consequent vibro-acoustic response of larger rockets (thrust above 1,000,000 lbf) such as those planned for the NASA Constellation program. This paper presents the methods used to measure acoustic data during the static firing of small solid rocket motors and the trends found in the data.

  20. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  1. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  2. Advanced Solid Rocket Launcher and Its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yasuhiro; Imoto, Takayuki; Habu, Hiroto; Ohtsuka, Hirohito; Hori, Keiichi; Koreki, Takemasa; Fukuchi, Apollo; Uekusa, Yasuyuki; Akiba, Ryojiro

    The research on next generation solid propellant rockets is actively underway in various spectra. JAXA is developing the Advanced Solid Rocket (ASR) as a successor to the M-V launch vehicle, which was utilized over past ten years for space science programs including planetary missions. ASR is a result of the development of the next generation technology including a highly intelligent autonomous check-out system, which is connected to not only the solid rocket but also future transportation systems. It is expected to improve the efficiency of the launch system and double the cost performance. Far beyond this effort, the passion of the volunteers among the industry-government-academia cooperation has been united to establish the society of the freewheeling thinking “Next generation Solid Rocket Society (NSRS)”. It aims at a larger revolution than what the ASR provides so that the order of the cost performance is further improved. A study of the Low melting temperature Thermoplastic Propellant (LTP) is now at the experimental stage, which is expected to reform the manufacturing process of the solid rocket propellant and lead to a significant increase in cost performance. This paper indicates the direction of the big flow towards the next generation solid-propellant rockets: the concept of the intelligent ASR under development; and the innovation behind LTP.

  3. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary identification and evaluation of promising liquid oxygen/ hydrocarbon (LO2/HC) rocket engine cycles is reported. A consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, to demonstrate the significance of propulsion system improvements, and to select the critical technology areas necessary to realize such advances is presented.

  4. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  5. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  6. Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

  7. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor nozzle development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, W. J.; Moss, J. D.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a status update of the design and development of an improved nozzle for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The ASRM nozzle incorporates advanced state-of-the-art design features and materials which contribute to enhanced safety, reliability, performance, and producibility for the space shuttle boosters. During 1992 the nozzle design progressed through a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR). An improved ablative material development program also culminated in the selection of new standard and low density carbon cloth phenolic prepreg offering reduced variability and improved process attributes. A subscale motor test series to evaluate new materials and design features was also completed. An overview update of the matured design characteristics, supporting analysis, key development-program results and program status and plans is reported.

  8. Advanced active health monitoring system of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Wu, Zhanjun; Beard, Shawn; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2008-11-01

    An advanced SMART TAPE system has been developed for real-time in-situ monitoring and long term tracking of structural integrity of pressure vessels in liquid rocket engines. The practical implementation of the structural health monitoring (SHM) system including distributed sensor network, portable diagnostic hardware and dedicated data analysis software is addressed based on the harsh operating environment. Extensive tests were conducted on a simulated large booster LOX-H2 engine propellant duct to evaluate the survivability and functionality of the system under the operating conditions of typical liquid rocket engines such as cryogenic temperature, vibration loads. The test results demonstrated that the developed SHM system could survive the combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environments and effectively detect cracks as small as 2 mm.

  9. Small centrifugal pumps for low thrust rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulbrandsen, N. C.; Furst, R. B.; Burgess, R. M.; Scheer, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a combined analytical and experimental investigation of low specific speed pumps for potential use as components of propellant feed systems for low thrust rocket engines. Shrouded impellers and open face impellers were tested in volute type and vaned diffuser type pumps. Full- and partial-emission diffusers and full- and partial-admission impellers were tested. Axial and radial loads, head and efficiency versus flow, and cavitation tests were conducted. Predicted performance of two pumps are compared when pumping water and liquid hydrogen. Detailed pressure loss and parasitic power values are presented for two pump configurations. Partial-emission diffusers were found to permit use of larger impeller and diffuser passages with a minimal performance penalty. Normal manufacturing tolerances were found to result in substantial power requirement variation with only a small pressure rise change. Impeller wear ring leakage was found to reduce pump pressure rise to an increasing degree as the pump flowrate was decreased.

  10. Advanced tube-bundle rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced rocket thrust chamber for future space application is described along with an improved method of fabrication. Potential benefits of the concept are improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. Performance improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced heat transfer into the coolant which will enable higher chamber pressure in expander cycle engines. Cyclic life, reusability and reliability improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber with a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes, and the bonding of these tubes by an electroforming operation. Further, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, jackets, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.

  11. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  12. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Ewen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates promising LO2/HC rocket engine cycles, produces a consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, demonstrates the significance of propulsion system improvements, and selects the critical technology areas necessary to realize an improved surface to orbit transportation system. Parametric LO2/HC engine data were generated over a range of thrust levels from 890 to 6672 kN (200K to 1.5M 1bF) and chamber pressures from 6890 to 34500 kN (1000 to 5000 psia). Engine coolants included RP-1, refined RP-1, LCH4, LC3H8, LO2, and LH2. LO2/RP-1 G.G. cycles were found to be not acceptable for advanced engines. The highest performing LO2/RP-1 staged combustion engine cycle utilizes LO2 as the coolant and incorporates an oxidizer rich preburner. The highest performing cycle for LO2/LCH4 and LO2/LC3H8 utilizes fuel cooling and incorporates both fuel and oxidizer rich preburners. LO2/HC engine cycles permitting the use of a third fluid LH2 coolant and an LH2 rich gas generator provide higher performance at significantly lower pump discharge pressures. The LO2/HC dual throat engine, because of its high altitude performance, delivers the highest payload for the vehicle configuration that was investigated.

  13. Enrichment Zoning Options for the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2010-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. In NASA’s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study (NASA-SP-2009-566, July 2009), nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (-900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. Past activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center have included development of highly detailed MCNP Monte Carlo transport models of the SNRE and other small engine designs. Preliminary core configurations typically employ fuel elements with fixed fuel composition and fissile material enrichment. Uniform fuel loadings result in undesirable radial power and temperature profiles in the engines. Engine performance can be improved by some combination of propellant flow control at the fuel element level and by varying the fuel composition. Enrichment zoning at the fuel element level with lower enrichments in the higher power elements at the core center and on the core periphery is particularly effective. Power flattening by enrichment zoning typically results in more uniform propellant exit temperatures and improved engine performance. For the SNRE, element enrichment zoning provided very flat radial power profiles with 551 of the 564

  14. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  15. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  16. Advanced technologies for rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, Alan W.; Bush, Lance B.; Cruz, Christopher I.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Morris, W. Douglas; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit vertical takeoff/horizontal landing rocket vehicle was studied to determine the benefits of advanced technology. Advanced technologies that were included in the study were variable mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen rocket engines and materials, structures, and subsystem technologies currently being developed in the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The application of advanced technology results in an 85 percent reduction in vehicle dry weight. With advanced materials, an external thermal protection system, like the Space Shuttle tiles, was not required. Compared to an all-airbreathing horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing vehicle using the same advanced technologies and mission requirements, the rocket vehicle is lighter in dry weight and has fewer subsystems. To increase reliability and safety, operational features were included in the rocket vehicle-robust subsystems, 5 percent additional margin, no slush hydrogen, fail-operational with an engine out, and a crew escape module. The resulting vehicle grew in dry weight and was still lower in dry weight than the airbreathing vehicle.

  17. A performance comparison of two small rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.; Rivera, Angel, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on two small rockets (110 N thrust class) to directly compare a standard conical nozzle with a bell nozzle optimized for maximum thrust using the Rao method. In large rockets, with throat Reynolds numbers of greater than 1 x 10(exp 5), bell nozzles outperform conical nozzles. In rockets with throat Reynolds numbers below 1 x 10(exp 5), however, test results have been ambiguous. An experimental program was conducted to test two small nozzles at two different fuel film cooling percentages and three different chamber pressures. Test results showed that for the throat Reynolds number range from 2 x 10(exp 4) to 4 x 10(exp 4), the bell nozzle outperformed the conical nozzle. Thrust coefficients for the bell nozzle were approximately 4 to 12 percent higher than those obtained with the conical nozzle. As expected, testing showed that lowering the fuel film cooling increased performance for both nozzle types.

  18. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-11-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  19. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  20. 7. Credit BG. View looking west into small solid rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Credit BG. View looking west into small solid rocket motor testing bay of Test Stand 'E' (Building 4259/E-60). Motors are mounted on steel table and fired horizontally toward the east. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand E, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  2. MINOTAUR (Maryland's innovative orbital technologically advanced University rocket)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Mark J.; Akin, Dave; Lind, Charles; Rice, T. (Editor); Vincent, W. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in designing small commercial launch vehicles. Some of these designs include OSC's Pegasus, and AMROC's Aquila. Even though these vehicles are very different in their overall design characteristics, they all share a common thread of being expensive to design and manufacture. Each of these vehicles has an estimated production and operations cost of over $15000/kg of payload. In response to this high cost factor, the University of Maryland is developing a cost-effective alternative launch vehicle, Maryland's Innovative Orbital Technologically Advanced University Rocket (MINOTAUR). A preliminary cost analysis projects that MINOTAUR will cost under $10000/kg of payload. MINOTAUR will also serve as an enriching project devoted to an entirely student-designed-and-developed launch vehicle. This preliminary design of MINOTAUR was developed entirely by undergraduates in the University of Maryland's Space Vehicle Design class. At the start of the project, certain requirements and priorities were established as a basis from which to begin the design phase: (1) carry a 100 kg payload into a 200 km circular orbit; (2) provide maximum student involvement in the design, manufacturing, and launch phases of the project; and (3) use hybrid propulsion throughout. The following is the list of the project's design priorities (from highest to lowest): (1) safety, (2) cost, (3) minimum development time, (4) maximum use of the off-the-shelf components, (5) performance, and (6) minimum use of pyrotechnics.

  3. Magnetic bearings: A key technology for advanced rocket engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girault, J. PH.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, active magnetic bearings (AMB) have demonstrated their capabilities in many fields, from industrial compressors to control wheel suspension for spacecraft. Despite this broad area, no significant advance has been observed in rocket propulsion turbomachinery, where size, efficiency, and cost are crucial design criteria. To this respect, Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) had funded for several years significant efforts to delineate the advantages and drawbacks of AMB applied to rocket propulsion systems. Objectives of this work, relative technological basis, and improvements are described and illustrated by advanced turbopump layouts. Profiting from the advantages of compact design in cryogenic environments, the designs show considerable improvements in engine life, performances, and reliability. However, these conclusions should still be tempered by high recurrent costs, mainly due to the space-rated electronics. Development work focused on this point and evolution of electronics show the possibility to decrease production costs by an order of magnitude.

  4. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  5. Solid rocket technology advancements for space tug and IUS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

    1975-01-01

    In order for the shuttle tug or interim upper stage (IUS) to capture all the missions in the current mission model for the tug and the IUS, an auxiliary or kick stage, using a solid propellant rocket motor, is required. Two solid propellant rocket motor technology concepts are described. One concept, called the 'advanced propulsion module' motor, is an 1800-kg, high-mass-fraction motor, which is single-burn and contains Class 2 propellent. The other concept, called the high energy upper stage restartable solid, is a two-burn (stop-restartable on command) motor which at present contains 1400 kg of Class 7 propellant. The details and status of the motor design and component and motor test results to date are presented, along with the schedule for future work.

  6. Creation of a market for small rocket experiments through CAMUI hybrid rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Watanabe, Mikio; Ito, Mitsunori; Maeda, Takenori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Totani, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Isao

    2005-08-01

    By introducing various innovative ideas, the difficult-to-develop small hybrid-type rocket is successfully developed. The main purpose is to drastically reduce the cost of rocket experiments and thus attract potential users such as metrological and microgravity researchers. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to accelerate the gasification rate of solid fuel. The new fuel grain design, designated as CAMUI as an abbreviation of "Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet", is that the gas flow repeatedly collides with the solid fuel surface to accelerate the heat transfer to the fuel. To install a regenerative cooling system using cryogenic liquid oxygen as coolant in a small launcher, the authors devised a valveless supply system (with no valves in the liquid oxygen flow line). Four serial successful launch verification tests by 10 kg vehicle equipped with a 50 kgf thrust CAMUI motor have shown the feasibility of the motor system. The meteorological observation model of 400 kgf class motor is under development and the development of microgravity experiment class of 1.5 to 2 tonf motor will follow subsequently. The authors plan to complete the developoment of the 400 kgf class motor for meterological observation model by the end of FY2005.

  7. Development of CAMUI hybrid rocket to create a market for small rocket experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Ito, Mitsunori; Maeda, Takenori; Watanabe, Mikio; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Totani, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Isao

    2006-07-01

    By introducing various innovative ideas, the difficult-to-develop small hybrid-type rocket is successfully developed. The main purpose is to drastically reduce the cost of rocket experiments and thus, attract potential users such as metrological and microgravity researchers. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to accelerate the gasification rate of solid fuel. The new fuel grain design, designated as CAMUI as an abbreviation of "cascaded multistage impinging-jet", is that the gas flow repeatedly collides with the solid fuel surface to accelerate the heat transfer to the fuel. To install a regenerative cooling system using cryogenic liquid oxygen as coolant in a small launcher, the authors devised a valveless supply system (with no valves in the liquid oxygen flow line). Four serial successful launch verification tests by 10 kg vehicle equipped with a 50 kgf thrust CAMUI motor have shown the feasibility of the motor system. The meteorological observation model of 400 kgf class motor is under development and the development of microgravity experiment class of 1.5-2 tonf motor will follow subsequently. The authors plan to complete the development of the 400 kgf class motor for meteorological observation model by the end of FY2005.

  8. Design and test of a small two stage counter-rotating turbine for rocket engine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, F. W.; Branstrom, B. R.; Finke, A. K.; Johnson, P. D.; Rowey, R. J.; Veres, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for application in an advanced upper stage rocket engine turbopump. This engine will employ an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low flow rates result in very small airfoil diameter, height and chord. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The unconventional approach employed to meet this challenge is described, along with the detailed design process and resulting airfoil configurations. The method and results of full scale aerodynamic performance evaluation testing of both one and two stage configurations, as well as operation without the secondary stage stator are presented. The overall results of this effort illustrate that advanced aerodynamic design tools and hardware fabrication techniques have provided improved capability to produce small high performance turbines for advanced rocket engines.

  9. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  10. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  11. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit.

    PubMed

    Doerr, D F

    2001-01-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or approximately 1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comparable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an

  12. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or ˜1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comprobable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in

  13. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  14. CANSAT: Design of a Small Autonomous Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Joshua; Duda, Michael; Garnand-Royo, Jeff; Jones, Alexa; Pickering, Todd; Tutko, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), AGI, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Praxis Incorporated, and SolidWorks. Specifically, the 2009 Virginia Tech CanSat Team is funded by BAE Systems, Incorporated of Manassas, Virginia. The objective of the 2009 CanSat competition is to complete remote sensing missions by designing a small autonomous sounding rocket payload. The payload designed will follow and perform to a specific set of mission requirements for the 2009 competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, reviews, and launch.

  15. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  16. Robotic NDE inspection of advanced solid rocket motor casings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneelege, Glenn E.; Sarantos, Chris

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program determined the need to inspect ASRM forgings and segments for potentially catastrophic defects. To minimize costs, an automated eddy current inspection system was designed and manufactured for inspection of ASRM forgings in the initial phases of production. This system utilizes custom manipulators and motion control algorithms and integrated six channel eddy current data acquisition and analysis hardware and software. Total system integration is through a personal computer based workcell controller. Segment inspection demands the use of a gantry robot for the EMAT/ET inspection system. The EMAT/ET system utilized similar mechanical compliancy and software logic to accommodate complex part geometries. EMAT provides volumetric inspection capability while eddy current is limited to surface and near surface inspection. Each aspect of the systems are applicable to other industries, such as, inspection of pressure vessels, weld inspection, and traditional ultrasonic inspection applications.

  17. Development of a small high-thrust tractor rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C.E.; Oberlander, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the parachute extraction tractor rocket motor design and test efforts conducted during the Sandia ASW/SOW development program. The prime contractor was Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the tractor rocket motor subcontractor was Morton Thiokol, Inc., Elkton, Maryland.

  18. Overview of the manufacturing sequence of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John S.; Nix, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    The manufacturing sequence of NASA's new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, developed as a replacement of the Space Shuttle's existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, is overviewed. Special attention is given to the case preparation, the propellant mix/cast, the nondestructuve evaluation, the motor finishing, and the refurbishment. The fabrication sequences of the case, the nozzle, and the igniter are described.

  19. Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

  20. Advanced research and technology program for advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  1. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  2. Ignition and Flame Stabilization of a Strut-Jet RBCC Combustor with Small Rocket Exhaust

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle combustor model is tested at a ground direct connected rig to investigate the flame holding characteristics with a small rocket exhaust using liquid kerosene. The total temperature and the Mach number of the vitiated air flow, at exit of the nozzle are 1505 K and 2.6, respectively. The rocket base is embedded in a fuel injecting strut and mounted in the center of the combustor. The wall of the combustor is flush, without any reward step or cavity, so the strut-jet is used to make sure of the flame stabilization of the second combustion. Mass flow rate of the kerosene and oxygen injected into the rocket is set to be a small value, below 10% of the total fuel when the equivalence ratio of the second combustion is 1. The experiment has generated two different kinds of rocket exhaust: fuel rich and pure oxygen. Experiment result has shown that, with a relative small total mass flow rate of the rocket, the fuel rich rocket plume is not suitable for ignition and flame stabilization, while an oxygen plume condition is suitable. Then the paper conducts a series of experiments to investigate the combustion characteristics under this oxygen pilot method and found that the flame stabilization characteristics are different at different combustion modes. PMID:24578655

  3. Ignition and flame stabilization of a strut-jet RBCC combustor with small rocket exhaust.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Bao, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle combustor model is tested at a ground direct connected rig to investigate the flame holding characteristics with a small rocket exhaust using liquid kerosene. The total temperature and the Mach number of the vitiated air flow, at exit of the nozzle are 1505 K and 2.6, respectively. The rocket base is embedded in a fuel injecting strut and mounted in the center of the combustor. The wall of the combustor is flush, without any reward step or cavity, so the strut-jet is used to make sure of the flame stabilization of the second combustion. Mass flow rate of the kerosene and oxygen injected into the rocket is set to be a small value, below 10% of the total fuel when the equivalence ratio of the second combustion is 1. The experiment has generated two different kinds of rocket exhaust: fuel rich and pure oxygen. Experiment result has shown that, with a relative small total mass flow rate of the rocket, the fuel rich rocket plume is not suitable for ignition and flame stabilization, while an oxygen plume condition is suitable. Then the paper conducts a series of experiments to investigate the combustion characteristics under this oxygen pilot method and found that the flame stabilization characteristics are different at different combustion modes. PMID:24578655

  4. Amateur Gas-Propelled Rocket Engine Development and Advanced Rocket Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souverein, L. J.; Twigt, D. J.; Engelen, S.

    The paper describes the design and manufacturing of a gaseous propellant rocket engine. It is an undertaking of the authors, performed on project basis with fellow aerospace engineering students under auspices of DARE (Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering). This paper describes the requirements, the engine development, and the design considerations and calculations as they were performed. Furthermore, the plans for engine tests and the parameters that will have to be measured during those tests are covered. The design process converged to a 1800 N thrust gaseous oxygen/methane (GOX/CH4) engine made of electrolytic copper. GOX/CH4 was selected based on its relatively high specific impulse, its availability and because of its potential as a green propellant. A test engine was produced with a specific impulse of 287 s and a propellant mass flow of 637 g/s. From a point of view of strength, the focus was mainly on robustness rather than light weight. The main aim now is to perform tests with the current engine, based on which the performance can be verified and vital information for future design efforts can be acquired. The ultimate goal is to have an operational rocket and to attempt an amateur altitude record.

  5. Heat pipe technology for advanced rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The application of heat pipe technology to the design of rocket engine thrust chambers is discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) evaporator wick development, (2) specific heat pipe designs and test results, (3) injector design, fabrication, and cold flow testing, and (4) preliminary thrust chamber design.

  6. ASRM plume deflector analysis program. [advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Michael C.; Douglas, Freddie, III; Orlin, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents analytical conclusions resulting from subscale solid rocket motor tests and flowfield modeling for a plume deflector. Loads, flow characteristics, and corresponding material behavior were predicted or observed and will be used in final design of the deflector. The efforts resulted in quantifiable size reductions and lower cost material selections, which will significantly reduce the deflector cost while meeting performance requirements.

  7. Advanced turbine study. [airfoil coling in rocket turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Experiments to determine the available increase in turbine horsepower achieved by increasing turbine inlet temperature over a range of 1800 to 2600 R, while applying current gas turbine airfoil cling technology are discussed. Four cases of rocket turbine operating conditions were investigated. Two of the cases used O2/H2 propellant, one with a fuel flowrate of 160 pps, the other 80 pps. Two cases used O2/CH4 propellant, each having different fuel flowrates, pressure ratios, and inlet pressures. Film cooling was found to be the required scheme for these rocket turbine applications because of the high heat flux environments. Conventional convective or impingement cooling, used in jet engines, is inadequate in a rocket turbine environment because of the resulting high temperature gradients in the airfoil wall, causing high strains and low cyclic life. The hydrogen-rich turbine environment experienced a loss, or no gain, in delivered horsepower as turbine inlet temperature was increased at constant airfoil life. The effects of film cooling with regard to reduced flow available for turbine work, dilution of mainstream gas temperature and cooling reentry losses, offset the relatively low specific work capability of hydrogen when increasing turbine inlet temperature over the 1800 to 2600 R range. However, the methane-rich environment experienced an increase in delivered horsepower as turbine inlet temperature was increased at constant airfoil life. The results of a materials survey and heat transfer and durability analysis are discussed.

  8. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  9. Advanced rocket propulsion technology assessment for future space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Single-stage and two-stage launch vehicles were evaluated for various levels of propulsion technology and payloads. The evaluation included tradeoffs between ascent flight performance and vehicle sizing that were driven by engine mass, specific impulse, and propellant requirements. Numerous mission, flight, and vehicle-related requirements and constraints were satisfied in the design process. The results showed that advanced technology had a large effect on reducing both single- and two-stage vehicle size. High-pressure hydrocarbon-fueled engines that were burned in parallel with two-position nozzle hydrogen-fueled engines reduced dry mass by 23% for the two-stage vehicle and 28% for the single-stage vehicle as compared to an all-hydrogen-fueled system. The dual-expander engine reduced single-stage vehicle dry mass by 41%. Using advanced technology, the single-stage vehicle became comparable in size and sensitivity to that of the two-stage vehicle for small payloads.

  10. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  11. ASRM subscale plume deflector testing. [advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Freddie, III; Dawson, Michael C.; Orlin, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the scale model (1/22) testing of candidate refractory materials to be used as surface coatings for a solid rocket motor plume deflector structure. Five ROM tests were conducted to acquire data to support the selection, thickness determination, and placement of the materials. All data acquisition was achieved through nonintrusive methods. The tests demonstrated that little or no reductions in performance of the full-scale deflector would be experienced if the most economical materials were selected for construction.

  12. Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the Oort cloud, rockets driven by deuterium fusion can there be refuelled. To obtain a high thrust with high specific impulse favours the propulsion by deuterium micro-bombs, and it is shown that the ignition of deuterium micro-bombs is possible by intense GeV proton beams, generated in space by using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated billion volt capacitor. The cost to develop this kind of a propulsion system in space would be very high, but it can also be developed on Earth by a magnetically insulated Super Marx Generator. Since the ignition of deuterium is theoretically possible with the Super Marx Generator, making obsolete the ignition of deuterium-tritium with a laser, where 80% of the energy goes into neutrons, this would also mean a breakthrough in fusion research, and therefore would justify the large development costs.

  13. Laser Rayleigh and Raman Diagnostics for Small Hydrogen/oxygen Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, Wilhelmus A.; Zupanc, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Localized velocity, temperature, and species concentration measurements in rocket flow fields are needed to evaluate predictive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and identify causes of poor rocket performance. Velocity, temperature, and total number density information have been successfully extracted from spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering in the plume of small hydrogen/oxygen rockets. Light from a narrow band laser is scattered from the moving molecules with a Doppler shifted frequency. Two components of the velocity can be extracted by observing the scattered light from two directions. Thermal broadening of the scattered light provides a measure of the temperature, while the integrated scattering intensity is proportional to the number density. Spontaneous Raman scattering has been used to measure temperature and species concentration in similar plumes. Light from a dye laser is scattered by molecules in the rocket plume. Raman spectra scattered from major species are resolved by observing the inelastically scattered light with linear array mounted to a spectrometer. Temperature and oxygen concentrations have been extracted by fitting a model function to the measured Raman spectrum. Results of measurements on small rockets mounted inside a high altitude chamber using both diagnostic techniques are reported.

  14. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  15. Advanced acoustic cavity technology. [for hydrogen oxygen rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, W. S.; Oberg, C. L.; Kusak, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of rocket motor firings was performed in a modified linear aerospike thrust chamber with the H2/O2 propellant combination to allow determination of the physical properties of the combustion gases in acoustic cavities located in the chamber side walls. A preliminary analytical study was first conducted to define theoretically both the appropriate cavity dimensions and the combustion gas flow field adjacent to the cavity openings. During the subsequent motor firings, cavity gas temperature profiles were measured and gas samples were withdrawn from the bottom of the cavities for compositional analysis by measurement of pressure/temperature variation and gas chromatography. Data were obtained with both radially and axially oriented cavities and with and without hydrogen bleed flow through the cavities. A simplified procedure was developed for predicting gas cavity and acoustic velocity for use in acoustic cavity design analyses.

  16. The space shuttle advanced solid rocket motor: Quality control and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Congressional committees that authorize the activities of NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) review the testing and quality assurance programs for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. The proposed ASRM design incorporates numerous features that are significant departures from the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The NRC review concentrated mainly on these features. Primary among these are the steel case material, welding rather than pinning of case factory joints, a bolted field joint designed to close upon firing the rocket, continuous mixing and casting of the solid propellant in place of the current batch processes, use of asbestos-free insulation, and a lightweight nozzle. The committee's assessment of these and other features of the ASRM are presented in terms of their potential impact on flight safety.

  17. Supersonic-combustion rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. J.; Franciscus, L. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A supersonic combustion rocket is provided in which a small rocket motor is substituted for heavy turbo pumps in a conventional rocket engine. The substitution results in a substantial reduction in rocket engine weight. The flame emanating from the small rocket motor can act to ignite non-hypergolic fuels.

  18. Simulation of an advanced techniques of ion propulsion Rocket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of Deuterium,Argon gas and Hexagonal shape Magneto hydrodynamic(MHD) techniques because of the stimulation indirectly generated the power from ionization chamber,design of thrust range is 1.2 N with 40 KW of electric power and high efficiency.The proposed work is the study of MHD power generation through ionization level of Deuterium gas and combination of two gaseous ions(Deuterium gas ions + Argon gas ions) at acceleration stage.IPR consists of three parts 1.Hexagonal shape MHD based power generator through ionization chamber 2.ion accelerator 3.Exhaust of Nozzle.Initially the required energy around 1312 KJ/mol is carrying out the purpose of deuterium gas which is changed to ionization level.The ionized Deuterium gas comes out from RF ionization chamber to nozzle through MHD generator with enhanced velocity then after voltage is generated across the two pairs of electrode in MHD.it will produce thrust value with the help of mixing of Deuterium ion and Argon ion at acceleration position.The simulation of the IPR system has been carried out by MATLAB.By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results,if reaches that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with 40KW power for simulating the IPR system.

  19. Ignition transient modelling for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagar, M. A.; Luke, G. D.; Stockham, L. W.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the ignition transient for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) for the Space Shuttle presents an unusual set of modelling challenges because of its high length-to-diameter ratio and complex internal flow environment. A review of ignition modelling experience on the Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), which is similar in size and configuration to the ASRM, reveals that classical igniter design theory and modelling methods under-predict, by a factor of two, the measured pressure and thrust rise rates experienced on the RSRM. This paper (1) reviews the Titan and Shuttle SRM test experience, (2) presents the results of 0-Dimensional (0-D) and 1-Dimensional (1-D) analysis of the RSRM and ASRM motors, and (3) addresses the need for advanced analysis techniques, as they relate to ASRM ignition transient modelling requirements and igniter design drivers.

  20. Small centrifugal pumps for low-thrust rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furst, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Six small, low specific speed centrifugal pump configurations were designed, fabricated, and tested. The configurations included shrouded, and 25 and 100% admission open face impellers with 2 inch tip diameters; 25, 50, and 100% emission vaned diffusers; and volutes with conical exits. Impeller tip widths varied from 0.030 inch to 0.052 inch. Design specific speeds (N sub s = RPM*GPM**0.5.FT**0.75) were 430 (four configurations) and 215 (two configurations). The six configurations were tested with water as the pumped fluid. Noncavitating performance results are presented for the design speed of 24,500 rpm over a flowrate range from 1 to 6 gpm for the N sub s = 430 configurations and test speeds up to 29,000 rpm over a flowrate range from 0.3 to 1.2 gpm for the N sub s = 215 configurations. Cavitating performance results are presented over a flowrate range from 60 to 120% of design flow. Fabrication of the small pump conponents is also discussed.

  1. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  2. Preliminary design of a pressurization system for small bipropellant rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Steven

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of developing a device or system that would improve the performance of small, bipropellant rockets through pressurization of the propellants. Due to the limitations in the space industry, namely high development costs and resistance to change, the new approach needed to be as simple and robust as possible. After reviewing several different potential methodologies, a concept was developed from first principles based on small gas turbine engine fuel injection approaches. The concept is simple and has heritage in the field of gas turbine engines, but it is new for the field of rocket propulsion. Using the basic physics of the proposed baseline concept, a simulation was developed to optimize the design parameters and to explore the trade space. Exercising the resulting simulation led to the identification of the critical design parameters and key performance metrics. During the iteration process, the design was updated and finalized. The resulting configuration appears to be feasible and has the potential of providing a new capability for small bipropellant rockets. Based upon the results of the study, recommendations were developed and a plan was created to further the development of the pump.

  3. Characterization of welded HP 9-4-30 steel for the advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, George William

    1990-01-01

    Solid rocket motor case materials must be high-strength, high-toughness, weldable alloys. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) cases currently being developed will be made from a 9Ni-4Co quench and temper steel called HP 9-4-30. These ultra high-strength steels must be carefully processed to give a very clean material and a fine grained microstructure, which insures excellent ductility and toughness. The HP 9-4-30 steels are vacuum arc remelted and carbon deoxidized to give the cleanliness required. The ASRM case material will be formed into rings and then welded together to form the case segments. Welding is the desired joining technique because it results in a lower weight than other joining techniques. The mechanical and corrosion properties of the weld region material were fully studied.

  4. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    In Task D.6 of the Advanced Engine Study, three primary subtasks were accomplished: (1) design of parametric data; (2) engine requirement variation studies; and (3) vehicle study/engine study coordination. Parametric data were generated for vacuum thrusts ranging from 7500 lbf to 50,000 lbf, nozzle expansion ratios from 600 to 1200, and engine mixture ratios from 5:1 to 7:1. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was used as a departure point for these parametric analyses. These data are intended to assist in definition and trade studies. In the Engine Requirements Variation Studies, the individual effects of increasing the throttling ratio from 10:1 to 20:1 and requiring the engine to operate at a maximum mixture ratio of 12:1 were determined. Off design engine balances were generated at these extreme conditions and individual component operating requirements analyzed in detail. Potential problems were identified and possible solutions generated. In the Vehicle Study/Engine Study coordination subtask, vehicle contractor support was provided as needed, addressing a variety of issues uncovered during vehicle trade studies. This support was primarily provided during Technical Interchange Meetings (TIM) in which Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) studies were addressed.

