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Sample records for advanced sodium receiver

  1. Evaluation of advanced sodium receiver losses during operation of the IEA/SSPS central receiver system

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, R.; Rosa, F.; Jacobs, H.; Sanchez, M.

    1989-02-01

    This article presents the measurements and experiments conducted on the external receiver: the so-called Advanced Sodium Receiver (ASR) of the Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Project of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in southern Spain. The basis of this experiment was to provide loss measurements for later use in determining receiver performance. The tests to evaluate thermal losses consisted in operating the receiver with the doors open and circulating the sodium in normal and reverse flow without providing any incident power from the heliostat field (flux-off technique). In this way, total thermal losses are calculated as the energy lost by the sodium. Radiative losses have been calculated based on theoretical calculations and some results have been compared with infrared thermography measurements. Conductive losses are small and have been estimated by flux-off experiments with the receiver doors closed. Convective losses were evaluated subtracting radiative and conductive losses from the total thermal losses. Optical losses were assessed using absorptance measurements of the receiver coating. A simplified analytical model has been developed to calculate losses and ASR efficiency during operation. In spite of the method's simplicity, the results are very similar to those found by other investigators, verified simulation programs and test results.

  2. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  3. Advanced space solar dynamic receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Coombs, Murray G.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been conducted to generate and evaluate advanced solar heat receiver concepts suitable for orbital application with Brayton and Stirling engine cycles in the 7-kW size range. The generated receiver designs have thermal storage capability (to enable power production during the substantial eclipse period which accompanies typical orbits) and are lighter and smaller than state-of-the-art systems, such as the Brayton solar receiver being designed and developed by AiResearch for the NASA Space Station. Two receiver concepts have been developed in detail: a packed bed receiver and a heat pipe receiver. The packed bed receiver is appropriate for a Brayton engine; the heat pipe receiver is applicable for either a Brayton or Stirling engine. The thermal storage for both concepts is provided by the melting and freezing of a salt. Both receiver concepts offer substantial improvements in size and weight compared to baseline receivers.

  4. Advances in SIS receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frerking, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Significant advances in SIS receiver technology since the last Asilomar meeting include: superconductor materials, integrated inductive tuning elements, and planar mounting structures. The effect of these advances is to push the upper frequency operating limit from about 600 to 1500 GHz, and to enhance the feasibility of focal plane arrays of heterodyne receivers. A fundamental high frequency operating limit of SIS mixers is set by the superconducting energy gap. A practical limitation for high frequency operation of SIS junctions is their parasitic capacitance and resistance. The performance of the mixer will be degraded by the Resistor-Capacitor rolloff. Several designs were reported for inductive elements integrated on the same substrate as the SIS junctions to tune out the bulk junction capacitance. Most millimeter SIS-based heterodyne receivers have used waveguide coupling structures. Technology has advanced to the state where programs that have a high probability of success can be defined to produce arrays of SIS receivers for frequencies as high as 1500 GHz.

  5. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    alloys was comparable after sodium exposures at 550 C; the weight loss of ferritic-martensitic steels, G92 and G91 is more significant than that of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS after sodium exposures at 650 C. Sodium exposures up to 2700 h at 550 C had no significant influence on tensile properties, while sodium exposures up to 5064 h at 650 C dramatically lowered the tensile strengths of the four alloys. The ultimate tensile strength of H1 G92, H2 G92, and G91 ferritic-martensitic steels was reduced to as much as nearly half of its initial value after sodium exposures at 650 C. Though the uniform elongation was recovered to some extent, these three ferritic-martensitic steels showed considerable strain softening after sodium exposures. The yield stress of HT-UPS austenitic stainless steel increased, the ultimate tensile strength decreased, and the total elongation was reduced after sodium exposures at 650 C. The dynamic strain aging effect observed in the as-received HT-UPS specimens became less pronounced after sodium exposures at 650 C. Microstructural characterization of sodium-exposed specimens showed no appreciable surface deterioration or grain structure changes under an optical microscope, except for the H2 G92 steel, in which the martensite structure transformed to large grain ferrite after sodium exposures at 650 C. TEM observations of the sodium-exposed H2 G92 steel showed significant recrystallization after sodium exposure for 2700 h at 550 C, and transformation of martensite to ferrite and high density of precipitates in nearly dislocation-free matrix after sodium exposures at 650 C. Further microstructural analysis and evaluation of decarburization/carburization behavior is needed to understand the dramatic changes in the tensile strengths of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic steels after sodium exposures at 650 C.

  6. Telemetry Tests Of The Advanced Receiver II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Bevan, Roland P.; Marina, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Report describes telemetry tests of Advanced Receiver II (ARX-II): digital radio receiving subsystem operating on intermediate-frequency output of another receiving subsystem called "multimission receiver" (MMR), detecting carrier, subcarrier, and data-symbol signals transmitted by spacecraft, and extracts Doppler information from signals. Analysis of data shows performance of MMR/ARX-II system comparable and sometimes superior to performances of Blk-III/BPA and Blk-III/SDA/SSA systems.

  7. Advanced solar receivers for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Coombs, M. G.; Lacy, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been conducted to generate and evaluate advanced solar heat receiver concepts suitable for orbital application with Brayton and Stirling engine cycles in the 7-kW size range. The generated receiver designs have thermal storage capability and, when implemented, will be lighter, smaller, and/or more efficient than baseline systems such as the configuration used for the Brayton solar receiver under development by Garrett AiResearch for the NASA Space Station. In addition to the baseline designs, four other receiver concepts were designed and evaluated with respect to Brayton and Stirling engines. These concepts include a higher temperature version of the baseline receiver, a packed bed receiver, a plate-fin receiver, and a heat pipe receiver. The thermal storage for all designs is provided by the melting and freezing of a salt.

  8. Gastric fluid pH in patients receiving sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O J; Ravindran, R S; Shumacker, C A

    1981-07-01

    Gastric fluid pH was measured following induction of anesthesia and placement of an endotracheal tube in 30 surgical patients undergoing elective operations. None of the patients received an anticholinergic drug before surgery. Fifteen patients who had been given 15 ml of sodium citrate 15 to 20 minutes before induction of anesthesia had a mean pH of 6.2 +/- 0.8. The control group, which also consisted of 15 patients, had a mean pH of 2.1 +/- 1.4. The increase in gastric pH noted following sodium citrate would result in reduced pulmonary reaction should aspiration occur. PMID:7195668

  9. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  10. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  11. Advanced Stirling receiver development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurio, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Critical technology experiments were designed and developed to evaluate the Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver for a space solar power system. Theoretical criteria were applied to the design of a module for containing energy storage phase change material while avoiding thermal ratcheting. Zero-g drop tower tests, without phase change, were conducted to affirm that the bubble location required to avoid ratcheting could be achieved without the use of container materials that are wetted by the phase change material. A full scale module was fabricated, but not tested. A fabrication method was successfully developed for the sodium evaporator dome, with a sintered screen wick, to be used as the focal point for the receiver. Crushing of the screen during hydroforming was substantially reduced over the results of other researchers by using wax impregnation. Superheating of the sodium in the wick under average flux conditions is expected to be under 10K. A 2000K furnace which will simulate solar flux conditions for testing the evaporator dome was successfully built and tested.

  12. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  13. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  14. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and

  15. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  16. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  17. Reconfigurable Advanced Receiver Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jianjing

    2005-01-01

    While the demand for real-time broadband information access has grown and continues to grow at a rapid Pace, the need for a reconfigurable receiver system has increased. To achieve the goal to communicate with multiple shuttles at a time, a filter bank in polyphase structure is introduced. This paper presents the design and implementation for high-speed, high-performance, and fixed-point polyphase filter banks. The polyphase filter structure is designed such that the use of a fixed-point system has minimum impact on the performance of the filter. The final hardware implementation is done on a Xilinx FPGA chip.

  18. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

  19. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  20. Digital Doppler extraction demonstration with the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Delcastillo, H.; Kinman, P.; Chong, D.; Labelle, R.

    1990-01-01

    A digital Doppler extraction demonstration with the Advanced Receiver 2 (ARX 2) tracking Pioneer 10 and Voyager 2 is described. The measured results are compared with those of the Block 4 receiver that was operating in parallel with the ARX 2. It is shown that the ARX 2 outperforms the Block 4 receiver in terms of Allan variance of the Doppler residuals, the amount of which depends on the scenario of interest.

  1. Test results from a full-scale sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Diver, R. B.; Ginn, W. C.; Dudley, V.; Rawlinson, K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been tested on a nominal 75 kW sub t parabolic-dish concentrator. The purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of reflux-receiver technology for application to Stirling-engine dish-electric systems. In this application, pool boilers (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) have a number of advantages over directly-illuminated tube receivers. The advantages, to be discussed, include more uniform temperature, which results in longer lifetime and higher temperature available to the engine.

  2. Test results from a full-scale sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Diver, R.B.; Ginn, W.C.; Dudley, V.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been tested on a nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator. The purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of reflux-receiver technology for application to Stirling-engine dish-electric systems. In this application, pool boilers (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) have a number of advantages over directly-illuminated tube receivers. The advantages, to be discussed, include more uniform temperature, which results in longer lifetime and higher temperature available to the engine. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  4. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis was conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  5. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis were conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  6. Characterization of the sodium void reactivity effect for advanced liquid metal reactor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S.F.

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the problems of a large positive sodium void reactivity effect in liquid metal reactors which have received increased attention following the accident at Chernobyl, a light water reactor with a positive coolant void coefficient. While the probability of voiding sodium is small, a large positive sodium void reactivity effect is, in many minds, unacceptable. Analyses were performed on models of an advanced liquid metal reactors to determine the effects fuel type have on the sodium void reactivity effect. Three fuel types were considered; metal, oxide, and nitride. Calculations were performed using three-dimensional, multigroup diffusion theory. Two programs were developed to aid the analyses. One calculated the capture-to-fission ratio and the other calculated reaction rates of selected materials. A one-group equation was derived to determine a theoretical basis for the sodium void reactivity effect. An option was presented for a shortened core having a near-zero sodium-void worth. The effect on the sodium void reactivity effect of using actinides as fuel is also considered.

  7. DSN advanced receiver: Breadboard description and test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Hurd, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    A breadboard Advanced Receiver for use in the Deep Space Network was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory. Field testing was also performed during Voyager Uranus encounter at DSS-13. The development of the breadboard is intended to lead towards implementation of the new receiver throughout the network. The receiver is described on a functional level and then in terms of more specific hardware and software architecture. The results of performance tests in the laboratory and in the field are given. Finally, there is a discussion of suggested improvements for the next phase of development.

  8. Sodium and Volume Disorders in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sana; Floris, Matteo; Pani, Antonello; Rosner, Mitchell H

    2016-07-01

    The kidney has a remarkable ability to modulate sodium and water excretion to maintain homeostasis despite a widely varying dietary intake. However, as glomerular filtration rate falls to less than 30 mL/min, this ability can be compromised leading to an increased risk for disorders of serum sodium and extracellular volume. In all cases, these disorders are associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. Management strategies to both prevent and treat these conditions are available but requiring special attention to the unique circumstance of advanced CKD to maximize therapeutic response and prevent complications. PMID:27324677

  9. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.

    1992-07-01

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750{degree}C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/cm{sup 2}. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. results of these studies are presented. 15 refs.

  10. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750{degree}C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/cm{sup 2}. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. results of these studies are presented. 15 refs.

  11. Boiling behavior of sodium-potassium alloy in a bench-scale solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.

    During 1989-90, a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver include the following: (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Since this first demonstration, design of a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that will bring the concept closer to commercialization has begun. For long life, the new receiver uses Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, it has a refined shape and somewhat larger dimensions. To eliminate the need for trace heating, the receiver will boil the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78 instead of sodium. To reduce manufacturing costs, it will use one of a number of alternatives to EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it will contain a small amount of inert gas. Before the new receiver design could be finalized, bench-scale tests of some of the proposed changes were necessary. A series of bench-scale pool boilers were built from Haynes Alloy 230 and filled with NaK-78. Various boiling-stabilizer candidates were incorporated into them, including laser-drilled cavities and a number of different sintered-powder-metal coatings. These bench-scale pool boilers have been operated at temperatures up to 750 C, heated by quartz lamps with incident radiant fluxes up to 95 W/sq cm. The effects of various orientations and added gases have been studied. Results of these studies are presented.

  12. The advanced receiver 2: Telemetry test results in CTA 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Marina, M.

    1991-01-01

    Telemetry tests with the Advanced Receiver II (ARX II) in Compatibility Test Area 21 are described. The ARX II was operated in parallel with a Block-III Receiver/baseband processor assembly combination (BLK-III/BPA) and a Block III Receiver/subcarrier demodulation assembly/symbol synchronization assembly combination (BLK-III/SDA/SSA). The telemetry simulator assembly provided the test signal for all three configurations, and the symbol signal to noise ratio as well as the symbol error rates were measured and compared. Furthermore, bit error rates were also measured by the system performance test computer for all three systems. Results indicate that the ARX-II telemetry performance is comparable and sometimes superior to the BLK-III/BPA and BLK-III/SDA/SSA combinations.

  13. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P. L.; Petrin, R. R.; Jolin, J. L.; Foy, B. R.; Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  14. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraka, C. E.; Moreno, J. B.; Diver, R. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW(sub t) sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW(sub t) parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90 percent when operated at full power and 800 C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  15. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  16. Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Halama, Gary E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2000-01-01

    Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range avalanche photodiodes (APD's) are the best choice for higher signal-to-noise ratio, where there are many water vapor absorption lines. In this study, characterization experiments were performed to evaluate a group of silicon-based APD's. The APD's have different structures representative of different manufacturers. The experiments include setups to calibrate these devices, as well as characterization of the effects of voltage bias and temperature on the responsivity, surface scans, noise measurements, and frequency response measurements. For each experiment, the setup, procedure, data analysis, and results are given and discussed. This research was done to choose a suitable APD detector for the development of an advanced atmospheric water vapor differential absorption lidar detection system operating either at 720, 820, or 940 nm. The results point out the benefits of using the super low ionization ratio (SLIK) structure APD for its lower noise-equivalent power, which was found to be on the order of 2 to 4 fW/Hz(sup (1/2)), with an appropriate optical system and electronics. The water vapor detection systems signal-to-noise ratio will increase by a factor of 10.

  17. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  18. X ray observations of boiling sodium in a reflux-pool-boiler solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Stoker, G. C.; Thompson, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    X ray observations of boiling sodium in a 75-kW sub t reflux-pool-boiler solar receiver operating at up to 800 C were carried out. Both cinematographic and quantitative observations were made. From the cinematography, the pool free surface was observed before and during the start of boiling. During boiling, the free surface rose out of the field of view, and chaotic motion was observed. From the quantitative observations, void fraction in pencil-like probe volumes was inferred, using a linear array of detectors. Useful data were obtained from three of the eight probe volumes. Information from the other volumes was masked by scattered radiation. During boiling, time-averaged void fractions ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. During hot restarts, void fractions near unity occurred and persisted for up to 1/2 second.

  19. Postmastectomy radiotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Meattini, Icro; Cecchini, Sara; Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Saieva, Calogero; Francolini, Giulio; Scotti, Vieri; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Mangoni, Monica; Greto, Daniela; Nori, Jacopo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Casella, Donato; Simoncini, Roberta; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Simonetta; Livi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is widely used in locally advanced breast cancer (BC) treatment. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) after NAC is strongly debated. The aim of our analysis was to identify major prognostic factors in a single-center series, with emphasis on PMRT. From 1997 to 2011, 170 patients were treated with NAC and mastectomy at our center; 98 cases (57.6%) underwent PMRT and 72 cases (42.4%) did not receive radiation. At a median follow-up period of 7.7 years (range 2-16) for the whole cohort, median time to locoregional recurrence (LRR) was 3.3 years (range 0.7-12.4). The 5-year and 10-year actuarial LRR rate were 14.5% and 15.9%, respectively. At the multivariate analysis the factors that significantly correlated with survival outcome were ≥ 4 positive nodes (HR 5.0, 1.51-16.52; P = 0.035), extracapsular extension (HR 2.18, 1.37-3.46; P = 0.009), and estrogen receptor positive disease (HR 0.57, 0.36-0.90; P = 0.003). Concerning LRR according to use of radiation, PMRT reduced LRR for patient with clinical T3 staged disease (P = 0.015). Our experience confirmed the impact of pathological nodal involvement on survival outcome. PMRT was found to improve local control in patients presenting with clinical T3 tumors, regardless of the response to chemotherapy. PMID:25045694

  20. Costas loop lock detection in the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileant, A.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The advanced receiver currently being developed uses a Costas digital loop to demodulate the subcarrier. Previous analyses of lock detector algorithms for Costas loops have ignored the effects of the inherent correlation between the samples of the phase-error process. Accounting for this correlation is necessary to achieve the desired lock-detection probability for a given false-alarm rate. Both analysis and simulations are used to quantify the effects of phase correlation on lock detection for the square-law and the absolute-value type detectors. Results are obtained which depict the lock-detection probability as a function of loop signal-to-noise ratio for a given false-alarm rate. The mathematical model and computer simulation show that the square-law detector experiences less degradation due to phase jitter than the absolute-value detector and that the degradation in detector signal-to-noise ratio is more pronounced for square-wave than for sine-wave signals.

  1. Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Meattini, Icro; Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Saieva, Calogero; Francolini, Giulio; Scotti, Vieri; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Mangoni, Monica; Greto, Daniela; Nori, Jacopo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Casella, Donato; Simoncini, Roberta; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Simonetta; Livi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is widely used in locally advanced breast cancer (BC) treatment. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) after NAC is strongly debated. The aim of our analysis was to identify major prognostic factors in a single-center series, with emphasis on PMRT. From 1997 to 2011, 170 patients were treated with NAC and mastectomy at our center; 98 cases (57.6%) underwent PMRT and 72 cases (42.4%) did not receive radiation. At a median follow-up period of 7.7 years (range 2–16) for the whole cohort, median time to locoregional recurrence (LRR) was 3.3 years (range 0.7–12.4). The 5-year and 10-year actuarial LRR rate were 14.5% and 15.9%, respectively. At the multivariate analysis the factors that significantly correlated with survival outcome were ≥4 positive nodes (HR 5.0, 1.51–16.52; P = 0.035), extracapsular extension (HR 2.18, 1.37–3.46; P = 0.009), and estrogen receptor positive disease (HR 0.57, 0.36–0.90; P = 0.003). Concerning LRR according to use of radiation, PMRT reduced LRR for patient with clinical T3 staged disease (P = 0.015). Our experience confirmed the impact of pathological nodal involvement on survival outcome. PMRT was found to improve local control in patients presenting with clinical T3 tumors, regardless of the response to chemotherapy. PMID:25045694

  2. 41 CFR 302-2.22 - May I receive a travel advance for separation relocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I receive a travel advance for separation relocation? 302-2.22 Section 302-2.22 Public Contracts and Property Management... General Rules Advancement of Funds § 302-2.22 May I receive a travel advance for separation...

  3. 41 CFR 302-2.22 - May I receive a travel advance for separation relocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I receive a travel advance for separation relocation? 302-2.22 Section 302-2.22 Public Contracts and Property Management... General Rules Advancement of Funds § 302-2.22 May I receive a travel advance for separation...

  4. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Moss, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW(sub t) reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz lamp heated boilers to screen candidate boiling stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750 degree C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot press sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric discharge machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical, dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  5. Bench-scale screening tests for a boiling sodium-potassium alloy solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1993-06-01

    Bench-scale tests were carried out in support of the design of a second-generation 75-kW{sub t} reflux pool-boiler solar receiver. The receiver will be made from Haynes Alloy 230 and will contain the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. The bench-scale tests used quartz-lamp-heated boilers to screen candidate boiling-stabilization materials and methods at temperatures up to 750{degree}C. Candidates that provided stable boiling were tested for hot-restart behavior. Poor stability was obtained with single 1/4-inch diameter patches of powdered metal hot-press-sintered onto the wetted side of the heat-input area. Laser-drilled and electric-discharge-machined cavities in the heated surface also performed poorly. Small additions of xenon, and heated-surface tilt out of the vertical dramatically improved poor boiling stability; additions of helium or oxygen did not. The most stable boiling was obtained when the entire heat-input area was covered by a powdered-metal coating. The effect of heated-area size was assessed for one coating: at low incident fluxes, when even this coating performed poorly, increasing the heated-area size markedly improved boiling stability. Good hot-restart behavior was not observed with any candidate, although results were significantly better with added xenon in a boiler shortened from 3 to 2 feet. In addition to the screening tests, flash-radiography imaging of metal-vapor bubbles during boiling was attempted. Contrary to the Cole-Rohsenow correlation, these bubble-size estimates did not vary with pressure; instead they were constant, consistent with the only other alkali metal measurements, but about 1/2 their size.

  6. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  7. Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, H.

    1983-07-01

    Before discussing Deep Space Network receivers, a brief description of the functions of receivers and how they interface with other elements of the Network is presented. Different types of receivers are used in the Network for various purposes. The principal receiver type is used for telemetry and tracking. This receiver provides the capability, with other elements of the Network, to track the space probe utilizing Doppler and range measurements, and to receive telemetry, including both scientific data from the onboard experiments and engineering data pertaining to the health of the probe. Another type of receiver is used for radio science applications. This receiver measures phase perturbations on the carrier signal to obtain information on the composition of solar and planetary atmospheres and interplanetary space. A third type of receiver utilizes very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques for both radio science and spacecraft navigation data. Only the telemetry receiver is described in detail in this document. The integration of the Receiver-Exciter subsystem with other portions of the Deep Space Network is described.

  8. Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, H.

    1983-01-01

    Before discussing Deep Space Network receivers, a brief description of the functions of receivers and how they interface with other elements of the Network is presented. Different types of receivers are used in the Network for various purposes. The principal receiver type is used for telemetry and tracking. This receiver provides the capability, with other elements of the Network, to track the space probe utilizing Doppler and range measurements, and to receive telemetry, including both scientific data from the onboard experiments and engineering data pertaining to the health of the probe. Another type of receiver is used for radio science applications. This receiver measures phase perturbations on the carrier signal to obtain information on the composition of solar and planetary atmospheres and interplanetary space. A third type of receiver utilizes very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques for both radio science and spacecraft navigation data. Only the telemetry receiver is described in detail in this document. The integration of the Receiver-Exciter subsystem with other portions of the Deep Space Network is described.

  9. Advanced development receiver thermal vacuum tests with cold wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    The first ever testing of a full size solar dynamic heat receiver using high temperature thermal energy storage was completed. The heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements for operation on the Space Station Freedom. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partially simulate a low Earth orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to produce flux distributions typical of candidate concentrators. A closed Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles were completed during the test conduct period. The test hardware, execution of testing, test data, and post test inspections are described.

  10. Sodium titanate cuboid as advanced anode material for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Hongshuai; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Jing, Mingjun; Wu, Zhibin; Jia, Xinnan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium titanate (Na2Ti6O13) cuboid is successfully prepared and employed for anode electrode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Their sodium storage properties are presented by undertaking polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as different binders. At a current density of 0.1 C, the sodium titanate cuboid with CMC and PVDF exhibits discharge capacity of 269.5 mAh g-1 and 251.0 mAh g-1, respectively. At the 200th charge/discharge cycle, the reserved discharge capacity for Sodium titanate cuboid electrode with CMC binder is 173.6 mAh g-1, amounting to a capacity retention of 94.4%, much higher than that employing PVDF as binder (the discharge capacity of 69.3 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention of 54.1%). The rate capability test and the Coulombic efficiency data also manifest that the Sodium titanate cuboid utilizing CMC as binder is superior to the ones with PVDF. These enhanced electrochemical performance mainly derive from the strong cohesive strength of CMC binder and the swellability of PVDF binder, verifying the importance of a binder to the optimization of sodium storage behavior.

  11. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  12. The development of an advanced generic solar dynamic heat receiver thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Roschke, E. J.; Kohout, L.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced generic solar dynamic heat receiver thermal model under development which can analyze both orbital transient and orbital average conditions is discussed. This model can be used to study advanced receiver concepts, evaluate receiver concepts under development, analyze receiver thermal characteristics under various operational conditions, and evaluate solar dynamic system thermal performances in various orbit conditions. The model and the basic considerations that led to its creation are described, and results based on a set of baseline orbit, configuration, and operational conditions are presented to demonstrate the working of the receiver model.

  13. Advanced Thermal Storage for Central Receivers with Supercritical Coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Bruce D.