  5. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

    1993-06-01

    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  6. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

    1993-01-01

    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  7. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Warren R.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 engine study for the use of NASA and vehicle prime contractors in developing concepts for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and Phobos is documented. Parametric design data was obtained at five engine thrusts from 7.5K lbf to 50K lbf. Also, a separate task evaluated engine throttling over a 20:1 range and operation at a mixture ratio of 12 plus or minus 1 versus the 6 plus or minus 1 nominal. Cost data was also generated for DDT&E, first unit production, and factors in other life cycle costs. The major limitation of the study was lack of contact with vehicle prime contractors to resolve the issues in vehicle/engine interfaces. The baseline Aerojet dual propellant expander cycle was shown capable of meeting all performance requirements with an expected long operational life due to the high thermal margins. The basic engine design readily accommodated the 20:1 throttling requirement and operation up to a mixture ratio of 10 without change. By using platinum for baffled injector construction the increased thermal margin allowed operation up to mixture ratio 13. An initial engine modeling with an Aerojet transient simulation code (named MLETS) indicates stable engine operation with the baseline control system. A throttle ratio of 4 to 5 seconds from 10 percent to 100 percent thrust is also predicted. Performance predictions are 483.1 sec at 7.5K lbf, 487.3 sec at 20K lbf, and 485.2 sec at 50K lbf with a mixture ratio of 6 and an area ratio of 1200. Engine envelopes varied from 120 in. length/53 in. exit diameter at 7.5K lbf to 305 in. length/136 in. exit diameter at 50 K lbf. Packaging will be an important consideration. Continued work is recommended to include more vehicle prime contractor/engine contractor joint assessment of the interface issues.

  8. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  9. Advanced Computing Technologies for Rocket Engine Propulsion Systems: Object-Oriented Design with C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekele, Gete

    2002-01-01

    This document explores the use of advanced computer technologies with an emphasis on object-oriented design to be applied in the development of software for a rocket engine to improve vehicle safety and reliability. The primary focus is on phase one of this project, the smart start sequence module. The objectives are: 1) To use current sound software engineering practices, object-orientation; 2) To improve on software development time, maintenance, execution and management; 3) To provide an alternate design choice for control, implementation, and performance.

  10. Performance of Small (100-lb Thrust) Rocket Motors Using Coaxial Injection of Hydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, Joseph F.; Tabata, William

    1961-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a small (approximately 100-lb thrust) rocket using coaxial injection of hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Characteristic-velocity efficiencies of 94 percent of the theoretical shifting equilibrium value were obtained at a chamber pressure of about 300 pounds per square inch using a 21-tube injector and a combustion chamber characteristic length of 10 inches. Performance at lower chamber pressures could be improved by reducing contraction ratio and thereby increasing the combustion chamber length and injector pressure drop, which would tend to promote better mixing. Calculations based on experimental data showed a vacuum specific impulse of 305 seconds with a nozzle area ratio of 50.

  11. Small, high-performance engine component technology status. [liquid rocket engine for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, M. C.; Csomor, A.

    1976-01-01

    Rocketdyne, under contract to NASA-Lewis Research Center, is engaged in developing the technology for major subsystems of a small, high-performance, liquid rocket engine with the capabilities required for high-energy, upper-stage applications. Included in these efforts are the high-pressure turbopumps, preburner, igniter components, and high-area-ratio thrust chamber. A brief description of the engine system and its subsystems is given. The status of the programs is reviewed and the results of the testing conducted are presented.

  12. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  13. Advanced small rocket chambers: Option 1, 14 lbf Ir-Re rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Gage, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A high performance Ir-Re 14 lbf (62 N) chamber and nozzle which can be a direct replacement for a production engine was designed, built, hot fired and vibration acceptance tested. It passed all acceptance tests satisfactorily and demonstrated a 20 sec increase in specific impulse (Is) over the conventional 14 lbf silicide coated Cb chamber. The high performance engine uses the production valve and injector without modification. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip within the combustion chamber results in elimination of the fuel film coolant, improvement in flow uniformity, the 20 sec performance increase, and reduction of a potential source of spacecraft contamination. Measured Is was 305 sec at 75:1 area ratio, with monomenthylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants. Qualification tests remain to be done.

  14. Particulate multi-phase flowfield analysis for advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Doran, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction for a 2D advanced solid rocket motor (ASRM) is analyzed using the finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS) code. The flowfield in the aft dome cavity of the ASRM is examined and its significant impact on the motor operation and performance is demonstrated. Chemical reaction analysis is performed for H2O, O2, H2, O, H, OH, CO, CO2, Cl, Cl2, HCl, and N2. The turbulent dispersion effect is calculated with the Monte Carlo method. Result show that a recirculation zone exists at the entry of the aft-dome cavity. The particle impingement could cause the erosion and damage nozzle wall. Accumulating in the impingement area the particles change the wall shape and affect the motor performance.

  15. New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

  16. Supplemental final environmental impact statement for advanced solid rocket motor testing at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision on the FEIS describing the potential impacts to human health and the environment associated with the program, three factors have caused NASA to initiate additional studies regarding these issues. These factors are: (1) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to use the same comprehensive procedures to identify and delineate wetlands; (2) EPA has given NASA further guidance on how best to simulate the exhaust plume from the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) testing through computer modeling, enabling more realistic analysis of emission impacts; and (3) public concerns have been raised concerning short and long term impacts on human health and the environment from ASRM testing.

  17. Studies of high latitude mesospheric turbulence by radar and rocket. II - Measurements of small scale turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blood, S. P.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Raymund, T. D.; Thrane, E. V.; Blix, T. A.; Hoppe, U. P.; Fritts, D. C.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of mesospheric small scale turbulence and associated larger scale wave structures were obtained from rocket probe flights during equinox in spring 1985. The measurements were verified by data from the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar at Poker Flat, Alaska. Electron density irregularities down to an altitude of about 62 km and fluctuations in positive ion density in the altitude region from 50 to 90 km were measured. Turbulence in the inertial subrange was observed at heights where the fluctuations generally were largest. Measurement of background electron density exhibited gradients relative to the monotonically increasing density profile, suggesting the presence of large amplitude wave motions transporting the plasma by mixing. The radar detected the occurrence of 1-3 km wavelike perturbations superimposed on a 7-km wave in the wind velocity field. It is suggested that the 1-3 km waves are more important in the transport of energy and momentum and in the production of turbulence in the lower mesosphere.

  18. Studies of high latitude mesospheric turbulence by radar and rocket. II - Measurements of small scale turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blood, S. P.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Raymund, T. D.; Thrane, E. V.; Blix, T. A.; Hoppe, U. P.; Fritts, D. C.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-11-01

    Measurements of mesospheric small scale turbulence and associated larger scale wave structures were obtained from rocket probe flights during equinox in spring 1985. The measurements were verified by data from the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar at Poker Flat, Alaska. Electron density irregularities down to an altitude of about 62 km and fluctuations in positive ion density in the altitude region from 50 to 90 km were measured. Turbulence in the inertial subrange was observed at heights where the fluctuations generally were largest. Measurement of background electron density exhibited gradients relative to the monotonically increasing density profile, suggesting the presence of large amplitude wave motions transporting the plasma by mixing. The radar detected the occurrence of 1-3 km wavelike perturbations superimposed on a 7-km wave in the wind velocity field. It is suggested that the 1-3 km waves are more important in the transport of energy and momentum and in the production of turbulence in the lower mesosphere.

  19. Mars Sample Return and Flight Test of a Small Bimodal Nuclear Rocket and ISRU Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.; Wolinsky, Jason J.; Bilyeu, Michael B.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    A combined Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) flight test and Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) is explored as a means of "jump-starting" NTR development. Development of a small-scale engine with relevant fuel and performance could more affordably and quickly "pathfind" the way to larger scale engines. A flight test with subsequent inflight postirradiation evaluation may also be more affordable and expedient compared to ground testing and associated facilities and approvals. Mission trades and a reference scenario based upon a single expendable launch vehicle (ELV) are discussed. A novel "single stack" spacecraft/lander/ascent vehicle concept is described configured around a "top-mounted" downward firing NTR, reusable common tank, and "bottom-mount" bus, payload and landing gear. Requirements for a hypothetical NTR engine are described that would be capable of direct thermal propulsion with either hydrogen or methane propellant, and modest electrical power generation during cruise and Mars surface insitu resource utilization (ISRU) propellant production.

  20. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  1. Analysis of efficiency of using hybrid propulsion for accelerating small-size rockets starting from the earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Mazhuls, I. I.; Shumskii, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The flight trajectories of a hypothetical small-size rocket starting from the Earth surface and driven by hybrid propulsion, which involves a solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) and a ramjet-type air-breathing engine (ramjet), are calculated and analyzed. The basic varied parameter is the ratio of the fuel masses used for operation of various engine types with the total fuel mass being unchanged. The objective function is the flight range of the rocket under different initial conditions. Based on a model problem considered as an example, it is demonstrated that the flight range can be substantially increased by using hybrid propulsion (SRM and ramjet), as compared with the vehicle having identical mass and size characteristics and using the SRM only.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation on the Destruction of Solid-Propellant Rocket Motors by Impact from Small Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether solid-propellant rocket motors could be ignited and destroyed by small-particle impacts at particle velocities up to a approximately 10,940 feet per second. Spheres ranging from 1/16 to 7/32 inch in diameter were fired into simulated rocket motors containing T-22 propellant over a range of ambient pressures from sea level to 0.12 inch of mercury absolute. Simulated cases of stainless steel, aluminum alloy, and laminated Fiberglas varied in thickness from 1/50 to 1/8 inch. Within the scope of this investigation, it was found that ignition and explosive destruction of simulated steel-case rocket motors could result from impacts by steel spheres at the lowest attainable pressure.

  3. Advanced Multi-Phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Doran, Denise

    1993-01-01

    It is known that the simulations of solid rocket motor internal flow field with AL-based propellants require complex multi-phase turbulent flow model. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced particulate multi-phase flow model which includes the effects of particle dynamics, chemical reaction and hot gas flow turbulence. The inclusion of particle agglomeration, particle/gas reaction and mass transfer, particle collision, coalescence and breakup mechanisms in modeling the particle dynamics will allow the proposed model to realistically simulate the flowfield inside a solid rocket motor. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes numerical code FDNS is used to simulate the steady-state multi-phase particulate flow field for a 3-zone 2-D axisymmetric ASRM model and a 6-zone 3-D ASRM model at launch conditions. The 2-D model includes aft-end cavity and submerged nozzle. The 3-D model represents the whole ASRM geometry, including additional grain port area in the gas cavity and two inhibitors. FDNS is a pressure based finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver with time-accurate adaptive second-order upwind schemes, standard and extended k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections, multi zone body-fitted formulations, and turbulence particle interaction model. Eulerian/Lagrangian multi-phase solution method is applied for multi-zone mesh. To simulate the chemical reaction, penalty function corrected efficient finite-rate chemistry integration method is used in FDNS. For the AL particle combustion rate, the Hermsen correlation is employed. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of particles, the Gaussian probability distribution with standard deviation equal to (2k/3)(exp 1/2) is used for the random turbulent velocity components. The computational results reveal that the flow field near the juncture of aft-end cavity and the submerged nozzle is very complex. The effects of the turbulent particles affect the flow field significantly and provide better

  4. Advanced multi-phase flow CFD model development for solid rocket motor flowfield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Doran, Denise

    1993-07-01

    It is known that the simulations of solid rocket motor internal flow field with AL-based propellants require complex multi-phase turbulent flow model. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced particulate multi-phase flow model which includes the effects of particle dynamics, chemical reaction and hot gas flow turbulence. The inclusion of particle agglomeration, particle/gas reaction and mass transfer, particle collision, coalescence and breakup mechanisms in modeling the particle dynamics will allow the proposed model to realistically simulate the flowfield inside a solid rocket motor. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes numerical code FDNS is used to simulate the steady-state multi-phase particulate flow field for a 3-zone 2-D axisymmetric ASRM model and a 6-zone 3-D ASRM model at launch conditions. The 2-D model includes aft-end cavity and submerged nozzle. The 3-D model represents the whole ASRM geometry, including additional grain port area in the gas cavity and two inhibitors. FDNS is a pressure based finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver with time-accurate adaptive second-order upwind schemes, standard and extended k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections, multi zone body-fitted formulations, and turbulence particle interaction model. Eulerian/Lagrangian multi-phase solution method is applied for multi-zone mesh. To simulate the chemical reaction, penalty function corrected efficient finite-rate chemistry integration method is used in FDNS. For the AL particle combustion rate, the Hermsen correlation is employed. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of particles, the Gaussian probability distribution with standard deviation equal to (2k/3)(exp 1/2) is used for the random turbulent velocity components. The computational results reveal that the flow field near the juncture of aft-end cavity and the submerged nozzle is very complex. The effects of the turbulent particles affect the flow field significantly and provide better

  5. Small hydrogen/oxygen rocket flowfield behavior from heat flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The mixing and heat transfer phenomena in small rocket flow fields with fuel film cooling is not well understood. An instrumented, water-cooled chamber with a gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen injector was used to gather steady-state inner and outer wall temperature profiles. The chamber was tested at 414 kPa (60 psia) chamber pressure, from mixture ratios of 3.41 to 8.36. Sixty percent of the fuel was used for film cooling. These temperature profiles were used as boundary conditions in a finite element analysis program, MSC/NASTRAN, to calculate the local radial and axial heat fluxes in the chamber wall. The normal heat fluxes were then calculated and used as a diagnostic of the rocket's flow field behavior. The normal heat fluxes determined were on the order of 1.0 to 3.0 MW/meters squared (0.6 to 1.8 Btu/sec-inches squared). In the cases where mixture ratio was 5 or above, there was a sharp local heat flux maximum in the barrel section of the chamber. This local maximum seems to indicate a reduction or breakdown of the fuel film cooling layer, possibly due to increased mixing in the shear layer between the film and core flows. However, the flow was thought to be completely laminar, as the throat Reynolds numbers were below 50,000 for all the cases. The increased mixing in the shear layer in the higher mixture ratio cases appeared not to be due to the transition of the flow from laminar to turbulent, but rather due to increased reactions between the hydrogen film and oxidizer-rich core flows.

  6. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines require materials that can meet high temperatures while resisting the corrosive oxidation-reduction reaction of combustion known as blanching, the main cause of engine failure. A project was initiated at NASA-Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) to combine three existing technologies to build and demonstrate an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber that would provide a 100 mission life. Technology developed in microgravity research to build cartridges for space furnaces was utilized to vacuum plasma spray (VPS) a functional gradient coating on the hot wall of the combustion liner as one continuous operation, eliminating any bondline between the coating and the liner. The coating was NiCrAlY, developed previously as durable protective coatings on space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) turbine blades. A thermal model showed that 0.03 in. NiCrAlY applied to the hot wall of the combustion liner would reduce the hot wall temperature 200 F, a 20% reduction, for longer life. Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy, which was developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), and which possesses excellent high temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability, was utilized as the liner material in place of NARloy-Z. The Cu-8Cr-4Nb material exhibits better mechanical properties at 650 C (1200 F) than NARloy-Z does at 538 C (1000 F). VPS formed Cu-8Cr-4Nb combustion chamber liners with a protective NiCrAlY functional gradient coating have been hot fire tested, successfully demonstrating a durable coating for the first time. Hot fire tests along with tensile and low cycle fatigue properties of the VPS formed combustion chamber liners and witness panel specimens are discussed.

  7. Advancing the State-of-the-Practice for Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. K.; Kenny, R. J.; Richardson, B. R.; Anderso, W. E.; Austin, B. J.; Schumaker, S. A.; Muss, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Current shortcomings in both the overall injector design process and its underlying combustion stability assessment methodology are rooted in the use of empirically based or low fidelity representations of complex physical phenomena and geometry details that have first order effects on performance, thermal environments and combustion stability. The result is a design and analysis capability that is often inadequate to reliably arrive at a suitable injector design in an efficient manner. Specifically, combustion instability has been particularly difficult to predict and mitigate. Large hydrocarbon-fueled booster engines have been especially problematic in this regard. Where combustion instability has been a problem, costly and time-consuming redesign efforts have often been an unfortunate consequence. This paper presents an overview of a recently completed effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to advance the state-of-the-practice for liquid rocket engine injector design. Multiple perturbations of a gas-centered swirl coaxial (GCSC) element that burned gaseous oxygen and RP-1 were designed, assessed for combustion stability, and tested. Three designs, one stable, one marginally unstable and one unstable, were used to demonstrate both an enhanced overall injector design process and an improved combustion stability assessment process. High-fidelity results from state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations were used to substantially augment and improve the injector design methodology. The CFD results were used to inform and guide the overall injector design process. They were also used to upgrade selected empirical or low-dimensional quantities in the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) stability assessment tool. Hot fire single element injector testing was used to verify both the overall injector designs and the stability assessments. Testing was conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory and at Purdue University. Companion papers

  8. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  9. Preliminary Studies on a Small-Scale Single-Tube Pulse Detonation Rocket Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Fan, Wei; Yan, Yu; Jin, Le

    2013-06-01

    As a new concept propulsion system, the pulse detonation engine has received extensive concerns from all over the world in the past few years. With oxidizer on board, it operates as a rocket engine which is known as pulse detonation rocket engine. In this study, a rocket model powered by a single-tube pulse detonation rocket engine was fabricated to demonstrate and validate whether or not it could operate stably and reliably independently. The single-tube pulse detonation rocket prototype consisted of a wireless control unit, three tanks for oxidizer, fuel and purge gas, various valves and a detonation tube. With compact design, the pulse detonation rocket prototype had an outer diameter of 260 mm and a length of 2200 mm. Oxygen, liquid aviation kerosene and nitrogen were utilized as oxidizer, fuel and purge gas, respectively. Operation tests were carried out to obtain proper operating conditions for the pulse detonation rocket prototype first, and then sliding test was conducted. It was concluded that the pulse detonation rocket prototype could operate stably and reliably. The generated thrust was estimated and compared with theoretical value.

  10. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  11. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  12. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  13. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  14. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  15. Small-Scale Hybrid Rocket Test Stand & Characterization of Swirl Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Matt H.

    Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The motor is designed for simple integration and setup, such that both the forward-end enclosure and end cap can be easily removed for rapid integration of components during testing. Each of the components of the motor is removable allowing for a broad range of testing capabilities. While examining injectors and their potential it is thought ideal to obtain the highest regression rates and overall motor performance possible. The oxidizer and fuel are N2O and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), respectively, due to previous experience and simplicity. The injector designs, selected for the same reasons, are designed such that they vary only in the swirl angle. This system provides the platform for characterizing the effects of varying said swirl angle on HRM performance.

  16. An experimental study of a small high speed LH2 rocket pump: Fundamental mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masataka; Suzuki, Mineo; Shimura, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Kamijo, Kenjiro; Nosaka, Masataka; Warashina, Shougo

    1991-09-01

    A small high speed Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) pump was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to obtain technical data necessary for the development of upper stage rocket engines, e.g., the LE-5 and Orbiter Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engines. The pump's basic mechanical design is described, as well as its mechanical performance during tests using LH2 (both at nominal operating and rapid start and stop conditions). It was confirmed that the same materials employed for liquid oxygen pump components can be used, except for the impeller. An impeller made of titanium alloy (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn) was machined and then diffusion bonded, and subsequently withstood a high speed operating condition (50,000 rpm) for 350 sec. A balance piston configuration was selected for axial thrust control, where the impeller acts as a balance disk. The piston's performance was satisfactory, although the impeller's balance position during the tests was different from design calculations. Post-test examinations revealed light rubbing traces on the impeller and casing at the balance piston orifice. This positional discrepancy was caused by an inaccurate estimate of the orifice flow coefficients and leakage flow rate. Stress analysis on other components and machine specifications for critical mating parts were also verified as satisfactory. Self lubricated ball bearings and rotating shaft seals showed adequate performance. Results indicate that smooth operation was achieved, thus confirming the soundness of the pump's mechanical design.

  17. Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Roger L.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following areas of hand carried computers and mobile workstation technology are covered: background, applications, high end products, technology trends, requirements for the Control Center application, and recommendations for the future.

  18. Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

    1975-01-01

    Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

  19. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  20. Development Status of Reusable Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Takada, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Niu, Kenichi

    A 30-kN rocket engine, a pilot engine, is being developed in Japan. Development of this pilot engine has been initiated in relation to a reusable sounding rocket, which is also being developed in Japan. This rocket takes off vertically, reaches an altitude of 100 km, lands vertically at the launch site, and is launched again within several days. Due to advantage of reusability, successful development of this rocket will mean that observation missions can be carried out more frequently and economically. In order to realize this rocket concept, the engines installed on the rocket should be characterized by reusability, long life, deep throttling and health monitoring, features which have not yet been established in Japanese rocket engines. To solve the engineering factors entitled by those features, a new design methodology, advanced engine simulations and engineering testing are being focused on in the pilot engine development stage. Especially in engineering testing, limit condition data is acquired to facilitate development of new diagnostic techniques, which can be applied by utilizing the mobility of small-size hardware. In this paper, the development status of the pilot engine is described, including fundamental design and engineering tests of the turbopump bearing and seal, turbine rig, injector and combustion chamber, and operation and maintenance concepts for one hundred flights by a reusable rocket are examined.

  1. Small High-Speed Self-Acting Shaft Seals for Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, R. E.; Boynton, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis, fabrication, and experimental evaluation were performed on three self-acting facetype LOX seal designs and one circumferential-type helium deal design. The LOX seals featured Rayleigh step lift pad and spiral groove geometry for lift augmentation. Machined metal bellows and piston ring secondary seal designs were tested. The helium purge seal featured floating rings with Rayleigh step lift pads. The Rayleigh step pad piston ring and the spiral groove LOX seals were successfully tested for approximately 10 hours in liquid oxygen. The helium seal was successfully tested for 24 hours. The shrouded Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pad LOX seal is feasible for advanced, small, high-speed oxygen turbopumps.

  2. Advances in Small-Telescope Speckle Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David J.

    2016-06-01

    The current revolution in CMOS camera technology has enabled a new generation of small telescope systems targeted at the measurement of close binary systems using the techniques of speckle interferometry and bispectrum analysis. These inexpensive, ultra-sensitive, high resolution cameras are now outperforming CCD technology, and come at a truly affordable price. In addition, dedicated, user-friendly speckle interferometry reduction software has been developed for the amateur, making it easy to perform the otherwise complicated data processing tasks. This talk will address these recent advances in hardware and software, and describe some of the results of the informal amateur-professional collaboration that has formed around them.

  3. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  4. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation

  5. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-31

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the 'late time ablation' for electrothermal PPTs.

  6. Rocket pollution reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Geisler, R.L.

    1994-01-04

    A system is provided for reducing the emissions of hydrochloric acid (HCl) from solid fuel rockets, especially during ground disposal. An aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide is injected as a mist into the rocket chamber as the rocket fuel is burned. The reaction of the alkali metal with hydrogen chloride (HCl) produces a salt and thereby minimizes the presence of hydrochloric acid in the rocket exhaust. An injected neutralizing material which reduces hydrochloric acid, but which produces less thrust than an equal weight of rocket fuel, can be injected into an operating rocket which carries a payload high above the earth, with the injected material being injected only while the rocket is at a lower altitude when hydrochloric acid is most undesirable. The injected material can be produced by a small auxiliary rocket device whose exhaust is delivered directly to the main rocket chamber, and with the exhaust of the auxiliary rocket device including a high proportion of magnesium to react with the hydrochloric acid with minimal degradation of rocket performance. 4 figs.

  7. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process development for fabricating a high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond composite (NARloy-Z-D) combustion chamber liner for application in advanced rocket engines. The fabrication process is challenging and this paper presents some details of these challenges and approaches used to address them. Prior research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State had shown that NARloy-Z-40%D composite material has significantly higher thermal conductivity than the state of the art NARloy-Z alloy. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40 %D is much lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes help to improve the performance of the advanced rocket engines. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power, increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. Early work on NARloy-Z-D composites used the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST, Ref. 1, 2) for fabricating discs. NARloy-Z-D composites containing 10, 20 and 40vol% of high thermal conductivity diamond powder were investigated. Thermal conductivity (TC) data. TC increased with increasing diamond content and showed 50% improvement over pure copper at 40vol% diamond. This composition was selected for fabricating the combustion chamber liner using the FAST technique.

  8. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    NARloy-Z alloy (Cu-3 percent, Ag-0.5 percent, Zr) is a state of the art alloy currently used for fabricating rocket engine combustion chamber liners. Research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State – Applied Research Laboratory has shown that thermal conductivity of NARloy-Z can be increased significantly by adding diamonds to form a composite (NARloy-Z-D). NARloy-Z-D is also lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes make this advanced composite material an ideal candidate for fabricating combustion chamber liner for an advanced rocket engine. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. This paper describes the process development for fabricating a subscale high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D combustion chamber liner using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). The FAST process uses a mixture of NARloy-Z and diamond powders which is sintered under pressure at elevated temperatures. Several challenges were encountered, i.e., segregation of diamonds, machining the super hard NARloy-Z-D composite, net shape fabrication and nondestructive examination. The paper describes how these challenges were addressed. Diamonds coated with copper (CuD) appear to give the best results. A near net shape subscale combustion chamber liner is being fabricated by diffusion bonding cylindrical rings of NARloy-Z-CuD using the FAST process.

  9. Advances in small bowel neuroendocrine neoplasia Banck and Small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Banck, Michaela S.; Beutler, Andreas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review this review aims at summarizing progress in clinical trials and basic science redefining the diagnosis and treatment of well differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NET). Recent findings Two clinical trials demonstrated antitumor activity of the long-acting somatostatin analogues octreotide LAR and lanreotide for advanced SI-NET. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus is another treatment option for patients with SI-NET, but awaits definitive proof of benefit in the ongoing RADIANT-4 study. Two whole exome/genome-sequencing studies reported in the past year provided the first genome-wide analysis of large sets of SI-NET at nucleotide resolution. Candidate therapeutically relevant alterations were found to affect SRC, SMAD genes, AURKA, EGFR, HSP90, and PDGFR as well as mutually exclusive amplification of AKT1 or AKT2 and other alterations of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling genes. The gene CDKN1B is inactivated by small insertions/deletions in 8% of patients with SI-NET suggesting cell cycle inhibitors as new candidate drugs for SI-NET. Circulating tumor cells and tumor-derived RNA in the blood are promising clinical tests for SI-NET. Summary Clinical and genomic research may merge in the near future to re-shape clinical trials and to define the ‘personalized’ treatment options for patients with SI-NET. PMID:24441281

  10. Small low mass advanced PBR's for propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. R.; Todosow, M.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-10-01

    The advanced Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to be described in this paper is characterized by relatively low power, and low cost, while still maintaining competition values for thrust/weight, specific impulse and operating times. In order to retain competitive values for the thrust/weight ratio while reducing the reactor size, it is necessary to change the basic reactor layout, by incorporating new concepts. The new reactor design concept is termed SIRIUS (Small Lightweight Reactor Integral Propulsion System). The following modifications are proposed for the reactor design to be discussed in this paper: Pre-heater (U-235 included in Moderator); Hy-C (Hydride/De-hydride for Reactor Control); Afterburner (U-235 impregnated into Hot Frit); and Hy-S (Hydride Spike Inside Hot Frit). Each of the modifications will be briefly discussed below, with benefits, technical issues, design approach, and risk levels addressed. The paper discusses conceptual assumptions, feasibility analysis, mass estimates, and information needs.

  11. Recent Advances in Studies of Ionospheric Modification Using Rocket Exhaust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Rocket exhaust interacts with the ionosphere to produce a wide range of disturbances. A ten second burn of the Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines on the Space Shuttle deposits over 1 Giga Joule of energy into the upper atmosphere. The exhaust vapors travel at speeds between 4.7 and 10.7 km/s coupling momentum into the ions by both collisions and charge exchange. Long-lived plasma irregularities are formed by the artificial hypersonic “neutral wind” passing through the ionosphere. Charge exchange between the fast neutrals and the ambient ions yields high-speed ion beams that excite electro-static plasma waves. Ground based radar has been used to detect both field aligned irregularities and electrostatic turbulence driven by the Space Shuttle OMS exhaust. Molecular ions produced by the charge exchange with molecules in the rocket exhaust recombine with a time scale of 10 minutes leaving a residual plasma depression. This ionospheric “hole” fills in by ambipolar diffusion leaving a depleted magnetic flux tube. This large scale reduction in Pedersen conductivity can provide a seed for plasma interchange instabilities. For instance, a rocket firing on the bottom side of the ionosphere near the equator can trigger a Rayleigh-Taylor instability that is naturally seen as equatorial Spread-F. The Naval Research Laboratory has been exploring these phenomena with dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle OMS engines and exhaust releases from rockets. The Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) series of experiments uses ground radars to probe the ionosphere affected by dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle OMS engines. Radars located at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts; Arecibo, Puerto Rico; Jicamarca, Peru; Kwajalein, Marshall Island; and Alice Springs, Australia have participated in the SIMPLEX program. A companion program called Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiment has or will use satellites to fly through the turbulence

  12. Near-field vector intensity measurements of a small solid rocket motor.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kent L; Giraud, Jarom H; Blotter, Jonathan D; Sommerfeldt, Scott D

    2010-08-01

    Near-field vector intensity measurements have been made of a 12.7-cm diameter nozzle solid rocket motor. The measurements utilized a test rig comprised of four probes each with four low-sensitivity 6.35-mm pressure microphones in a tetrahedral arrangement. Measurements were made with the rig at nine positions (36 probe locations) within six nozzle diameters of the plume shear layer. Overall levels at these locations range from 135 to 157 dB re 20 microPa. Vector intensity maps reveal that, as frequency increases, the dominant source region contracts and moves upstream with peak directivity at greater angles from the plume axis. PMID:20707417

  13. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  14. Advanced Multi-phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen

    1995-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes code, finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), is used to analyze the complicated internal flowfield of the SRM (solid rocket motor) to explore the impacts due to the effects of chemical reaction, particle dynamics, and slag accumulation on the solid rocket motor (SRM). The particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, and agglomeration models are included in present study to obtain a better understanding of the SRM design. Finite rate chemistry model is applied to simulate the chemical reaction effects. Hermsen correlation model is used for the combustion simulation. The evaporation model introduced by Spalding is utilized to include the heat transfer from the particulate phase to the gase phase due to the evaporation of the particles. A correlation of the minimum particle size for breakup expressed in terms of the Al/Al2O3 surface tension and shear force was employed to simulate the breakup of particles. It is assumed that the breakup occurs when the Weber number exceeds 6. A simple L agglomeration model is used to investigate the particle agglomeration. However, due to the large computer memory requirements for the agglomeration model, only 2D cases are tested with the agglomeration model. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is employed to simulate the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the turbulent dispersion effect of the particles. The flowfield analysis obtained using the FDNS code in the present research with finite rate chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, agglomeration, and VOG models will provide a design guide for the potential improvement of the SRM including the use of materials and the shape of nozzle geometry such that a better performance of the SRM can be achieved. The simulation of the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity can assist the designer to improve the design of

  15. Advanced multi-phase flow CFD model development for solid rocket motor flowfield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen

    1995-03-01

    A Navier-Stokes code, finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), is used to analyze the complicated internal flowfield of the SRM (solid rocket motor) to explore the impacts due to the effects of chemical reaction, particle dynamics, and slag accumulation on the solid rocket motor (SRM). The particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, and agglomeration models are included in present study to obtain a better understanding of the SRM design. Finite rate chemistry model is applied to simulate the chemical reaction effects. Hermsen correlation model is used for the combustion simulation. The evaporation model introduced by Spalding is utilized to include the heat transfer from the particulate phase to the gase phase due to the evaporation of the particles. A correlation of the minimum particle size for breakup expressed in terms of the Al/Al2O3 surface tension and shear force was employed to simulate the breakup of particles. It is assumed that the breakup occurs when the Weber number exceeds 6. A simple L agglomeration model is used to investigate the particle agglomeration. However, due to the large computer memory requirements for the agglomeration model, only 2D cases are tested with the agglomeration model. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is employed to simulate the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the turbulent dispersion effect of the particles. The flowfield analysis obtained using the FDNS code in the present research with finite rate chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, agglomeration, and VOG models will provide a design guide for the potential improvement of the SRM including the use of materials and the shape of nozzle geometry such that a better performance of the SRM can be achieved. The simulation of the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity can assist the designer to improve the design of

  16. Rocket-Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector: A Single-Stage-to-Orbit Advanced Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Robertson, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    During the atmospheric boost phase of a rocket trajectory, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles can be utilized to augment the thrust by several hundred percent without the input of additional energy. The concept is an MHD implementation of a thermodynamic ejector. Some ejector history is described and some test data showing the impressive thrust augmentation capabilities of thermodynamic ejectors are provided. A momentum and energy balance is used to derive the equations to predict the MHD ejector performance. Results of these equations are compared with the test data and then applied to a specific performance example. The rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) engine is described and a status of the technology and availability of the engine components is provided. A top level vehicle sizing analysis is performed by scaling existing MHD designs to the required flight vehicle levels. The vehicle can achieve orbit using conservative technology. Modest improvements are suggested using recently developed technologies, such as superconducting magnets, which can improve predicted performance well beyond those expected for current single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) designs.