    2010-06-15

    The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept. The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver, two-tank (hot and cold) nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Plant Designation Receiver Fluid Thermal Storage Rankine Cycle Subcritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Subcritical Supercritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical Low temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Low temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Several conclusions have been drawn from the results of the study, as follows: 1) The use of supercritical H2O as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is likely not a practical approach. The specific heat of the fluid is a strong function of the temperatures at values near 400 °C, and the temperature profile in the bed during a charging cycle is markedly different than the profile during a discharging cycle. 2) The use of supercritical CO2 as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is judged to be technically feasible. Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory. The unit cost of the two-tank nitrate salt system is approximately $24/kWht, while the unit cost of the high pressure thermocline system is nominally 10 times as high. 3) For the supercritical fluids, the outer crown temperatures of the receiver tubes are in the range of 700 to 800 °C. At temperatures of 700 °C and above

  14. Compatibility Assessment of Advanced Stainless Steels in Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Type 316L stainless steel capsules containing commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS (austenitic, 14Cr-16Ni), NF-616 (ferritic/martensitic, 9Cr-2W-0.5Mo), or 316L (austenitic, 17Cr-10Ni-2Mo) stainless steel were exposed at 600 or 700 C for 100 and 400 h as a screening test for compatibility. Using weight change, tensile testing, and metallographic analysis, HT-UPS and 316L were found to be largely immune to changes resulting from sodium exposure, but NF-616 was found susceptible to substantial decarburization at 700 C. Subsequently, two thermal convection loops (TCLs) constructed of 316L and loaded with commercially pure sodium and miniature tensile specimens of HT-UPS and 316L were operated for 2000 h each one between 500 and 650 C, the other between 565 and 725 C at a flow rate of about 1.5 cm/s. Changes in specimen appearance, weight, and tensile properties were observed to be very minor in all cases, and there was no metallographic evidence of microstructure changes, composition gradients, or mass transfer resulting from prolonged exposure in a TCL. Thus, it appears that HT-UPS and 316L stainless steels are similarly compatible with commercially pure sodium under these exposure conditions.

  15. Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Li, Meimei; Chopra, O. K.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels. Focus is on Type 316SS and mod.9Cr-1Mo. The sodium effects were evaluated by comparing the mechanical properties data in air and sodium. Carburization and decarburization were found to be the key factors that determine the tensile and creep properties of the steels. A beneficial effect of sodium exposure on fatigue life was observed under fully reversed cyclic loading in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. However, when hold time was applied during cyclic loading, the fatigue life was significantly reduced. Based on the mechanical performance of the steels in sodium, consideration of sodium effects in high temperature structural design of advanced fast reactors is discussed.

  16. Acute seizures in a patient receiving divalproex sodium after starting ertapenem therapy.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Jesse L; Nelson, Robert E; Storandt, Harrison F

    2007-08-01

    Divalproex sodium is an anticonvulsant widely prescribed to treat several types of seizure disorders, including tonic-clonic and simple or complex partial seizures. We describe a 41-year-old man who experienced recurring tonic-clonic seizures after a drug interaction between divalproex sodium and ertapenem, a carbapenem antibiotic. The patient's valproic acid serum concentration was 130 mug/ml approximately 3 months before he started ertapenem 2000 mg/day (20.6 mg/kg/day). On day 7 of ertapenem therapy, the patient was brought to the emergency department with tonic-clonic seizures; his valproic acid serum concentration was 70 microg/ml. His divalproex sodium dosage was increased, and he was released from the emergency department only to return 4 days later with recurring seizures. This time his valproic acid serum concentration was 10.7 microg/ml. Ertapenem was discontinued, and his divalproex sodium dosage was increased further. The patient's valproic acid level rapidly returned to a therapeutic level 2 days after ertapenem discontinuation, and he had no further seizures. Using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to determine the probability of the drug interaction, we found that the likelihood of the interaction was probable (score of 7). Similar interactions have been reported between other carbapenem antibiotics and valproic acid. Clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction between divalproex sodium and ertapenem; concurrent administration of these two drugs should be approached with caution. In patients prescribed this combination, the valproic acid serum concentration should be carefully monitored to prevent recurring seizures. PMID:17655519

  17. 78 FR 44103 - Announcement of Public Meetings To Receive Comments on Draft Solicitation for Advanced Fossil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... FR 41046). Persons desiring to submit comments may do so either in writing according to the... Announcement of Public Meetings To Receive Comments on Draft Solicitation for Advanced Fossil Energy Projects... announcement for Federal Loan Guarantees for Advanced Fossil Energy Projects. DATES: The public meetings...

  18. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge Past ... NIH Clinical Center. Photo: NIH Clinical Center Children research volunteers receive care and help advance knowledge I ...

  19. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study. Final report, May 1986-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kesseli, J.; Saunders, R.; Batchelder, G.

    1988-10-01

    Solar dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  20. Telemetry SNR improvement using the DSN Advanced Receiver with results for Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Brown, D. H.; Vilnrotter, V. A.; Wiggins, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A series of tracking tests was conducted in the spring of 1987 to demonstrate the reduced tracking threshold and the improved telemetry singal-to-noise-ratio performance of the DSN Advanced Receiver compared to current operational DSN systems. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is now out of the solar system, was tracked on foud days. The Advanced Receiver achieved an improvement in telemetry SNR of 1 to 1.5 dB over the operational system. It was demonstrated that the spacecraft carrier signal is stable enough for tracking with a receiver carrier loop bandwidth of 0.5 Hz in the one-way mode and 0.1 Hz in the three-way mode, and that the Advanced Receiver is stable at 0.1 Hz. This reduces tracking threshold by 10 to 15 dB compared to current receivers, which have minimum loop bandwidths of 1 to 3 Hz. Thus, the Advanced Receiver will enable tracking of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft until its power source fails, circa 2000, which would not be possible with the current DSN system.

  1. A Comparison of Taste and Odor Perception in Pediatric Patients Receiving a 0.9% Sodium Chloride Flush From 2 Different Brands of Prefilled 0.9% Sodium Chloride Syringes.

    PubMed

    Hamze, Benjamin; Vaillancourt, Régis; Sharp, Diane; Villarreal, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized single-blind study is to compare taste and odor disturbances in patients receiving 0.9% sodium chloride flushes from 2 brands. Seventy-five patients from 6 to 18 years of age received intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride infusions, and 50 healthy volunteers who tasted the 2 brands of 0.9% sodium chloride from prefilled syringes were assessed for taste and/or odor disturbances. Taste or odor disturbances were equally present in patients flushed with MedXL and Becton-Dickinson 0.9% sodium chloride. Disturbances are more frequent when 0.9% sodium chloride is flushed through central venous access devices than through peripheral catheters. No difference between the brands was found when healthy volunteers tasted it orally. PMID:26714115

  2. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention.

    PubMed

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, George

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema. PMID:26074951

  3. 25 CFR 170.615 - Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities? 170.615 Section 170.615 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  4. 25 CFR 170.615 - Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities? 170.615 Section 170.615 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  5. 25 CFR 170.615 - Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities? 170.615 Section 170.615 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  6. 41 CFR 301-51.200 - For what expenses may I receive a travel advance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal check, or travelers check) Any time you are on official travel. (1) M&IE covered by the per diem... receive a travel advance? 301-51.200 Section 301-51.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES,...

  7. 41 CFR 301-51.200 - For what expenses may I receive a travel advance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal check, or travelers check) Any time you are on official travel. (1) M&IE covered by the per diem... receive a travel advance? 301-51.200 Section 301-51.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES,...

  8. 41 CFR 301-51.200 - For what expenses may I receive a travel advance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true For what expenses may I receive a travel advance? 301-51.200 Section 301-51.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES, PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING...

  9. 41 CFR 301-51.200 - For what expenses may I receive a travel advance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personal check, or travelers check) Any time you are on official travel. (1) M&IE covered by the per diem... receive a travel advance? 301-51.200 Section 301-51.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES,...

  10. 41 CFR 301-51.200 - For what expenses may I receive a travel advance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personal check, or travelers check) Any time you are on official travel. (1) M&IE covered by the per diem... receive a travel advance? 301-51.200 Section 301-51.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES,...

  11. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate to treat cough in advanced lung cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, M.; Porta, C.; Gualtieri, G.; Nastasi, G.; Tinelli, C.

    1996-01-01

    C-fibres probably represent the common final pathway in both ACE inhibitors and neoplastic cough. A recent report demonstrated that inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE inhibitors' cough; this effect might be due to the suppression of afferent unmyelinated C-fibres. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled sodium cromoglycate might also be effective in lung cancer patients who presented with irritative neoplastic cough. Twenty non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients complaining of cough resistant to conventional treatment were randomised to receive, in a double-blind trial, either inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo. Patients recorded cough severity daily, before and during treatment, on a 0 to 4 scale. The efficacy of treatment was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric measures, comparing the intergroup differences in the measures of summary of symptom scores calculated in each patient before and after treatment. We report that inhaled sodium cromoglycate can reduce cough, also in NSCLC patients and that such reduction, observed in all patients treated, is statistically significant (P < 0.001). Inhaled sodium cromoglycate appears to be a cost-effective and safe treatment for lung cancer-related cough. PMID:8688342

  12. Advanced Stirling receiver development program, phase 1. Final report, December 1988-July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lurio, C.A.

    1990-07-01

    Critical technology experiments were designed and developed to evaluate the Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver for a space solar power system. Theoretical criteria were applied to the design of a module for containing energy storage phase change material while avoiding thermal ratcheting. Zero-g drop tower tests, without phase change, were conducted to affirm that the bubble location required to avoid ratcheting could be achieved without the use of container materials that are wetted by the phase change material. A full scale module was fabricated, but not tested. A fabrication method was successfully developed for the sodium evaporator dome, with a sintered screen wick, to be used as the focal point for the receiver. Crushing of the screen during hydroforming was substantially reduced over the results of other researchers by using wax impregnation. Superheating of the sodium in the wick under average flux conditions is expected to be under 10K. A 2000K furnace which will simulate solar flux conditions for testing the evaporator dome was successfully built and tested.

  13. Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  14. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, XC; Xia, GG; Lemmon, JP; Yang, ZG

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a beta ''-Al(2)O(3) solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 degrees C ). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Chemotherapy for patients with advanced lung cancer receiving long-term oxygen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Okamoto, Norio; Tanaka, Ayako; Morishita, Naoko; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is sometimes prescribed for patients with advanced lung cancer who are potential candidates for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of chemotherapy for patients with this disease who require LTOT. Methods The medical records of 40 patients with advanced lung cancer who received LTOT while undergoing systemic chemotherapy at our institution between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Chemotherapy consisted of cytotoxic or molecular-targeted agents. Results Twenty-four patients had adenocarcinoma, 6 had squamous cell carcinoma, and 10 had small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The median survival time from the date of the first chemotherapy cycle performed in conjunction with LTOT was 194 days. In a multivariate analysis, the only factor significantly associated with better prognosis was the line (first or second) of the first chemotherapy with LTOT (hazard ratio =0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.94). Among the 40 patients, 10 (25%) received chemotherapy during the last 30 days of their lives, 2 of whom died of chemotherapy-related adverse events. Conclusions Chemotherapy for patients with advanced lung cancer who receive LTOT may be acceptable if it is the first- or second-line treatment. However, we should be mindful of the potential overuse of chemotherapy and its negative impact on quality of life. PMID:26904219

  16. Qualitative analysis of interference on receiver performance using advanced pulse compression noise (APCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Mark A.; Elwell, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    We present an analysis of receiver performance when diverse waveforms such as the advanced pulse compression noise (APCN) are used. Two perspectives within the shared channel are considered: (1) a radar transceiving APCN in the presence of other radar interference sources, and (2) a communications system transceiving M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) in the presence of a radar interference sources practicing waveform diversity. Through simulation, we show how waveform diversity and the ability to tune the APCN spectrum characteristics minimizes interference for co-channel users.

  17. [Briefly summarized nursing card for patients with advanced cancer receiving out hospital management].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Andoh, M; Hioki, M; Sugitoh, Y; Hyoudoh, C

    1994-12-01

    Briefly summarized nursing card to perform adequate nursing for readmission patients with advanced cancer receiving outhospital management was developed and its clinical usefulness for nursing is discussed. The card is 18 cm x 13 cm, differential colored for diseases, and written only necessary summarized informations for adequate nursing at the patient's emergent readmission. By using this card for 24 patients, it was very useful because of its very selected, brief and summarized information. This card has much usefulness for nursing of such patients. PMID:7802460

  18. Economic assessment of advanced central-receiver solar-thermal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. T.; Boyle, R. F.; Malone, M. J.; Doar, D. W.; Parker, W. G.

    1980-10-01

    The value and potential electric utility impact of several advanced central receiver solar thermal plant concepts in the role of electric generating stations were estimated. The impact of interest included economics, the cost of producing electricity, fuels displaced, and utility system reliability. The central receiver plants evaluated included solar/fossil hybrid concepts and solar stand alone plants with thermal storage. Liquid metal/molten salt, closed Brayton cycle, improved water steam, and combined Brayton/Rankine cycle concepts were among those investigated. Detailed modeling of the operation of these plants, as they would operate on several electric utility systems, was the basis of the analysis. Analysis to optimize collector area and storage capacity was also performed. The study indicates that if the cost goals can be achieved and predicted solar plant performance attained, then the advanced solar thermal concepts can be competitive in regions with good insolation and some continued use of oil or other surrogate distillate or gaseous fuels. Some thermal storage (3 to 6 hours) was also found to be desirable for most applications.

  19. The Meaning of Parenteral Hydration to Family Caregivers and Patients with Advanced Cancer Receiving Hospice Care

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marlene Z; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Burbach, Beth E.; de Rosa, Allison; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Context In the U.S., patients with advanced cancer who are dehydrated or have decreased oral intake virtually always receive parenteral hydration in acute care facilities but rarely in the hospice setting. Objectives To describe the meaning of hydration for terminally ill cancer patients in home hospice care and for their primary caregivers. Methods Phenomenological interviews were conducted at two time points with 85 patients and 84 caregivers enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial examining the efficacy of parenteral hydration in patients with advanced cancer receiving hospice care in the southern U.S. Transcripts were analyzed hermeneutically by the interdisciplinary research team until consensus on the theme labels was reached. Results Patients and their family caregivers both saw hydration as meaning hope and comfort. Hope was the view that hydration might prolong a life of dignity and enhance quality of life by reducing symptoms such as fatigue and increasing patients’ alertness. Patients and caregivers also described hydration as improving patients’ comfort by reducing pain, enhancing the effectiveness of pain medication, and nourishing the body, mind and spirit. Conclusion These findings differ from traditional hospice beliefs that dehydration enhances patient comfort given that patients and their families in the study viewed fluids as enhancing comfort, dignity and quality of life. Discussion with patients and families about their preferences for hydration may help tailor care plans to meet specific patient needs. PMID:22459230

  20. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of IV Dexketoprofen, Lornoxicam, and Diclophenac Sodium on Postoperative Analgesia and Tramadol Consumption in Patients Receiving Patient-Controlled Tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçkaya, Refika; Güleç, Ersel; Ünlügenç, Hakkı; Gündüz, Murat; Işık, Geylan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to compare the effects of dexketoprofen, lornoxicam, and diclophenac sodium on postoperative analgesia and tramadol consumption in patients receiving postoperative patient-controlled tramadol after a major abdominal surgery. Methods Eighty patients were randomized to receive one of the four study drugs. Patients in group dexketoprofen (DT) received IV 50 mg dexketoprofen, group lornoxicam (LR) received IV 8 mg lornoxicam, group diclophenac sodium (DS) received 75 mg IV diclophenac sodium and group saline (S) received 0.9% saline in 2 mL syringes, 20 min before the end of anaesthesia. A standardized (1 mg kg−1) dose of tramadol was routinely administered to all patients as the loading dose at the end of surgery. Postoperatively, whenever patients requested, they were allowed to use a tramadol patient-controlled analgesia device giving a bolus dose (0.2 mg kg−1) of tramadol. Pain, discomfort, and sedation scores, cumulative tramadol consumption, supplemental meperidine requirement, and side effects were recorded. Results Visual rating scale and patient discomfort scores were significantly lower in DT, LR and DS groups compared to those in in group S (p<0.001). Cumulative tramadol consumption was significantly lower in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-treated groups at each study period after the second postoperative hour than in group S (p<0.001). Supplemental meperidine requirement was significantly higher in group S at each study period after postoperative 30 min than in NSAID-treated groups (p<0.01). Conclusion After major abdominal surgery, adding IV diclophenac, lornoxicam or dexketoprofen to patient-controlled tramadol resulted in lower pain scores, smaller tramadol consumption, less rescue supplemental analgesic requirement, and fewer side effects compared with the tramadol alone group. PMID:27366491

  1. A class of optimum digital phase locked loops for the DSN advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    A class of optimum digital filters for digital phase locked loop of the deep space network advanced receiver is discussed. The filter minimizes a weighted combination of the variance of the random component of the phase error and the sum square of the deterministic dynamic component of phase error at the output of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO). By varying the weighting coefficient over a suitable range of values, a wide set of filters are obtained such that, for any specified value of the equivalent loop-noise bandwidth, there corresponds a unique filter in this class. This filter thus has the property of having the best transient response over all possible filters of the same bandwidth and type. The optimum filters are also evaluated in terms of their gain margin for stability and their steady-state error performance.

  2. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, book 2: Conceptual design, sections 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible are described. The detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system are given.

  3. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  4. Efficacy of prophylactic anti-diarrhoeal treatment in patients receiving Campto for advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Duffour, J; Gourgou, S; Seitz, J F; Senesse, P; Boutet, O; Castera, D; Kramar, A; Ychou, M

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of combined prophylactic and curative anti-diarrhoeal medication in advanced colorectal patients treated by irinotecan. Thirty-four pre-treated eligible patients were evaluated. There were 44% women, the median age was 65 and 38% of the patients had a 0 performance status. The patients received sucralfate(4g/d) and nifuroxazide(600 mg/d) prophylactic treatment on days 0-7. In the case of severe diarrhoea, preventive treatment was replaced by loperamide(12 mg/d) and diosmectite (9 g/d). Grade 3 delayed diarrhoea occurred in 18% of patients (90% CI: [9.5-28.9]) and 4.6% of cycles. No grade 4 delayed diarrhoea was observed. Twenty-nine patients (85%) received the preventive treatment at cycle 1, while 14% (90% CI: [6.2-25.7]) experienced grade 3 delayed diarrhoea in 3.7% of cycles for a median 4.5 days. The objective response rate was 8% (90% CI [1.4-23.1]) among the 25 assessable patients. Preventive combined treatment is effective in reducing the incidence of severe delayed diarrhoea, and it should be proposed to patients treated with mono-therapy Campto(r) and evaluated in poly-chemotherapy protocols. PMID:12552984

  5. Advanced receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (ARAIM) schemes with GNSS time offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Jinling; Jiang, Yiping

    2013-07-01

    Within the current Advanced Receiver Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM) scheme, the time offsets between different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) constellations are estimated along with a position solution and the GNSS receiver clock error. This scheme is called the Time-offsets Estimated ARAIM, or the TOE ARAIM. In order to enhance the interoperability and compatibility between different constellations, the time offsets are expected to be broadcast to users in future multi-GNSS positioning and navigation applications. This paper describes two new ARAIM schemes to make use of the Broadcast Time Offsets (BTOs): Time Offset Observed ARAIM (TOO ARAIM) and Time Offset Synchronized ARAIM (TOS ARAIM). It has been shown that the VPL performances of these two new ARAIM schemes rely strongly on the accuracy of BTOs. By varying the error model of the BTOs, the simulation results also demonstrate that the proposed new TOO ARAIM scheme can outperform the existing TOE ARAIM scheme-even if the accuracy of BTOs for integrity is degraded to 4.5 m and the probability of a BTO fault is relaxed to 10-2 h-1. In addition, the new Time Offset Synchronized ARAIM scheme (TOS ARAIM) can also perform better than the existing TOE ARAIM scheme if the accuracy of BTOs for integrity can reach 0.75 m. As the TOO ARAIM also has a very relaxed requirement on BTOs and better VPL performance, the TOO ARAIM is regarded as a superior ARAIM scheme for multi-GNSS with BTOs available.

  6. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  7. A 100 MWe advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor core concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. K.; Grandy, C.; Hill, R. N.

    2012-07-01

    An Advanced sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core concept (AFR-100) was developed targeting a small electrical grid to be transportable to the plant site and operable for a long time without frequent refueling. The reactor power rating was strategically decided to be 100 MWe, and the core barrel diameter was limited to 3.0 m for transportability. The design parameters were determined by relaxing the peak fast fluence limit and bulk coolant outlet temperature to beyond irradiation experience assuming that advanced cladding and structural materials developed under US-DOE programs would be available when the AFR-100 is deployed. With a de-rated power density and U-Zr binary metallic fuel, the AFR-100 can maintain criticality for 30 years without refueling. The average discharge burnup of 101 MWd/kg is comparable to conventional design values, but the peak discharge fast fluence of {approx}6x10{sup 23} neutrons/cm{sup 2} is beyond the current irradiation experiences with HT-9 cladding. The evaluated reactivity coefficients provide sufficient negative feedbacks and the reactivity control systems provide sufficient shutdown margins. The integral reactivity parameters obtained from quasi-static reactivity balance analysis indicate that the AFR-100 meets the sufficient conditions for acceptable asymptotic core outlet temperature following postulated unprotected accidents. Additionally, the AFR-100 has sufficient thermal margins by grouping the fuel assemblies into eight orifice zones. (authors)

  8. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  9. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Howell, M.

    1990-09-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquidus temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, are presented. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  11. Robust remote-pumping sodium laser for advanced LIDAR and guide star applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstberger, Bernhard; Enderlein, Martin; Friedenauer, Axel; Schwerdt, Robin; Wei, Daoping; Karpov, Vladimir; Leisching, Patrick; Clements, Wallace R. L.; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.

    2015-10-01

    The performance of large ground-based optical telescopes is limited due to wavefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics systems using natural guide stars with sufficient brightness provide a practical way for correcting the wavefront errors by means of deformable mirrors. Unfortunately, the sky coverage of bright stars is poor and therefore the concept of laser guide stars was invented, creating an artificial star by exciting resonance fluorescence from the mesospheric sodium layer about 90 km above the earth's surface. Until now, mainly dye lasers or sumfrequency mixing of solid state lasers were used to generate laser guide stars. However, these kinds of lasers require a stationary laser clean room for operation and are extremely demanding in maintenance. Under a development contract with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO), TOPTICA Photonics AG and its partner MPB Communications have finalized the development of a next-generation sodium guide star laser system which is available now as a commercial off-the-shelf product. The laser is based on a narrow-band diode laser, Raman fiber amplifier (RFA) technology and resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG), thus highly reliable and simple to operate and maintain. It emits > 22 W of narrow-linewidth (≈ 5 MHz) continuous-wave radiation at sodium resonance and includes a re-pumping scheme for boosting sodium return flux. Due to the SHG resonator acting as spatial mode filter and polarizer, the output is diffraction-limited with RMS wavefront error < λ/25. Apart from this unique optical design, a major effort has been dedicated to integrating all optical components into a ruggedized system, providing a maximum of convenience and reliability for telescope operators. The new remote-pumping architecture allows for a large spatial separation between the main part of the laser and the compact laser head. Together with a cooling-water flow of less than 5 l

  12. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances. PMID:27078964

  13. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    SciTech Connect

    F. Delage; J. Carmack; C. B. Lee; T. Mizuno; M. Pelletier; J. Somers

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  14. Bioenergy from Coastal bermudagrass receiving subsurface drip irrigation with advance-treated swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Stone, Kenneth C; Hunt, Patrick G; Ro, Kyoung S; Vanotti, Matias B; Burns, Joseph C

    2009-07-01

    Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) may be a potentially important source of bio-based energy in the southern US due to its vast acreage. It is often produced as part of a waste management plan with varying nutrient composition and energy characteristics on fields irrigated with livestock wastewater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of subsurface drip irrigation with treated swine wastewater on both the quantity and quality of bermudagrass bioenergy. The treated wastewater was recycled from an advanced treatment system and used for irrigation of bermudagrass in two crop seasons. The experiment had nine water and drip line spacing treatments arrayed in a randomized complete block-design with four replicates. The bermudagrass was analyzed for calorific and mineral contents. Bermudagrass energy yields for 2004 and 2005 ranged from 127.4 to 251.4MJ ha(-1). Compared to irrigation with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, the least biomass energy density was associated with bermudagrass receiving treated swine wastewater. Yet, in 2004 the wastewater irrigated bermudagrass had greater hay yields leading to greater energy yield per ha. This decrease in energy density of wastewater irrigated bermudagrass was associated with increased concentrations of K, Ca, and Na. After thermal conversion, these compounds are known to remain in the ash portion thereby decreasing the energy density. Nonetheless, the loss of energy density using treated effluent via SDI may be offset by the positive influence of these three elements for their catalytic properties in downstream thermal conversion processes such as promoting a lesser char yield and greater combustible gas formation. PMID:19289275

  15. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator.

    PubMed

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Haneder, Stefan; Schad, Lothar R

    2016-03-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ((23)Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for (23)Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The (23)Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of (23)Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using (23)Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented (23)Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∼7cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. (23)Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6mm isotropic resolution, 49ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120ms repetition time) using this setup. PMID:25891846

  16. Development of Advanced 9Cr Ferritic-Martensitic Steels and Austenitic Stainless Steels for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Tan, Lizhen; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic-martensitic (FM) steel Grade 92, with or without thermomechanical treatment (TMT), and austenitic stainless steels HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine precipitate strengthening) and NF709 were selected as potential candidate structural materials in the U.S. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) program. The objective is to develop advanced steels with improved properties as compared with reference materials such as Grade 91 and Type 316H steels that are currently in nuclear design codes. Composition modification and/or processing optimization (e.g., TMT and cold-work) were performed to improve properties such as resistance to thermal aging, creep, creep-fatigue, fracture, and sodium corrosion. Testings to characterize these properties for the advanced steels were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the U.S. SFR program. This paper focuses on the resistance to thermal aging and creep of the advanced steels. The advanced steels exhibited up to two orders of magnitude increase in creep life compared to the reference materials. Preliminary results on the weldment performance of the advanced steels are also presented. The superior performance of the advanced steels would improve reactor design flexibility, safety margins and economics.