  17. Test data from small solid propellant rocket motor plume measurements (FA-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, L. M.; Somers, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A program is described for obtaining a reliable, parametric set of measurements in the exhaust plumes of solid propellant rocket motors. Plume measurements included pressures, temperatures, forces, heat transfer rates, particle sampling, and high-speed movies. Approximately 210,000 digital data points and 15,000 movie frames were acquired. Measurements were made at points in the plumes via rake-mounted probes, and on the surface of a large plate impinged by the exhaust plume. Parametric variations were made in pressure altitude, propellant aluminum loading, impinged plate incidence angle and distance from nozzle exit to plate or rake. Reliability was incorporated by continual use of repeat runs. The test setup of the various hardware items is described along with an account of test procedures. Test results and data accuracy are discussed. Format of the data presentation is detailed. Complete data are included in the appendix.

  18. A rapid and efficient preparation of [123I]radiopharmaceuticals using a small HPLC (Rocket) column.

    PubMed

    Katsifis, Andrew; Papazian, Vahan; Jackson, Timothy; Loc'h, Christian

    2006-01-01

    A simplified method for the rapid and efficient preparation of [(123)I]radiopharmaceuticals is described. Three radiopharmaceuticals, [(123)I]beta-CIT, [(123)I]MIBG and [(123)I]clioquinol, were synthesised and purified as model compounds. The radiotracers were labelled with iodine-123 using electrophilic oxidative conditions and purified by a compact semi-preparative reverse phase column (C-18, 3 microm, 7 x 53 mm, Alltima Rocket, Alltech) using aqueous-ethanol as HPLC solvents that were directly used for radiopharmaceutical formulation. The radiochemical purity of the radioiodinated tracers as assessed by analytical HPLC was higher than 99% with specific activity higher than 3 GBq/nmol. The total preparation time of a radiotracer ranged from 40 to 60 min and, starting from 3.7 GBq of iodine-123, more than 2.5 GBq of formulated radiopharmaceuticals were available for clinical investigations. PMID:16129607

  19. Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

  20. New method of making advanced tube-bundle rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.; Malone, Glenn A.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fabrication rocket chambers for future space applications is described. Included are fabrication demonstrator and test chambers produced by this method. This concept offers the promise of improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. The performance is improved because of the enhanced enthalpy extraction. The improved cyclic life, reusability, and reliability is improved because of the structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber by a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes and the bonding of these tubes by a unique electroforming operation. Furthermore, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.

  1. Effect of silicone oil on solid propellant combustion in small motors. [for rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing troublesome nozzle blockage (by condensation deposits) in laboratory-scale solid rockets by addition of a silicone oil as a propellant ingredient was explored experimentally. An aluminized composite propellant and its counterpart with 1% silicone oil replacing part of the binder were fired in a 63.5 mm diameter, end-burning, all-metal burner. Pressure-time histories were recorded for all of the tests by a Taber gauge mounted at the downstream end of the chamber; temperature-time data at the nozzle throat were obtained in some of the runs by thermocouples having junctions positioned at the wall but insulated from the metal. Deposition of condensables on the nozzle walls causing a progressive increase in the chamber pressure with time was noted. The fraction of firings exhibiting practically no condensation was 59% with silicone and 32% without. On the average, temperature readings at the nozzle throat were higher with the silicone propellants. Although various phenomena may contribute to these findings, the results are not understood completely.

  2. Congreve Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812. As a result Francis Scott Key coined the phrase the 'rocket's red glare.' Congreve had used a 16-foot guide stick to help stabilize his rocket. William Hale, another British inventor, invented the stickless rocket in 1846. The U.S. Army used the Hale rocket more than 100 years ago in the war with Mexico. Rockets were also used to a limited extent by both sides in the American Civil War.

  3. Feasibility of an advanced thrust termination assembly for a solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A total of 68 quench tests were conducted in a vented bomb assembly (VBA). Designed to simulate full-scale motor operating conditions, this laboratory apparatus uses a 2-inch-diameter, end-burning propellant charge and an insulated disc of consolidated hydrated aluminum sulfate along with the explosive charge necessary to disperse the salt and inject it onto the burning surface. The VBA was constructed to permit variation of motor design parameters of interest; i.e., weight of salt per unit burning surface area, weight of explosive per unit weight of salt, distance from salt surface to burning surface, incidence angle of salt injection, chamber pressure, and burn time. Completely satisfactory salt quenching, without re-ignition, occurred in only two VBA tests. These were accomplished with a quench charge ratio (QCR) of 0.023 lb salt per square inch of burning surface at dispersing charge ratios (DCR) of 13 and 28 lb of salt per lb of explosive. Candidate materials for insulating salt charges from the rocket combustion environment were evaluated in firings of 5-inch-diameter, uncured end-burner motors. A pressed, alumina ceramic fiber material was selected for further evaluation and use in the final demonstration motor.

  4. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  5. Rocket Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)

  6. Copper Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Copper-Diamond Composites for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, Dave L.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Foygel, Michael; Singh, Jogender; Rape, Aaron; Vohra, Yogesh; Thomas, Vinoy; Li, Deyu; Otte, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the research effort to improve the thermal conductivity of the copper-based alloy NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr), the state-of-the-art alloy used to make combustion chamber liners in regeneratively-cooled liquid rocket engines, using nanotechnology. The approach was to embed high thermal conductivity multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and diamond (D) particles in the NARloy-Z matrix using powder metallurgy techniques. The thermal conductivity of MWCNTs and D have been reported to be 5 to 10 times that of NARloy-Z. Hence, 10 to 20 vol. % MWCNT finely dispersed in NARloy-Z matrix could nearly double the thermal conductivity, provided there is a good thermal bond between MWCNTs and copper matrix. Quantum mechanics-based modeling showed that zirconium (Zr) in NARloy-Z should form ZrC at the MWCNT-Cu interface and provide a good thermal bond. In this study, NARloy-Z powder was blended with MWCNTs in a ball mill, and the resulting mixture was consolidated under high pressure and temperature using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). Microstructural analysis showed that the MWCNTs, which were provided as tangles of MWCNTs by the manufacturer, did not detangle well during blending and formed clumps at the prior particle boundaries. The composites made form these powders showed lower thermal conductivity than the base NARloy-Z. To eliminate the observed physical agglomeration, tangled multiwall MWCNTs were separated by acid treatment and electroless plated with a thin layer of chromium to keep them separated during further processing. Separately, the thermal conductivities of MWCNTs used in this work were measured, and the results showed very low values, a major factor in the low thermal conductivity of the composite. On the other hand, D particles embedded in NARloy-Z matrix showed much improved thermal conductivity. Elemental analysis showed migration of Zr to the NARloy-Z-D interface to form ZrC, which appeared to provide a low contact

  7. Copper-Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Copper-Diamond Composites for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, Dave L.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Foygel, Michael; Rape, Aaron; Singh, Jogender; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Thomas, Vinoy; Otte, Kyle G.; Li, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the research effort to improve the thermal conductivity of the copper-based alloy NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.%Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr), the state-of-the-art alloy used to make combustion chamber liners in regeneratively-cooled liquid rocket engines, using nanotechnology. The approach was to embed high thermal conductivity multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and diamond (D) particles in the NARloy-Z matrix using powder metallurgy techniques. The thermal conductivity of MWCNTs and D have been reported to be 5 to 10 times that of NARloy-Z. Hence, 10 to 20 vol. % MWCNT finely dispersed in NARloy-Z matrix could nearly double the thermal conductivity, provided there is a good thermal bond between MWCNTs and copper matrix. Quantum mechanics-based modeling showed that zirconium (Zr) in NARloy-Z should form ZrC at the MWCNT-Cu interface and provide a good thermal bond. In this study, NARloy-Z powder was blended with MWCNTs in a ball mill, and the resulting mixture was consolidated under high pressure and temperature using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). Microstructural analysis showed that the MWCNTs, which were provided as tangles of MWCNTs by the manufacturer, did not detangle well during blending and formed clumps at the prior particle boundaries. The composites made form these powders showed lower thermal conductivity than the base NARloy-Z. To eliminate the observed physical agglomeration, tangled multiwall MWCNTs were separated by acid treatment and electroless plated with a thin layer of chromium to keep them separated during further processing. Separately, the thermal conductivities of MWCNTs used in this work were measured, and the results showed very low values, a major factor in the low thermal conductivity of the composite. On the other hand, D particles embedded in NARloy-Z matrix showed much improved thermal conductivity. Elemental analysis showed migration of Zr to the NARloy-Z-D interface to form ZrC, which appeared to provide a low contact

  8. Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

  9. Recent advances in developing small molecules targeting RNA.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-01-20

    RNAs are underexploited targets for small molecule drugs or chemical probes of function. This may be due, in part, to a fundamental lack of understanding of the types of small molecules that bind RNA specifically and the types of RNA motifs that specifically bind small molecules. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development and design of small molecules that bind to RNA and modulate function that aim to fill this void. PMID:22185671

  10. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program: Advanced engine study, task D.1/D.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, A.; Erickson, C.; Hines, B.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts for space maintainability of OTV engines were examined. An engine design was developed which was driven by space maintenance requirements and by a failure mode and effects (FME) analysis. Modularity within the engine was shown to offer cost benefits and improved space maintenance capabilities. Space operable disconnects were conceptualized for both engine change-out and for module replacement. Through FME mitigation the modules were conceptualized to contain the least reliable and most often replaced engine components. A preliminary space maintenance plan was developed around a controls and condition monitoring system using advanced sensors, controls, and condition monitoring concepts. A complete engine layout was prepared satisfying current vehicle requirements and utilizing projected component advanced technologies. A technology plan for developing the required technology was assembled.

  11. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  12. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  13. Dual nozzle design update. [on liquid rocket engines for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dual-nozzle engines, such as the dual-throat and dual-expander engines, are being evaluated for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems. Potential derivatives of the Space Shuttle and completely new vehicles might benefit from these advanced engines. In this paper, progress in the design of single-fuel and dual-fuel dual-nozzle engines is summarized. Dual-nozzle engines include those burning propellants such as LOX/RP-1/LH2, LOX/LC3H8/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LH2, LOX/LH2/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LCH4, LOX/LC3H8/C3H8 and N2O4/MMH/LH2. Engine data are applicable for thrust levels from 200,000 through 670,000 lbF. The results indicate that several versions of these engines utilize state-of-the-art technology and that even advanced versions of these engines do not require a major breakthrough in technology.

  14. Rocket University at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    "Rocket University" is an exciting new initiative at Kennedy Space Center led by NASA's Engineering and Technology Directorate. This hands-on experience has been established to develop, refine & maintain targeted flight engineering skills to enable the Agency and KSC strategic goals. Through "RocketU", KSC is developing a nimble, rapid flight engineering life cycle systems knowledge base. Ongoing activities in RocketU develop and test new technologies and potential customer systems through small scale vehicles, build and maintain flight experience through balloon and small-scale rocket missions, and enable a revolving fresh perspective of engineers with hands on expertise back into the large scale NASA programs, providing a more experienced multi-disciplined set of systems engineers. This overview will define the Program, highlight aspects of the training curriculum, and identify recent accomplishments and activities.

  15. Effect of Ozone Addition on Combustion Efficiency of Hydrogen: Liquid-Oxygen Propellant in Small Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Riley O.; Brown, Dwight D.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental study shows that 2 percent by weight ozone in oxygen has little effect on overall reactivity for a range of oxidant-fuel weight ratios from 1 to 6. This conclusion is based on characteristic-velocity measurements in 200-pound-thrust chambers at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute with low-efficiency injectors. The presence of 9 percent ozone in oxygen also did not affect performance in an efficient chamber. Explosions were encountered when equipment or procedure permitted ozone to concentrate locally. These experiments indicate that even small amounts of ozone in oxygen can cause operational problems.

  16. High-pressure hydrogen testing of single crystal superalloys for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, W. S.; Parr, R. A.; Johnston, M. H.; Strizak, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A screening program to determine the effects of high pressure hydrogen on selected candidate materials for advanced single crystal turbine blade applications is examined. The alloys chosen for the investigation are CM SX-2, CM SX-4C, Rene N-4, and PWA1480. Testing is carried out in hydrogen and helium at 34 MPa and room temperature, with both notched and unnotched single crystal specimens. Results show a significant variation in susceptibility to Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) among the four alloys and a marked difference in fracture topography between hydrogen and helium environment specimens.

  17. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program. Phase 2: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C.; Martinez, A.; Hines, B.

    1987-01-01

    In Phase 2 of the Advanced Engine Study, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) maintenance-driven engine design, preliminary maintenance plan, and concept for space operable disconnects generated in Phase 1 were further developed. Based on the results of the vehicle contractors Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Concept Definition and System Analysis Phase A studies, minor revisions to the engine design were made. Additional refinements in the engine design were identified through further engine concept studies. These included an updated engine balance incorporating experimental heat transfer data from the Enhanced Heat Load Thrust Chamber Study and a Rao optimum nozzle contour. The preliminary maintenance plan of Phase 1 was further developed through additional studies. These included a compilation of critical component lives and life limiters and a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operations and maintenance manual in order to begin outlining the overall maintenance procedures for the Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine and identifying technology requirements for streamlining space-based operations. Phase 2 efforts also provided further definition to the advanced fluid coupling devices including the selection and preliminary design of a preferred concept and a preliminary test plan for its further development.

  18. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  19. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  20. The x-ray advanced concepts testbed (XACT) sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Asami, Fumi; Baker, Robert; Balsamo, Erin; Black, Kevin; Duran-Aviles, Carlos; Enoto, Teruaki; Gregory, Kyle; Hahne, Devin; Hayato, Asami; Hill, Joe; Huegel, Fred; Iwahashi, Takanori; Iwakiri, Wataru; Jahoda, Keith; Jalota, Lalit; Kaaret, Philip; Kaneko, Kenta; Kenyon, Steven; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koenecke, Richard; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Okajima, Takashi; Olsen, Larry; Porter, F. Scott; Rush, Kurt; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang; Takeuchi, Yoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Yoshikawa, Akifumi

    2012-09-01

    The scientific objective of the X-ray Advanced Concepts Testbed (XACT) is to measure the X-ray polarization properties of the Crab Nebula, the Crab pulsar, and the accreting binary Her X-1. Polarimetry is a powerful tool for astrophysical investigation that has yet to be exploited in the X-ray band, where it promises unique insights into neutron stars, black holes, and other extreme-physics environments. With powerful new enabling technologies, XACT will demonstrate X-ray polarimetry as a practical and flight-ready astronomical technique. Additional technologies that XACT will bring to flight readiness will also provide new X-ray optics and calibration capabilities for NASA missions that pursue space-based X-ray spectroscopy, timing, and photometry.

  1. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alan BR; Chopra, Angeli; Clandinin, Michael Tom; Freeman, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology, in 2009 and 2010 there were many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part II we review six topics: absorption, short bowel syndrome, smooth muscle function and intestinal motility, tumors, diagnostic imaging, and cystic fibrosis. PMID:22807605

  2. Advances in Small Joint Arthroplasty of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial effort has been directed at the development of small joint prostheses for the hand. Despite advances in prosthetic joint design, outcomes have been relatively unchanged over the past 60 years. Pain relief and range of motion achieved after surgery have yet to mirror the success of large joint arthroplasty. Innovations in biotechnology and stem cell applications for damaged joint surfaces may someday make prostheses obsolete. The purpose of this review is to describe the current status, ongoing advances, and future of small joint arthroplasty of the hand. PMID:25415093

  3. Infrasound Rocket Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation reviews the work performed by our research group at the Geophysical Institute as we have applied the tools of infrasound research to rocket studies. This report represents one aspect of the effort associated with work done for the National Consortium for MASINT Research (NCMR) program operated by the National MASINT Office (NMO) of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Infrasound, the study of acoustic signals and their propagation in a frequency band below 15 Hz, enables an investigator to collect and diagnose acoustic signals from distant sources. Absorption of acoustic energy in the atmosphere decreases as the frequency is reduced. In the infrasound band signals can propagate hundreds and thousands of kilometers with little degradation. We will present an overview of signatures from rockets ranging from small sounding rockets such as the Black Brandt and Orion series to larger rockets such as Delta 2,4 and Atlas V. Analysis of the ignition transients provides information that can uniquely identify the motor type. After the rocket ascends infrasound signals can be used to characterize the rocket and identify the various events that take place along a trajectory such as staging and maneuvering. We have also collected information on atmospheric shocks and sonic booms from the passage of supersonic vehicles such as the shuttle. This review is intended to show the richness of the unique signal set that occurs in the low-frequency infrasound band.

  4. This "Is" Rocket Science!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical…

  5. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  6. A New Look at Managing the Small College Advancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmer, Wesley K.

    Information about advancement programs at 190 small colleges is provided, with attention to recruitment/admissions, executive management, institutional relations, alumni, and fund raising. The 190 colleges, which responsed to a survey of members of the Council of Independent Colleges, are described according to enrollment size, geographic…

  7. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study of the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.

  8. Reactive Inkjet Printing: Reactive Inkjet Printing of Biocompatible Enzyme Powered Silk Micro-Rockets (Small 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Gregory, David A; Zhang, Yu; Smith, Patrick J; Zhao, Xiubo; Ebbens, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    On page 4048, X. Zhao, S. J. Ebbens, and co-workers demonstrate the ability to fabricate biocompatible silk microrockets via reactive inkjet printing. The microrockets are powered by catalase and undergo bubble propulsion in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Microrockets are capable of swimming in a large variety of media including biological solutions. Inkjet printing allows digital definition of enzyme distribution within the silk scaffold to control rocket directionality. PMID:27492495

  9. Rockets Away!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaahaaina, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project that involved a rocket-design competition where students played the roles of McDonnell Douglas employees competing for NASA contracts. Provides a real world experience involving deadlines, design and performance specifications, and budgets. (JRH)

  10. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alan BR; Chopra, Angeli; Clandinin, Michael Tom; Freeman, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in all parts of gastroenterology and hepatology, there have been many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed for 2008 and 2009, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part I of this Editorial Review, seven topics are considered: intestinal development; proliferation and repair; intestinal permeability; microbiotica, infectious diarrhea and probiotics; diarrhea; salt and water absorption; necrotizing enterocolitis; and immunology/allergy. These topics were chosen because of their importance to the practicing physician. PMID:22807604

  11. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher

  12. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-11-01

    An on-going technology program to improve the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft on-board propulsion applications is reviewed. Improved performance and lifetime is sought by the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, introduction of high temperature materials and improved component designs to optimize performance, and use of higher performance propellants. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Predictions are based on both the RPLUS Navier-Stokes code with finite rate kinetics and the JANNAF methodology. Data were obtained with laser-based diagnostics along with global performance measurements. Results indicate that the modeling of the injector and the combustion process needs improvement in these codes and flow visualization with a technique such as 2-D laser induced fluorescence (LIF) would aid in resolving issues of flow symmetry and shear layer combustion processes. High temperature material fabrication processes are under development and small rockets are being designed, fabricated, and tested using these new materials. Rhenium coated with iridium for oxidation protection was produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process and enabled an 800 K increase in rocket operating temperature. Performance gains with this material in rockets using Earth storable propellants (nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine or hydrazine) were obtained through component redesign to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency while managing head end thermal soakback. Material interdiffusion and oxidation characteristics indicated that the requisite lifetimes of tens of hours were available for thruster applications. Rockets were designed, fabricated, and tested with thrusts of 22, 62, 440 and 550 N. Performance improvements of 10 to 20 seconds specific impulse were demonstrated. Higher

  13. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G.; Brubaker, P. W.; Bryant, S. L.; Clay, C. W.; Giridharadas, B.; Hamamoto, M.; Kelly, T. J.; Proctor, D. K.; Myron, C. E.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a preliminary design study which investigates the use of selected advanced technologies to achieve low cost design for small (50-passenger), short haul (50 to 1000 mile) transports are reported. The largest single item in the cost of manufacturing an airplane of this type is labor. A careful examination of advanced technology to airframe structure was performed since one of the most labor-intensive parts of the airplane is structures. Also, preliminary investigation of advanced aerodynamics flight controls, ride control and gust load alleviation systems, aircraft systems and turbo-prop propulsion systems was performed. The most beneficial advanced technology examined was bonded aluminum primary structure. The use of this structure in large wing panels and body sections resulted in a greatly reduced number of parts and fasteners and therefore, labor hours. The resultant cost of assembled airplane structure was reduced by 40% and the total airplane manufacturing cost by 16% - a major cost reduction. With further development, test verification and optimization appreciable weight saving is also achievable. Other advanced technology items which showed significant gains are as follows: (1) advanced turboprop-reduced block fuel by 15.30% depending on range; (2) configuration revisions (vee-tail)-empennage cost reduction of 25%; (3) leading-edge flap addition-weight reduction of 2500 pounds.

  14. Advanced microelectronics technologies for future small satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2000-03-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjoint markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  15. Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1999-01-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  16. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  17. Air-Powered Rockets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

    This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

  18. Two stage turbine for rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-11-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  19. Two stage turbine for rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  20. Equatorial Dynamics Observed by Rocket, Radar, and Satellite During the CADRE/MALTED Campaign. 1; Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alcantara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guard Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3 deg S) and magnetic (approx. 0.5 deg S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the

  1. Noncircular Orifice Holes and Advanced Fabrication Techniques for Liquid Rocket Injectors (Phases 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchale, R. M.; Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of the results of a cold-flow and hot-fire experimental study of the mixing and atomization characteristics of injector elements incorporating noncircular orifices is presented. Both liquid/liquid and gas/liquid element types are discussed. Unlike doublet and triplet elements (circular orifices only) were investigated for the liquid/liquid case while concentric tube elements were investigated for the gas/liquid case. It is concluded that noncircular shape can be employed to significant advantage in injector design for liquid rocket engines.

  2. Laser rocket system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  3. The use of small advanced turbine units in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    There is a tremendous future for the application of small- and medium-sized advanced gas turbine systems in the world markets. Modern, industrialized countries; developing countries like China and the former republics of the Soviet Union; as well as island-based economies, such as those in Southeast Asia -- Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia--will be able to realize the economic advantages and environmental benefits of what is now becoming known as {open_quotes}distributed resources{close_quotes}. I am more convinced of this opinion after delivering s similar speech and conversing with conferees at POWER-GEN Asia 1995 held in Singapore in late September of this year; and discussing the subject with a high level delegation from China that visited the Energy Commission in early October. The interest, at least amongst this small group of people was nothing short of a market researcher`s dream. While my focus today is on small turbines, we should realize that when these advanced, clean units become commercially available, perhaps as early as four or five years from now, other distributed generation resources such as solar photovoltaic, and fuel cells, will become competitors at the distribution level of electrical service.

  4. CFD Modelling of a Quadrupole Vortex Inside a Cylindrical Channel for Research into Advanced Hybrid Rocket Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, B.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    This study relies on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to analyse a possible method for creating a stable quadrupole vortex within a simulated, circular-port, cylindrical rocket chamber. A model of the vortex generator is created in a SolidWorks CAD program and then the grid is generated using the Pointwise mesh generation software. The non-reactive flowfield is simulated using an open source computational program, Stanford University Unstructured (SU2). Subsequent analysis and visualization are performed using ParaView. The vortex generation approach that we employ consists of four tangentially injected monopole vortex generators that are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center of the chamber in such a way to produce a quadrupole vortex with a common downwash. The present investigation focuses on characterizing the flow dynamics so that future investigations can be undertaken with increasing levels of complexity. Our CFD simulations help to elucidate the onset of vortex filaments within the monopole tubes, and the evolution of quadrupole vortices downstream of the injection faceplate. Our results indicate that the quadrupole vortices produced using the present injection pattern can become quickly unstable to the extent of dissipating soon after being introduced into simulated rocket chamber. We conclude that a change in the geometrical configuration will be necessary to produce more stable quadrupoles.

  5. Health Monitoring to Support Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) are based on advanced reactor concepts, some of which were promoted by the Generation IV International Forum, and are being considered for diverse missions including desalination of water, production of hydrogen, etc. While the existing fleet of commercial nuclear reactors provides baseload electricity, it is conceivable that aSMRs could be implemented for both baseload and load following applications. The effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on plant operations and maintenance (O&M) is not fully understood and limiting these costs will be essential to successful deployment of aSMRs. Integrated health monitoring concepts are proposed to support the safe and affordable operation of aSMRs over their lifetime by enabling management of significant in-vessel and in-containment active and passive components.

  6. [Maintenance therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Koichi; Yoh, Kiyotaka

    2014-08-01

    Maintenance therapy is a new treatment strategy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC), and it consists of switch maintenance and continuation maintenance.Switch maintenance is the introduction of a different drug, not included as part of the induction therapy, immediately after completion of 4 cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.Continuation maintenance is a continuation of at least one of the drugs used in the induction therapy in the absence of disease progression.Several phase III trials have reported survival benefits with continuation maintenance of pemetrexed and switch maintenance of pemetrexed or erlotinib.Therefore, maintenance therapy has become a part of the standard first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC.However, further research is needed to elucidate the selection criteria of patients who may benefit the most from maintenance therapy. PMID:25132023

  7. Design of Cooling Channels of Preburners for Small Liquid Rocket Engines with Computational Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, In-Sang; Lee, Seon-Mi; Moon, Il-Yoon; Yoo, Jae-Han; Lee, Soo-Yong

    2011-09-01

    A series of computational analyses was performed to predict the cooling process by the cooling channel of preburners used for kerosene-liquid oxygen staged combustion cycle rocket engines. As an oxygen-rich combustion occurs in the kerosene fueled preburner, it is of great importance to control the wall temperature so that it does not exceed the critical temperature. However, since the heat transfer is proportional to the speed of fluid running inside the channel, the high heat transfer leads to a trade-off of pressure loss. For this reason, it is necessary to establish a certain criteria between the pressure loss and the heat transfer or the wall surface temperature. The design factors of the cooling channel were determined by the computational research, and a test model was manufactured. The test model was used for the hot fire tests to prove the function of the cooling mechanism, among other purposes.

  8. This Is Rocket Science!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries, but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al. In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

  9. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  10. On Enhancing Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) can contribute to safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy production. However, the economics of AdvSMRs suffer from the loss of economy-of-scale for both construction and operation. The controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. These expenses could potentially be managed through optimized scheduling of O&M activities for components, reactor modules, power blocks, and the full plant. Accurate, real-time risk assessment with integrated health monitoring of key active components can support scheduling of both online and offline inspection and maintenance activities.

  11. Ignition Delay Experiments with Small-scale Rocket Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions Using Various Fuels with Nitric Acid Oxidants / Dezso J. Ladanyi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladanyi, Dezso J

    1952-01-01

    Ignition delay determinations of several fuels with nitric oxidants were made at simulated altitude conditions utilizing a small-scale rocket engine of approximately 50 pounds thrust. Included in the fuels were aniline, hydrazine hydrate, furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl mercaptan, turpentine, and mixtures of triethylamine with mixed xylidines and diallyaniline. Red fuming, white fuming, and anhydrous nitric acids were used with and without additives. A diallylaniline - triethylamine mixture and a red fuming nitric acid analyzing 3.5 percent water and 16 percent NO2 by weight was found to have a wide temperature-pressure ignition range, yielding average delays from 13 milliseconds at 110 degrees F to 55 milliseconds at -95 degrees F regardless of the initial ambient pressure that ranged from sea-level pressure altitude of 94,000 feet.

  12. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  13. Chemotherapy advances in small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bryan A; Coward, Jermaine I G

    2013-10-01

    Although chemotherapeutic advances have recently been heralded in lung adenocarcinomas, such success with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been ominously absent. Indeed, the dismal outlook of this disease is exemplified by the failure of any significant advances in first line therapy since the introduction of the current standard platinum-etoposide doublet over 30 years ago. Moreover, such sluggish progress is compounded by the dearth of FDA-approved agents for patients with relapsed disease. However, over the past decade, novel formulations of drug classes commonly used in SCLC (e.g. topoisomerase inhibitors, anthracyclines, alkylating and platinum agents) are emerging as potential alternatives that could effectively add to the armamentarium of agents currently at our disposal. This review is introduced with an overview on the historical development of chemotherapeutic regimens used in this disease and followed by the recent encouraging advances witnessed in clinical trials with drugs such as amrubicin and belotecan which are forging new horizons for future treatment algorithms. PMID:24163749

  14. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  15. Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L.,Jr.; Roberts, M.; Bull, N.D.; Holcomb, D.E.; Wood, R.T.

    2012-09-15

    Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor’s physical condition. In and near the core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of the current ORNL-led project, conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced SMR Research and Development (R&D) program, is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

  16. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Steven Prescott; Tony Koonce

    2014-04-01

    A key area of the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) strategy is the development of methodologies and tools that will be used to predict the safety, security, safeguards, performance, and deployment viability of SMRs. The goal of the SMR PRA activity will be to develop quantitative methods and tools and the associated analysis framework for assessing a variety of risks. Development and implementation of SMR-focused safety assessment methods may require new analytic methods or adaptation of traditional methods to the advanced design and operational features of SMRs. We will need to move beyond the current limitations such as static, logic-based models in order to provide more integrated, scenario-based models based upon predictive modeling which are tied to causal factors. The development of SMR-specific safety models for margin determination will provide a safety case that describes potential accidents, design options (including postulated controls), and supports licensing activities by providing a technical basis for the safety envelope. This report documents the progress that was made to implement the PRA framework, specifically by way of demonstration of an advanced 3D approach to representing, quantifying and understanding flooding risks to a nuclear power plant.

  17. Excitation by rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tammadge, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Standard methods of excitation are not always practical when a single mode of known frequency requires investigation. This form of investigation is often required on a modified aircraft. A new method of excitation was developed and proved in flight, which consists of firing small rocket charges attached to the aircraft structure. Damping values at gradually increasing airspeeds are obtained, as in Stick Jerk tests, and flutter speeds predicted.

  18. Rockets using Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

  19. Rocket borne instrument to measure electric fields inside electrified clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhnke, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple electric field measuring system is mounted on small rocket and consists of two voltage probes, one extending from nose and other on tail fin. Electric field through which rocket passes is determined by potential difference between probes.

  20. Turbo Pump Fed Micro-Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotti, P.; Tajmar, M.; Seco, F.; Guraya, C.; Perennes, F.; Soldati, A.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-satellites (from 10kg up to 100kg) have mass, volume, and electrical power constraints due to their low dimensions. These limitations lead to the lack in currently available active orbit control systems in micro-satellites. Therefore, a micro-propulsion system with a high thrust to mass ratio is required to increase the potential functionality of small satellites. Mechatronic is presently working on a liquid bipropellant micro-rocket engine under contract with ESA (Contract No.16914/NL/Sfe - Micro-turbo-machinery Based Bipropellant System Using MNT). The advances in Mechatronic's project are to realise a micro-rocket engine with propellants pressurised by micro-pumps. The energy for driving the pumps would be extracted from a micro-turbine. Cooling channels around the nozzle would be also used in order to maintain the wall material below its maximum operating temperature. A mass budget comparison with more traditional pressure-fed micro-rockets shows a real benefit from this system in terms of mass reduction. In the paper, an overview of the project status in Mechatronic is presented.

  1. Small low mass advanced PBR`s for propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Todosow, M.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-10-01

    The advanced Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to be described in this paper is characterized by relatively low power, and low cost, while still maintaining competition values for thrust/weight, specific impulse and operating times. In order to retain competitive values for the thrust/weight ratio while reducing the reactor size, it is necessary to change the basic reactor layout, by incorporating new concepts. The new reactor design concept is termed SIRIUS (Small Lightweight Reactor Integral Propulsion System). The following modifications are proposed for the reactor design to be discussed in this paper: Pre-heater (U-235 included in Moderator); Hy-C (Hydride/De-hydride for Reactor Control); Afterburner (U-235 impregnated into Hot Frit); and Hy-S (Hydride Spike Inside Hot Frit). Each of the modifications will be briefly discussed below, with benefits, technical issues, design approach, and risk levels addressed. The paper discusses conceptual assumptions, feasibility analysis, mass estimates, and information needs.

  2. Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandia's concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

  3. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

  4. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  5. Radiotherapy of advanced laryngeal cancer using three small fractions daily

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.J.; Morgan, D.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Since 1983, the authors have treated advanced (UICC stages 3 and 4) squamous carcinomas of the larynx by primary radiotherapy, using three small fractions a day, 3-4 h interfraction interval, 5 days per week. The early patients received doses per fraction of 1.5 Gy, and a total dose of approximately 70 Gy, given as a split-course over 6 to 7 weeks. While overall tumor control and laryngeal preservation was good, a number of severe late radiation reactions were seen. The schedule was then modified, with a reduction in the fraction size to 1.1 Gy, the total dose to 60 Gy, and the overall time to 4 weeks, with omission of the mid-treatment split. Since 1986, we have treated 26 patients in this way. Acute reactions are brisk, but rapidly healing. Loco-regional control was achieved in 22 patients, only one of whom has relapsed to date, in a solitary node, salvaged by radical neck dissection. Four have died of uncontrolled loco-regional malignancy, and three of intercurrent disease while in clinical remission. No serious late morbidity has been observed in surviving patients, and vocal quality is good in the majority. These results suggest that this hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedule may offer an acceptable nonsurgical, voice-preserving treatment for advanced laryngeal carcinoma; it can be used in a normally working radiotherapy department.

  6. Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Roberts, Michael; Bull, Nora D; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor s physical condition. In and near core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small, Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

  7. Advances in immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Reckamp, Karen L

    2015-12-01

    In most patients, lung cancer presents as advanced disease with metastases to lymph nodes and/or distant organs, and survival is poor. Lung cancer is also a highly immune-suppressing malignancy with numerous methods to evade antitumor immune responses, including deficiencies in antigen processing and presentation, release of immunomodulatory cytokines, and inhibition of T-cell activation. Advances in understanding the complex interactions of the immune system and cancer have led to novel therapies that promote T-cell activation at the tumor site, resulting in prolonged clinical benefit. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically programmed death receptor 1 pathway antibodies, have demonstrated impressively durable responses and improved survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This article will review the recent progress made in immunotherapy for lung cancer with data from trials evaluating programmed death receptor 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 monoclonal antibodies in addition to cancer vaccines. The review will focus on studies that have been published and the latest randomized trials exploring immune therapy in lung cancer. These results form the framework for a new direction in the treatment of lung cancer toward immunotherapy. PMID:27058851

  8. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coussens, T. G.; Tullis, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits available by incorporation of advanced technologies into the small, short haul air transport were assessed. Low cost structure and advanced composite material, advanced turboprop engines and new propellers, advanced high lift systems and active controls; and alternate aircraft configurations with aft mounted engines were investigated. Improvements in fuel consumed and aircraft economics (acquisition cost and direct operating cost) are available by incorporating selected advanced technologies into the small, short haul aircraft.

  9. Safe testing nuclear rockets economically

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. D.; Travis, B. J.; Zerkle, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  10. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  11. Small electromagnetically clean satellite platform and advanced space instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Makarov, Oleksander; Belyayev, Serhiy; Lukenyuk, Adolf; Marusenkov, Andriy

    The Ukrainian space program in the branch of space scientific research is based on recent achievements in the development of small microsatellite platforms and advanced onboard instrumentation. The present state of both these activities is outlined in the report. First, the design and composition peculiarities of a new microsatellite platform dedicated to carry the high sensitive electromagnetic sensors and mass-spectrometers are presented. An open nonhermetic construction gives possibilities to divide efficiently service and scientific payload. This feature as well as special measures foreseen by the solar panels and cable harness layout allows electromagnetic interference decreasing and easy introducing of shielding and compensating facilities. Up to 4 booms deployment is foreseen by the platform construction to move away far enough the electromagnetic sensors from the satellite body allow realizing the ultimate sensors sensitivity up to highest international standards. An onboard data collection and processing unit is organized in such a way that it controls efficiently both service and scientific systems. Second, some recent advances are reported in the branch of onboard electromagnetic instrumentation creation. New combined sensor - wave probe - is developed and experimentally tested in laboratory plasma chamber and in spatial experiment. This is a unique device which permits measuring simultaneously in one point three physical values - spatial current density, magnetic field fluctuations and electric potential. Other recent versions of super-light flux-gate and induction coil sensors are described. The performances of both microsatellite platform and mentioned electromagnetic sensors are discussed and the results of experimental verification of their parameters are presented. This works were supported by NSAU contract No 1-02/03 and STCU grant 3165.

  12. Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Sounding Rocket Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the H-225K hybrid rocket motor, produced by the American Rocket Company, is given. The H-225K motor is presented in terms of the following topics: (1) hybrid rocket fundamentals; (2) hybrid characteristics; and (3) hybrid advantages.

  13. Advances in structure elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The structural elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry plays an important role in modern life sciences and bioanalytical approaches. This review covers different soft and hard ionization techniques and figures of merit for modern mass spectrometers, such as mass resolving power, mass accuracy, isotopic abundance accuracy, accurate mass multiple-stage MS(n) capability, as well as hybrid mass spectrometric and orthogonal chromatographic approaches. The latter part discusses mass spectral data handling strategies, which includes background and noise subtraction, adduct formation and detection, charge state determination, accurate mass measurements, elemental composition determinations, and complex data-dependent setups with ion maps and ion trees. The importance of mass spectral library search algorithms for tandem mass spectra and multiple-stage MS(n) mass spectra as well as mass spectral tree libraries that combine multiple-stage mass spectra are outlined. The successive chapter discusses mass spectral fragmentation pathways, biotransformation reactions and drug metabolism studies, the mass spectral simulation and generation of in silico mass spectra, expert systems for mass spectral interpretation, and the use of computational chemistry to explain gas-phase phenomena. A single chapter discusses data handling for hyphenated approaches including mass spectral deconvolution for clean mass spectra, cheminformatics approaches and structure retention relationships, and retention index predictions for gas and liquid chromatography. The last section reviews the current state of electronic data sharing of mass spectra and discusses the importance of software development for the advancement of structure elucidation of small molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12566-010-0015-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21289855

  14. Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

  15. MICA sounding rocket observations of conductivity-gradient-generated auroral ionospheric responses: Small-scale structure with large-scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Conde, M.; Fernandes, P. A.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M.; Miceli, R.; Michell, R.; Moen, J.; Nicolls, M.; Powell, S. P.; Samara, M.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed, in situ study of field-aligned current (FAC) structure in a transient, substorm expansion phase auroral arc is conducted using electric field, magnetometer, and electron density measurements from the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator (MICA) sounding rocket, launched from Poker Flat, AK. These data are supplemented with larger-scale, contextual measurements from a heterogeneous collection of ground-based instruments including the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar and nearby scanning doppler imagers and filtered all-sky cameras. An electrostatic ionospheric modeling case study of this event is also constructed by using available data (neutral winds, electron precipitation, and electric fields) to constrain model initial and boundary conditions. MICA magnetometer data are converted into FAC measurements using a sheet current approximation and show an up-down current pair, with small-scale current density and Poynting flux structures in the downward current channel. Model results are able to roughly recreate only the large-scale features of the field-aligned currents, suggesting that observed small-scale structures may be due to ionospheric feedback processes not encapsulated by the electrostatic model. The model is also used to assess the contributions of various processes to total FAC and suggests that both conductance gradients and neutral dynamos may contribute significantly to FACs in a narrow region where the current transitions from upward to downward. Comparison of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar versus in situ electric field estimates illustrates the high sensitivity of FAC estimates to measurement resolution.

  16. Hybrid Rocket Experiment Station for Capstone Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Edgar; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Portable hybrid rocket motors and test stands can be seen in many papers but none have been reported on the design or instrumentation at such a small magnitude. The design of this hybrid rocket and test stand is to be small and portable (suitcase size). This basic apparatus will be used for demonstrations in rocket propulsion. The design had to include all of the needed hardware to operate the hybrid rocket unit (with the exception of the external Oxygen tank). The design of this project includes making the correlation between the rocket's thrust and its size, the appropriate transducers (physical size, resolution, range, and cost), compatability with a laptop analog card, the ease of setup, and its portability.

  17. Small Engine Technology. Task 4: Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) Performance and Range Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jeff L.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    This contact had two main objectives involving both numerical and experimental investigations of a small highly loaded two-stage axial compressor designated Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) winch had a design pressure ratio goal of 5:1 at a flowrate of 10.53 lbm/s. The first objective was to conduct 3-D Navier Stokes multistage analyses of the ASTC using several different flow modelling schemes. The second main objective was to complete a numerical/experimental investigation into stall range enhancement of the ASTC. This compressor was designed wider a cooperative Space Act Agreement and all testing was completed at NASA Lewis Research Center. For the multistage analyses, four different flow model schemes were used, namely: (1) steady-state ADPAC analysis, (2) unsteady ADPAC analysis, (3) steady-state APNASA analysis, and (4) steady state OCOM3D analysis. The results of all the predictions were compared to the experimental data. The steady-state ADPAC and APNASA codes predicted similar overall performance and produced good agreement with data, however the blade row performance and flowfield details were quite different. In general, it can be concluded that the APNASA average-passage code does a better job of predicting the performance and flowfield details of the highly loaded ASTC compressor.

  18. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale. PMID:27219742

  19. Marshall Team Recreates Goddard Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In honor of the Centernial of Flight celebration and commissioned by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), a team of engineers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) built a replica of the first liquid-fueled rocket. The original rocket, designed and built by rocket engineering pioneer Robert H. Goddard in 1926, opened the door to modern rocketry. Goddard's rocket reached an altitude of 41 feet while its flight lasted only 2.5 seconds. The Marshall design team's plan was to stay as close as possible to an authentic reconstruction of Goddard's rocket. The same propellants were used - liquid oxygen and gasoline - as available during Goddard's initial testing and firing. The team also tried to construct the replica using the original materials and design to the greatest extent possible. By purposely using less advanced techniques and materials than many that are available today, the team encountered numerous technical challenges in testing the functional hardware. There were no original blueprints or drawings, only photographs and notes. However, this faithful adherence to historical accuracy has also allowed the team to experience many of the same challenges Goddard faced 77 years ago, and more fully appreciate the genius of this extraordinary man. The replica will undergo ground tests at MSFC this summer.

  20. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

  1. Rocket-in-a-Duct Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1999-01-01

    An axisymmetric, 110 N class, rocket configured with a free expansion between the rocket nozzle and a surrounding duct was tested in an altitude simulation facility. The propellants were gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen and the hardware consisted of a heat sink type copper rocket firing through copper ducts of various diameters and lengths. A secondary flow of nitrogen was introduced at the blind end of the duct to mix with the primary rocket mass flow in the duct. This flow was in the range of 0 to 10% of the primary massflow and its effect on nozzle performance was measured. The random measurement errors on thrust and massflow were within +/-1%. One dimensional equilibrium calculations were used to establish the possible theoretical performance of these rocket-in-a-duct nozzles. Although the scale of these tests was small, they simulated the relevant flow expansion physics at a modest experimental cost. Test results indicated that lower performance was obtained at higher free expansion area ratios and longer ducts, while, higher performance was obtained with the addition of secondary flow. There was a discernable peak in specific impulse efficiency at 4% secondary flow. The small scale of these tests resulted in low performance efficiencies, but prior numerical modeling of larger rocket-in-a-duct engines predicted performance that was comparable to that of optimized rocket nozzles. This remains to be proven in large-scale, rocket-in-a-duct tests.

  2. 78 FR 71601 - KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit... the applicant to KC Small Hydro LLC. (KCS Hydro). On November 5, 2013, Advanced Hydropower,...

  3. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  4. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  5. The Advancement of Educational Research in Small States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper critically examines the impact of global development agendas upon the nature and direction of educational development in small states. This generates a critique of the international transfer of western policy trajectories and related research modalities, identifies the strategic importance of small states, and explores possible ways…

  6. In situ measurements of carbon dioxide, 0.37-4.0 μm particles, and water vapor in the stratospheric plumes of small rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Amelia M.; Avallone, Linnea M.; Toohey, Darin W.; Rutter, Andrew P.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Hagen, Donald E.; Hopkins, A. Raymond; Ross, Martin N.; Zittel, Paul F.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Herman, Robert L.; Friedl, Randall R.

    2002-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and large particles (0.37-4.0 μm) were measured in the stratospheric plume wakes of three rockets, an Atlas IIAS, a Delta II, and an Athena II. The correlations between CO2 mass and particle number densities in each plume are consistent with the unique combination of solid and liquid engine emissions of each rocket. Measured size distributions indicate a 1.1 μm mode with density of 2 g cm-3, consistent with spherical alumina particles emitted by solid rocket motors. Disagreement between the measured size distributions and the mean sizes inferred from the known alumina and CO2 emission indices and an observed increase in the particle number emission index with altitude are evidence for large particle oversampling effects and the presence of condensed volatile compounds within the particle population. Direct evidence for the latter is a persistent ~0.5-1 part per million (ppm) shortfall of water vapor relative to CO2 measured in the plume of the Athena II rocket based on the expected H2O/CO2 emission ratio. Although pure ice particles would not persist at the conditions of the measurements, a more stable coating of HNO3 (as either nitric acid trihydrate or as a liquid layer) could have reduced the sublimation rate of the underlying ice, thereby increasing the lifetimes of volatile particles within the plume. If confirmed, such a process would have important implications for the radiative and chemical properties of rocket plumes, including global ozone depletion associated with rocket launch activities.

  7. In situ measurements of carbon dioxide, 0.37-4.0 μm particles, and water vapor in the stratospheric plumes of small rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Amelia M.; Avallone, Linnea M.; Toohey, Darin W.; Rutter, Andrew P.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Hagen, Donald E.; Hopkins, A. Raymond; Ross, Martin N.; Zittel, Paul F.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Herman, Robert L.; Friedl, Randall R.

    2002-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and large particles (0.37-4.0 μm) were measured in the stratospheric plume wakes of three rockets, an Atlas IIAS, a Delta II, and an Athena II. The correlations between CO2 mass and particle number densities in each plume are consistent with the unique combination of solid and liquid engine emissions of each rocket. Measured size distributions indicate a 1.1 μm mode with density of 2 g cm-3, consistent with spherical alumina particles emitted by solid rocket motors. Disagreement between the measured size distributions and the mean sizes inferred from the known alumina and CO2 emission indices and an observed increase in the particle number emission index with altitude are evidence for large particle oversampling effects and the presence of condensed volatile compounds within the particle population. Direct evidence for the latter is a persistent ˜0.5-1 part per million (ppm) shortfall of water vapor relative to CO2 measured in the plume of the Athena II rocket based on the expected H2O/CO2 emission ratio. Although pure ice particles would not persist at the conditions of the measurements, a more stable coating of HNO3 (as either nitric acid trihydrate or as a liquid layer) could have reduced the sublimation rate of the underlying ice, thereby increasing the lifetimes of volatile particles within the plume. If confirmed, such a process would have important implications for the radiative and chemical properties of rocket plumes, including global ozone depletion associated with rocket launch activities.

  8. Advancing Biological Understanding and Therapeutics Discovery with Small Molecule Probes

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Stuart L.; Kotz, Joanne D.; Li, Min; Aubé, Jeffrey; Austin, Christopher P.; Reed, John C.; Rosen, Hugh; White, E. Lucile; Sklar, Larry A.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Alexander, Benjamin R.; Bittker, Joshua A.; Clemons, Paul A.; de Souza, Andrea; Foley, Michael A.; Palmer, Michelle; Shamji, Alykhan F.; Wawer, Mathias J.; McManus, Owen; Wu, Meng; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Golden, Jennifer E.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Jackson, Michael R.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hodder, Peter S.; Roush, William R.; Roberts, Edward; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Noah, James W.; Severson, William E.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Edwards, Bruce; Oprea, Tudor I.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Hopkins, Corey R.; Wood, Michael R.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule probes can illuminate biological processes and aid in the assessment of emerging therapeutic targets by perturbing biological systems in a manner distinct from other experimental approaches. Despite the tremendous promise of chemical tools for investigating biology and disease, small-molecule probes were unavailable for most targets and pathways as recently as a decade ago. In 2005, the U.S. National Institutes of Health launched the decade-long Molecular Libraries Program with the intent of innovating in and broadening access to small-molecule science. This Perspective describes how novel small-molecule probes identified through the program are enabling the exploration of biological pathways and therapeutic hypotheses not otherwise testable. These experiences illustrate how small-molecule probes can help bridge the chasm between biological research and the development of medicines, but also highlight the need to innovate the science of therapeutic discovery. PMID:26046436

  9. Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tulpule, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a top-down analysis of rocket engine diagnostic requirements, rocket engine operation, applicable diagnostic algorithms, and algorithm design techniques, which serve as a basis for the IDS. The concepts of hierarchical, model-based information processing are described, together with the use uf signal processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence techniques which are an integral part of this diagnostic system. 27 refs.

  10. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  11. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  12. Electrodynamics payloads for small rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Mccarthy, S. P.; Goodnow, K. J.; Li, C.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Totally integrated design facilitates electrical cleanliness and light weight, which are necessary in subsonic parachute-borne payloads for electrodynamics investigations. 'Blunt' probes measure ion conductivity, as do Gerdien condensers. Recent finite-element computer analyses combining flow and electrodynamics have resolved problems in determining ion densities and mobilities from Gerdien data. Three-axis electric fields are measured with deployable boom-mounted electrodes from dc through VLF. Splitting the cylindrical payload with an insulator and measuring the current between halves has provided a vertical Maxwell current detector mechanically rigid enough to measure, at ELF, energy related to coupling. A nose tip 'Smith' probe turbulence measurement is usually performed on ascent. Other instrumentation, such as photo-ionization sources and X-ray detectors, can also be included. These electrodynamic measurement payloads are about one meter in length and have a mass of about 9 kg. They can be launched with an Orion-class or smaller vehicle.

  13. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  14. Hybrid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A 10,000-pound thrust hybrid rocket motor is tested at Stennis Space Center's E-1 test facility. A hybrid rocket motor is a cross between a solid rocket and a liquid-fueled engine. It uses environmentally safe solid fuel and liquid oxygen.

  15. Prediction of Acoustic Environments from Horizontal Rocket Firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacomoni, Clothilde

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, advances in research and engineering have led to more powerful launch vehicles which can reach areas of space not yet explored. These more powerful vehicles yield acoustic environments potentially destructive to the vehicle or surrounding structures. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to be able to predict the acoustic environments created by these vehicles in order to avoid structural and/or competent failure. The current industry standard technique for predicting launch-induced acoustic environments was developed by Eldred in the early 1970's and is published in NASA SP-80721. Recent work2 has shown Eldred's technique to be inaccurate for current state-of-the-art launch vehicles. Due to the high cost of full-scale and even sub-scale rocket experiments, very little rocket noise data is available. Furthermore, much of the work thought to be applicable to rocket noise has been done with heated jets. Tam3,4 has done an extensive amount of research on jets of different nozzle exit shape, diameter, velocity, and temperature. Though the values of these parameters, especially exit velocity and temperature, are often very low compared to these values in rockets, a lot can be learned about rocket noise from jet noise literature. The turbulent nature of jet and rocket exhausts is quite similar. Both exhausts contain turbulent structures of varying scale-termed the fine and large scale turbulence by Tam. The finescale turbulence is due to small eddies from the jet plume interacting with the ambient atmosphere. According to Tam et al., the noise radiated by this envelope of small-scale turbulence is statistically isotropic. Hence, one would expect the noise from the small scale turbulence of the jet to be nearly omni-directional. The coherent nature of the large-scale turbulence results in interference of the noise radiated from different spatial locations within the jet. This interference-whether it is constructive or destructive-results in

  16. Catalytic Microtube Rocket Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Devices that generate both high energy and high temperature are required to ignite reliably the propellant mixtures in combustion chambers like those present in rockets and other combustion systems. This catalytic microtube rocket igniter generates these conditions with a small, catalysis-based torch. While traditional spark plug systems can require anywhere from 50 W to multiple kW of power in different applications, this system has demonstrated ignition at less than 25 W. Reactants are fed to the igniter from the same tanks that feed the reactants to the rest of the rocket or combustion system. While this specific igniter was originally designed for liquid methane and liquid oxygen rockets, it can be easily operated with gaseous propellants or modified for hydrogen use in commercial combustion devices. For the present cryogenic propellant rocket case, the main propellant tanks liquid oxygen and liquid methane, respectively are regulated and split into different systems for the individual stages of the rocket and igniter. As the catalyst requires a gas phase for reaction, either the stored boil-off of the tanks can be used directly or one stream each of fuel and oxidizer can go through a heat exchanger/vaporizer that turns the liquid propellants into a gaseous form. For commercial applications, where the reactants are stored as gases, the system is simplified. The resulting gas-phase streams of fuel and oxidizer are then further divided for the individual components of the igniter. One stream each of the fuel and oxidizer is introduced to a mixing bottle/apparatus where they are mixed to a fuel-rich composition with an O/F mass-based mixture ratio of under 1.0. This premixed flow then feeds into the catalytic microtube device. The total flow is on the order of 0.01 g/s. The microtube device is composed of a pair of sub-millimeter diameter platinum tubes connected only at the outlet so that the two outlet flows are parallel to each other. The tubes are each

  17. Recent advances in small molecule OLED-on-silicon microdisplays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Ali, Tariq A.; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Vazan, Fridrich; Prache, Olivier F.; Wacyk, Ihor

    2009-08-01

    High resolution OLED-on-silicon microdisplay technology is unique and challenging since it requires very small subpixel dimensions (~ 2-5 microns). eMagin's OLED microdisplay is based on white top emitter architecture using small molecule organic materials. The devices are fabricated using high Tg materials. The devices are hermetically sealed with vacuum deposited thin film layers. LCD-type color filters are patterned using photolithography methods to generate primary R, G, B colors. Results of recent improvements in the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay technology, with emphasis on efficiencies, lifetimes, grey scale and CIE color coordinates for SVGA and SXGA resolution microdisplays is presented.

  18. Recent Advances in Imaging of Small and Large Bowel.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandan J; Manchanda, Smita; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Anshul; Gupta, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of bowel pathology is challenging in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. Currently, there are various imaging modalities available to reach an accurate diagnosis. These modalities include conventional techniques (radiographs, small bowel follow-through, conventional enteroclysis), ultrasonography, and cross-sectional examinations (computed tomography [CT] and MR imaging) as well as functional imaging modalities, such as PET-CT or PET-MR imaging. Each modality has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used in isolation or combination. This review discusses the role of CT, MR imaging, and PET-CT in the evaluation of small and large bowel diseases. PMID:26590441

  19. Recent Advances in Developing Small Molecules Targeting Nucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Maolin; Yu, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chao; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids participate in a large number of biological processes. However, current approaches for small molecules targeting protein are incompatible with nucleic acids. On the other hand, the lack of crystallization of nucleic acid is the limiting factor for nucleic acid drug design. Because of the improvements in crystallization in recent years, a great many structures of nucleic acids have been reported, providing basic information for nucleic acid drug discovery. This review focuses on the discovery and development of small molecules targeting nucleic acids. PMID:27248995

  20. Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

    Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

  1. Commercial Development Suborbital Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The enclosed report provides information on the sixth flight of the Consort suborbital rocket series. Consort 6 is currently scheduled for launch on February 19, 1993, with lift off at 11:00 a.m., Mountain Time. It will carry seven materials and biotechnology experiments, two accelerometer systems, a controller and battery packs in a module nearly 12 feet tall and weighing approximately 1,004 pounds. Consort 6 will reach an apogee of approximately 200 miles providing about 7 minutes of microgravity time. The entire mission, from launch to touchdown, is expected to last approximately 15 minutes. The Consort series is part of a unique suborbital rocket launch services program conducted by the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in conjunction with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This service is managed through the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS), a CCDS based University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). at the This suborbital rocket program provides CCDS investigators with a microgravity environment to achieve commercial development objectives, or to test developmental hardware or techniques in preparation for orbital flights or additional follow-on work. Rocket and launch services for Consort 6, including use of the Starfire 1 launch vehicle, are provided by EER Systems Corporation. Integration of the payload into Starfire 1 will be handled by McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company.

  2. Sounding rockets in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, G. C.; Cooper, G. W.; Peterson, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    Sounding rockets are versatile tools for scientists studying the atmospheric region which is located above balloon altitudes but below orbital satellite altitudes. Three NASA Nike-Tomahawk sounding rockets were launched from Siple Station in Antarctica in an upper atmosphere physics experiment in the austral summer of 1980-81. The 110 kg payloads were carried to 200 km apogee altitudes in a coordinated project with Arcas rocket payloads and instrumented balloons. This Siple Station Expedition demonstrated the feasibility of launching large, near 1,000 kg, rocket systems from research stations in Antarctica. The remoteness of research stations in Antarctica and the severe environment are major considerations in planning rocket launching expeditions.

  3. Detection of Metallic Compounds in Rocket Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Chris; Dunn, Dr. Robert

    1998-04-01

    Recent experiments using metal mixed in hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) fuel grains in small hybrid rocket indicates ion detectors may be effective in detection of metallic compounds in rocket plumes. We wanted to ascertain the extent to which the presence of metallic compounds in rocket plumes could be detected using ion probes and Gaussian rings. Charges that collide with or pass near the intruding probe are detected. Gaussian rings, short insulated cylindrical Gaussian surfaces, enclose the plume without intruding into the plume. Charges in the plume are detected by currents they induce in the cylinder.

  4. Laser-heated rocket studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Root, R. G.; Wu., P. K. S.; Caledonia, G. E.; Pirri, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    CW laser heated rocket propulsion was investigated in both the flowing core and stationary core configurations. The laser radiation considered was 10.6 micrometers, and the working gas was unseeded hydrogen. The areas investigated included initiation of a hydrogen plasma capable of absorbing laser radiation, the radiation emission properties of hot, ionized hydrogen, the flow of hot hydrogen while absorbing and radiating, the heat losses from the gas and the rocket performance. The stationary core configuration was investigated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. It was found that the flowing core rockets can have specific impulses between 1,500 and 3,300 sec. They are small devices, whose heating zone is only a millimeter to a few centimeters long, and millimeters to centimeters in radius, for laser power levels varying from 10 to 5,000 kW, and pressure levels of 3 to 10 atm. Heat protection of the walls is a vital necessity, though the fraction of laser power lost to the walls can be as low as 10% for larger powers, making the rockets thermally efficient.

  5. Rocket engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, S.K.; Alcock, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to ensure mission success in addition to engine reliability. The system components are monitored through health and performance sensors; they are analyzed with the diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and demonstrated by system testing with hardware from other advanced development programs.

  6. Dumbo: A pachydermal rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Bill

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical account is given of the Dumbo nuclear reactor, a type of folded flow reactor that could be used for rocket propulsion. Much of the information is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs show details of the reactor system, fuel geometry, and key characteristics of the system (folded flow, use of fuel washers, large flow area, small fuel volume, hybrid modulator, and cermet fuel).

  7. Something Ventured, Something Gained. An Advanced Curriculum for Small Business Management. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuchat, Jo; And Others

    Nine units on small business management are provided in this curriculum guide designed for use in an advanced course for secondary and postsecondary students who are interested in beginning a small business venture, have some prior business knowledge, and have a specific business in mind. Unit topics include marketing, location, systems and…

  8. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, D.W. ); Rochow, R. )

    1993-01-15

    Earlier this year Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) introduced a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars. This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection (E-D) rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1)Reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2)Eliminate need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3)Practical provision for reactor power control; and (4)Use near term, long life turbopumps.

  9. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Rochow Wilcox Space; Nuclear Systems, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Earlier this year Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) introduced a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars. This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection (E-D) rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1)Reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2)Eliminate need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3)Practical provision for reactor power control; and (4)Use near term, long life turbopumps.

  10. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Rochow, Richard

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps.

  11. Personalizing Therapy in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Burns, Timothy F.; Ramfidis, Vasilis S.; Socinski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition that non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not a single disease entity, but rather a collection of distinct molecularly driven neoplasms, has permanently shifted the therapeutic landscape of NSCLC to a personalized approach. This personalization of NSCLC therapy is typified by the dramatic response rates seen in EGFR mutant NSCLC when treated with targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and in ALK translocation–driven NSCLC when treated with ALK inhibitors. Targeted therapeutic approaches in NSCLC necessitate consideration of more invasive biopsy techniques aimed at providing sufficient tissue for both histological determination and molecular profiling in all patients with stage IV disease both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of disease progression. Comprehensive genotyping efforts have identified oncogenic drivers in 62% lung adenocarcinomas and an increasing proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. The identification of these oncogenic drivers and the triage of patients to clinical trials evaluating novel targeted therapeutic approaches will increasingly mold a landscape of personalized lung cancer therapy where each genotype has an associated targeted therapy. This review outlines the state of personalized lung cancer therapy as it pertains to individual NSCLC genotypes. PMID:24258572

  12. Coated oxidizers for combustion stability in solid-propellant rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmy, A. M.; Ramohalli, K. N. R.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in a laboratory-scale (6.25-cm diameter) end-burning rocket motor with state-of-the-art, ammonium perchlorate hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), nonmetallized propellants. The concept of tailoring the stability characteristics with a small amount (less than 1 percent by weight) of COATING on the oxidizer is explored. The thermal degradation characteristics of the coat chemical are deduced through theoretical arguments on thermal diffusivity of the composite material (propellant). Several candidate coats are selected and propellants are cast. These propellants (with coated oxidizers) are fired in a laboratory-scale end-burning rocket motor, and real-time pressure histories are recorded. The control propellant (with no coating) is also tested for comparison. The uniformity of the coating, confirmed by SEM pictures and BET adsorption measurements, is thought to be an advance in technology. The frequency of bulk mode instability (BMI), the pressure fluctuation amplitudes, and stability boundaries are correlated with parameters related to the characteristic length (L-asterisk) of the rocket motor. The coated oxidizer propellants, in general, display greater combustion stability than the control (state-of-the-art). The correlations of the various parameters are thought to be new to a field filled with much uncertainty.

  13. Fiber-Reinforced Superalloys For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jack R.; Yuen, Jim L.; Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses experimental studies of fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composite materials for use in turbine blades in rocket engines. Intended to withstand extreme conditions of high temperature, thermal shock, atmospheres containing hydrogen, high cycle fatigue loading, and thermal fatigue, which tax capabilities of even most-advanced current blade material - directionally-solidified, hafnium-modified MAR M-246 {MAR M-246 (Hf) (DS)}. FRS composites attractive combination of properties for use in turbopump blades of advanced rocket engines at temperatures from 870 to 1,100 degrees C.

  14. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, Frustum and Nose Cap mated assembly undergoing final preparations in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. In this view the access panel on the Forward Skirt is removed and you can see a small portion of the interior of the Forward Skirt. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Options for flight testing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John

    1996-01-01

    While NASA's current next-generation launch vehicle research has largely focused on advanced all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles (i.e. the X-33 and it's RLV operational follow-on), some attention is being given to advanced propulsion concepts suitable for 'next-generation-and-a-half' vehicles. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines combining rocket and airbreathing elements are one candidate concept. Preliminary RBCC engine development was undertaken by the United States in the 1960's. However, additional ground and flight research is required to bring the engine to technological maturity. This paper presents two options for flight testing early versions of the RBCC ejector scramjet engine. The first option mounts a single RBCC engine module to the X-34 air-launched technology testbed for test flights up to about Mach 6.4. The second option links RBCC engine testing to the simultaneous development of a small-payload (220 lb.) two-stage-to-orbit operational vehicle in the Bantam payload class. This launcher/testbed concept has been dubbed the W vehicle. The W vehicle can also serve as an early ejector ramjet RBCC launcher (albeit at a lower payload). To complement current RBCC ground testing efforts, both flight test engines will use earth-storable propellants for their RBCC rocket primaries and hydrocarbon fuel for their airbreathing modes. Performance and vehicle sizing results are presented for both options.

  16. A hybrid rocket engine design for simple low cost sounding rocket use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubelich, Mark; Rowland, John; Reese, Larry

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary test results on a nitrous oxide/HTPB hybrid rocket engine suitable for powering a small sounding rocket to altitudes of 50-100 K/ft are presented. It is concluded that the advantage of the N2O hybrid engine over conventional solid propellant rocket motors is the ability to obtain long burn times with core burning geometries due to the low regression rate of the fuel. Long burn times make it possible to reduce terminal velocity to minimize air drag losses.

  17. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  18. Life Saving Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    By 1870, American and British inventors had found other ways to use rockets. For example, the Congreve rocket was capable of carrying a line over 1,000 feet to a stranded ship. In 1914, an estimated 1,000 lives were saved by this technique.