  17. On-sun test results from second-generation and advanced-concepts alkali-metal pool-boiler receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-05-01

    Two 75-kW{sub t} alkali-metal pool-boiler solar receivers have been successfully tested at Sandia National Laboratories` National Solar Thermal Test Facility. The first one, Sandia`s `` second-generation pool-boiler receiver,`` was designed to address commercialization issues identified during post-test assessment of Sandia`s first-generation pool-boiler receiver. It was constructed from Haynes alloy 230 and contained the alkali-metal alloy NaK-78. The absorber`s wetted side had a brazed-on powder-metal coating to stabilize boiling. This receiver was evaluated for boiling stability, hot- and warm-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency. Boiling was stable under all conditions. All of the hot restarts were successful. Mild transient hot spots observed during some hot restarts were eliminated by the addition of 1/3 torr of xenon to the vapor space. All of the warm restarts were also successful. The heat-transfer crisis that damaged the first receiver did not recur. Thermal efficiency was 92.3% at 750{degrees}C with 69.6 kW{sub t} solar input. The second receiver tested, Sandia`s ``advanced-concepts receiver,`` was a replica of the first-generation receiver except that the cavities, which were electric-discharge-machined in the absorber for boiling stability, were eliminated. This step was motivated by bench-scale test results that showed that boiling stability improved with increased heated-surface area, tilt of the heated surface from vertical, and added xenon. The bench-scale results suggested that stable boiling might be possible without heated-surface modification in a 75-kW{sub t} receiver. Boiling in the advanced-concepts receiver with 1/3 torr of xenon added has been stable under all conditions, confirming the bench-scale tests.

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.106 - What documentation is required to receive an advance under the commuted rate method?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What documentation is required to receive an advance under the commuted rate method? 302-7.106 Section 302-7.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION...

  19. 41 CFR 301-31.14 - May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses? 301-31.14 Section 301-31.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 31-THREATENED LAW...

  20. 41 CFR 302-2.20 - May I receive an advance of funds for my travel and transportation expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I receive an advance... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES... knowledge, no third party has accepted duplicate reimbursement for your relocation expenses. The...

  1. Insertion compounds and composites made by ball milling for advanced sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Dugas, Romain; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozier, Patrick; Abakumov, Artem M.; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. However, their future commercialization depends critically on control over the solid electrolyte interface formation, as well as the degree of sodiation at the positive electrode. Here we report an easily scalable ball milling approach, which relies on the use of metallic sodium, to prepare a variety of sodium-based alloys, insertion layered oxides and polyanionic compounds having sodium in excess such as the Na4V2(PO4)2F3 phase. The practical benefits of preparing sodium-enriched positive electrodes as reservoirs to compensate for sodium loss during solid electrolyte interphase formation are demonstrated by assembling full C/P'2-Na1[Fe0.5Mn0.5]O2 and C/`Na3+xV2(PO4)2F3' sodium-ion cells that show substantial increases (>10%) in energy storage density. Our findings may offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of the sodium-ion technology.

  2. Insertion compounds and composites made by ball milling for advanced sodium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Dugas, Romain; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozier, Patrick; Abakumov, Artem M.; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. However, their future commercialization depends critically on control over the solid electrolyte interface formation, as well as the degree of sodiation at the positive electrode. Here we report an easily scalable ball milling approach, which relies on the use of metallic sodium, to prepare a variety of sodium-based alloys, insertion layered oxides and polyanionic compounds having sodium in excess such as the Na4V2(PO4)2F3 phase. The practical benefits of preparing sodium-enriched positive electrodes as reservoirs to compensate for sodium loss during solid electrolyte interphase formation are demonstrated by assembling full C/P′2-Na1[Fe0.5Mn0.5]O2 and C/‘Na3+xV2(PO4)2F3' sodium-ion cells that show substantial increases (>10%) in energy storage density. Our findings may offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of the sodium-ion technology. PMID:26777573

  3. Using artificial neural networks to predict the performance of a liquid sodium reflux pool boiler solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.M.; Klett, D.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Heermann, P.D.

    1997-03-01

    Liquid metal reflux receivers (LMRRs) have been designed to serve as the interface between the solar concentrator dish and the Stirling engine of a dish Stirling power system. Such a receiver has undergone performance testing at Sandia National Laboratory to determine cold- and hot-start characteristics, component temperatures, throughput power, and thermal efficiency, for various times of day and year. Performance modeling will play an important role in the future commercialization of these systems since it will be necessary to predict overall energy production for potential installation sites based on available meteorological data. As a supplement to numerical thermal modeling, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been investigated for their effectiveness in predicting long-term energy production of a LMRR. Two types of data were used to train ANNs, actual on-sun test data, and ersatz data. ANNs were trained on both the raw on-sun test data and on pre-formatted versions of the data to determine if pre-formatting of the input data would improve network training efficiency and predictive abilities. Usable on-sun test data were available for only a few days of performance testing. Therefore, a set of year-long ersatz data was generated using a transient numerical model driven by one-minute meteorological data from the Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Sites (SEMRTS) data base for Davis, CA. The ersatz data were used to train ANNs based on warm-month data, cool-month data, and year-long data to investigate the impact of using seasonal test data on long-term predictive capabilities. The findings indicated that a network trained on data from a limited time span could successfully predict annual energy output of a liquid metal receiver.

  4. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  5. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Embedded MoS2 Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Donghuang; Zhong, Yu; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    Rational design and synthesis of advanced anode materials are extremely important for high-performance lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is developed for fabrication of N-C@MoS2 microspheres with the help of polyurethane as carbon and nitrogen sources. The MoS2 microspheres are composed of MoS2 nanoflakes, which are wrapped by an N-doped carbon layer. Owing to its unique structural features, the N-C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit greatly enhanced lithium- and sodium-storage performances including a high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Additionally, the developed polyurethane-assisted hydrothermal method could be useful for the construction of many other high-capacity metal oxide/sulfide composite electrode materials for energy storage. PMID:27355199

  6. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  7. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  8. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  9. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  10. HOTAIR is a predictive and prognostic biomarker for patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma receiving fluorouracil and platinum combination chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Dong, Shuang; Duan, Bensong; Chen, Ping; Shi, Lei; Gao, Hengjun; Qi, Haizhi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR participates in many types of cancer such as gastric cancer and may confer malignant phenotype to tumor cells. Fluorouracil and platinum combination chemotherapy is the first line therapy for gastric cancer. However, it is still unknown whether HOTAIR influences the outcome of cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the association of HOTAIR expression with the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) receiving fluorouracil and platinum based chemotherapy. We examined the levels of HOTAIR in 168 GA samples using quantitative real-time PCR and analyzed its relationship with clinical features and prognosis of patients with advanced GA treated with fluorouracil and platinum based chemotherapy. Compared with paracancerous tissues, HOTAIR was significantly upregulated in GA tissues, especially in more advanced cases. High HOTAIR expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced GA. Further stratification analyses revealed that the association between HOTAIR expression and survival in patients with advanced GA remained significant in the subgroup of patients with TNM stages IIIA and IIIB, poorly differentiated, and smaller tumors. In conclusion, our results provide first evidence that HOTAIR may be served as a biomarker that predicts which patient with advanced GA will benefit from fluorouracil and platinum combination chemotherapy. PMID:26328013

  11. 41 CFR 302-9.12 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency or temporary storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I receive an advance... PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.12 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation...

  12. Design and development of an advanced technology light weight receiver for phase array applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayar, Esen

    1987-10-01

    A light weight L-band receiver for application to spacecraft multiple beam phased array front ends is discussed, with emphasis on the design of the low noise amplifiers and the RF filter. The receiver is designed to operate in the Inmarsat frequency band of 1626.5-1656.5 MHz, with a single down conversion to an intermediate frequency of 250 MHz. Performance parameters include an overall noise figure of 1.5 dB with an associated gain of 60 dB and a multicarrier C/I3 of 90 dB over an acceptance temperature range of -5 C to 55 C. The mass target of 200 g should be achievable.

  13. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhongli; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen; Xiao, Zefen; Tan, Wen; and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  14. On-sun testing of an advanced falling particle receiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Christian, Joshua M.; Yellowhair, Julius; Siegel, Nathan; Jeter, Sheldon; Golob, Matthew; Abdel-Khalik, Said I.; Nguyen, Clayton; Al-Ansary, Hany

    2016-05-01

    A 1 MWth high-temperature falling particle receiver was constructed and tested at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The continuously recirculating system included a particle elevator, top and bottom hoppers, and a cavity receiver that comprised a staggered array of porous chevron-shaped mesh structures that slowed the particle flow through the concentrated solar flux. Initial tests were performed with a peak irradiance of ~300 kW/m2 and a particle mass flow rate of 3.3 kg/s. Peak particle temperatures reached over 700 °C near the center of the receiver, but the particle temperature increase near the sides was lower due to a non-uniform irradiance distribution. At a particle inlet temperature of ~440 °C, the particle temperature increase was 27 °C per meter of drop length, and the thermal efficiency was ~60% for an average irradiance of 110 kW/m2. At an average irradiance of 211 kW/m2, the particle temperature increase was 57.1 °C per meter of drop length, and the thermal efficiency was ~65%. Tests with higher irradiances are being performed and are expected to yield greater particle temperature increases and efficiencies.

  15. Overview on advances in radiometric receiver design and technology: application to the MIMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordi, Roberto; L'Abbate, Michele; Spera, Paolo

    1994-12-01

    MIMR (Multifrequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer) is an instrument under development for the European Space Agency (ESA) by the European Industry, with Alenia Spazio as Prime Contractor. It is a conical scanning passive microwave radiometer, which shall measure the Earth surface brightness temperature by processing the received electro- magnetic Earth surface radiation in linear polarization. Its output products will be of prime importance for monitoring of the environment, and will provide useful data for climatology and meteorology with day and night operation capabilities and near global daily coverage. The experience gained through various programs since 1972 with NIMBUS satellite's series utilizing ESMR, NEMS, SCAMS, SMMR instruments and DMSP-Block 5D-2 satellite with on-board SSM/I instrument led to the MIMR concept with better performance than the instruments already flown. MIMR has successfully passed a design phase, which has established an instrument baseline suited for accommodation on either the NASA EOS or ESA METOP spacecrafts, and a breadboarding activity devoted to key items. A Demonstrator model of the Instrument is currently under development, which shall prove by test its challenging performance: it will be representative of the flight design, performing measurements at 6.8, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz. Within this paper emphasis will be put on the receivers key design topics, as driven by performance and technology trade-offs, with an overview of the achieved performance in the frame of development activity.

  16. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation. PMID:24940080

  17. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

  18. Serum magnesium concentrations in patients receiving sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate bowel preparation: an assessment of renal function and electrocardiographic conduction

    PubMed Central

    Bertiger, Gerald; Jones, Edward; Dahdal, David N; Marshall, Dennis C; Joseph, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    Background We performed a post hoc analysis of two clinical trials to assess whether sodium picosulfate and magnesium (Mg2+) citrate (Prepopik® [P/MC]), a dual-action bowel preparation for colonoscopy, has an impact on serum Mg2+ levels and cardiac electrophysiology. Although rare, hypermagnesemia has been reported in patients consuming Mg2+-containing cathartics, especially patients who are elderly and have renal impairment. Methods Data were analyzed from two prospective, Phase III, randomized, assessor-blinded, active-control, multicenter, pivotal studies that investigated split-dose/day-before P/MC. Serum Mg2+ and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were measured at screening, on the day of colonoscopy, and 24–48 hours, 7 days, and 4 weeks after colonoscopy; electrocardiograms also were obtained at these time points. Results In total, 304 patients received split-dose P/MC and 294 patients received day-before P/MC. Only 10% of the patients had serum Mg2+ above the upper limit of normal (1.05 mmol/L) on the day of colonoscopy. There was a slight inverse correlation between CrCl and Mg2+ levels on the day of colonoscopy; however, even at the lowest CrCl, serum Mg2+ remained below clinically significant levels of 2.0 mmol/L. Increases in serum Mg2+ were transient, with levels returning to baseline within 24–48 hours, regardless of renal function. No patients with elevated Mg2+ experienced a corrected QT (QTc) interval >500 milliseconds or a QTc interval increase of ≥60 milliseconds from baseline. P/MC had no impact on PR or QRS interval. Conclusion P/MC produces little impact on serum Mg2+ levels with no clinically significant effect on cardiac conduction in patients, including those with mild-to-moderate renal impairment. PMID:26251626