  19. Model Rockets and Microchips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Points out the instructional applications and program possibilities of a unit on model rocketry. Describes the ways that microcomputers can assist in model rocket design and in problem calculations. Provides a descriptive listing of model rocket software for the Apple II microcomputer. (ML)

  20. Postal Rocket Stamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  1. Rockets -- Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    If two rockets are identical except that one engine burns in one-tenth the time of the other (total impulse and initial fuel mass of the two engines being the same), which rocket will rise higher? Why? The answer to this question (part 1 response in v20 n6, p410, Sep 1982) is provided. (Author/JN)

  2. Recent advances in the treatment of non-small cell and small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Recent presentations at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting from 30 May to 3 June, 2014, will impact routine clinical care and the development of clinical trials in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, defined as exon 19 and exon 21 L858R point mutations, experience a high objective response rate and prolonged progression-free survival with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, inevitably, patients experience disease progression and the most common mechanism of acquired resistance is an EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation. Several agents (AZD9291, CO-1686 and HM61713) have demonstrated impressive activity in patients with T790M resistance mutations. Additional data on the efficacy of first-line therapy with afatinib and the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab for patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC were presented. The results of a phase III trial of crizotinib compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting, and a phase I trial and expansion cohort of ceritinib, provided additional efficacy and toxicity data for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearranged NSCLC. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine, with and without necitumumab, revealed an improvement in overall survival with the addition of necitumumab in patients with squamous NSCLC. In the second-line setting, a phase III trial of docetaxel with ramucirumab or placebo revealed an improvement in overall survival with the addition of ramucirumab. In extensive stage small cell lung cancer phase III trials of consolidative thoracic radiation therapy and prophylactic cranial radiation failed to reveal an improvement in overall survival. PMID:25580271

  3. Risk Factors of Advanced Adenoma in Small and Diminutive Colorectal Polyp.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yo Han; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Park, Chan Seo; Kim, Sung Bum; Lee, Si Hyung; Jang, Byung Ik

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to review the clinicopathological characteristics of diminutive (≤ 5 mm) and small polyps (> 5 mm but < 10 mm) and to evaluate the risk factors of advanced adenoma for polyps of diameter < 10 mm in the colon. The medical records of 4,711 patients who underwent first colonoscopy at outpatient clinics or health promotion center were reviewed retrospectively. We analyzed the presence and risk factors of advanced adenoma, which was defined as a villous or tubulovillous polyp, high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma histologically. Total 5,058 polyps were detected in the 4,711 patients, and 93.0% (4,704/5,058) polyps were < 10 mm in size. Among them, advanced adenoma was noted in 0.6% (28/4,704) with a villous component in 19, high-grade dysplasia in 3, and adenocarcinoma in 6. Advanced and non-advanced adenomas differed significantly in age group, gender, and polyp size. Multivariate analysis showed that an advanced age (> 65 years), a male gender, and a polyp size of > 5 mm were risk factors of advanced adenoma. The incidence of advanced adenoma in polyps of < 10 mm was 0.6%. Polyp size, male gender, and age of > 65 years are independent risk factors of advanced adenoma. PMID:27510386

  4. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  5. Reusable Rocket Engine Maintenance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 85,000 liquid rocket engine failure reports, obtained from 30 years of developing and delivering major pump feed engines, were reviewed and screened and reduced to 1771. These were categorized into 16 different failure modes. Failure propagation diagrams were established. The state of the art of engine condition monitoring for in-flight sensors and between flight inspection technology was determined. For the 16 failure modes, the potential measurands and diagnostic requirements were identified, assessed and ranked. Eight areas are identified requiring advanced technology development.

  6. Fluid mechanics of spinning rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandro, G. A.; Vanmoorhem, W. K.; Shorthill, R.; Chen, K.; Woolsey, M.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed investigation of the influence of time-dependent combustion gas flows on the attitude dynamics of spinning rocket propelled space vehicles. The work was motivated by a need to understand the origins of a potentially serious system performance problem first detected in the PAM-D series of spin stabilized upper stages. Small wobbling (often referred to as nutation or coning) is induced during separation of the rocket motor burn. The growth ceased abruptly at motor burnout, and final cone angles as large as 17 deg were reached in some flights. The same phenomenon was encountered in two flights of the PAM-DII, a similar vehicle utilizing a larger motor. Conventional theories of spinning rocket dynamics failed to explain this behavior. Since the telemetry data shows that the severity of the problem depends on spacecraft mass properties and other system parameters, it is crucial that the origins of the instability be understood completely in order that serious mission degradation can be avoided in future orbit raising operations. A costly interim fix, which sidesteps the need to understand the physical origins of the problem, is the use of a strap-on nutation control system as used in the Air Force SGS II missions.

  7. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  8. Particle bed reactor central to SDI nuclear rocket project

    SciTech Connect

    Asker, J.R.

    1991-04-01

    A classified SDI project designated 'Timberwind' and funded with an estimated $7-8 billion over the project's life is charged with the development and flight testing of nuclear reactor-powered rockets. Timberwind's novel 'particle-bed reactor' technology will employ small pellets of reactor fuel to heat a low molecular weight working fluid, such as hydrogen. The fuel pellets would be 0.5 mm in diameter and may be composed of a kernel of fissionable U together with a carbon alloy, coated by layers of carbon and a sealant. A covering of zirconium carbide would prevent chemical degradation of the pellets by the hydrogen working fluid. Performace projection comparisons are conducted for Timberwind, an advanced Atlas-Centaur, and an advanced Titan launch vehicle.

  9. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  10. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  11. Combustion Processes in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran,S.; Merkle, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the development of hybrid rocket engines for advanced launch vehicle applications. Hybrid propulsion systems use a solid fuel such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) along with a gaseous/liquid oxidizer. The performance of hybrid combustors depends on the convective and radiative heat fluxes to the fuel surface, the rate of pyrolysis in the solid phase, and the turbulent combustion processes in the gaseous phases. These processes in combination specify the regression rates of the fuel surface and thereby the utilization efficiency of the fuel. In this paper, we employ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques in order to gain a quantitative understanding of the physical trends in hybrid rocket combustors. The computational modeling is tailored to ongoing experiments at Penn State that employ a two dimensional slab burner configuration. The coordinated computational/experimental effort enables model validation while providing an understanding of the experimental observations. Computations to date have included the full length geometry with and with the aft nozzle section as well as shorter length domains for extensive parametric characterization. HTPB is sed as the fuel with 1,3 butadiene being taken as the gaseous product of the pyrolysis. Pure gaseous oxygen is taken as the oxidizer. The fuel regression rate is specified using an Arrhenius rate reaction, which the fuel surface temperature is given by an energy balance involving gas-phase convection and radiation as well as thermal conduction in the solid-phase. For the gas-phase combustion, a two step global reaction is used. The standard kappa - epsilon model is used for turbulence closure. Radiation is presently treated using a simple diffusion approximation which is valid for large optical path lengths, representative of radiation from soot particles. Computational results are obtained to determine the trends in the fuel burning or

  12. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-02-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors1,2 that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the experimentally measured rocket height. Baking soda and vinegar rockets present fewer safety concerns and require a smaller launch area than rapid combustion chemical rockets. Both kits were of nearly identical design, costing ˜20. The rockets required roughly 30 minutes of assembly time consisting of mostly taping the soft plastic fuselage to the Styrofoam nose cone.

  13. ASTRID rocket flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

    1994-07-01

    On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

  14. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  15. Hybrid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center conducts a test on a hybrid rocket motor fed by a liquid oxygen turbopump. The test occurred at the E-1 test facility. The test was believed to be the first of its kind in the world.

  16. Antares Rocket Lifts Off!

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA commercial space partner Orbital Sciences Corp. of Dulles, Va., launched its Cygnus cargo spacecraft aboard its Antares rocket at 10:58 a.m. EDT Wednesday from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spacep...

  17. Rocketing into Adaptive Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Dowling, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Defines adaptive inquiry and argues for employing this method which allows lessons to be shaped in response to student needs. Illustrates this idea by detailing an activity in which teams of students build rockets. (DDR)

  18. High-Temperature Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Chazen, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Two rocket engines that operate at temperature of 2,500 K designed to provide thrust for station-keeping adjustments of geosynchronous satellites, for raising and lowering orbits, and for changing orbital planes. Also useful as final propulsion stages of launch vehicles delivering small satellites to low orbits around Earth. With further development, engines used on planetary exploration missions for orbital maneuvers. High-temperature technology of engines adaptable to gas-turbine combustors, ramjets, scramjets, and hot components of many energy-conversion systems.

  19. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  20. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. Recent advances in energy based modeling of combustion instabilities require accurate determination of acoustic frequencies and mode shapes. Of particular interest is the acoustic mean flow interactions within the converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients of pressure, density, and velocity become large. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The present study aims to implement the French model within the COMSOL Multiphysiscs framework and analyzes one of the author's presented test cases.

  1. Marshall Team Fires Recreated Goddard Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In honor of the Centernial of Flight Celebration and commissioned by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), a team of engineers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) built a replica of the first liquid-fueled rocket. The original rocket, designed and built by rocket engineering pioneer Robert H. Goddard in 1926, opened the door to modern rocketry. Goddard's rocket reached an altitude of 41 feet while its flight lasted only 2.5 seconds. The Marshall design team's plan was to stay as close as possible to an authentic reconstruction of Goddard's rocket. The same propellants were used - liquid oxygen and gasoline - as available during Goddard's initial testing and firing. The team also tried to construct the replica using the original materials and design to the greatest extent possible. By purposely using less advanced techniques and materials than many that are available today, the team encountered numerous technical challenges in testing the functional hardware. There were no original blueprints or drawings, only photographs and notes. However, this faithful adherence to historical accuracy has allowed the team to experience many of the same challenges Goddard faced 77 years ago, and more fully appreciate the genius of this extraordinary man. In this photo, the replica is shown firing in the A-frame launch stand in near-flight configuration at MSFC's Test Area 116 during the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 39th Joint Propulsion Conference on July 23, 2003.

  2. Computational Thermochemistry of Jet Fuels and Rocket Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The design of new high-energy density molecules as candidates for jet and rocket fuels is an important goal of modern chemical thermodynamics. The NASA Glenn Research Center is home to a database of thermodynamic data for over 2000 compounds related to this goal, in the form of least-squares fits of heat capacities, enthalpies, and entropies as functions of temperature over the range of 300 - 6000 K. The chemical equilibrium with applications (CEA) program written and maintained by researchers at NASA Glenn over the last fifty years, makes use of this database for modeling the performance of potential rocket propellants. During its long history, the NASA Glenn database has been developed based on experimental results and data published in the scientific literature such as the standard JANAF tables. The recent development of efficient computational techniques based on quantum chemical methods provides an alternative source of information for expansion of such databases. For example, it is now possible to model dissociation or combustion reactions of small molecules to high accuracy using techniques such as coupled cluster theory or density functional theory. Unfortunately, the current applicability of reliable computational models is limited to relatively small molecules containing only around a dozen (non-hydrogen) atoms. We propose to extend the applicability of coupled cluster theory- often referred to as the 'gold standard' of quantum chemical methods- to molecules containing 30-50 non-hydrogen atoms. The centerpiece of this work is the concept of local correlation, in which the description of the electron interactions- known as electron correlation effects- are reduced to only their most important localized components. Such an advance has the potential to greatly expand the current reach of computational thermochemistry and thus to have a significant impact on the theoretical study of jet and rocket propellants.

  3. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  4. Heat transfer in a nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Konyukhov, G.V.; Petrov, A.I.

    1995-02-01

    Special features of heat transfer in the reactor of a nuclear rocket engine (NRE) are dealt with. It is shown that the design of the cooling system of the NRE reactor is governed by its stability to small deviations of the parameters from the corresponding calculated values and the possibility of compensating for effects due to nonuniformities and distrubances of various types and scales.

  5. The Death of Rocket Science in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Webb, Darryl W.

    As we enter the 21st century, the lack of a space propulsion science discipline - involving the development of new emerging physical theories and models - within the bounds of Rocket Science forbids any rapid development of ideas and concepts toward new frontiers in spaceflight and implies a stagnate death in the advancement of Rocket Science as a whole. Specifically, the conventional disciplines in Rocket Science lacks foresight into the physics of acceleration to include the nature of gravity and inertia, which is foremost needed for the progression of spaceflight. In this paper is discussed various topics toward the understanding that space propulsion science is not a major player in Rocket Science, but must become so, if Rocket Science is to evolve the necessary new frontiers needed for future space exploration.

  6. Iridium/Rhenium Parts For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Harding, John T.; Wooten, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation/corrosion of metals at high temperatures primary life-limiting mechanism of parts in rocket engines. Combination of metals greatly increases operating temperature and longevity of these parts. Consists of two transition-element metals - iridium and rhenium - that melt at extremely high temperatures. Maximum operating temperature increased to 2,200 degrees C from 1,400 degrees C. Increases operating lifetimes of small rocket engines by more than factor of 10. Possible to make hotter-operating, longer-lasting components for turbines and other heat engines.

  7. Atmospheric scavenging of solid rocket exhaust effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket exhaust was directly utilized to ascertain raindrop scavenging rates for hydrogen chloride. Two chambers were used to conduct the experiments; a large, rigid walled, spherical chamber stored the exhaust constituents, while the smaller chamber housing all the experiments was charged as required with rocket exhaust HCl. Surface uptake experiments demonstrated an HCl concentration dependence for distilled water. Sea water and brackish water HCl uptake was below the detection limit of the chlorine-ion analysis technique used. Plant life HCl uptake experiments were limited to corn and soybeans. Plant age effectively correlated the HCl uptake data. Metallic corrosion was not significant for single 20 minute exposures to the exhaust HCl under varying relative humidity. Characterization of the aluminum oxide particles substantiated the similarity between the constituents of the small scale rocket and the full size vehicles.

  8. Outbrief - Long Life Rocket Engine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jason Eugene

    2004-01-01

    This white paper is an overview of the JANNAF Long Life Rocket Engine (LLRE) Panel results from the last several years of activity. The LLRE Panel has met over the last several years in order to develop an approach for the development of long life rocket engines. Membership for this panel was drawn from a diverse set of the groups currently working on rocket engines (Le. government labs, both large and small companies and university members). The LLRE Panel was formed in order to determine the best way to enable the design of rocket engine systems that have life capability greater than 500 cycles while meeting or exceeding current performance levels (Specific Impulse and Thrust/Weight) with a 1/1,OOO,OOO likelihood of vehicle loss due to rocket system failure. After several meetings and much independent work the panel reached a consensus opinion that the primary issues preventing LLRE are a lack of: physics based life prediction, combined loads prediction, understanding of material microphysics, cost effective system level testing. and the inclusion of fabrication process effects into physics based models. With the expected level of funding devoted to LLRE development, the panel recommended that fundamental research efforts focused on these five areas be emphasized.

  9. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  10. General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket Motor Segments in the Surge Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building and subsequent mounting and assembly on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Development of a 12-Thrust Chamber Kerosene /Oxygen Primary Rocket Sub-System for an Early (1964) Air-Augmented Rocket Ground-Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, D.; Hyde, E. H.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing/Rocket combined-cycle, and specifically rocket-based combined- cycle (RBCC), propulsion systems, typically employ an internal engine flow-path installed primary rocket subsystem. To achieve acceptably short mixing lengths in effecting the "air augmentation" process, a large rocket-exhaust/air interfacial mixing surface is needed. This leads, in some engine design concepts, to a "cluster" of small rocket units, suitably arrayed in the flowpath. To support an early (1964) subscale ground-test of a specific RBCC concept, such a 12-rocket cluster was developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The small primary rockets used in the cluster assembly were modified versions of an existing small kerosene/oxygen water-cooled rocket engine unit routinely tested at MSFC. Following individual thrust-chamber tests and overall subsystem qualification testing, the cluster assembly was installed at the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for RBCC systems testing. (The results of the special air-augmented rocket testing are not covered here.) While this project was eventually successfully completed, a number of hardware integration problems were met, leading to catastrophic thrust chamber failures. The principal "lessons learned" in conducting this early primary rocket subsystem experimental effort are documented here as a basic knowledge-base contribution for the benefit of today's RBCC research and development community.

  12. Colorado Hydrogen Imaging Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; France, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design for a rocket-borne narrow-band far-ultraviolet imaging telescope. It will measure the spatial distribution of photo-excited molecular hydrogen emission nearby hot stars by utilizing multi-layer reflection coatings, similar to those used in previous NASA experiments, to obtain two images during a flight: one with a narrow-band filter that captures the 1575/1608A emission features (the "on-band" filter), and a second one that measures the dust-scattered stellar continuum at 1800A (the "off-band" filter). The difference image will then isolate the molecular hydrogen emission by subtracting the underlying scattered-light background. This would be a large improvement over existing studies at ultraviolet wavelengths for which many individual pointings with spectroscopic apertures are required to map the region of interest. These data will complete the picture, combined with far-ultraviolet spectra and near-infrared observations of vibrational emission that we will obtain from ground-based instrumentation, of the physical conditions in sites of recent and on-going star formation. A sounding rocket payload such as this provides the opportunity to perform niche science that other facilities cannot as well as advances the readiness of junior researchers to assume leadership roles on future NASA space flight missions.

  13. The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

  14. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  15. Rocket motor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, U. G.; Strahle, W. C.

    1983-10-01

    Vibration problems in solid propellant rocket motors are investigated. A class of interior flows modelled to simulate flow conditions inside rocket motor cavities is considered. Turbulence generated pressure fluctuations are shown to consist of two components - acoustic and hydrodynamics. The Bernoulli enthalpy theory of aeroacoustics is employed to extract acoustic pressure spectra from experimentally obtained turbulence data and acoustic impedance values at flow boundaries. The effects of turbulence intensities, sidewall acoustic impedance, axial mass blowing distribution, length to diameter ratio of the cavity and different mass flux on the acoustic pressure level are investigated. Typical pressure levels, under rocket motor conditions, are calculated using the A/B model of propellant response. Estimates of the hydrodynamic component of the pressure fluctuation are provided for the case of fully developed turbulent pipe flow terminated by a choked nozzle.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  17. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  18. Rocket center Peenemuende - Personal memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    1993-01-01

    A brief history of Peenemuende, the rocket center where Von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under German Army auspices, and the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes, is presented. Emphasis is placed on the expansion of operations beginning in 1942.

  19. Recent advances in inorganic materials for LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Shi, C Y; Deng, C H

    2016-05-10

    In this review, various inorganic materials were summarized for the analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Due to its tremendous advantages, such as simplicity, high speed, high throughput, small analyte volumes and tolerance towards salts, LDI-MS has been widely used in various analytes. During the ionization process, a suitable agent is required to assist the ionization, such as an appropriate matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). However, it is normally difficult to analyze small molecules with the MALDI technique because conventional organic matrices may produce matrix-related peaks in the low molecular-weight region, which limits the detection of small molecules (m/z < 700 Da). Therefore, more and more inorganic materials, including carbon-based materials, silicon-based materials and metal-based materials, have been developed to assist the ionization of small molecules. These inorganic materials can transfer energy and improve the ionization efficiency of analytes. In addition, functionalized inorganic materials can act as both an adsorbent and an agent in the enrichment and ionization of small molecules. In this review, we mainly focus on present advances in inorganic materials for the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules in the last five years, which contains the synthetic protocols of novel inorganic materials and the detailed results achieved by inorganic materials. On the other hand, this review also summarizes the application of inorganic materials as adsorbents in the selective enrichment of small molecules, which provides a new field for the application of inorganic materials. PMID:27050451

  20. NASA Sounding Rocket Program educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspeaker, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NASA Sounding Rocket Program engages in a host of student flight projects providing unique and exciting hands-on student space flight experiences. These projects include single stage Orion missions carrying "active" high school experiments and "passive" Explorer School modules, university level Orion and Terrier-Orion flights, and small hybrid rocket flights as part of the Small-scale Educational Rocketry Initiative (SERI) currently under development. Efforts also include educational programs conducted as part of major campaigns. The student flight projects are designed to reach students ranging from Kindergarteners to university undergraduates. The programs are also designed to accommodate student teams with varying levels of technical capabilities - from teams that can fabricate their own payloads to groups that are barely capable of drilling and tapping their own holes. The program also conducts a hands-on student flight project for blind students in collaboration with the National Federation of the Blind. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is proud of its role in inspiring the "next generation of explorers" and is working to expand its reach to all regions of the United States and the international community as well.

  1. Improved airbreathing launch vehicle performance with the use of rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, H. G.; Grandhi, R. V.; Hankey, W. L.; Belcher, P. J.

    1991-04-01

    An efficient performance analysis method is developed to evaluate potential airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems for advanced technology single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles. Evaluated are tradeoffs between airbreathing, rocket, and concurrent airbreathing/rocket propulsion in maximizing payload delivery to orbit for a given ascent flight trajectory. With the analysis method, several modes of airbreathing/rocket propulsion are compared to a baseline 'airbreather alone' propulsion system in terms of fuel/propellant required to attain orbital velocity. Concurrent airbreathing/rocket propulsion shows a reduction in fuel/propellant consumption over straight airbreather to rocket propulsion transition. The optimal switch point (staging) is identified for the transition from airbreathing to rocket propulsion.

  2. Performance potential of gas-core and fusion rockets - A mission applications survey.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.; Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of the performance potential of five nuclear rocket engines for four mission classes. These engines are: the regeneratively cooled gas-core nuclear rocket; the light bulb gas-core nuclear rocket; the space-radiator cooled gas-core nuclear rocket; the fusion rocket; and an advanced solid-core nuclear rocket which is included for comparison. The missions considered are: earth-to-orbit launch; near-earth space missions; close interplanetary missions; and distant interplanetary missions. For each of these missions, the capabilities of each rocket engine type are compared in terms of payload ratio for the earth launch mission or by the initial vehicle mass in earth orbit for space missions (a measure of initial cost). Other factors which might determine the engine choice are discussed. It is shown that a 60 day manned round trip to Mars is conceivable.-

  3. The Strutjet Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebenhaar, A.; Bulman, M. J.; Bonnar, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The multi stage chemical rocket has been established over many years as the propulsion System for space transportation vehicles, while, at the same time, there is increasing concern about its continued affordability and rather involved reusability. Two broad approaches to addressing this overall launch cost problem consist in one, the further development of the rocket motor, and two, the use of airbreathing propulsion to the maximum extent possible as a complement to the limited use of a conventional rocket. In both cases, a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle is considered a desirable goal. However, neither the "all-rocket" nor the "all-airbreathing" approach seems realizable and workable in practice without appreciable advances in materials and manufacturing. An affordable system must be reusable with minimal refurbishing on-ground, and large mean time between overhauls, and thus with high margins in design. It has been suggested that one may use different engine cycles, some rocket and others airbreathing, in a combination over a flight trajectory, but this approach does not lead to a converged solution with thrust-to-mass, specific impulse, and other performance and operational characteristics that can be obtained in the different engines. The reason is this type of engine is simply a combination of different engines with no commonality of gas flowpath or components, and therefore tends to have the deficiencies of each of the combined engines. A further development in this approach is a truly combined cycle that incorporates a series of cycles for different modes of propulsion along a flight path with multiple use of a set of components and an essentially single gas flowpath through the engine. This integrated approach is based on realizing the benefits of both a rocket engine and airbreathing engine in various combinations by a systematic functional integration of components in an engine class usually referred to as a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine

  4. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Winiarski, David W.; Jiang, Wei; McBride, Merle F.; Crall, C.

    2006-09-30

    The Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (AEDG-SR) was developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The guide is intended to offer recommendations to achieve 30% energy savings and thus to encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The baseline level energy use was set at buildings built at the turn of the millennium, which are assumed to be based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (refer to as the ?Standard? in this report). ASHRAE and its partners are engaged in the development of a series of guides for small commercial buildings, with the AEDG-SR being the second in the series. Previously the partnership developed the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings: Achieving 30% Energy Savings Over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, which was published in late 2004. The technical support document prepared by PNNL details how the energy analysis performed in support of the Guide and documents development of recommendation criteria.

  5. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  6. Progress Towards Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Prowant, Matthew S.

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are two key national energy priorities. The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) is expected to support these objectives by developing technologies that improve the reliability, sustain safety, and improve affordability of new reactors. Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Prognostic health management (PHM) systems can benefit both the safety and economics of deploying AdvSMRs and can play an essential role in managing the inspection and maintenance of passive components in AdvSMR systems. This paper describes progress on development of a prototypic PHM system for AdvSMR passive components, with thermal creep chosen as the target degradation mechanism.

  7. New molecular targeted therapies for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Míriam; Custodio, Ana; Provencio, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a uniformly fatal disease and most patients will present with advanced stage. Treatment outcomes remain unsatisfactory, with low long-term survival rates. Standard treatment, such as palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, offers a median survival not exceeding 1 year. Hence, considerable efforts have started to be made in order to identify new biological agents which may safely and effectively be administered to advanced NSCLC patients. Two cancer cell pathways in particular have been exploited, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) pathways. However, novel targeted therapies that interfere with other dysregulated pathways in lung cancer are already in the clinic. This review outlines the most promising research approaches to the treatment of NSCLC, discussed according to the specific molecular pathway targeted. PMID:22263060

  8. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rathi N; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2014-03-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic landscape of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically in the past 50 years since the Surgeon General's report on smoking and lung cancer. Early detection is now a reality for lung cancer. The use of low-dose computed tomography scans for early detection decreases mortality and is beginning to be used in routine clinical practice. Technological advances such as positron emission tomography and endobronchial ultrasound have improved the accuracy of NSCLC staging. The cure rate for early-stage NSCLC has improved as a result of multimodality treatment approaches. The role of systemic therapy has also expanded to earlier stages of the disease. In recent years, the initial steps toward personalized medicine by utilization of targeted treatments based on tumor genotype have been undertaken. Emerging technological advances and greater insights into tumor biology are poised to greatly reduce the burden of lung cancer in the years to come. PMID:24516099

  9. Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

  10. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  11. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  12. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  13. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  14. Water Rocket Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.; Sanford, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Water rockets are used to present Newton's three laws of motion to high school physics students. Described is an outdoor activity which uses four students per group. Provides a launch data sheet to record height, angle of elevation, amount of water used, and launch number. (MVL)

  15. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  16. Liquid rocket valve components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A monograph on valves for use with liquid rocket propellant engines is presented. The configurations of the various types of valves are described and illustrated. Design criteria and recommended practices for the various valves are explained. Tables of data are included to show the chief features of valve components in use on operational vehicles.

  17. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  18. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  19. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  20. Dr. Goddard Transports Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dr. Robert H. Goddard tows his rocket to the launching tower behind a Model A Ford truck, 15 miles northwest of Roswell, New Mexico. 1930- 1932. Dr. Goddard has been recognized as the 'Father of American Rocketry' and as one of three pioneers in the theoretical exploration of space. Robert Hutchings Goddard was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 15, 1882. He was a theoretical scientist as well as a practical engineer. His dream was the conquest of the upper atmosphere and ultimately space through the use of rocket propulsion. Dr. Goddard, who died in 1945, was probably as responsible for the dawning of the Space Age as the Wright Brothers were for the begining of the Air Age. Yet his work attracted little serious attention during his lifetime. When the United States began to prepare for the conquest of space in the 1950's, American rocket scientists began to recognize the debt owed to the New England professor. They discovered that it was virtually impossible to construct a rocket or launch a satellite without acknowledging the work of Dr. Goddard. This great legacy was covered by more than 200 patents, many of which were issued after his death.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  2. New and emerging targeted treatments in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Fred R; Suda, Kenichi; Wiens, Jacinta; Bunn, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Targeted therapies are substantially changing the management of lung cancers. These treatments include drugs that target driver mutations, those that target presumed important molecules in cancer cell proliferation and survival, and those that inhibit immune checkpoint molecules. This area of research progresses day by day, with novel target discoveries, novel drug development, and use of novel combination treatments. Researchers and clinicians have also extensively investigated the predictive biomarkers and the molecular mechanisms underlying inherent or acquired resistance to these targeted therapies. We review recent progress in the development of targeted treatments for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, especially focusing on data from published clinical trials. PMID:27598681

  3. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  4. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  5. Role of immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rijavec, Erika; Genova, Carlo; Alama, Angela; Barletta, Giulia; Sini, Claudio; Pronzato, Paolo; Coco, Simona; Dal Bello, Maria Giovanna; Savarino, Graziana; Truini, Anna; Boccardo, Francesco; Grossi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of modest results with nonspecific immune stimulants, immunotherapy has become an exciting approach in the treatment of cancer. Although non-small-cell lung cancer has not been considered an immunogenic disease for very long, a better understanding of tumor immunology and the identification of new targets have led to the development of many clinical trials of immune-based therapies for this neoplasm. Promising results from many clinical trials suggest that immunotherapy could be an effective strategy in the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Further studies are required to help clinicians in the selection of patients who are more likely to benefit from immunotherapy strategies by the identification of biomarkers and to understand when the combination of immunotherapy with other agents should be recommended. PMID:24328411

  6. Recent advances in plant-virus interaction with emphasis on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Namisha; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Puranik, Swati; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Regulation of several biological functions in plants has now been known to involve diverse RNA silencing pathways. These vital pathways involve various components such as dsRNA, Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and Argonaute proteins, which lead to the production of several small RNAs (sRNAs) varying in their sizes. These sRNAs have significant role in the regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and translational levels. Among them, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs; majorly 21, 22 and 24 nt) have been shown to play an important role in plants' resistance against many viruses by inhibiting the viral gene expression. Furthermore, it has also been highlighted that siRNA-mediated methylation of viral DNA confers resistance to various plant DNA viruses. In this review, we have outlined the recent advances made using the siRNA-mediated antiviral strategy, along with methylation-based epigenetic defensive mechanisms as a protective measure against diverse plant viruses. PMID:23086491

  7. Advanced Small Perturbation Potential Flow Theory for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced small perturbation (ASP) potential flow theory has been developed to improve upon the classical transonic small perturbation (TSP) theories that have been used in various computer codes. These computer codes are typically used for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The codes exploit the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP theory was developed methodically by first determining the essential elements required to produce full-potential-like solutions with a small perturbation approach on the requisite Cartesian grid. This level of accuracy required a higher-order streamwise mass flux and a mass conserving surface boundary condition. The ASP theory was further developed by determining the essential elements required to produce results that agreed well with Euler solutions. This level of accuracy required mass conserving entropy and vorticity effects, and second-order terms in the trailing wake boundary condition. Finally, an integral boundary layer procedure, applicable to both attached and shock-induced separated flows, was incorporated for viscous effects. The resulting ASP potential flow theory, including entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects, is shown to be mathematically more appropriate and computationally more accurate than the classical TSP theories. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data. The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which also is briefly described with representative results.

  8. Water rocket - Electrolysis propulsion and fuel cell power

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, P H; Dittman, M D; Kare, J T; Militsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-07-24

    Water Rocket is the collective name for an integrated set of technologies that offer new options for spacecraft propulsion, power, energy storage, and structure. Low pressure water stored on the spacecraft is electrolyzed to generate, separate, and pressurize gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. These gases, stored in lightweight pressure tanks, can be burned to generate thrust or recombined to produce electric power. As a rocket propulsion system, Water Rocket provides the highest feasible chemical specific impulse (-400 seconds). Even higher specific impulse propulsion can be achieved by combining Water Rocket with other advanced propulsion technologies, such as arcjet or electric thrusters. With innovative pressure tank technology, Water Rocket's specific energy [Wh/kg] can exceed that of the best foreseeable batteries by an order of magnitude, and the tanks can often serve as vehicle structural elements. For pulsed power applications, Water Rocket propellants can be used to drive very high power density generators, such as MHD devices or detonation-driven pulse generators. A space vehicle using Water Rocket propulsion can be totally inert and non-hazardous during assembly and launch. These features are particularly important for the timely development and flight qualification of new classes of spacecraft, such as microsats, nanosats, and refuelable spacecraft.

  9. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  10. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  11. Requirements for Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. aSMRs are conceived for applications in remote locations and for diverse missions that include providing process or district heating, water desalination, and hydrogen production. Several challenges exist with respect to cost-effective operations and maintenance (O&M) of aSMRs, including the impacts of aggressive operating environments and modularity, and limiting these costs and staffing needs will be essential to ensuring the economic feasibility of aSMR deployment. In this regard, prognostic health management (PHM) systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of aSMR systems. This paper identifies requirements and technical gaps associated with implementation of PHM systems for passive aSMR components.

  12. Numerical Study on Crossflow Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Various fluids such as water, gases (helium), molten salts (FLiNaK, FLiBe) and liquid metal (sodium) are used as a coolant of advanced small modular reactors (SMRs). The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) has been adopted as the intermediate and/or secondary heat exchanger of SMR systems because this heat exchanger is compact and effective. The size and cost of PCHE can be changed by the coolant type of each SMR. In this study, the crossflow PCHE analysis code for advanced small modular reactor has been developed for the thermal design and cost estimation of the heat exchanger. The analytical solution of single pass, both unmixed fluids crossflow heat exchanger model was employed to calculate a two dimensional temperature profile of a crossflow PCHE. The analytical solution of crossflow heat exchanger was simply implemented by using built in function of the MATLAB program. The effect of fluid property uncertainty on the calculation results was evaluated. In addition, the effect of heat transfer correlations on the calculated temperature profile was analyzed by taking into account possible combinations of primary and secondary coolants in the SMR systems. Size and cost of heat exchanger were evaluated for the given temperature requirement of each SMR.

  13. An efficient liner cooling scheme for advanced small gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paskin, Marc D.; Mongia, Hukam C.; Acosta, Waldo A.

    1993-01-01

    A joint Army/NASA program was conducted to design, fabricate, and test an advanced, small gas turbine, reverse-flow combustor utilizing a compliant metal/ceramic (CMC) wall cooling concept. The objectives of this effort were to develop a design method (basic design data base and analysis) for the CMC cooling technique and then demonstrate its application to an advanced cycle, small, reverse-flow combustor with 3000 F burner outlet temperature. The CMC concept offers significant improvements in wall cooling effectiveness resulting in a large reduction in cooling air requirements. Therefore, more air is available for control of burner outlet temperature pattern in addition to the benefits of improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower smoke levels. The program was divided into four tasks. Task 1 defined component materials and localized design of the composite wall structure in conjunction with development of basic design models for the analysis of flow and heat transfer through the wall. Task 2 included implementation of the selected materials and validated design models during combustor preliminary design. Detail design of the selected combustor concept and its refinement with 3D aerothermal analysis were completed in Task 3. Task 4 covered detail drawings, process development and fabrication, and a series of burner rig tests. The purpose of this paper is to provide details of the investigation into the fundamental flow and heat transfer characteristics of the CMC wall structure as well as implementation of the fundamental analysis method for full-scale combustor design.

  14. Chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Quoix, Elisabeth; Westeel, Virginie; Zalcman, Gérard; Milleron, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Because of increasing life expectancy and of higher risk of cancer with ageing, lung cancer in elderly is a frequent disease. For a long time nihilism influenced treatment decisions in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Since the beginning of the last decade single agent chemotherapy has been accepted as standard of care, vinorelbine and gemcitabine being the most frequently used drugs in Europe and US, docetaxel in Japan. Platinum-based doublets have been shown to be superior to monotherapy in young and fit patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Although there were some indications from subgroup analyses of clinical trials not specifically dedicated to elderly patients that a platinum-based doublet might also benefit to older patients, there was no definitive proof of concept until ASCO meeting 2010. At this meeting results of a phase 3 trial showed that PS 0-2 patients, aged 70-89 years drove a significant benefit from a treatment with carboplatin associated to weekly paclitaxel compared to a monotherapy. Thus, the paradigm of treatment in elderly patients should perhaps be modified from a single agent to doublet chemotherapy. Whether other platinum-based doublets would provide the same benefit as the specific one studied remains to be evaluated. PMID:21893363

  15. Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

    1992-02-01

    A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The

  16. Probabilistic failure assessment with application to solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell L.; Davidson, Barry D.; Moore, Nicholas R.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative methodology is being developed for assessment of risk of failure of solid rocket motors. This probabilistic methodology employs best available engineering models and available information in a stochastic framework. The framework accounts for incomplete knowledge of governing parameters, intrinsic variability, and failure model specification error. Earlier case studies have been conducted on several failure modes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Work in progress on application of this probabilistic approach to large solid rocket boosters such as the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor for the Space Shuttle is described. Failure due to debonding has been selected as the first case study for large solid rocket motors (SRMs) since it accounts for a significant number of historical SRM failures. Impact of incomplete knowledge of governing parameters and failure model specification errors is expected to be important.

  17. Air breathing engine/rocket trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, V. K., III

    1979-01-01

    This research has focused on improving the mathematical models of the air-breathing propulsion systems, which can be mated with the rocket engine model and incorporated in trajectory optimization codes. Improved engine simulations provided accurate representation of the complex cycles proposed for advanced launch vehicles, thereby increasing the confidence in propellant use and payload calculations. The versatile QNEP (Quick Navy Engine Program) was modified to allow treatment of advanced turboaccelerator cycles using hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels and operating in the vehicle flow field.

  18. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and Rock

  19. Solid rocket booster water impact test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F.

    1982-01-01

    Water impact drop tests were performed on the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). Peak water impact pressures and pressure/time traces were measured for various impact velocities using a two-dimensional, full-scale SRB aft skirt internal ring model. Passive burst disc-type pressure transducers were calibrated for use on flight SRB's. The effects on impact pressure of small ring configuration changes and application of thermal protection system cork layers were found to be negligible.

  20. Hybrid rocket performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

  1. Hybrid rocket performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

  2. Sirius-5 experimental rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, A.; Omersel, P.; Goljuf, L.; Zidaric, M.

    1981-09-01

    After giving a historical account of multistage rocket development in Yugoslavia, a status report is presented for the three-stage Sirius-5 program. The rocket is composed of: (1) a solid-propellant first stage, consisting of a cluster of eight standard motors yielding 220 kN thrust for 1.3 sec; (2) a mixed amines/inhibited red fuming nitric acid, bipropellant second stage generating 50 kN thrust; and (3) a third stage of the same design as the second but with only 62 kg of fuel, by contrast to 168 kg. Among the design principles adhered to are: minimization of the number of components, conservative design margins, and specifications for key subsystems based on demonstration programs. The primary use of this system is in amateur rocketry, being able to carry a 20 kg payload to 150 km.

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Liu, Bing; Winiarski, David W.; McBride, Merle F.; Suharli, L.; Walden, D.

    2006-11-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings (AEDG-SO), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small office buildings over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-SO is the first in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the New Buildings Institute (NBI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Each of the guides in the AEDG series will provide recommendations and user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers and owners of small commercial buildings that will encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The guides will provide prescriptive recommendation packages that are capable of reaching the energy savings target for each climate zone in order to ease the burden of the design and construction of energy-efficient small commercial buildings The AEDG-SO was developed by an ASHRAE Special Project committee (SP-102) made up of representatives of each of the partner organizations in eight months. This TSD describes the charge given to the committee in developing the office guide and outlines the schedule of the development effort. The project committee developed two prototype office buildings (5,000 ft2 frame building and 20,000 ft2 two-story mass building) to represent the class of small office buildings and performed an energy simulation scoping study to determine the preliminary levels of efficiency necessary to meet the energy savings target. The simulation approach used by the project committee is documented in this TSD along with

  4. Pegasus Rocket Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A small, desk-top model of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus winged rocket booster. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable

  5. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  6. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  7. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  8. Solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  9. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  10. Optimal pharmacotherapeutic strategies for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Quoix, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Increases in both life expectancy and cancer incidence with age result in a significant rise in lung cancer rates among elderly patients, with a median age at diagnosis of between 63 and 70 years. However, elderly patients are under-represented in clinical trials and generally receive suboptimal treatment, mainly because of fears about increased toxicity of chemotherapy. Indeed, physiological modification of renal and haematopoietic functions with age together with co-morbidity and associated polypharmacy may alter the metabolism of chemotherapy drugs, resulting in greater toxicity. Moreover, performance status (PS), the main prognostic factor in younger patients, does not correlate well with geriatric indexes such as activities of daily living, cognition and physical performance, and comprehensive geriatric assessment is important in elderly patients. Until 2010, based on the small number of clinical trials designed for elderly patients, monotherapy was the recommended treatment for those with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas for fit younger patients, a platinum-based doublet was and continues to be the recommended first-line therapy. However, at the plenary session of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, results were presented from a randomized controlled trial conducted by the French Intergroup of Thoracic Oncology that demonstrated that in PS 0-2 patients aged≥70 years with advanced NSCLC, monthly carboplatin with weekly paclitaxel resulted in significantly longer survival than single-agent therapy (vinorelbine or gemcitabine). It should be noted that even in a priori unfavourable prognostic subgroups (patients with a PS score of 2, those aged>80 years or those with an activities of daily living scale score of <6), doublet therapy was associated with a survival advantage over monotherapy. Thus, the new paradigm of treatment of elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and a PS score of 0-2 should now be monthly

  11. Liquid rocket combustor computer code development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Rocket Injector/Combustor Code (ARICC) that has been developed to model the complete chemical/fluid/thermal processes occurring inside rocket combustion chambers are highlighted. The code, derived from the CONCHAS-SPRAY code originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory incorporates powerful features such as the ability to model complex injector combustion chamber geometries, Lagrangian tracking of droplets, full chemical equilibrium and kinetic reactions for multiple species, a fractional volume of fluid (VOF) description of liquid jet injection in addition to the gaseous phase fluid dynamics, and turbulent mass, energy, and momentum transport. Atomization and droplet dynamic models from earlier generation codes are transplated into the present code. Currently, ARICC is specialized for liquid oxygen/hydrogen propellants, although other fuel/oxidizer pairs can be easily substituted.

  12. A Half Century of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.

    2015-09-01

    One of the earliest and most successful sounding rocket activities in Europe, was the development of the Skylark system. The requirement for high altitude space research and the approaching International Geophysical Year in 1957-58, motivated the British to develop a sounding rocket system. After considerable investigation of the requirements for the propulsion system, the Raven motor and the necessary basic components and instrumentation of a payload system were developed. The first Skylark was launched on the 13th of February, 1957. This paper describes the development of the Skylark system, the advances in technology of its payload systems and their application in solar and stellar astronomy, upper atmosphere and microgravity research and technological proving of space systems.

  13. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  14. Saga, A Small Advanced Geochemistry Assembly With Micro-rover For The Exploration Of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, J.; Saga Team

    During future lander missions on Mars, Moon, or Mercury, it is highly advisable to extend the reach of instruments and to bring them to the actual sites of interest to measure in-situ selected surface samples (rocks, soils, or regolith). Particularly, geo- chemical measurements (determination of chemistry, mineralogy, and surface texture) are of utmost importance, because they provide key data on the nature of the sur- face samples. The obtained data will contribute to the classification of these samples. On Mars, weathering processes can also be studied provided some grinding tools are available. Also, the existence of ancient water activities, if any, can be searched for (e.g. sediments, hydroxides, hydrated minerals, or evaporates). The combined geo- chemical data sets of several samples and one/or several landing sites provide an im- portant base for the understanding of planetary surface processes and, hence, plan- etary evolution. A light-weight integrated instrument package and a micro-rover is proposed for future geochemical investigations. SAGA (Small Advanced Geochem- istry Assembly) will consist of several small geochemistry instruments and a tool that are packaged in a compact payload cab: the chemical Alpha Particle X-Ray Spec- trometer (APXS), the mineralogical Mössbauer Spectrometer (MIMOS), the textural close-up camera (MIROCAM), and a blower/grinder tool. These instruments have or will get flight heritage on upcoming ESA and NASA missions. The modularity of the concept permits to attach SAGA to any deployment device, specially, to the pro- posed small, lightweight micro-rover (dubbed SAGA?XT). Micro-rover technology has been developed for many years in Europe. One of the most advanced concepts is the tracked micro-rover SNanokhodT, developed recently in the frame of ESASs & cedil; Technology Research Programme (TRP). It has a total mass of about 3.5 kg (includ- ing payload and parts on the lander). This micro-rover is designed to drive to

  15. Guidance and control of an earth to orbit vehicle with optimum transition from airbreathing to concurrent airbreathing/rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, H. G.; Grandhi, R. V.; Hankey, W. L.; Belcher, P. J.

    1990-07-01

    An efficient performance analysis method (suitable for PC operation) is developed to evaluate potential airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems for advanced technology single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles. Evaluated are tradeoffs between airbreathing (AB), rocket, and concurrent airbreathing/rocket propulsion in minimizing fuel consumption for a given ascent flight trajectory. Many mission, flight, and vehicle related requirements and constraints are satisfied in the process. With the analysis method, several modes of airbreathing/rocket propulsion are compared to a baseline 'airbreather alone' propulsion system in terms of fuel required to attain orbital velocity. The optimal switch point (staging) is identified for the transition from airbreathing to rocket propulsion.

  16. [Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with driver mutations].

    PubMed

    Tessmer, Antje; Kollmeier, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is no longer one disease but the collective name for different diseases defined by clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and, to an increasing extent, molecular biomarkers. This article deals with the treatment options we gained by identifying so called driver mutations in a growing subset of these cancers. For patients whose tumors are characterized by a targetable molecular alteration such as an activating EGFR-Mutation, an ALK-translocation or a ROS1-rearrangement, we see prolonged survival and oral treatments with tyrosine kinase inhibitors demonstrate superiority to chemotherapy in terms of response (remission rate), progression free survival and quality of life. We provide a review of the literature and discuss the status quo of the diagnostic need and the therapeutic options in Germany and Europe. PMID:25734673

  17. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  18. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSoucie, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans/initial results.

  19. Thirty meters small angle neutron scattering instrument at China advanced research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cheng, He; Yuan, Guangcui; Han, Charles C.; Zhang, Li; Li, Tianfu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yun Tao; Chen, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution 30 m small angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument has been constructed by the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), and installed at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). It is equipped with a mechanical velocity selector, pinhole (including multi-pinhole) collimation system, sample chamber, and high resolution two dimensional 3He position sensitive neutron detector. The flexible variations of incident neutron wavelength, source to sample distance, sample to detector distance and the presence of neutron focusing lenses enable a wide Q range from 0.001 Å-1 to 0.5 Å-1 in reciprocal space and to optimize the resolution required. The instrument is the first SANS instrument in China, and can be widely used for the structure characterization of various materials, as well as kinetic and dynamic observation during external stimulation. The design and characteristics of the instrument are presented in the manuscript.

  20. Small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the updated PIUS 600 advanced reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.; Harmony, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    The PIUS advanced reactor is a 640-MWe pressurized water reactor developed by Asea Brown Boveri (ABB). A unique feature of the PIUS concept is the absence of mechanical control and shutdown rods. Reactivity is normally controlled by coolant boron concentration and the temperature of the moderator coolant. ABB submitted the PIUS design to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for preapplication review, and Los Alamos supported the NRC`s review effort. Baseline analyses of small-break initiators at two locations were performed with the system neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis code TRAC-PF1/MOD2. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to explore the robustness of the PIUS concept to severe off-normal conditions having a very low probability of occurrence.

  1. Molecularly targeted therapies for advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Soley; Rocha-Lima, Caio M

    2013-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been a standard for patients with advanced stage disease. Improvements in overall survival and quality of life have been modest. Improved knowledge of the aberrant molecular signaling pathways found in NSCLC has led to the development of biomarkers with associated targeted therapeutics, thus changing the treatment paradigm for many NSCLC patients. In this review, we present a summary of many of the currently investigated biologic targets in NSCLC, discuss their current clinical trial status, and also discuss the potential for development of other targeted agents. PMID:23696960

  2. Non-small cell lung cancer: current treatment and future advances

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis; over half of people diagnosed with lung cancer die within one year of diagnosis and the 5-year survival is less than 18%. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the majority of all lung cancer cases. Risk factors for developing NSCLC have been identified, with cigarette smoking being a major factor along with other environmental and genetic risk factors. Depending on the staging of lung cancer, patients are eligible for certain treatments ranging from surgery to radiation to chemotherapy as well as targeted therapy. With the advancement of genetics and biomarkers testing, specific mutations have been identified to better target treatment for individual patients. This review discusses current treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy as well as how biomarker testing has helped improve survival in patients with NSCLC. PMID:27413711

  3. ISS Update: VASIMR Plasma Rocket

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Ken Bollweg, VASIMR Project Manager, about VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket), recent testing progress and future applications. ...

  4. Electric rockets get a boost

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1995-12-01

    This article reports that xenon-ion thrusters are expected to replace conventional chemical rockets in many nonlaunch propulsion tasks, such as controlling satellite orbits and sending space probes on long exploratory missions. The space age dawned some four decades ago with the arrival of powerful chemical rockets that could propel vehicles fast enough to escape the grasp of earth`s gravity. Today, chemical rocket engines still provide the only means to boost payloads into orbit and beyond. The less glamorous but equally important job of moving vessels around in space, however, may soon be assumed by a fundamentally different rocket engine technology that has been long in development--electric propulsion.

  5. Comparison of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2006. This study retrospectively compared the efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as the first-line and second-line treatment as well as the maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC patients. A total of 1,352 patients were included and we analyzed the efficacy evaluation according to the criteria of the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), survival, and adverse reactions. The data showed that for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 11.5 and 17.0 months, respectively, compared to 7.0 and 14 months, respectively, in patients who received chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as maintenance treatment, the mPFS and mOS were 6.0 and 17.4 months, respectively, compared to 3.0 and 15.0 months, respectively, with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the second-line treatment, the mPFS was 3.0 months compared to only 2.0 months with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). The overall responses to the different regimens showed that the remission rate with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was higher than that with chemotherapy alone (31.8% vs 25.5%, P<0.05), although there was no statistical difference in the disease control rate with either first- or second-line treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as the first-line and maintenance treatment, led to better curative rates and tolerable adverse reactions compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic drugs was suitable as the second-line treatment for such patients. PMID:27536131

  6. Comparison of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ning; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2006. This study retrospectively compared the efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as the first-line and second-line treatment as well as the maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC patients. A total of 1,352 patients were included and we analyzed the efficacy evaluation according to the criteria of the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), survival, and adverse reactions. The data showed that for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 11.5 and 17.0 months, respectively, compared to 7.0 and 14 months, respectively, in patients who received chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as maintenance treatment, the mPFS and mOS were 6.0 and 17.4 months, respectively, compared to 3.0 and 15.0 months, respectively, with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the second-line treatment, the mPFS was 3.0 months compared to only 2.0 months with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). The overall responses to the different regimens showed that the remission rate with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was higher than that with chemotherapy alone (31.8% vs 25.5%, P<0.05), although there was no statistical difference in the disease control rate with either first- or second-line treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as the first-line and maintenance treatment, led to better curative rates and tolerable adverse reactions compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic drugs was suitable as the second-line treatment for such patients. PMID:27536131

  7. Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy/Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalman, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consists of a heterogeneous group of patients, and the optimal treatment is still controversial. The current standard of care is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The prognosis is still poor, with high rates of local and distant failure despite multimodality treatment. One of the efforts to improve outcomes in these patients is to use neoadjuvant treatment to improve resectability, and downstaging the nodal disease, which has a clear impact on prognosis. Radiotherapy as the sole neoadjuvant modality has been used historically without any survival benefit, but with increased toxicity. After the demonstrating a survival benefit by combining radiotherapy and chemotherapy, phase II studies were started to determine the neoadjuvant administration of these two modalities together. Although the results of these studies revealed a heterogeneous postinduction pathologic complete response, tumor and nodal down-staging can be achieved at the cost of a slightly higher morbidity and mortality. Subsequent phase III trials also failed to show a survival benefit to surgery, but indicated that there may be a subset of patients with locally advanced disease who can benefit from resection unless pneumonectomy is not provided. In order to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy, hyperfractionated-accelerated schedules have been used with promising complete pathologic response rates, which might improve prognosis. Recently, studies applying high radiotherapy doses in the neoadjuvant setting demonstrated the safety of resection after radiotherapy, with high nodal clearance rates and encouraging long-term survival results. In conclusion, neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced NSCLC is one of the most challenging issues in the treatment of this disease, but it can be offered to appropriately selected patients, and should be done by a multidisciplinary team. Individual risk profiles, definite role of radiotherapy with optimal timing, and

  8. Targeted therapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: the role of bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of patients present with advanced stage disease, and treatment with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy agents have been shown to provide a modest improvement in survival, reduce disease-related symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, with standard chemotherapy treatments the prognosis is poor with the majority of patients dying in less than a year from diagnosis. Treatment with standard chemotherapy agents has reached a therapeutic plateau, and recent investigations have focused on therapies that target a specific pathway within the malignant cell or related to angiogenesis. The most promising of the targeted therapies are agents that target the process of angiogenesis. Bevacizuamab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and prevents binding of VEGF to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, thus inhibiting activation of the VEGF pathway and angiogenesis. A recent phase III trial of first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer revealed a statistically significant improvement in response, progression-free survival, and overall survival with the combination of bevacizumab and standard chemotherapy in comparison to standard chemotherapy alone. Bevacizumab is the only targeted therapy that has been shown to improve survival when combined with standard chemotherapy in the first-line setting. PMID:19707329

  9. Canadian consensus: inhibition of ALK-positive tumours in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Agulnik, J.; Albadine, R.; Banerji, S.; Bebb, D.G.; Bethune, D.; Blais, N.; Butts, C.; Cheema, P.; Cheung, P.; Cohen, V.; Deschenes, J.; Ionescu, D.N.; Juergens, R.; Kamel-Reid, S.; Laurie, S.A.; Liu, G.; Morzycki, W.; Tsao, M.S.; Xu, Z.; Hirsh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) is an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ALK gene occur in up to 4% of nonsquamous nsclc patients and lead to constitutive activation of the alk signalling pathway. ALK-positive nsclc is found in relatively young patients, with a median age of 50 years. Patients frequently have brain metastasis. Targeted inhibition of the alk pathway prolongs progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive advanced nsclc. The results of several recent clinical trials confirm the efficacy and safety benefit of crizotinib and ceritinib in this population. Canadian oncologists support the following consensus statement: All patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc (excluding pure neuroendocrine carcinoma) should be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement. If an ALK rearrangement is present, treatment with a targeted alk inhibitor in the first-line setting is recommended. As patients become resistant to first-generation alk inhibitors, other treatments, including second-generation alk inhibitors can be considered. PMID:27330348

  10. Canadian consensus: inhibition of ALK-positive tumours in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Melosky, B; Agulnik, J; Albadine, R; Banerji, S; Bebb, D G; Bethune, D; Blais, N; Butts, C; Cheema, P; Cheung, P; Cohen, V; Deschenes, J; Ionescu, D N; Juergens, R; Kamel-Reid, S; Laurie, S A; Liu, G; Morzycki, W; Tsao, M S; Xu, Z; Hirsh, V

    2016-06-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) is an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ALK gene occur in up to 4% of nonsquamous nsclc patients and lead to constitutive activation of the alk signalling pathway. ALK-positive nsclc is found in relatively young patients, with a median age of 50 years. Patients frequently have brain metastasis. Targeted inhibition of the alk pathway prolongs progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive advanced nsclc. The results of several recent clinical trials confirm the efficacy and safety benefit of crizotinib and ceritinib in this population. Canadian oncologists support the following consensus statement: All patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc (excluding pure neuroendocrine carcinoma) should be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement. If an ALK rearrangement is present, treatment with a targeted alk inhibitor in the first-line setting is recommended. As patients become resistant to first-generation alk inhibitors, other treatments, including second-generation alk inhibitors can be considered. PMID:27330348

  11. The development of space solid rocket motors in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianding, Huang; Dingyou, Ye

    1997-01-01

    China has undertaken to research and develop composite solid propellant rocket motors since 1958. At the request of the development of space technology, composite solid propellant rocket motor has developed from small to large, step by step. For the past thirty eight years, much progress has made, many technical obstacles, such as motor design, case materials and their processing technology, propellant formulations and manufacture, nozzles and thrust vector control, safe ignition, environment tests, nondestructive inspection and quality assurance, static firing test and measurement etc. have been solved. A serial of solid rocket motors have been offered for China's satellites launch. The systems of research, design, test and manufacture of solid rocket motors have been formed.

  12. Ionospheric Results with Sounding Rockets and the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    A review is made of ionospheric data reported since the IGY from rocket and satellite-borne ionospheric experiments. These include rocket results on electron density (RF impedance probe), D-region conductivity (Gerdien condenser), and electron temperature (Langmuir probe). Also included are data in the 1000 kilometer region on ion concentration (ion current monitor) and electron temperature from the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 xi). The review includes suggestions for second generation experiments and combinations thereof particularly suited for small sounding rockets.

  13. If Only Newton Had a Rocket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammock, Frank M.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how model rocketry can be included in physics curricula. Describes rocket construction, a rocket guide sheet, calculations and launch teams. Discusses the relationships of basic mechanics with rockets. (CW)

  14. Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)

  15. SMAHTR - A Concept for a Small, Modular Advanced High Temperaure Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Greene, Sherrell R; Holcomb, David Eugene; Carbajo, Juan J; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Corwin, William R; Ilas, Dan; Wilson, Dane F; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2010-01-01

    Several new high temperature reactor concepts, referred to as Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactors (FHRs), have been developed over the past decade. These FHRs use a liquid salt coolant combined with high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels (TRISO) and graphite structural materials to provide a reactor that operates at very high temperatures and is scalable to large sizes perhaps exceeding 2400 MWt. This paper presents a new small FHR the Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor or SmAHTR . SmAHTR is targeted at applications that require compact, high temperature heat sources either for high efficiency electricity production or process heat applications. A preliminary SmAHTR concept has been developed that delivers 125 MWt of energy in an integral primary system design that places all primary and decay heat removal heat exchangers inside the reactor vessel. The current reactor baseline concept utilizes a prismatic fuel block core, but multiple removable fuel assembly concepts are under evaluation as well. The reactor vessel size is such that it can be transported on a standard tractor-trailer to support simplified deployment. This paper will provide a summary of the current SmAHTR system concept and on-going technology and system architecture trades studies.

  16. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    PubMed Central

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M.; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed. PMID:26617515

  17. Rocket + Science = Dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

  18. Rocket Noise Prediction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive, automated, and user-friendly software program was developed to predict the noise and ignition over-pressure environment generated during the launch of a rocket. The software allows for interactive modification of various parameters affecting the generated noise environment. Predictions can be made for different launch scenarios and a variety of vehicle and launch mount configurations. Moreover, predictions can be made for both near-field and far-field locations on the ground and any position on the vehicle. Multiple engine and fuel combinations can be addressed, and duct geometry can be incorporated efficiently. Applications in structural design are addressed.

  19. ION ROCKET ENGINE

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Voelker, F. III

    1961-12-19

    A thrust generating engine utilizing cesium vapor as the propellant fuel is designed. The cesium is vaporized by heat and is passed through a heated porous tungsten electrode whereby each cesium atom is fonized. Upon emergfng from the tungsten electrode, the ions are accelerated rearwardly from the rocket through an electric field between the tungsten electrode and an adjacent accelerating electrode grid structure. To avoid creating a large negative charge on the space craft as a result of the expulsion of the positive ions, a source of electrons is disposed adjacent the ion stream to neutralize the cesium atoms following acceleration thereof. (AEC)

  20. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  1. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  2. Otrag rocket experiments in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    West German rocket manufacturers are testing their products in Zaire. Hundreds of pipes (12 m x 80 cm) are bundled together inside the test missiles, which are fired into Zaire's prairie. The reactions of neighboring nations, as well as leading countries of the world, are presented concerning the rocket tests.

  3. Updating advances on recombinant human endostatin combined with radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) heavily affects the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although whole-brain radiotherapy remains the mainstream therapy for BM caused by NSCLC, the effectiveness is unsatisfactory. Endostar, a recombinant human endostatin (RHES), has shown certain therapeutic effect on advanced NSCLC. This article reviews the feasibility of Endostar combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of BM caused by NSCLC. PMID:25806159

  4. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  5. Advanced radiochromic film methodologies for quantitative dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Benjamin S.

    Radiotherapy treatments with small and nonstandard fields are increasing in use as collimation and targeting become more advanced, which spare normal tissues while increasing tumor dose. However, dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields is more difficult than that of conventional fields due to loss of lateral charged-particle equilibrium, tight measurement setup requirements, source occlusion, and the volume-averaging effect of conventional dosimeters. This work aims to create new small and nonstandard field dosimetry protocols using radiochromic film (RCF) in conjunction with novel readout and analysis methodologies. It also is the intent of this work to develop an improved understanding of RCF structure and mechanics for its quantitative use in general applications. Conventional digitization techniques employ white-light, flatbed document scanners or scanning-laser densitometers which are not optimized for RCF dosimetry. A point-by-point precision laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed for this work to overcome the film-scanning artifacts associated with the use of conventional digitizers, such as positional scan dependence, off-axis light scatter, glass bed interference, and low signal-to-noise ratios. The LDS was shown to be optically traceable to national standards and to provide highly reproducible density measurements. Use of the LDS resulted in increased agreement between RCF dose measurements and the single-hit detector model of film response, facilitating traceable RCF calibrations based on calibrated physical quantities. GafchromicRTM EBT3 energy response to a variety of reference x-ray and gamma-ray beam qualities was also investigated. Conventional Monte Carlo methods are not capable of predicting film intrinsic energy response to arbitrary particle spectra. Therefore, a microdosimetric model was developed to simulate the underlying physics of the radiochromic mechanism and was shown to correctly predict the intrinsic response relative to a

  6. Cachexia Index in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Syed Hasan Raza; Previgliano, Carlos; Khandelwal, Keerti; Shi, Runhua

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cancer cachexia affects many advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Cachexia index (CXI) was developed to assess the degree of cachexia in these patients. METHODS Patients with metastatic NSCLC diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2011, at our institution were retrospectively studied. Abdominal computed tomography scans done within 1 month of diagnosis were reviewed to estimate skeletal muscle area (SMA) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) at the L3 level. CXI was developed as follows: CXI=SMI×AlbNLR where SMI is the skeletal muscle index, Alb is the serum albumin, and NLR is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Survival among various factors was calculated using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was used to perform survival analysis in order to estimate the effects of various factors. RESULTS Patients were divided into two groups around the median into stage I cachexia (CXI ≥35, n = 56) and stage II cachexia (CXI <35, n = 56). Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, or histology of cancer. Patients with stage II cachexia had significantly worse PFS (2.45 vs 5.43 months, P < 0.0001) and OS (3.45 vs 8.8 months, P = 0.0001) than those with stage I cachexia. On multivariate analysis adjusting for gender, race, and histology, patients with stage II cachexia were found to have worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–2.95) and OS (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.0009–2.34). CONCLUSION The CXI is a novel index for estimating cachexia that also correlates with prognosis in both men and women with advanced NSCLC. PMID:26604850

  7. Dose escalation with stereotactic body radiation therapy boost for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Low survival outcomes have been reported for the treatment of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) with the standard of care treatment of concurrent chemoradiation (cCRT). We present our experience of dose escalation using stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) following conventional cCRT for patients with LA-NSCLC. Methods Sixteen patients with a median age of 67.5 treated with fractionated SBRT from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Nine (56%) of the patients had stage IIIB, 6 (38%) has stage IIIA, and 1 (6%) had recurrent disease. Majority of the patients (63%) presented with N2 disease. All patients had a PET CT for treatment planning. Patients received conventional cCRT to a median dose of 50.40 Gy (range 45–60) followed by an SBRT boost with an average dose of 25 Gy (range 20–30) given over 5 fractions. Results With a median follow-up of 14 months (range, 1–14 months), 1-year overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), local control (LC), regional control (RC), and distant control (DC) rates were, 78%, 42%, 76%, 79%, and 71%, respectively. Median times to disease progression and regional failure were 10 months and 18 months, respectively. On univariate analysis, advanced age and nodal status were worse prognostic factors of PFS (p < 0.05). Four patients developed radiation pneumonitis and one developed hemoptysis. Treatment was interrupted in one patient who required hospitalization due to arrhythmias and pneumonia. Conclusion Risk adaptive dose escalation with SBRT following external beam radiotherapy is possible and generally tolerated treatment option for patients with LA-NSCLC. PMID:23842112

  8. Dose escalation for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: end of the line?

    PubMed

    Hong, Julian C; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 was a randomized trial that investigated both the impact of radiation dose-escalation and the addition of cetuximab on the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results of RTOG 0617 were surprising, with the dose escalation randomization being closed prematurely due to futility stopping rules, and cetuximab ultimately showing no overall survival benefit. Locally advanced unresectable NSCLC has conventionally been treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Though advances in treatment technology have improved the ability to deliver adequate treatment dose, the foundation for radiotherapy (RT) has remained the same since the 1980s. Since then, progressive studies have sought to establish the safety and efficacy of escalating radiation dose to loco-regional disease. Though RTOG 0617 did not produce the anticipated result, much interest remains in dose escalation and establishing an explanation for the findings of this study. Cetuximab was also not found to provide a survival benefit when applied to an unselected population. However, planned retrospective analysis suggests that those patients with high epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression may benefit, suggesting that cetuximab should be applied in a targeted fashion. We discuss the results of RTOG 0617 and additional findings from post-hoc analysis that suggest that dose escalation may be limited by normal tissue toxicity. We also present ongoing studies that aim to address potential causes for mortality in the dose escalation arm through adaptive or proton therapy, and are also leveraging additional concurrent systemic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR-activating mutations or EML4-ALK rearrangements, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PMID:26958507

  9. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  10. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of paclitaxel plus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Earle, C C; Evans, W K

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel/cisplatin, compared with standard etoposide/cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We obtained the primary survival and resource utilization data from a large three-arm randomized trial comparing: paclitaxel 135 mg m−2 by 24-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion + cisplatin; paclitaxel 250 mg m−2 by 24-h i.v. infusion + cisplatin + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); and standard etoposide/cisplatin in patients with stage IIIb or IV NSCLC. We also modelled the regimens with paclitaxel 135 mg m−2 + cisplatin administered as an outpatient by 3-h infusion, as clinical data suggest that this is equivalent to 24-h infusion. We collected costing data from the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre and applied it to the resources consumed in the randomized trial. We integrated these data into the Statistics Canada POpulation HEalth Model (POHEM), which generated hypothetical cohorts of patients treated with each regimen. The POHEM model assigned diagnostic work-up, treatment, disease progression and survival characteristics to each individual in these cohorts and tabulated the costs associated with each. We did sensitivity analyses around the costs of chemotherapy and its administration, and the survival differences between the two regimens. All costs are in 1997 Canadian dollars ($1.00 Canadian ˜ £0.39 sterling). The perspective is that of the Canadian health care system. In the trial, the two paclitaxel-containing arms had almost identical survival curves with a median survival of 9.7 months compared with 7.4 months for etoposide/cisplatin. As administered in the trial, paclitaxel/cisplatin cost $76 370 per life-year gained (LYG) and paclitaxel/cisplatin/G-CSF $138 578 per LYG relative to etoposide/cisplatin. However, when modelled as an outpatient 3-h infusion, paclitaxel/cisplatin was moderately cost-effective at $30 619 per LYG

  12. Lyman alpha coronagraph research sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The ultraviolet light coronagraph was developed and successfully flown on three rocket flights on 13 April 1979, 16 February 1980 and 20 July 1982. During each of these flights, the Ultraviolet Light Coronagraph was flown jointly with the White Light Coronagraph provided by the High Altitude Observatory. Ultraviolet diagnostic techniques and instrumentation for determining the basic plasma parameters of solar wind acceleration regions in the extended corona were developed and verified and the understanding of the physics of the corona through the performance, analysis and interpretation of solar observations advanced. Valuable UV diagnostics can be performed in the absence of a natural solar eclipse.