  19. The value of lactate dehydrogenase serum levels as a prognostic and predictive factor for advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Sobrero, Alberto; Labianca, Roberto; Ferrari, Daris; Barni, Sandro; Aitini, Enrico; Zaniboni, Alberto; Boni, Corrado; Caprioni, Francesco; Mosconi, Stefania; Fanello, Silvia; Berardi, Rossana; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Cinquini, Michela; Torri, Valter; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Although lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels, indirect markers of angiogenesis, are associated with a worse outcome in several tumours, their prognostic value is not defined in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, high levels are associated even with a lack of efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, contributing to explain negative results in clinical trials. We assessed the role of LDH in advanced pancreatic cancer receiving sorafenib. Seventy-one of 114 patients included in the randomised phase II trial MAPS (chemotherapy plus or not sorafenib) and with available serum LDH levels, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized according to serum LDH levels (LDH ≤vs.> upper normal rate). A significant difference was found in progression free survival (PFS) and in overall survival (OS) between patients with LDH values under or above the cut-off (PFS: 5.2 vs. 2.7 months, p = 0.0287; OS: 10.7 vs. 5.9 months, p = 0.0021). After stratification according to LDH serum levels and sorafenib treatment, patients with low LDH serum levels treated with sorafenib showed an advantage in PFS (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.0012). LDH appears to be a reliable parameter to assess the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer patients, and it may be a predictive parameter to select patients candidate to receive sorafenib. PMID:26397228

  20. Comparison of postoperative complications in advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Poonam; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar; Noronha, Vanita; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Head and neck cancer is the third most common cancer in India with 60% presenting in advanced stages. There is the emerging role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in the management of these advanced cancers. There is a general perception that complication rates are higher with the use of NACT. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospectively collected data of head and neck cancer patients operated at our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014. A total of 205 patients were included in the study. These patients were studied in two groups. Group 1 included 153 patients who underwent surgery alone, and Group 2 included 52 patients who received 2-3 cycles of NACT followed by surgery. Results: The mean age of the population was 51 years in the Group 1 and 45 years in Group 2. The hospital stay and readmissions in postoperative period were similar in the two groups. In this study, the complication rate was 37.9% in the surgery patients and 30.8% in the NACT patients (P = 0.424). Conclusion: The postoperative complication rates in patients who received NACT followed by surgery were not significantly different from those who underwent surgery. PMID:26811595

  1. The value of lactate dehydrogenase serum levels as a prognostic and predictive factor for advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Sobrero, Alberto; Labianca, Roberto; Ferrari, Daris; Barni, Sandro; Aitini, Enrico; Zaniboni, Alberto; Boni, Corrado; Caprioni, Francesco; Mosconi, Stefania; Fanello, Silvia; Berardi, Rossana; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Cinquini, Michela; Torri, Valter; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-10-27

    Although lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels, indirect markers of angiogenesis, are associated with a worse outcome in several tumours, their prognostic value is not defined in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, high levels are associated even with a lack of efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, contributing to explain negative results in clinical trials. We assessed the role of LDH in advanced pancreatic cancer receiving sorafenib. Seventy-one of 114 patients included in the randomised phase II trial MAPS (chemotherapy plus or not sorafenib) and with available serum LDH levels, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized according to serum LDH levels (LDH ≤ vs.> upper normal rate). A significant difference was found in progression free survival (PFS) and in overall survival (OS) between patients with LDH values under or above the cut-off (PFS: 5.2 vs. 2.7 months, p = 0.0287; OS: 10.7 vs. 5.9 months, p = 0.0021). After stratification according to LDH serum levels and sorafenib treatment, patients with low LDH serum levels treated with sorafenib showed an advantage in PFS (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.0012). LDH appears to be a reliable parameter to assess the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer patients, and it may be a predictive parameter to select patients candidate to receive sorafenib. PMID:26397228

  2. Early identification of non-responding locally advanced breast tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Charehbili, Ayoub; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Kroep, Judith R.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Chan, Alan; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Dijkstra, Jouke; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Wasser, Martin N. J. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) may be advantageous for monitoring tumor response during chemotherapy treatment, particularly in the early treatment stages. In this paper we perform a second analysis on the data of a clinical trial with 25 breast cancer patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were monitored using delayed contrast enhanced MRI and additionally with diffuse optical spectroscopy at baseline, after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, halfway therapy and before surgery. In this analysis hemoglobin content between tumor tissue and healthy tissue of the same breast is compared on all four monitoring time points. Furthermore, the predictive power of the tumor-healthy tissue difference of HbO2 for non-responder prediction is assessed. The difference in HbO2 content between tumor and healthy tissue was statistically significantly higher in responding tumors than in non-responding tumors at baseline (10.88 vs -0.57 μM, P=0.014) and after one cycle of chemotherapy (6.45 vs -1.31 μM, P=0.048). Before surgery this difference had diminished. In the data of this study, classification on the HbO2 difference between tumor and healthy tissue was able to predict tumor (non-)response at baseline and after 1 cycle with an area-under-curve of 0.95 and 0.88, respectively. While this result suggests that tumor response can be predicted before chemotherapy onset, one should be very careful with interpreting these results. A larger patient population is needed to confirm this finding.

  3. Review of hydraulic fracture mapping using advanced accelerometer-based receiver systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Uhl, J.E.; Engler, B.P.

    1997-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is an important tool for natural gas and oil exploitation, but its optimization has been impeded by an inability to observe how the fracture propagates and what its overall dimensions are. The few experiments in which fractures have been exposed through coring or mineback have shown that hydraulic fractures are complicated multi-stranded structures that may behave much differently than currently predicted by models. It is clear that model validation, fracture optimization, problem identification and solution, and field development have all been encumbered by the absence of any ground truth information on fracture behavior in field applications. The solution to this problem is to develop techniques to image the hydraulic fracture in situ from either the surface, the treatment well, or offset wells. Several diagnostic techniques have been available to assess individual elements of the fracture geometry, but most of these techniques have limitations on their usefulness. For example, tracers and temperature logs can only measure fracture height at the wellbore, well testing and production history matching provide a productive length which may or may not be different from the true fracture length, and tiltmeters can provide accurate information on azimuth and type of fracture (horizontal or vertical), but length and height can only be extracted from a non-unique inversion of the data. However, there is a method, the microseismic technique, which possesses the potential for imaging the entire hydraulic fracture and, more importantly, its growth history. This paper discusses application of advanced technology to the microseismic method in order to provide detailed accurate images of fractures and their growth processes.

  4. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  5. Performance of combined sodium persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process in stabilized landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Arafa, Anwaar I

    2016-01-15

    A combination of persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) was used to oxidizelandfill leachate. The reaction was performed under varying S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio (g/g), S2O8(2-)/H2O2 dosages (g/g), pH, and reaction time (minutes), so as to determine the optimum operational conditions. Results indicated that under optimum operational conditions (i.e. 120 min of oxidation using a S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio of 1 g/1.47 g at a persulfate and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 5.88 g/50 ml and8.63 g/50 ml respectively, at pH 11) removal of 81% COD and 83% NH3-N was achieved. In addition, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) of the leachate was improved from 0.09 to 0.17. The results obtained from the combined use of (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) were compared with those obtained with sodium persulfate only, hydrogen peroxide only and sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide. The combined method (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with the other methods using a single oxidizing agent. Additionally, the study has proved that the combination of S2O8(2-)/H2O2 is more efficient than the sequential use of sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide in advanced oxidation processes aiming at treatingstabilizedlandfill leachate. PMID:26580899

  6. Second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for a USAB V-160 Stirling engine: Evaluation of on-sun test results using the proposed IEA guidelines and analysis of heat pipe damage

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, D.; Traebing, C.

    1997-11-01

    Dish/Stirling technology has demonstrated the highest conversion efficiencies of all solar thermal conversion systems. At the DLR a second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for the Schlaich Bergermann und Partner (SBP) 9-kW{sub e} dish/Stirling system has been developed and constructed. Long-term operation occurred from Oct. 1992 until Aug. 1993 at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain, accumulating 950 operating hours. The performance of the SBP 9-kW{sub e} system with a sodium heat pipe receiver is evaluated according to the guidelines for dish/Stirling performance evaluation by Stine and Powel, as proposed to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Tests were stopped due to a leak in the receiver absorber surface. The analysis of this damage is reported.

  7. Antimony nanoparticles anchored on interconnected carbon nanofibers networks as advanced anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Jing, Mingjun; Yang, Yingchang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-06-01

    Interconnected carbon nanofibers networks (ICNNs) prepared through the carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) precursor are utilized as conductive pathways and buffer to improve the Na storage performance of antimony (Sb) as anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained Sb/ICNNs composite exhibits excellent cycle stability. The reversible capacity can remain 542.5 mAh g-1 with a high capacity retention of 96.7% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. And the superior rate performance is also observed, the reversible capacity can still reach 325 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. These great electrochemical performances observed above suggest that this type of composite can be a nice option for advanced SIBs anode materials and may be extended to other active materials/ICNNs composite electrode.

  8. Feasibility of substituting sodium for potassium in crop plants for advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, G V; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W

    2000-01-01

    Recycling of nutrients, air, and water is an integral feature of life support systems designed for long-term space missions. Plants can play a major role in supplying the basic life support requirements, which include providing the crew's food, clean water, and air, and recycling their wastes. The nutrient flux through the plant and human systems needs to be matched in order for nutrients to recycle between humans and plants without an excessive buildup in any one section of the system. Sodium, which is essential at the macronutrient level for human metabolism, has only been shown to be a micronutrient for some plants, with only very limited uptake in most plants. Thus, when Na is added from the outside to meet the human demand in these closed life support systems it will accumulate someplace in the overall system. In simple systems such as these, without a complete biogeological cycle, the buildup of Na could occur in the nutrient solution of the plant system. Various concepts related to the substitution of sodium for potassium in crop plants are currently being investigated by NASA. Results to date suggest that Na concentrations up to 100 g kg-1 dry weight may be achievable in the edible portions of Na-tolerant crops (e.g., red beet and chard). A flow path for nutrient solution high in Na wastes has been suggested for optimizing Na and nitrogen incorporation and utilization from such solutions. Options for further improvements include selecting plant genotypes tolerant to high salinity, which are efficient in Na uptake. This should also be combined with environmental manipulations to maximize Na uptake by crop plants. PMID:11676437

  9. An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

    2014-03-01

    Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when “must-take” wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

  10. 41 CFR 302-10.301 - May I receive an advance of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency? 302-10.301 Section 302-10.301... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Advance of Funds § 302-10.301 May I receive an advance of funds when payment is...

  11. 41 CFR 302-10.301 - May I receive an advance of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency? 302-10.301 Section 302-10.301... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Advance of Funds § 302-10.301 May I receive an advance of funds when payment is...

  12. Phenytoin toxicity in a patient receiving concomitant use of phenytoin and S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mimatsu, Kenji; Oida, Takatsugu; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kida, Kazutoshi; Fukino, Nobutada; Kuboi, Youichi; Kano, Hisao; Amano, Sadao

    2011-06-01

    A 61-year-old man had been receiving phenytoin(225mg/day)and valproate(600mg/day)for several years as the treatment for seizures. He was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer,and S-1 plus cisplatin treatment was administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy because bulky lymph node metastases were found at the time of the initial diagnosis. He complained of weakness of the lower extremities,light -headedness,and trembling of the upper extremities 2 months after the start of concomitant treatment with S-1 plus cisplatin. The serum phenytoin concentration increased to 21. 2mg/mL. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any intracranial lesion such as brain metastasis. Therefore, we diagnosed phenytoin toxicity due to concomitant use of S-1 and phenytoin,and the dose of phenytoin was then decreased to 150 mg. Although the weakness of the lower extremities improved,light -headedness remained. Phenytoin and valproate treatments were stopped,and he was able to walk 7 days after the termination of therapy. It is important to predict the timing of phenytoin toxicity due to S-1,and therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed in patients receiving S-1 plus cisplatin and phenytoin. PMID:21677496

  13. Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Radio-Chemotherapy: A Novel Clinical-Pathologic Score Correlates With Global Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Berardi, Rossana; Mantello, Giovanna; Scartozzi, Mario; Del Prete, Stefano; Luppi, Gabriele; Martinelli, Roberto; Fumagalli, Marco; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Marmorale, Cristina; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the importance of downstaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Methods and Materials: The study included all consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) in different Italian centers from June 1996 to December 2003. A novel score was used, calculated as the sum of numbers obtained by giving a negative or positive point, respectively, to each degree of increase or decrease in clinical to pathologic T and N status. Results: A total of 317 patients were eligible for analysis. Neoadjuvant treatments performed were as follows: radiotherapy alone in 75 of 317 patients (23.7%), radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in 242 of 317 patients (76.3%). Worse disease-free survival was observed in patients with a lower score (Score 1 = -3 to +3 vs. Score 2 = +4 to +7; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a novel score, calculated from preoperative and pathologic tumor and lymph node status, could represent an important parameter to predict outcome in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The score could be useful to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