  13. Transpiration And Regenerative Cooling Of Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    Transpiration cooling extends limits of performance. Addition of transpiration cooling to regeneratively-cooled rocket-engine combustion chamber proposed. Modification improves performance of engine by allowing use of higher chamber pressure. Throat section of combustion-chamber wall cooled by transpiration, while chamber and nozzle sections cooled by fluid flowing in closed channels. Concept applicable to advanced, high-performance terrestrial engines or some kinds of industrial combustion chambers. With proper design, cooling scheme makes possible to achieve higher chamber pressure and higher overall performance in smaller engine.

  14. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced material technologies for small aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comey, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cost/benefit studies were conducted on ten advanced material technologies applicable to small aircraft gas turbine engines to be produced in the 1985 time frame. The cost/benefit studies were applied to a two engine, business-type jet aircraft in the 6800- to 9100-Kg (15,000- to 20,000-lb) gross weight class. The new material technologies are intended to provide improvements in the areas of high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine stator airfoils, and static structural components. The cost/benefit of each technology is presented in terms of relative value, which is defined as a change in life cycle cost times probability of success divided by development cost. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits based on relative value are uncooled single crystal MAR-M 247 turbine blades, cooled DS MAR-M 247 turbine blades, and cooled ODS 'M'CrAl laminate turbine stator vanes.

  15. The role of pembrolizumab in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santabarbara, Giuseppe; Maione, Paolo; Rossi, Antonio; Palazzolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death cancer related worldwide. The standard therapies have unmet medical needs both due to the limited activity and relevant toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy and to the low frequency of specific alterations required to use targeted therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibition due to restoring the immune system’s capacity to eradicate tumors is undergoing in extensive investigation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a new treatment approach. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have recently led to significantly and durable improvements in the clinical outcome of several kind of tumors including lung cancer. Pembrolizumab, approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of advanced NSCLC progressed after other therapies and with expression of PD-L1, has demonstrated durable response and prolonged overall survival (OS) especially in patients with high PD-L1 expression. Further investigation are needed to improve treatment outcomes through combination of immunotherapy or combined with other targeted therapies. PMID:27386489

  16. Gemcitabine and carboplatin for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dómine, M; Casado, V; Estévez, L G; León, A; Martin, J I; Castillo, M; Rubio, G; Lobo, F

    2001-06-01

    The survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer remains poor. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy produces a modest benefit in survival compared with that observed with best supportive care. Gemcitabine (Gemzar; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), a novel nucleoside antimetabolite, is active and well tolerated. The combination of gemcitabine/cisplatin has shown a significant improvement in response rate and survival over cisplatin alone. Phase III trials comparing gemcitabine/cisplatin with older combinations such as cisplatin/etoposide or mitomycin/ifosfamide/cisplatin have shown a higher activity for gemcitabine/cisplatin; however, the best way to combine these drugs remains unclear. In addition, the 3-week schedule has obtained a higher dose intensity with less toxicity and similar efficacy as the 4-week schedule. The role of carboplatin in combination with new drugs is still under evaluation. Gemcitabine/carboplatin seems to be a good alternative, with the advantage of ambulatory administration and lower nonhematologic toxicity. The 4-week schedule has produced frequent grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in some studies. The 3-week schedule, using gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin on day 1, is a convenient and well-tolerated regimen. The toxicity profile is acceptable without serious symptoms. This schedule could be considered a good option as a standard regimen. Semin Oncol 28 (suppl 10):4-9. PMID:11510027

  17. Immunotherapy in locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer: releasing the brakes on consolidation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is optimally treated with definitive chemoradiation or surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemoradiation. Prognosis, however, remains poor, and attempts to improve outcomes using consolidation or maintenance chemotherapy have not improved overall survival. Given the limited success of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapies as maintenance therapy for LA-NSCLC, recent studies have investigated the role of novel agents such as maintenance or consolidation, including antiangiogenic agents and molecular targeted therapy. With multiple newly reported trials demonstrating improved outcomes with immunotherapy over cytotoxic chemotherapy for stage IV NSCLC, integrating immunotherapy with definitive chemoradiation regimens or as consolidative therapy for LA-NSCLC is an attractive option. The recently published START trial is the first to test immunotherapy in LA-NSCLC in a randomized, phase III setting. In that trial, the administration of maintenance tecemotide (L-BLP25), which induces a T-cell response to the mucin 1 (MUC1) glycoprotein, was found to be well tolerated and improve overall survival compared with placebo among patients receiving concurrent, but not sequential, chemoradiation. Despite the promising findings of this trial, numerous questions regarding immunotherapy for LA-NSCLC remain, and several additional immunotherapy trials are underway or planned in this patient population. PMID:26958509

  18. Recent advances in immunotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Owada, Yuki; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Inoue, Takuya; Fukuharav, Mitsuro; Yamaura, Takumi; Mutoh, Satoshi; Okabe, Naoyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Yonechi, Atsushi; Ohsugi, Jun; Hoshino, Mika; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Shio, Yutaka; Gotoh, Mitsukazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite of recent development in the field of molecular targeted therapies, lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the world. Remarkable progress has been made recently in immunotherapy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with several modalities, concepts, and treatment settings being investigated. In vaccine development, large-scale clinical trials such as those with L-BLP25, belagenpumatucel-L, TG4010, and talactoferrin are already ongoing and some results have been reported. A trial of a vaccine as adjuvant therapy for patients with completely resected NSCLC is also ongoing with one of the major cancer-testis antigens, melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE)-A3. More recently, the effectiveness of multiple peptide vaccines has also been shown. Recently developed unique treatment modalities are the immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as antibodies against PD-1 and PD-L1, which also show promise. However, although therapeutic cancer vaccines are generally thought to be safe, severe adverse events should be monitored carefully when using immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss recent advances and future perspectives of immunotherapy for patients with NSCLC. PMID:24196313

  19. AZD9291 in EGFR-mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Remon, Jordi; Planchard, David

    2015-11-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumors have an EGFR-activating mutation develop acquired resistance after a median of 9-11 months from the beginning of treatment with erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib. T790M mutation is the cause of this resistance in approximately 60% of cases. AZD9291 is an oral, irreversible, mutant-selective EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) developed to have potency against EGFR mutations, including T790M mutation, while sparing wild-type EGFR. A Phase I trial of AZD9291 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, demonstrated high activity, essentially among T790M-mutant tumors, with a manageable tolerability profile. Ongoing Phase III trials are evaluating AZD9291 in EGFR-mutant patients as first-line treatment compared with erlotinib and gefitinib; and as second-line treatment compared with chemotherapy after progression on EGFR TKI in T790M-mutant tumors. Better identification of T790M-mutant tumors post EGFR TKI relapse and mechanisms of resistance to AZD9291 are the future challenges. This article reviews the emerging data regarding AZD9291 in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:26450446

  20. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  1. New drugs in the palliative chemotherapy of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Malayeri, R; Pirker, R; Huber, H

    2001-10-01

    In inoperable advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), palliative chemotherapy is established and aims at palliation of symptoms, improvement of quality of life and prolongation of survival. In the last years, several new drugs with enhanced activity towards NSCLC and improved toxicity profile have been characterised, for example vinorelbine, gemcitabine, paclitaxel and docetaxel. Data from randomised trials suggest that regimens containing new drugs are more active than older combinations. Platin-based combinations of either vinorelbine, gemcitabine or paclitaxel have resulted in better outcome than cisplatin alone and new drugs in combination with platins are more active than the corresponding single agent. Non-platin-based combinations must be considered investigational until their non-inferiority to platin-based protocols has been proven in randomised trials on large patient populations. Patients with good performance status and adequate organ function should receive platin-based chemotherapy that includes the new drugs (vinorelbine, gemcitabine, paclitaxel or docetaxel). New drugs without platins are suitable for elderly patients and patients with poor performance status. Second-line chemotherapy prolongs survival in selected patients and should be particularly offered to patients with good performance status. PMID:11694767

  2. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salkeld, R.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages, system performance and operating limits, engine parametric data, and technology requirements for candidate high pressure LO2/Hydrocarbon engine systems are summarized. These summaries of parametric analysis and design provide a consistent engine system data base. Power balance data were generated for the eleven engine cycles. Engine cycle rating parameters were established and the desired condition and the effect of the parameter on the engine and/or vehicle are described.

  3. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  4. Liquid rocket engine test facility engineering challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Hartwig; Ziegenhagen, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Liquid rocket engines for launch vehicles and space crafts as well as their subsystems need to be verified and qualified during hot-runs. A high test cadence combined with a flexible test team helps to reduce the cost for test verification during development/qualification as well as during acceptance testing for production. Test facility intelligence allows to test subsystems in the same manner as during complete engine system tests and will therefore reduce development time and cost. This paper gives an overview of the maturing of test engineering know how for rocket engine test stands as well as high altitude test stands for small propulsion thrusters at EADS-ST in Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen and is split into two parts: Part 1 gives a historical overview of the EADS-ST test stands at Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen since the beginning of Rocket propulsion activities in the 1960s. Part 2 gives an overview of the actual test capabilities and the test engineering know-how for test stand construction/adaptation and their use during running programs. Examples of actual realised facility concepts are given to demonstrate cost saving potential for test programs in both cases for development/qualification issues as well as for production purposes.

  5. 'RCHX-1-STORM' first Slovenian meteorological rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago; Trauner, Amalija; Britovšek, Zvone

    2004-08-01

    Astronautic and Rocket Society Celje (ARSC) formed a special working team for research and development of a small meteorological hail suppression rocket in the 70th. The hail suppression system was established in former Yugoslavia in the late 60th as an attempt to protect important agricultural regions from one of the summer's most vicious storm. In this time Slovenia was a part of Yugoslavia as one of the federal republic with relative high developed agricultural region production. The Rocket program 'RCHX-STORM' was a second attempt, for Slovenia indigenously developed in the production of meteorological hail suppression rocket. ARSC has designed a family of small sounding rocket that were based on highly promising hybrid propellant propulsion. Hybrid propulsion was selected for this family because it was offering low cost, save production and operation and simple logistics. Conventional sounding rockets use solid propellant motor for their propulsion. The introduction of hybrid motors has enabled a considerable decrease in overall cost. The transportation handling and storage procedures were greatly simplified due to the fact that a hybrid motor was not considered as explosive matter. A hybrid motor may also be designed to stand a severe environment without resorting to conditioning arrangements. The program started in the late 70th when the team ARSC was integrated in the Research and Development Institute in Celje (RDIC). The development program aimed to produce three types of meteorological rockets with diameters 76, 120 and 160 mm. Development of the RCHX-76 engine and rocket vehicle including flight certification has been undertaken by a joint team comprising of the ARCS, RDIC and the company Cestno podjetje Celje (CPC), Road building company Celje. Many new techniques and methods were used in this program such as computer simulation of external and internal ballistics, composite materials for rocket construction, intensive static testing of models and

  6. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  7. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting method is a normative forecasting technique that allows the designer to quantify the effects of adding new technologies on a given design. This method can be used to assess and identify the necessary technological improvements needed to close the gap that exists between the current design and one that satisfies all constraints imposed on the design. The TIF methodology allows for more design knowledge to be brought to the earlier phases of the design process, making use of tools such as Quality Function Deployments, Morphological Matrices, Response Surface Methodology, and Monte Carlo Simulations.2 This increased knowledge allows for more informed decisions to be made earlier in the design process, resulting in shortened design cycle time. This paper will investigate applying the TIF method, which has been widely used in aircraft applications, to the conceptual design of a hydrocarbon rocket engine. In order to reinstate a manned presence in space, the U.S. must develop an affordable and sustainable launch capability. Hydrocarbon-fueled rockets have drawn interest from numerous major government and commercial entities because they offer a low-cost heavy-lift option that would allow for frequent launches1. However, the development of effective new hydrocarbon rockets would likely require new technologies in order to overcome certain design constraints. The use of advanced design methods, such as the TIF method, enables the designer to identify key areas in need of improvement, allowing one to dial in a proposed technology and assess its impact on the system. Through analyses such as this one, a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-fueled vehicle that meets all imposed requirements can be achieved.

  8. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Biliary, Pancreatic, Urothelial, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  9. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  10. Rocket/launcher structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion describing the interactions between a rocket and a launcher were derived using Lagrange's Equation. A rocket launching was simulated. The motions of both the rocket and the launcher can be considered in detail. The model contains flexible elements and rigid elements. The rigid elements (masses) were judiciously utilized to simplify the derivation of the equations. The advantages of simultaneous shoe release were illustrated. Also, the loading history of the interstage structure of a boosted configuration was determined. The equations shown in this analysis could be used as a design tool during the modification of old launchers and the design of new launchers.

  11. Exergy Analysis of Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Andrew; Mesmer, Bryan; Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is defined as the useful work available from a system in a specified environment. Exergy analysis allows for comparison between different system designs, and allows for comparison of subsystem efficiencies within system designs. The proposed paper explores the relationship between the fundamental rocket equation and an exergy balance equation. A previously derived exergy equation related to rocket systems is investigated, and a higher fidelity analysis will be derived. The exergy assessments will enable informed, value-based decision making when comparing alternative rocket system designs, and will allow the most efficient configuration among candidate configurations to be determined.

  12. Dynamic characterization of solid rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural dynamics of solid rockets in-general was studied. A review is given of the modes of vibration and bending that can exist for a solid propellant rocket, and a NASTRAN computer model is included. Also studied were the dynamic properties of a solid propellant, polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile terpolymer, which may be used in the space shuttle rocket booster. The theory of viscoelastic materials (i.e, Poisson's ratio) was employed in describing the dynamic properties of the propellant. These studies were performed for an eventual booster stage development program for the space shuttle.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics studies of nuclear rocket performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Kim, Suk C.; Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A CFD analysis of a low pressure nuclear rocket concept is presented with the use of an advanced chemical kinetics, Navier-Stokes code. The computations describe the flow field in detail, including gas dynamic, thermodynamic and chemical properties, as well as global performance quantities such as specific impulse. Computational studies of several rocket nozzle shapes are conducted in an attempt to maximize hydrogen recombination. These Navier-Stokes calculations, which include real gas and viscous effects, predict lower performance values than have been reported heretofore.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics studies of nuclear rocket performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Benson, Thomas J.; Kim, Suk C.

    1991-01-01

    A CFD analysis of a low pressure nuclear rocket concept is presented with the use of an advanced chemical kinetics, Navier-Stokes code. The computations describe the flow field in detail,including gas dynamic, thermodynamic and chemical properties, as well as global performance quantities such as specific impulse. Computational studies of several rocket nozzle shapes are conducted in an attempt to maximize hydrogen recombination. These Navier-Stokes calculations, which include real gas and viscous effects, predict lower performance values than have been reported heretofore.

  15. Effects of high combustion chamber pressure on rocket noise environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The acoustical environment for a high combustion chamber pressure engine was examined in detail, using both conventional and advanced theoretical analysis. The influence of elevated chamber pressure on the rocket noise environment was established, based on increase in exit velocity and flame temperature, and changes in basic engine dimensions. Compared to large rocket engines, the overall sound power level is found to be 1.5 dB higher, if the thrust is the same. The peak Strouhal number shifted about one octave lower to a value near 0.01. Data on apparent sound source location and directivity patterns are also presented.

  16. Incorporating Equipment Condition Assessment in Risk Monitors for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can complement the current fleet of large light-water reactors in the USA for baseload and peak demand power production and process heat applications (e.g., water desalination, shale oil extraction, hydrogen production). The day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance (O&M); however, the effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on O&M is not fully understood. These costs could potentially be reduced by optimized scheduling, with risk-informed scheduling of maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a “living” probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), which reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant and combine event probabilities with population-based probability of failure (POF) for key components. “Risk monitors” extend the PRA by incorporating the actual and dynamic plant configuration (equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions, etc.) into risk assessment. In fact, PRAs are more integrated into plant management in today’s nuclear power plants than at any other time in the history of nuclear power. However, population-based POF curves are still used to populate fault trees; this approach neglects the time-varying condition of equipment that is relied on during standard and non-standard configurations. Equipment condition monitoring techniques can be used to estimate the component POF. Incorporating this unit-specific estimate of POF in the risk monitor can provide a more accurate estimate of risk in different operating and maintenance configurations. This enhanced risk assessment will be especially important for aSMRs that have advanced component designs, which don’t have an available operating history to draw from, and often use passive design features, which present challenges to PRA. This paper presents the requirements and technical gaps for developing a framework to integrate unit

  17. Pemetrexed for the maintenance treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, J; McLeod, C; Bagust, A; Boland, A; Fleeman, N; Dundar, Y; Oyee, J; Dickson, R; Davis, H; Green, J; McKenna, E; Pearson, M

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pemetrexed for the maintenance treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in accordance with the licensed indication, based upon the evidence submission from the manufacturer (Eli Lilly) to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process. The primary clinical outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS), time to worsening of symptoms, objective tumour response rate, adverse events and changes in lung cancer symptom scale. Data for two populations were presented: patients with non-squamous NSCLC histology and patients with adenocarcinoma histology. The clinical evidence was derived from a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial (RCT), the JMEN trial. The trial compared the use of pemetrexed + best supportive care (BSC ) as maintenance therapy, with placebo + BSC in patients with NSCLC (n = 663) who had received four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy (CTX) and whose disease had not progressed. In the licensed population (patients with non-squamous histology), the trial demonstrated greater median PFS for patients treated with pemetrexed than for patients in the placebo arm [4.5 vs 2.6 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 to 0.55, p < 0.00001]. Median OS was also greater for the pemetrexed- treated patients (15.5 vs 10.3 months; HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.88, p = 0.002). In addition, tumour response and disease control rates were statistically significantly greater for patients who received pemetrexed. Patient survival rates at 1 year and 2 years were higher in the pemetrexed arm. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) estimated by the manufacturer's model were 33,732 pounds per quality adjusted life-year (QALY

  18. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Beale, A M; Gao, F; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Peden, C H F; Szanyi, J

    2015-10-21

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3-SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptionally high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ∼5 years that led to the introduction of these catalysts into practical applications. This review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetic studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. PMID:25913215

  19. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settens, Charles M.

    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H 2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CD-SEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  20. Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rockets for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Leyse, C.F. , Idaho Falls, ID ); Madsen, W.W.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Schnitzler, B.G. )

    1989-08-01

    The National Space Policy includes a long range goal of expanding human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. This has renewed interest in the potential application of Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) to space flight, particularly for human expeditions to the Moon and Mars. Recent NASA studies consider applications of the previously developed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology and the more advanced gas core reactors and show their potential advantages in reducing the initial mass in Earth orbit (IMEO) compared to advanced chemical rocket engines. Application of NERVA technology will require reestablishing the prior technological base or extending it to an advanced NERVA type engine, while the gas core NTR will require an extensive high risk research and development program. A technology intermediate between NERVA and the gas core NTR is a low pressure engine based on solid fuel, a Pressure Fed NTR (PFNTR). In addition to the simplicity of the gas pressurized engine cycle, the PFNTR takes advantage of the dissociation of hydrogen-the increases in specific impulse become significant as the chamber pressure decreases below 1.0 MPa (10 atmospheres) and the chamber temperature increases above 3000 K. The developmental status of technology applicable to a Pressure Fed Nuclear Thermal Rocket (PFNTR) lies between that of the NERVA engine and the gas core NTR (GCNTR). This document investigates PFNTR performance and provides typical mission analyses.

  1. World Data Center A (rockets and satellites) catalogue of data. Volume 1, part A: Sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A cumulative listing of all scientifically successful rockets that have been identified from various sources is presented. The listing starts with the V-2 rocket launched on 7 March 1947 and contains all rockets identified up to 31 December 1971.

  2. Navigating the Rockets Educator Guide

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this brief video overview, learn how to navigate the Rockets Educator Guide. Get a glimpse of the resources available in the guide, including a pictorial history, an overview of the physics cont...

  3. Rocket measurements of mesospheric ionization irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, R. B.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Langmuir probe technique for measurement of electron concentration in the mesosphere is capable of excellent altitude resolution, of order 1 m. Measurements from nine daytime rocket flights carrying an electron density fine structure experiment frequently show small scale ionization structures in the altitude region 70 to 90 km. The irregularities are believed to be the result of turbulent advection of ions and electrons. The fine structure experiment flown by the University of Illinois is described and methods of analyzing the collected data is presented. Theories of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence are reviewed. Power spectra of the measured irregularities are calculated and compared to spectra predicted by turbulence theories.

  4. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  5. Solid Rocket Motor Acoustic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1999-03-31

    Acoustic data are often required for the determination of launch and powered flight loads for rocket systems and payloads. Such data are usually acquired during test firings of the solid rocket motors. In the current work, these data were obtained for two tests at a remote test facility where we were visitors. This paper describes the data acquisition and the requirements for working at a remote site, interfacing with the test hosts.

  6. Prediction of Acoustic Environments from Horizontal Rocket Firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Giacomoni, Clothilde

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, advances in research and engineering have led to more powerful launch vehicles which yield acoustic environments potentially destructive to the vehicle or surrounding structures. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to be able to predict the acoustic environments created by these vehicles in order to avoid structural and/or component failure. The current industry standard technique for predicting launch-induced acoustic environments was developed by Eldred in the early 1970's. Recent work has shown Eldred's technique to be inaccurate for current state-of-the-art launch vehicles. Due to the high cost of full-scale and even sub-scale rocket experiments, very little rocket noise data is available. Much of the work thought to be applicable to rocket noise has been done with heated jets. A model to predict the acoustic environment due to a launch vehicle in the far-field was created. This was done using five sets of horizontally fired rocket data, obtained between 2008 and 2012. Through scaling analysis, it is shown that liquid and solid rocket motors exhibit similar spectra at similar amplitudes. This model is accurate for these five data sets within 5 dB of the measured data.

  7. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  8. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  9. Russian Meteorological and Geophysical Rockets of New Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, V.; Gvozdev, Yu.; Lykov, A.; Shershakov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Pozin, A.; Afanasenkov, A.; Savenkov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    To study the process in the middle and upper atmosphere, ionosphere and near-Earth space, as well as to monitor the geophysical environment in Russian Federal Service for Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET) the development of new generation of meteorological and geophysical rockets has been completed. The modern geophysical research rocket system MR-30 was created in Research and Production Association RPA "Typhoon". The basis of the complex MR-30 is a new geophysical sounding rocket MN-300 with solid propellant, Rocket launch takes place at an angle of 70º to 90º from the launcher, which is a farm with a guide rail type required for imparting initial rotation rocket. The Rocket is spin stabilized with a spin rate between 5 and 7 Hz. Launch weight is 1564 kg, and the mass of the payload of 50 to 150 kg. MR-300 is capable of lifting up to 300 km, while the area of dispersion points for booster falling is an ellipse with parameters 37x 60 km. The payload of the rocket MN-300 consists of two sections: a sealed, located below the instrument compartment, and not sealed, under the fairing. Block of scientific equipment is formed on the platform in a modular layout. This makes it possible to solve a wide range of tasks and conduct research and testing technologies using a unique environment of space, as well as to conduct technological experiments testing and research systems and spacecraft equipment. New Russian rocket system MERA (MEteorological Rocket for Atmospheric Research) belongs to so called "dart" technique that provide lifting of small scientific payload up to altitude 100 km and descending with parachute. It was developed at Central Aerological Observatory jointly with State Unitary Enterprise Instrument Design Bureau. The booster provides a very rapid acceleration to about Mach 5. After the burning phase of the buster the dart is separated and continues ballistic flight for about 2 minutes. The dart carries the instrument payload+ parachute

  10. V-Y Advancement Flaps Based on Yotsuyanagi Aesthetic Subunit Principles for Small Nasal Defects in Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zi-Chun; Li, Hua; Hamann, Dathan; Xu, Fawei

    2016-06-01

    Cosmesis is paramount in the reconstruction of small nasal defects. Yotsuyanagi et al have previously described nasal aesthetic subunits in patients of Asian descent and their implications for reconstruction of large nasal defects, including forehead flap and Z-plasty. The impact of Asian skin types and aesthetic subunits on reconstruction planning of small nasal defects has not been rigorously explored. The aim of this article is to present a novel method for repairing small nose defects in patients of Asian descent using V-Y advancement flap designed using Yotsuyanagi nasal subunit aesthetic principles. A total of 21 defects ranging from 7 to 22 mm in size in 21 patients of Asian descent were repaired with either 1 or 2 V-Y advancement flaps designed along Yotsuyanagi nasal subunit borders. All reconstructions were completed successfully in one stage. Scars were inconspicuous and nasal subunits were neither displaced nor twisted. All patients were pleased with the cosmetic outcomes. The use of V-Y advancement flaps based on Asian aesthetic nasal subunit principles for the reconstruction of small nasal defects is a novel, cosmetically sensitive alternative. PMID:27248031

  11. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Mall, O. D.; Awker, R. W.; Scholl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of selected advanced technologies for 19 and 30 passenger, short-haul aircraft were identified. Advanced technologies were investigated in four areas: aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and ride quality. Configuration sensitivity studies were conducted to show design tradeoffs associated with passenger capacity, cabin comfort level, and design field length.

  12. Effect of advanced rotorcraft airfoil sections on the hover performance of a small-scale rotor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althoff, Susan L.

    1988-01-01

    A hover test was conducted on a small scale rotor model for two sets of tapered rotor blades. The baseline rotor blade set used a NACA 0012 airfoil section, whereas the second rotor blade set had advanced rotorcraft airfoils distributed along the radius. The experiment was conducted for a range of thrust coefficients and tip speeds, and the data were compared to the predictions of three analytical methods. The data show the advantage of the advanced airfoils at the higher rotor thrust levels; two of the analyses predicted the correct data trends.

  13. Rocket plume temperature measurement by wire welded thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang

    2006-05-01

    The plume of solid rocket motor is a high velocity flow with high temperature. Temperature distribution in the plume is of great interest for analyzing the compatibility of rocket weapon system. The high temperature exhausted flow field would cause damage on certain equipment and loading vehicles. An instantaneous temperature field with sharp step is established by the exhausted flow field of rocket motor. The increasing rate of the step depends on the flow velocity at cross section of nozzle exit. To perform an accurate measurement of temperature inside the flow field, a thermocouple must be sturdy enough to endure the flow impingement. In the meantime, the thermocouple must have a short time constant to trace the temperature fluctuation in flow field and a small size to avoid disturbing the flow field severely. The dynamic performance of the thermocouples used in exhausted flow temperature measurement must be evaluated before the experiment. The thermocouple which can be used in measuring the temperature distribution in rocket plume was presented in this paper. A NAMNAC (R) self-renew-erode thermocouples with a nominal time constant of 10 microseconds was used as a reference in a dynamic calibration test for this kind of thermocouple. The thermocouple could trace the temperature increase in the exhausted flow perfectly. This kind of thermocouples was used in several real tests of rocket motors, such as the temperature in free exhausted flow field of a stationary rocket motor test, the stagnate temperature in a shock flow field during the launching of a rocket, and the temperature in a launch tube.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  15. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  16. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, Andrew M.; Gao, Feng; Lezcano-Gonzalez, Ines; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2015-10-05

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade a renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3 SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptional high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ~5 years that lead to the introduction of these catalysts into practical application. The review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetics studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that are still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. Funding A.M.B. and I.L.G. would like to thank EPSRC for funding. F.G., C.H.F.P. and J.Sz. gratefully acknowledge

  17. Overall survival should be the primary endpoint in clinical trials for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, P.K.; Burkes, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    An article in a recent edition of Current Oncology explored the validation of progression-free survival (pfs) as an endpoint in clinical trials of antineoplastic agents for metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and ovarian cancer. The support for pfs as a surrogate endpoint for overall survival (os) was elucidated. As with the aforementioned tumour types, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) has seen a rise in active agents since the year 2000. Those agents range from improved cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor and agents that target the EML4–ALK gene mutation. More recently, it has also become apparent that histology plays an important role in the response to and outcomes of treatment. With the therapeutic options for patients with advanced nsclc increasing, concerns are being raised that the efficacy of drugs measured by os may be diluted in clinical trials, thereby underestimating their true clinical benefit. That possibility, together with the need to have efficacious drugs available to patients earlier, has resulted in the search for a surrogate to the os endpoint in advanced nsclc. The present article follows up the recent article on pfs as a surrogate. Although advances in identifying pfs as a valid surrogate endpoint for os have been made in other tumour types, in advanced nsclc, such surrogacy has not been formally validated. Until it has, os should remain the primary endpoint of clinical trials in advanced nsclc. PMID:23559882

  18. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-20

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data.

  19. Nuclear rocket plume studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Daniel

    1993-05-01

    A description and detailed computational analysis of a vortex cleaning system designed to remove radioactive material from the plumes of nuclear rockets is included. The proposed system is designed to remove both particulates and radioactive gaseous material from the plume. A two part computational model is used to examine the system's ability to remove particulates, and the results indicate that under some conditions, the system can remove over 99% of the particles in the flow. Two critical parameters which govern the effectiveness of the system are identified and the information necessary to estimate cleaning efficiencies for particles of known sizes and densities is provided. A simple steady analytical solution is also developed to examine the system's ability to remove gaseous radioactive material. This analysis, while inconclusive, suggests that the swirl rates necessary to achieve useful efficiencies are too high to be achieved in any practical manner. Therefore, this system is probably not suitable for use, with gaseous radioactive material. It was concluded that the system can cause negligible specific impulse losses, though there may be a substantial mass penalty associated with its use.

  20. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  1. Liquid rocket engine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The nozzle is a major component of a rocket engine, having a significant influence on the overall engine performance and representing a large fraction of the engine structure. The design of the nozzle consists of solving simultaneously two different problems: the definition of the shape of the wall that forms the expansion surface, and the delineation of the nozzle structure and hydraulic system. This monography addresses both of these problems. The shape of the wall is considered from immediately upstream of the throat to the nozzle exit for both bell and annular (or plug) nozzles. Important aspects of the methods used to generate nozzle wall shapes are covered for maximum-performance shapes and for nozzle contours based on criteria other than performance. The discussion of structure and hydraulics covers problem areas of regeneratively cooled tube-wall nozzles and extensions; it treats also nozzle extensions cooled by turbine exhaust gas, ablation-cooled extensions, and radiation-cooled extensions. The techniques that best enable the designer to develop the nozzle structure with as little difficulty as possible and at the lowest cost consistent with minimum weight and specified performance are described.