  14. Sodium content as a predictor of the advanced evolution of globular cluster stars.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Simon W; D'Orazi, Valentina; Yong, David; Constantino, Thomas N; Lattanzio, John C; Stancliffe, Richard J; Angelou, George C; Wylie-de Boer, Elizabeth C; Grundahl, Frank

    2013-06-13

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is the final stage of nuclear burning for low-mass stars. Although Milky Way globular clusters are now known to harbour (at least) two generations of stars, they still provide relatively homogeneous samples of stars that are used to constrain stellar evolution theory. It is predicted by stellar models that the majority of cluster stars with masses around the current turn-off mass (that is, the mass of the stars that are currently leaving the main sequence phase) will evolve through the AGB phase. Here we report that all of the second-generation stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752--70 per cent of the cluster population--fail to reach the AGB phase. Through spectroscopic abundance measurements, we found that every AGB star in our sample has a low sodium abundance, indicating that they are exclusively first-generation stars. This implies that many clusters cannot reliably be used for star counts to test stellar evolution timescales if the AGB population is included. We have no clear explanation for this observation. PMID:23719375

  15. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients. PMID:25102038

  16. Limited Utility of ITPA Deficiency to Predict Early Anemia in HCV Patients with Advanced Fibrosis Receiving Telaprevir

    PubMed Central

    Aghemo, Alessio; Grassi, Eleonora; Rumi, Maria Grazia; D'Ambrosio, Roberta; Galmozzi, Enrico; Degasperi, Elisabetta; Castaldi, Davide; Soffredini, Roberta; Colombo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a common side effect of Pegylated Interferon + Ribavirin (PR) and Telaprevir (TVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3–F4). Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) genetic variants are associated with RBV- induced anemia and dose reduction. Aim To test the association of ITPA polymorphisms rs1127354 and rs7270101 with hemoglobin (Hb) decline, need for RBV dose reduction (RBV DR), erythropoietin (EPO) support and blood transfusions during the first 12 weeks of TVR triple therapy. Materials and Methods 69 consecutive HCV-1 patients (mean age 57 years) with F3-F4 who received PR and TVR were genotyped for ITPA polymorphisms rs1127354 and rs7270101. Estimated ITPA deficiency was graded on severity (0–3, no deficiency/mild/moderate/severe). Results ITPA deficiency was absent in 48 patients (70%), mild in 12 (17%) and moderate in 9 patients (13%). Mean week 4 Hb decline was higher in non ITPA deficient patients (3,85 g/dL) than in mildly or moderately ITPA deficient patients (3,07 g/dL and 1,67 g/dL, p<0.0001). Grade 3–4 anemia developed in 81% non ITPA deficient patients versus 67% mild deficient and 55% moderate deficient patients (p = ns). Grade of ITPA deficiency was not associated with RbvDR (no deficiency: 60%, mild: 58%, moderate: 67%; p = ns), EPO use (no deficiency: 65%, mild: 58%, moderate:56%; p = ns) or need for blood transfusion (no deficiency: 27%, mild: 17%, moderate: 33%; p = ns). Conclusions In patients with F3–F4 chronic hepatitis C receiving TVR based therapy, ITPA genotype does not impact on the management of early anemia. PMID:24760000

  17. The Importance of Lamivudine Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Patients Related HBV with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Momiyama, Koichi; Nagai, Hidenari; Ogino, Yu; Mukouzu, Takanori; Matsui, Daigo; Kogame, Michio; Matsui, Teppei; Wakui, Noritaka; Shinohara, Mie; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported that continuous hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) might be more effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) related to HCV infection (C-LC) or alcohol abuse (A-LC) than in patients who had LC related to HBV infection (B-LC). The aim of the present study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of lamivudine therapy for B-LC patients with aHCC undergoing HAIC. Methods: Seventeen adult Japanese B-LC patients with aHCC were treated by HAIC with or without lamivudine (100 mg/day) between 2002 and 2008 at our hospital. Their tumors were inoperable according to computed tomography findings. HAIC (LV at 12 mg/hr, CDDP at 10 mg/hr, and 5-FU at 250 mg/22 hr) was given via the proper hepatic artery every 5 days for 4 weeks using a catheter connected to a subcutaneously implanted drug delivery system. Results: Nine of the 17 patients received lamivudine at a dose of 100 mg/day together with HAIC (LAM group), while 8 patients did not receive lamivudine and only had HAIC (non-LAM group). The response rate was 12.5 in the non-LAM group and 0.0% in the LAM group. However, the survival of the LAM group was better than that of the non-LAM group, although there was no significant difference between them. The median survival time of the LAM and non-LAM groups was 310 and 157 days, respectively. HBV-DNA levels were significantly lower after chemotherapy compared with that before chemotherapy in the LAM group. In the non-LAM group, the percentage of Th2 cells before HAIC and after HAIC was significantly higher than in the control group. However, the percentage of Th2 cells in the LAM group after HAIC was not different from that in the control group, although it was significantly higher in the LAM group than in the control group before chemotherapy. Conclusions: These results indicate that lamivudine therapy may prolong the survival of B-LC patients receiving HAIC for aHCC by reducing HBV

  18. Two cases of gastrointestinal perforation after radiotherapy in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor for advanced renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of gastrointestinal perforation (GIP) after radiotherapy in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Case 1 was a 61-year-old woman with lung metastases after a radical nephrectomy for a right RCC (cT3aN0M0) treated with interferon-alpha (OIF, 5 MIU, three times per week). She developed lytic metastases of the left femur and the left acetabulum. She was treated with palliative radiotherapy to the metastatic portion (3 Gy × 10 fractions), and 400 mg sorafenib twice per day plus continuing interferon alpha. She experienced sudden left lower abdominal pain after four weeks of treatment, and was diagnosed with a perforation of the sigmoid colon with fecal peritonitis. Case 2 was a 48-year-old man with lung, lymph node, and bone metastases after a radical nephrectomy for a right RCC (cT2N0M0), and was treated with 400 mg sorafenib twice per day. He developed lytic bone metastases of the lumbar vertebrae, which was treated with palliative radiotherapy to L2-4 (3 Gy × 10 fractions). He experienced sudden abdominal pain after two months of radiation treatment, and was diagnosed with a perforation of the sigmoid colon with fecal peritonitis. These cases underwent radiotherapy, and therefore this may be related to the radiosensitivity of TKI. PMID:22906119

  19. Degradation of sodium dodecyl sulphate in water using solar driven Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Peláez, Miguel A; Salgado, Maria J; Torres, Luis

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic wastewater samples containing a model surfactant were treated using two different Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes promoted by solar radiation; the photo-Fenton reaction and Co/PMS/UV processes. Comparison between the different experimental conditions was performed by means of the overall surfactant degradation achieved and by obtaining the initial rate in the first 15 min of reaction (IR15). It was found that, for dark Fenton reaction, the maximum surfactant degradation achieved was 14% under low iron and oxidant concentration. Increasing Fenton reagents by one magnitude order, surfactant degradation achieved 63% in 60 min. The use of solar radiation improved the reaction rate by 17% under same conditions and an additional increase of 12.5% was obtained by adjusting initial pH to 2. IR15 values for dark and irradiated Fenton reactions were 0.143 and 0.154 mmol/min, respectively, for similar reaction conditions and this value increased to 0.189 mmol/min when initial pH was adjusted. The use of the Co/PMS system allow us to determine an increase in the degradation rate, for low reaction conditions (1 mM of transition metal; 4 mM oxidant) similar to those used in dark Fenton reaction. Surfactant degradation increased from 3%, for Fenton reaction, to 44.5% in the case of Co/PMS. When solar irradiation was included in the experiments, under same reaction conditions described earlier, surfactant degradation up to 64% was achieved. By increasing Co/PMS reagent concentration by almost 9 times under irradiated conditions, almost complete (>99%) surfactant degradation was reached in 5 min. Comparing IR15 values for Co/PMS and Co/PMS/UV, it allow us to observe that the use of solar radiation increased the degradation rate in one magnitude order when compared with dark experiments and further increase of reagent concentration increased reaction rate twice. PMID:17658215

  20. Phenomenological studies on sodium for CSP applications: A safety review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2016-05-01

    Sodium Heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as sodium, can achieve temperatures above 700°C to obtain power cycle performance improvements for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF's (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal power cycles. This advantage could increase the efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sensible sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium receiver designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Lessons obtained from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  1. Pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase is an independent prognostic factor for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Miao-Fang; Lu, Huai-Wu; Chen, Qing; Lin, Zhong-Qiu; Wang, Li-Juan

    2016-08-01

    For locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC), hypoxia is a characteristic property. This study aimed to investigate whether baseline lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level, which is a marker of hypoxia, had clinical value in determining neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) response and prognosis for LACC patients. The study cohort included 418 patients with a median follow-up of 37.5 months. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the prognostic value of baseline LDH levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of complete response after NACT. Backward stepwise selection with the Akaike information criterion was used to identify factors that could be entered into the multivariate regression model. Compared with patients with LDH levels <252.0 μ/L, patients with LDH levels ≥252.0 μ/L were more likely to have an elevated level of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, lymphatic vascular space involvement, lymph node metastasis, and positive parametrium and achieved lower complete remission rates. Baseline LDH levels ≥252.0 μ/L was an independent prognosticator for recurrence-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.22-5.69; P < 0.0001) and cancer-specific survival (adjusted HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.89-5.01; P < 0.0001). The predictive value of baseline LDH value remained significant in the subgroup analysis. LDH level ≥252.0 μ/L was identified as an independent predictor of complete remission after NACT (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.58; P < 0.0001). Baseline LDH ≥252.0 μ/L is an independent prognostic predictor for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for LACC. It helps distinguish patients with different prognosis and select patients who are more likely to benefit from NACT. PMID:27350066

  2. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.11 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of...

  3. 41 CFR 302-10.300 - May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home? 302-10.300 Section 302-10.300 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE... mobile home? Yes, you may receive an advance of funds when you are responsible for arranging and paying...

  4. 41 CFR 302-10.300 - May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home? 302-10.300 Section 302-10.300 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE... mobile home? Yes, you may receive an advance of funds when you are responsible for arranging and paying...

  5. AFRL Advanced Electric Lasers Branch - Construction and Upgrade of a 50-watt Facility-Class Sodium Guidestar Pump Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T.; Miller, H.; Stohs, J.; Lu, C.; Baker, J.; Lucero, A.

    The development of a reliable and effective laser source for pumping mesospheric sodium to generate an artificial guidestar has been well documented. From the early achievements with 589nm high-power dye lasers at the Keck and Lick observatories to the ground-breaking 50W CW FASOR (Frequency Addition Source of Optical Radiation) Guidestar at the Air Forces Starfire Optical Range (SOR), there has been intense interest in this technology from both the academic and military communities. Beginning in the fall of 2008, the Air Force Research Laboratorys Advanced Electric Lasers Branch began a project to build, test, verify and deliver an upgraded version of the SOR FASOR for use at the AF Maui Optical Station (AMOS) in the summer of 2010. This FASOR will be similar in design to the existing SOR device and produce 50W of diffraction limited, linearly polarized narrow linewidth 589nm light by combining the output of two injection-locked Nd:YAG ring lasers (operating at 1064nm and 1319nm) using resonant sum-frequency generation in a lithium triborate crystal (LBO). The upgraded features will include modularized sub-components, embedded control electronics, and a simplified cooling system. The first portion of this upgrade project is to reconstruct the current SOR FASOR components and include improved methods of regulating the gain modules of the two injection lasers. In parallel with this effort, the technical plans for the modularization and re-packaging of the FASOR will be finalized and coordinated with the staff at Maui. This presentation will summarize the result of these efforts to date and provide updates on the AMOS FASOR status. Additionally, plans for "next-generation" FASOR upgrades for both SOR and AMOS will also be discussed.