  2. Application of advanced technologies to derivatives of current small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renze, P. P.; Terry, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Mission requirements of the derivative design were the same as the baseline to readily identify the advanced technology benefits achieved. Advanced technologies investigated were in the areas of propulsion, structures and aerodynamics and a direct operating cost benefit analysis conducted to identify the most promising. Engine improvements appear most promising and combined with propeller, airfoil, surface coating and composite advanced technologies give a 21-25 percent DOC savings. A 17 percent higher acquisition cost is offset by a 34 percent savings in fuel used.

  3. Combustion Characteristics of a Swirling LOX Type Hybrid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Koki; Yuasa, Saburo

    We have proposed a swirling oxidizer type hybrid rocket engine. In this paper, liquid oxygen (LOX) was used as oxidizer. Combustion tests of a hybrid rocket engine with a swirling LOX flow were conducted by changing the swirl strength. Ignition was rapid and reliable, and combustion of PMMA with swirling LOX was stable. Fuel regression rates, C* efficiency and specific impulse of the hybrid rocket engine with swirling LOX flow were smaller than those with swirling gaseous oxygen (GOX). This low performance may be restraint of atomization and vaporization of LOX by formation of a liquid layer on the PMMA fuel and a decline of angular momentum of the swirling LOX during vaporization. Combustion oscillation occurred when the ratios of differential pressure between injector pressure and chamber pressure to chamber pressure were small. This combustion oscillation was confirmed to be a “Chugging” mode due to combustion time lag of LOX.

  4. Rocket Science 101 Interactive Educational Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Dennis; Funkhouse, Deborah; DiMarzio, Donald

    2007-01-01

    To better educate the public on the basic design of NASA s current mission rockets, Rocket Science 101 software has been developed as an interactive program designed to retain a user s attention and to teach about basic rocket parts. This program also has helped to expand NASA's presence on the Web regarding educating the public about the Agency s goals and accomplishments. The software was designed using Macromedia s Flash 8. It allows the user to select which type of rocket they want to learn about, interact with the basic parts, assemble the parts to create the whole rocket, and then review the basic flight profile of the rocket they have built.

  5. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  6. Study of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerst, C. F.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Rowse, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Definitions of takeoff gross weight, performance, and direct operating cost for both a 30 and 50 passenger airplane were established. The results indicate that a potential direct operating cost benefit, resulting from advanced technologies, of approximately 20 percent would be achieved for the 1990 engines. Of the numerous design features that were evaluated, only maintenance-related items contributed to a significant decrease in direct operating cost. Recommendations are made to continue research and technology programs for advanced component and engine development.

  7. Advanced Small Free-Piston Stirling Convertors for Space Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Lane, Neill

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on the current status of an advanced 35 We free-piston Stirling convertor currently being developed under NASA SBIR Phase II funding. Also described is a further advanced and higher performance ~80 watt free-piston convertor being developed by Sunpower and Boeing/Rocketdyne for NASA under NRA funding. Exceptional overall convertor (engine plus linear alternator) thermodynamic performance (greater than 50% of Carnot) with specific powers around 100 We /kg appear reasonable at these low power levels.

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Simulation in NPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belair, Michael L.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lavelle, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Four nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) models have been created in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. The models are divided into two categories. One set is based upon the ZrC-graphite composite fuel element and tie tube-style reactor developed during the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) project in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The other reactor set is based upon a W-UO2 ceramic- metallic (CERMET) fuel element. Within each category, a small and a large thrust engine are modeled. The small engine models utilize RL-10 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 33.4 kN (7,500 lbf ). The large engine models utilize scaled RL-60 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 111.2 kN (25,000 lbf ). Power deposition profiles for each reactor were obtained from a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) model of the reactor cores. Performance factors such as thermodynamic state points, thrust, specific impulse, reactor power level, and maximum fuel temperature are analyzed for each engine design.

  9. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Simulation in NPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belair, Michael L.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Four nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) models have been created in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. The models are divided into two categories. One set is based upon the ZrC-graphite composite fuel element and tie tube-style reactor developed during the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) project in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The other reactor set is based upon a W-UO2 ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuel element. Within each category, a small and a large thrust engine are modeled. The small engine models utilize RL-10 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 33.4 kN (7,500 lbf ). The large engine models utilize scaled RL-60 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 111.2 kN (25,000 lbf ). Power deposition profiles for each reactor were obtained from a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) model of the reactor cores. Performance factors such as thermodynamic state points, thrust, specific impulse, reactor power level, and maximum fuel temperature are analyzed for each engine design.

  10. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology 7.5K-LB thrust rocket engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, T. J.; Roschak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary design of an advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine producing 7,500 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer vehicle missions was completed. Engine system, component and turbomachinery analysis at both on design and off design conditions were completed. The preliminary design analysis results showed engine requirements and performance goals were met. Computer models are described and model outputs are presented. Engine system assembly layouts, component layouts and valve and control system analysis are presented. Major design technologies were identified and remaining issues and concerns were listed.

  11. A rocket-borne energy spectrometer using multiple solid-state detectors for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, K. L.; Smith, L. G.; Voss, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment using energy spectrometers that allows particle identification by the use of multiple solid-state detectors is described. The instrumentation provides information regarding the energy spectrum, pitch-angle distribution, and the type of energetic particles present in the ionosphere. Particle identification was accomplished by considering detector loss mechanisms and their effects on various types of particles. Solid state detectors with gold and aluminum surfaces of several thicknesses were used. The ratios of measured energies for the various detectors were compared against known relationships during ground-based analysis. Pitch-angle information was obtained by using detectors with small geometrical factors mounted with several look angles. Particle flux was recorded as a function of rocket azimuth angle. By considering the rocket azimuth, the rocket precession, and the location of the detectors on the rocket, the pitched angle of the incident particles was derived.

  12. Prognostic factors for long term survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moumtzi, Despoina; Lampaki, Sofia; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Lagoudi, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsiouda, Theodora; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Lazaridis, George; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Timotheadou, Helen; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 85% of all lung cancers. It is estimated that 60% of patients with NSCLC at time of diagnosis have advanced disease. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and demographic prognostic factors of long term survival in patients with unresectable NSCLC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data of 1,156 patients with NSCLC stage IIIB or IV who survived more than 60 days from the time of diagnosis and treated from August 1987 until March 2013 in the Oncology Department of Pulmonary Clinic of the General Hospital Papanikolaou. Initially univariate analysis using the log-rank test was conducted and then multivariate analysis using the proportional hazards model of Cox. Also Kaplan Meier curves were used to describe the distribution of survival times of patients. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 62 years. About 11.9% of patients were women and 88.1% were male. The majority of cases were adenocarcinomas (42.2%), followed squamous (33%) and finally the large cell (6%). Unlike men, most common histological type among women was adenocarcinoma rather than squamous (63% vs. 10.9%). In univariate analysis statistically significant factors in the progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were: weight loss ≥5%, histological type, line 1 drugs, line 1 combination, line 1 cycles and radio lung. Specifically radio lung gives clear survival benefit in the PFS and OS in stage IIIB (P=0.002) and IV (P<0.001). On the other hand, the number of distant metastases in stage IV patients did not affect OS, neither PFS. In addition patients who received platinum and taxane had better PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P<0.001) than those who received platinum without taxane. Also the third drug administration proved futile, since survival (682.06±34.9) (P=0.023) and PFS (434.93±26.93) (P=0.012) of patients who received less than three drugs was significantly larger. Finally

  13. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  14. Upper Atmosphere Sounding Rocket Projects at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Kemi, Stig; Sjolander, Krister; Abrahamsson, Mattias

    Swedish Space Corporation, SSC has a long tradition of developing and launching scientific sounding rockets from Esrange Space Center with the aim to study the different layers of the atmosphere and near space. Now a new era has started with an initiative from the Swedish National Space Board, SNSB. The sounding rocket and atmospheric balloon activities will be vitalised with a national program offering the scientific community yearly rocket launches and balloon flights. The three upcoming sounding rocket missions that have recently started are: O-STATES O STATES (Oxygen transformation in the thermosphere) is a research project at the Meteorological Institute of Stockholm University with Prof. Jörg Gumbel, as responsible researcher. The payload comprises two instrument modules with totally 7 instruments for studying oxygen in its various forms. The payload will be launched twice on two sounding rockets at the same launch campaign, in different atmospheric conditions. This provides a cost-effective mission with a large research exchange. The launches from Esrange Space Center are preliminary scheduled to take place in August 2014 with an apogee of approximately 250 km. SPIDER SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) is a research project at Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm with Nicholay Ivchenko as responsible researcher. The mission includes up to 10 subsidiary payloads ejected from the main payload to measure the structure of the electrostatic turbulence in the ionosphere. The measurements take place entirely in the subsidiary payloads, which are completely autonomous and recovered individually after the flight. The launch from Esrange Space Center is preliminary scheduled to take place in March 2015 with a desired apogee of approximately 140 km. LEEWAVES LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric Vertical Structure) is a research project at the Meteorological

  15. Advancing Biological Understanding and Therapeutics Discovery with Small-Molecule Probes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stuart L; Kotz, Joanne D; Li, Min; Aubé, Jeffrey; Austin, Christopher P; Reed, John C; Rosen, Hugh; White, E Lucile; Sklar, Larry A; Lindsley, Craig W; Alexander, Benjamin R; Bittker, Joshua A; Clemons, Paul A; de Souza, Andrea; Foley, Michael A; Palmer, Michelle; Shamji, Alykhan F; Wawer, Mathias J; McManus, Owen; Wu, Meng; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Golden, Jennifer E; Schoenen, Frank J; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Jackson, Michael R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Chung, Thomas D Y; Griffin, Patrick R; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Hodder, Peter S; Roush, William R; Roberts, Edward; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B; Noah, James W; Severson, William E; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Edwards, Bruce; Oprea, Tudor I; Conn, P Jeffrey; Hopkins, Corey R; Wood, Michael R; Stauffer, Shaun R; Emmitte, Kyle A

    2015-06-01

    Small-molecule probes can illuminate biological processes and aid in the assessment of emerging therapeutic targets by perturbing biological systems in a manner distinct from other experimental approaches. Despite the tremendous promise of chemical tools for investigating biology and disease, small-molecule probes were unavailable for most targets and pathways as recently as a decade ago. In 2005, the NIH launched the decade-long Molecular Libraries Program with the intent of innovating in and broadening access to small-molecule science. This Perspective describes how novel small-molecule probes identified through the program are enabling the exploration of biological pathways and therapeutic hypotheses not otherwise testable. These experiences illustrate how small-molecule probes can help bridge the chasm between biological research and the development of medicines but also highlight the need to innovate the science of therapeutic discovery. PMID:26046436

  16. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, T. S.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion.

  17. Parametric Study Conducted of Rocket- Based, Combined-Cycle Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Smith, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Having reached the end of the 20th century, our society is quite familiar with the many benefits of recycling and reusing the products of civilization. The high-technology world of aerospace vehicle design is no exception. Because of the many potential economic benefits of reusable launch vehicles, NASA is aggressively pursuing this technology on several fronts. One of the most promising technologies receiving renewed attention is Rocket-Based, Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion. This propulsion method combines many of the efficiencies of high-performance jet aircraft with the power and high-altitude capability of rocket engines. The goal of the present work at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to further understand the complex fluid physics within RBCC engines that govern system performance. This work is being performed in support of NASA's Advanced Reusable Technologies program. A robust RBCC engine design optimization demands further investigation of the subsystem performance of the engine's complex propulsion cycles. The RBCC propulsion system under consideration at Lewis is defined by four modes of operation in a singlestage- to-orbit configuration. In the first mode, the engine functions as a rocket-driven ejector. When the rocket engine is switched off, subsonic combustion (mode 2) is present in the ramjet mode. As the vehicle continues to accelerate, supersonic combustion (mode 3) occurs in the ramjet mode. Finally, as the edge of the atmosphere is approached and the engine inlet is closed off, the rocket is reignited and the final accent to orbit is undertaken in an all-rocket mode (mode 4). The performance of this fourth and final mode is the subject of this present study. Performance is being monitored in terms of the amount of thrust generated from a given amount of propellant.

  18. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schwenterly, WIlliam; Hitt, Michael; Lepore, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (V ASIMR) for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft and has the potential to open the entire solar system to human exploration. One feature of this propulsion technology is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode that maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode that maximizes thrust. Variation of specific impulse and thrust enhances the ability to optimize interplanetary trajectories and results in shorter trip times and lower propellant requirements than with a fixed specific impulse. In its ultimate application for interplanetary travel, the VASIMR would be a multi-megawatt device. A much lower power system is being designed for demonstration in the 2004 timeframe. This first space demonstration would employ a lO-kilowatt thruster aboard a solar powered spacecraft in Earth orbit. The 1O-kilowatt V ASIMR demonstration unit would operate for a period of several months with hydrogen or deuterium propellant with a specific impulse of 10,000 seconds.

  19. Digital attitude control for NASA sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Carlos

    1998-11-01

    Various configurations of Solar Pointing Control Systems have been used for NASA sounding rockets since an initial flight in December of 1967. Until now, these attitude control systems have used an analog controller. The demand for a more advanced attitude control system with better performance and flexibility leads to the testing of a digital control system. Computer aided design was used to develop the control equations and an embedded controller is used to implement these equations. The analog control system pointing performance was degraded by electrical noise and offsets getting into the sensor signals. The solution to this problem was to isolate the sun sensor from payload electrical nose and ground loops. To accomplish this the sun sensor output was digitized and the data was sent to the control system using a fiber optical cable. This control system was flown on Naval Research Laboratories rocket 36.140 and had less than 0.5 arc-second peak-to-peak jitter during the flight. With further refinements the digital system is expected to attain jitter of less than 0.2 arc- seconds peak-to-peak.

  20. Atom Interferometry on a Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Dennis; Seidel, Stephan; Lachmann, Maike; Rasel, Ernst; Quantus Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The universality of free fall is one of the fundamental postulates of our description of nature. The comparison of the free fall of two ultra-cold clouds of different atomic species via atom interferometry comprises a method to precisely test this assumption. By performing the experiments in a microgravity environment the sensitivity of such an atom interferometric measurement can be increased. In order to fully utilize the potential of these experiments the usage of a Bose-Einstein condensate as the initial state of the atom interferometer is necessary. As a step towards the transfer of such a system in space an atom optical experiment is currently being prepared as the scientific payload for a sounding rocket mission. This mission is aiming at the first demonstration of a Bose-Einstein condensate in space and using this quantum degenerate matter as a source for atom interferometry. The launch of the rocket is planned for 2015 from ESRANGE. This first mission will be followed by two more that extend the scientific goals to the creation of degenerate mixtures in space and simultaneous atom interferometry with two atomic species. Their success would mark a major advancement towards a precise measurement of the universality of free fall with a space-born atom interferometer. This research is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under grant number DLR 50 1131-37.

  1. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Bobby J.; Needleman, Harvey C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a combined total of approximately fifty to sixty missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions are provided in support of investigations sponsored by NASA'S Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program has continued to su,pport the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payload and providing the rocket vehicle and launch operations necessary to provide the altitude/time required obtain the science objectives. The sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface, which is physically inaccessible to either balloons or satellites. A new architecture for providing this support has been introduced this year with the establishment of the NASA Sounding Rockets Contract. The Program has continued to introduce improvements into their operations and ground and flight systems. An overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets Program with special emphasis on the new support contract will be presented. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. Long duration balloon (LDB) is a prominent aspect of the program with two campaigns scheduled for this calendar year. Two flights are scheduled in the Northern Hemisphere from Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and two flights are scheduled from McMurdo, Antarctica, in the Southern Hemisphere in December. The comprehensive balloon research and development (R&D) effort has continued with advances being made across the

  2. Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

    2007-01-01

    The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

  3. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1987-03-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report.

  4. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report. 57 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Saving Lives With Rocket Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Propulsion uses NASA's surplus rocket fuel to produce a flare that can safely destroy land mines. Through a Memorandum of Agreement between Thiokol and Marshall Space Flight Center, Thiokol uses the scrap Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) propellant. The resulting Demining Device was developed by Thiokol with the help of DE Technologies. The Demining Device neutralizes land mines in the field without setting them off. The Demining Device flare is placed next to an uncovered land mine. Using a battery-triggered electric match, the flare is then ignited. Using the excess and now solidified rocket fuel, the flare burns a hole in the mine's case and ignites the explosive contents. Once the explosive material is burned away, the mine is disarmed and no longer dangerous.

  6. Low thrust chemical rocket technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    A technology program aimed at improving the performance of low thrust chemical rockets for spacecraft onboard applications is reviewed. Navier-Stokes analyses of low Reynolds number rocket flows have been compared with local flow property measurements obtained using Rayleigh and Raman diagnostics in a 100 N gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen rocket. It is indicated that computational domain should include the near injector flow and that the shear layer combustion model needs improvement. The system analyses and technical efforts intended to develop a technology base for higher performance propellants are presented. A LOX/hydrazine engine is demonstrated to have a 95 percent theoretical c-star which translates into a projected vacuum specific impulse of 345 seconds at an area ratio of 204:1.

  7. Emergency egress fixed rocket package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Margaret A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of effecting the in-flight departure of an astronaut from a shuttle craft, and apparatus is presented. A plurality of removeable compartment covers are provided, behind which rocket assemblies are stowed. To actuate the system, the astronaut pulls off a tab from one of the compartments which exposes a cannister having a lanyard with a hook. The lanyard extends around a spring biased sleeve with a safety lever preventing rocket ignition until the hook is moved by the astronaut. Upward movement of the hook allows the trigger mechanism to actuate the system resulting in the rods projecting out of the hatch. When the lanyard becomes taut, a lanyard elongation detector transmits a signal to the firing mechanisms to fire the rocket.

  8. Impact of rocket exhaust plumes on atmospheric composition and climate ― an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ch.; Schumann, U.; Graf, K.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.

    2013-03-01

    Rockets are the only direct anthropogenic emission sources into the upper atmosphere. Gaseous rocket emissions include CO, N2, H2, H2O, and CO2, while solid rocket motors (SRM) additionally inject significant amounts of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles and gaseous chlorine species into the atmosphere. These emissions strongly perturb local atmospheric trace gas and aerosol distributions. Here, previous aircraft measurements in various rocket exhaust plumes including several large space shuttle launch vehicles are compiled. The observed changes of the lower stratospheric composition in the near field are summarized. The injection of chlorine species and particles into the stratosphere can lead to ozone loss in rocket exhaust plumes. Local observations are compared with global model simulations of the effects of rocket emissions on stratospheric ozone concentrations. Large uncertainties remain concerning individual ozone loss reaction rates and the impact of small-scale plume effects on global chemistry. Further, remote sensing data from satellite indicate that rocket exhaust plumes regionally increase iron and water vapor concentrations in the mesosphere potentially leading to the formation of mesospheric clouds at 80- to 90-kilometer altitude. These satellite observations are summarized and the rocket emission inventory is compared with other natural and anthropogenic sources to the stratosphere such as volcanism, meteoritic material, and aviation.

  9. Rocket study of auroral processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are presented of previously published reports analyzing data from three Echo 3 rocket flights. Particle experiments designed for the Terrier-Malmute flight, the Echo 5 flight, and the Norwegian Corbier Ferdinand 50 flight are described and their flight performance evaluated. Theoretical studies on auroral particle precipitation are reviewed according to observations made in three regions of space: (1) the region accessible to rockets and low altitude satellites (few hundred to a few thousand kilometers); (2) the region extending from 4000 to 8000 km (S3-3 satellite range); and (3) near the equatorial plane (geosynchronous satellite measurements). Questions raised about auroral arc formation are considered.

  10. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Dowler, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  11. Rocket Launch Trajectory Simulations Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul E.; Hauss, Sharon; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The design and development of a Trajectory Simulation Mechanism (TSM) for the Launch Systems Testbed (LST) is outlined. In addition to being one-of-a-kind facility in the world, TSM serves as a platform to study the interaction of rocket launch-induced environments and subsequent dynamic effects on the equipment and structures in the close vicinity of the launch pad. For the first time, researchers and academicians alike will be able to perform tests in a laboratory environment and assess the impact of vibroacoustic behavior of structures in a moving rocket scenario on ground equipment, launch vehicle, and its valuable payload or spacecraft.

  12. Premature ignition of a rocket motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Darlene Ruth

    2010-10-01

    During preparation for a rocket sled track (RST) event, there was an unexpected ignition of the zuni rocket motor (10/9/08). Three Sandia staff and a contractor were involved in the accident; the contractor was seriously injured and made full recovery. The data recorder battery energized the low energy initiator in the rocket.

  13. F. Gomez Arias' rocket vehicle project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreras, R.

    1977-01-01

    Research done by Spanish pioneer rocket scientists in the 19th century was investigated with major emphasis placed on F. Gomez Arias' rocket vehicle project. Arias, considered the world's first designer of rocket propelled, manned aircraft, was interested in solving the problem of space navigation. Major concerns included ascent and direction of heavier-than-airmachines, as well as ascent and direction of balloons.

  14. The United States sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The United States sounding rocket program is discussed. The program is concerned with the fields of solar physics, galactic astronomy, fields and particles, ionospheric physics, aeronomy, and meteorology. Sounding rockets are described with respect to propulsion systems, gross weight, and capabilities. Instruments used to conduct ionospheric probing missions are examined. Results of previously conducted sounding rocket missions are included.

  15. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  16. The Swedish Rocket Corps, 1833 - 1845

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Rockets for pyrotechnic displays used in Sweden in the 19th century are examined in terms of their use in war situations. Work done by the Swedish chemist J. J. Berzelius, who analyzed and improved the propellants of such rockets, and the German engineer, Martin Westermaijer, who researched manufacturing techniques of these rockets is also included.

  17. On the Development of a Magnetically Vectored Variable ISP Plasma Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feliciano, Enectali Figueroa; Diaz, Franklin R. Chang; Squire, Jared P.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a Magnetically Vectored Variable I(sub sp) Plasma Rocket at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) is in progress at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The facility is using a small, 3.2 m tandem mirror device to study the application of RF heated magnetically contained plasmas for space propulsion. The central cell radius is 0.1 m and fields of 0.2 T and 2 T are possible in the central and end-cell mirror sections, respectively. A magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) injector has just been acquired and will be used along with other methods of plasma refueling. A 1 MW magnet power supply upgrade is being developed with full implementation by the Spring of 1997. Two microwave systems for discharge initiation and plasma heating at 2.45 GHz and 14.0 GHz, respectively, are in operation. Additionally, RF systems with 200 kW and 1 MW of power are being modified and conditioned for operation. The concept provides electrode-less operation and variable thrush'specific impulse at constant power (200 -30 N /5000-30,000 seconds at 10 MW with a 60% efficiency). Optimization for speed or payload are possible with the same engine, giving the rocket great flexibility. Missions to Mars in 90 days are described, and missions to Pluto are under study.

  18. Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T. ); Borowski, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits.

  19. Lunar mission design using Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Collins, John T.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits.

  20. Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

  1. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  2. [Advances in Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Bao, Feichao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, computed tomography screening has made the disease spectrum of lung cancer shift from the previously predominating central local advanced squamous cell carcinoma to early stage lung adenocarcinoma represented by solitary pulmonary nodule, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and sub-centimeter nodule. This paper reviewed the recent proceeding in the surgical management of early stage lung cancer. PMID:27335305

  3. Pemetrexed for advanced stage nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer: latest evidence about its extended use and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Pascale; Barlesi, Fabrice; Mascaux, Celine; Greillier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still the leading cause of cancer-related death, and the treatment of advanced NSCLC relies on systemic treatments. During the last decade, pemetrexed, an antifolate agent, gradually became a key component of the treatment for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. It has indeed been shown to be efficient for first-line, maintenance and second- or third-line treatment in this subgroup of NSCLC. Moreover, it is usually well tolerated, with few grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Several studies have tried to identify predictive biomarkers of pemetrexed efficacy. Due to pemetrexed’s mechanism of action, thymidilate synthase expression predictive value was investigated but could not be demonstrated. Currently, more than 400 trials of pemetrexed for the treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC are ongoing. PMID:27239238

  4. Rocket-borne Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Mesosphere That is Pumped by Rocket Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Smith, Steven; Robertson, Scott

    The mesospheric region close to the mesopause is populated by electrons, ions and aerosol particles. The number density of aerosol particles may exceed that of the background plasma creating conditions where the free electron density is reduced. Understanding the full charge balance of the region requires the simultaneous detection of electrons, charged aerosol particles and ions. Rocket borne instruments for the measurement of electrons and aerosols are readily available. Mass spectrometers for ions have been flown that were evacuated by cryogenic vacuum pumps with liquid helium or neon. There have not been flights since 1993 because these instruments required expensive deliveries of cryogens and frequent refilling. Advances in (1) aerodynamic modeling, (2) mass spectrometer design, and (3) ion detection technology make possible a new approach to mass spectrometry in the mesosphere in which the spectrometer is pumped by the flow around the rocket. A miniature Rotating Field Mass Analyzer (RFMS) is presented that is suitable for the measurement of ions in from 70 km upward. RFMS has a 2 x 2 x 20 mm3 velocity selection cell and utilizes and advanced ion detector that is capable of single ions operation mode at these altitudes. The instrument is pumped by the aerodynamic effect of the supersonic payload. A prototype version of RFMS is under laboratory testing.

  5. Small

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  6. Centrifugal pumps for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Farquhar, J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of centrifugal pumps for rocket engines is described in terms of general requirements of operational and planned systems. Hydrodynamic and mechanical design considerations and techniques and test procedures are summarized. Some of the pump development experiences, in terms of both problems and solutions, are highlighted.

  7. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  8. The Need for Faster Rockets

    NASA Video Gallery

    The rockets NASA has used have been great, but they can’t take us far enough, fast enough to get us to places we haven’t been before like Mars or beyond. A solution is to use plasma as propulsi...

  9. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  10. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  11. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  12. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  13. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip J.; Smith, Ira S.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 50 to 60 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program provides the science community with payload development support, environmental testing, launch vehicles, and launch operations from fixed and mobile launch ranges. Sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface. New technology efforts include GPS payload event triggering, tailored trajectories, new vehicle configuration development to expand current capabilities, and the feasibility assessment of an ultra high altitude sounding rocket vehicle. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) is capable of providing flight durations in excess of two weeks and has had many successful flights since its development. The NASA Balloon Program is currently engaged in the development of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which will be capable of providing flight times up to 100-days. Additional development efforts are focusing on ultra high altitude balloons, station keeping techniques and planetary balloon technologies.

  14. A case for Mars: A case for nuclear thermal rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, J.E.; Van Haaften, D.H.; Madsen, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    It is now possible to make general comparisons of candidate propulsion systems for human exploration of Mars. Preliminary review indicates that the propulsion system most likely to meet all mission requirements is the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR). Advanced cryogenic chemical propulsion systems achieve a maximum specific impulse (Isp) of about 470 seconds. The Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's built engines with Isp's of about 825 seconds. Performance of an NTR depends on achievable materials temperatures, but materials has progressed significantly since the 1960's. Also, some of the current research undertaken to improve chemical rocket performance, such as aerobraking or schemes to minify payload, applies to an NTR as well, although it is not essential. The NTR is reusable, and can be developed into a complete space transportation system. Only 3--4% of the nuclear fuel would be used in a Mars mission, and an engine can be used until about 40% of the fuel is expended. Nuclear thermal rockets can take mankind to the moon, to Mars, and beyond, but development must begin now. There is potential for orderly growth into nuclear concepts far beyond NERVA. Using chemical propulsion for lunar missions and delaying NTR development will only result in higher costs and delayed or cancelled Mars missions.

  15. Simulation of Flight Conditions for Rocket Engine Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Zimmermann, H.

    2004-10-01

    With the development of ARIANE 5 the test bench P5 for the VULCAIN engine was erected in 1990. New developments like advanced nozzles, the reignition capability of rocket engines or unexpected events during flight drive again the question how to qualify rocket engines and propellant systems. It's getting more and more necessary to test rocket engines closer to original flight conditions. This is mainly the simulation of pressure and temperature conditions. For the main stage engines it's the transition from sea level up to altitude conditions and for upper stage engines and satellite propulsion it's the high altitude with low vacuum pressures. The stage feeding conditions or special simulations like booster separation influences the behaviour of the engine and has to be simulated too. What are the needed simulation conditions to qualify for the flight? The rocket engines of the ARIANE launcher are taken to demonstrate the principle conditions. In 1992 the P4.2 was adapted to the AESTUS altitude simulation. Actual activities are the preparation of the altitude simulation for VINCI on P4.1 and the load simulation device for VULCAIN II nozzle on P5.

  16. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. )

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  17. Experiment of rocket-ram annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, K.; Ono, F.; Sasaki, M.; Takahashi, M.

    In this experiment, the double-nozzle type of rocket-ram annular combustor with a total thrust of 5kN was designed and tested with varying ratios of thrust produced by rocket and ram. Thrust and pressure distribution along the common expansion nozzle, i.e., the ram combustor nozzle, were measured to investigate the effect of interaction of the two expansion gases on thrust. Enhancement of specific impulse was verified by the experiments. That is, the specific impulse gains in rocket-ram parallel operation, the ratio of rocket thrust to ram thrust being 50 to 50, were found to be 190 percent of gains in pure rocket operation.

  18. Measuring Rocket Engine Temperatures with Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Osborne, Robin J.; Trinh, Huu P.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Optically accessible, high pressure, hot fire test articles are available at NASA Marshall for use in development of advanced rocket engine propellant injectors. Single laser-pulse ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy has been used in the past in these devices for analysis of high pressure H2- and CH4-fueled combustion, but relies on an independent pressure measurement in order to provide temperature information. A variation of UV Raman (High Resolution Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy) is under development and will allow temperature measurement without the need for an independent pressure measurement, useful for flows where local pressure may not be accurately known. The technique involves the use of a spectrometer with good spectral resolution, requiring a small entrance slit for the spectrometer. The H2 Raman spectrum, when created by a narrow linewidth laser source and obtained from a good spectral resolution spectrograph, has a spectral shape related to temperature. By best-fit matching an experimental spectrum to theoretical spectra at various temperatures, a temperature measurement is obtained. The spectral model accounts for collisional narrowing, collisional broadening, Doppler broadening, and collisional line shifting of each Raman line making up the H2 Stokes vibrational Q-branch spectrum. At pressures from atmospheric up to those associated with advanced preburner components (5500 psia), collisional broadening though present does not cause significant overlap of the Raman lines, allowing high resolution H2 Raman to be used for temperature measurements in plumes and in high pressure test articles. Experimental demonstrations of the technique are performed for rich H2-air flames at atmospheric pressure and for high pressure, 300 K H2-He mixtures. Spectrometer imaging quality is identified as being critical for successful implementation of technique.

  19. Recent advances in in vitro embryo production in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Paramio, Maria-Teresa; Izquierdo, Dolors

    2016-07-01

    To increase productivity in the small ruminant industry, the genetic material of these species should be improved. In vitro embryo production could be an important technology to reach this goal by combining selected male and female gametes. In the world, marketing of in vitro-produced embryos is an economical activity which is progressing rapidly in cattle but is practically nonexistent in small ruminants. Since the birth of the first lamb and kid using IVF in the 80s, several studies have been carried out; however, results still are inconsistent and unpredictable. Moreover, significantly fewer research groups are working on embryo production in small ruminants than in cattle and pigs. Although conventional methodologies of oocyte IVM, IVF, and IVC in small ruminants give rise to blastocysts, significant variation exists between experiments. One important reason for these differences is the heterogeneity of the pool of oocytes recovered from ovaries from slaughtered females. Oocyte quality, also referred to as competence, is the key factor in the success of in vitro embryo production programs. Different criteria are used to select the best oocytes for fertilization, such as follicle size, oocyte diameter and morphological appearance, and Brilliant Cresyl Blue staining. New research lines aimed at improving oocyte competence are: (1) arresting nuclear maturation in vitro allowing optimal capacitation of cytoplasm, (2) growing oocytes inside the follicle, and (3) identification of biomarkers of oocyte competence in granulosa and cumulus cells and metabolites in the follicular fluid. PMID:27157391

  20. Leveraging Small Aquarium Fishes to Advance Understanding of Environmentally Influenced Human Disorders and Diseases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small aquarium fishes provide a model organism that recapitulates the development, physiology and specific disease processes present in humans without the many limitations of rodent-based models currently in use. Fish models offer advantages in cost, rapid life-cycles, and extern...