  6. Usefulness of Photodynamic Diagnosis and Therapy using Talaporfin Sodium for an Advanced-aged Patient with Inoperable Gastric Cancer (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Oinuma, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: In Japan the rise in the average life expectancy has caused an increase in the proportion of the population who are classed as geriatric. Accordingly, the number of elderly people being treated for cancer is increasing concomitantly. However, with the increase in age, the numbers of prior complications also increase. This is especially so in the advanced-aged patients, defined in Japan as those over the age of 85. Such complications may be too high risk for radical surgery and a less invasive treatment is warranted. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment approved by the Japanese National Health Insurance for the treatment of early stage superficial type esophageal and gastric cancers, early stage uterine cervical cancers and dysplasia, and early and advanced lung cancer. We report herein on the efficacy of palliative PDT using talaporfin sodium (Laserphyrin®) for a case of inoperable gastric cancer. Material and methods: The patient was an 87-year-old-man, a diabetic with histories of diabetic nephropathy, cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction. This patient was first diagnosed as having gastric cancer in 2007 but surgery and chemotherapy were contraindicated due to his poor physical status and poor renal function, respectively, owing to the anticipated side effects. The patient was referred to our institution after hearing of PDT in 2009. He was treated with 1 course of porfimer sodium PDT and 3 courses of talaporfin sodium PDT with photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) during the period from September, 2009 to June, 2011. Results: The massive gastric cancer located in the cardia was successfully treated with 4 PDT sessions without any serious complications; therefore the patient was able to orally ingest food until his death due to natural causes other than the cancer, in October, 2011. Conclusion: Talaporfin sodium PDT is safe and effective treatment for advanced-aged patients suffering from inoperable gastric cancer. PMID

  7. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public... General Rules § 302-9.11 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my... storage of your POV. Effective Date Note: By FTR Amdt. 2011-01, 76 FR 18342, Apr. 1, 2011, § 302-9.11...

  8. 41 CFR 301-31.14 - May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-51.200 of this chapter for up to a 30-day period at a time to cover expenses allowable. Your travel... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I receive a travel... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...

  9. 41 CFR 301-31.14 - May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-51.200 of this chapter for up to a 30-day period at a time to cover expenses allowable. Your travel... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I receive a travel... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...

  10. 41 CFR 301-31.14 - May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-51.200 of this chapter for up to a 30-day period at a time to cover expenses allowable. Your travel... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I receive a travel... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...

  11. 41 CFR 301-31.14 - May I receive a travel advance for transportation and/or subsistence expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-51.200 of this chapter for up to a 30-day period at a time to cover expenses allowable. Your travel... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I receive a travel... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...

  12. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome somemore » of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.« less

  13. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome some of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.

  14. Approaches for delineating landslide hazard areas using receiver operating characteristic in an advanced calibrating precision soil erosion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazvinei, P. T.; Zandi, J.; Ariffin, J.; Hashim, R. B.; Motamedi, S.; Aghamohammadi, N.; Moghaddam, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is undesirable natural event that causes land degradation and desertification. Identify the erosion-prone areas is a major component of preventive measures. Recent landslide damages at different regions lead us to develop a model of the erosion susceptibility map using empirical method (RUSLE). A landslide-location map was established by interpreting satellite image. Field observation data was used to validate the intensity of soil erosion. Further, a correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the "Receiver Operating Characteristic" and frequency ratio. Results showed a satisfactory correlation between the prepared RUSLE-based soil erosion map and actual landslide distribution. The proposed model can effectively predict the landslide events in soil-erosion area. Such a reliable predictive model is an effective management facility for the regional landslide forecasting system.

  15. Tenofovir-based rescue therapy for advanced liver disease in 6 patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus and receiving lamivudine.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Sonia; Guillemi, Silvia; Jahnke, Natalie; Montessori, Valentina; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G

    2008-02-01

    We summarize the clinical history and laboratory results following the introduction of tenofovir among 6 patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) who presented with severe liver disease while receiving lamivudine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. In all cases, the introduction of tenofovir led to a sustained undetectable HBV and HIV loads, with marked clinical and laboratory improvement in liver function. We provide supporting evidence for the role of tenofovir in the management of advanced HBV infection in HIV-positive patients after the development of lamivudine resistance. PMID:18181733

  16. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  17. Pharmacogenetic prediction of clinical outcome in advanced colorectal cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Paré, L; Marcuello, E; Altés, A; del Río, E; Sedano, L; Salazar, J; Cortés, A; Barnadas, A; Baiget, M

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether molecular parameters could be partly responsible for resistance or sensitivity to oxaliplatin (OX)-based chemotherapy used as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). We studied the usefulness of the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), XRCC1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms as predictors of clinical outcome in these patients. We treated 126 CRC patients with a first-line OX/5-fluorouracil chemotherapeutic regimen. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by real-time PCR on an ABI PRISM 7000, using DNA from peripheral blood. Clinical response (CR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated according to each genotype. In the univariate analysis for CR, ERCC1-118 and XPD 751 polymorphisms were significant (P=0.02 and P=0.05, respectively). After adjustment for the most relevant clinical variables, only ERCC1-118 retained significance (P=0.008). In the univariate analysis for PFS, ERCC1-118 and XPD 751 were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.009, respectively). In the multivariant analysis, only the XPD 751 was significant for PFS (P=0.02). Finally, ERCC1-118 and XPD 751 polymorphisms were significant in the univariate analysis for OS (P=0.006 and P=0.015, respectively). Both genetic variables remained significant in the multivariate Cox survival analysis (P=0.022 and P=0.03). Our data support the hypothesis that enhanced DNA repair diminishes the benefit of platinum-based treatments. PMID:18797464

  18. Pharmacogenetic prediction of clinical outcome in advanced colorectal cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Paré, L; Marcuello, E; Altés, A; Río, E del; Sedano, L; Salazar, J; Cortés, A; Barnadas, A; Baiget, M

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether molecular parameters could be partly responsible for resistance or sensitivity to oxaliplatin (OX)-based chemotherapy used as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). We studied the usefulness of the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), XRCC1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms as predictors of clinical outcome in these patients. We treated 126 CRC patients with a first-line OX/5-fluorouracil chemotherapeutic regimen. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by real-time PCR on an ABI PRISM 7000, using DNA from peripheral blood. Clinical response (CR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated according to each genotype. In the univariate analysis for CR, ERCC1-118 and XPD 751 polymorphisms were significant (P=0.02 and P=0.05, respectively). After adjustment for the most relevant clinical variables, only ERCC1-118 retained significance (P=0.008). In the univariate analysis for PFS, ERCC1-118 and XPD 751 were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.009, respectively). In the multivariant analysis, only the XPD 751 was significant for PFS (P=0.02). Finally, ERCC1-118 and XPD 751 polymorphisms were significant in the univariate analysis for OS (P=0.006 and P=0.015, respectively). Both genetic variables remained significant in the multivariate Cox survival analysis (P=0.022 and P=0.03). Our data support the hypothesis that enhanced DNA repair diminishes the benefit of platinum-based treatments. PMID:18797464

  19. Impact of biliary stent-related events in patients diagnosed with advanced pancreatobiliary tumours receiving palliative chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lamarca, Angela; Rigby, Christina; McNamara, Mairéad G; Hubner, Richard A; Valle, Juan W

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact (morbidity/mortality) of biliary stent-related events (SRE) (cholangitis or stent obstruction) in chemotherapy-treated pancreatico-biliary patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients with advanced pancreatobiliary cancer and a biliary stent in-situ prior to starting palliative chemotherapy were identified retrospectively from local electronic case-note records (Jan 13 to Jan 15). The primary end-point was SRE rate and the time-to-SRE (defined as time from first stenting before chemotherapy to date of SRE). Progression-free survival and overall survival were measured from the time of starting chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier, Cox and Fine-Gray regression (univariate and multivariable) analyses were employed, as appropriate. For the analysis of time-to-SRE, death was considered as a competing event. RESULTS: Ninety-six out of 693 screened patients were eligible; 89% had a metal stent (the remainder were plastic). The median time of follow-up was 9.6 mo (range 2.2 to 26.4). Forty-one patients (43%) developed a SRE during follow-up [cholangitis (39%), stent obstruction (29%), both (32%)]. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the SRE group and no-SRE groups. Recorded SRE-consequences were: none (37%), chemotherapy delay (24%), discontinuation (17%) and death (22%). The median time-to-SRE was 4.4 mo (95%CI: 3.6-5.5). Patients with severe comorbidities (P < 0.001) and patients with ≥ 2 baseline stents/biliary procedures [HR = 2.3 (95%CI: 1.2-4.44), P = 0.010] had a shorter time-to-SRE on multivariable analysis. Stage was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.029) in the multivariable analysis adjusted for primary tumour site, performance status and development of SRE (SRE group vs no-SRE group). CONCLUSION: SREs are common and impact on patient’s morbidity. Our results highlight the need for prospective studies exploring the role of prophylactic strategies to prevent/delay SREs. PMID

  20. Influence of Technologic Advances on Outcomes in Patients With Unresectable, Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Zhongxing X.; Komaki, Ritsuko R.; Thames, Howard D.; Liu, Helen H.; Tucker, Susan L.; Mohan, Radhe; Martel, Mary K.; Wei Xiong; Yang Kunyu; Kim, Edward S.; Blumenschein, George; Hong, Waun Ki

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: In 2004, our institution began using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation and then intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) (4DCT/IMRT) instead of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for the standard treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This retrospective study compares disease outcomes and toxicity in patients treated with concomitant chemotherapy and either 4DCT/IMRT or 3DCRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 496 NSCLC patients have been treated at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2006 with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Among these, 318 were treated with CT/3DCRT and 91 with 4DCT/IMRT. Both groups received a median dose of 63 Gy. Disease end points were locoregional progression (LRP), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Disease covariates were gross tumor volume (GTV), nodal status, and histology. The toxicity end point was Grade >=3 radiation pneumonitis; toxicity covariates were GTV, smoking status, and dosimetric factors. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Mean follow-up times in the 4DCT/IMRT and CT/3DCRT groups were 1.3 (range, 0.1-3.2) and 2.1 (range, 0.1-7.9) years, respectively. The hazard ratios for 4DCT/IMRT were <1 for all disease end points; the difference was significant only for OS. The toxicity rate was significantly lower in the IMRT/4DCT group than in the CT/3DCRT group. V20 was significantly higher in the 3DCRT group and was a significant factor in determining toxicity. Freedom from DM was nearly identical in both groups. Conclusions: Treatment with 4DCT/IMRT was at least as good as that with 3DCRT in terms of the rates of freedom from LRP and DM. There was a significant reduction in toxicity and a significant improvement in OS.

  1. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  2. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  4. Health Care Outcomes and Advance Care Planning in Older Adults Who Receive Home-Based Palliative Care: A Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Cha, Stephen S.; Hanson, Gregory J.; Peterson, Stephanie M.; Rahman, Parvez A.; Naessens, James M.; Takahashi, Paul Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Approximately 20% of seniors live with five or more chronic medical illnesses. Terminal stages of their lives are often characterized by repeated burdensome hospitalizations and advance care directives are insufficiently addressed. This study reports on the preliminary results of a Palliative Care Homebound Program (PCHP) at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota to service these vulnerable populations. Objective: The study objective was to evaluate inpatient hospital utilization and the adequacy of advance care planning in patients who receive home-based palliative care. Methods: This is a retrospective pilot cohort study of patients enrolled in the PCHP between September 2012 and March 2013. Two control patients were matched to each intervention patient by propensity scoring methods that factor in risk and prognosis. Primary outcomes were six-month hospital utilization including ER visits. Secondary outcomes evaluated advance care directive completion and overall mortality. Results: Patients enrolled in the PCHP group (n=54) were matched to 108 controls with an average age of 87 years. Ninety-two percent of controls and 33% of PCHP patients were admitted to the hospital at least once. The average number of hospital admissions was 1.36 per patient for controls versus 0.35 in the PCHP (p<0.001). Total hospital days were reduced by 5.13 days. There was no difference between rates of ER visits. Advanced care directive were completed more often in the intervention group (98%) as compared to controls (31%), with p<0.001. Goals of care discussions were held at least once for all patients in the PCHP group, compared to 41% in the controls. PMID:25375663

  5. Advanced Na[Ni0.25Fe0.5Mn0.25]O2/C-Fe3O4 sodium-ion batteries using EMS electrolyte for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Min; Myung, Seung-Taek; Yoon, Chong Seung; Lu, Jun; Hassoun, Jusef; Scrosati, Bruno; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-03-12

    While much research effort has been devoted to the development of advanced lithium-ion batteries for renewal energy storage applications, the sodium-ion battery is also of considerable interest because sodium is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust. In this work, we report a sodium-ion battery based on a carbon-coated Fe3O4 anode, Na[Ni0.25Fe0.5Mn0.25]O2 layered cathode, and NaClO4 in fluoroethylene carbonate and ethyl methanesulfonate electrolyte. This unique battery system combines an intercalation cathode and a conversion anode, resulting in high capacity, high rate capability, thermal stability, and much improved cycle life. This performance suggests that our sodium-ion system is potentially promising power sources for promoting the substantial use of low-cost energy storage systems in the near future. PMID:24524729

  6. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Groth, Katrina M.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  7. Digital Demodulator For Advanced Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Hurd, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Complexity and cost reduced by new design for half-band filters. Digital demodulator designed for use in reception of phase- and amplitude-modulated digital signals of bandwidths up to 15 MHz on microwave carriers. System performs coherent demodulation in phase and in quadrature with carrier locked in phase to intermediate frequency of 10 MHz. Design suitable for fabrication in very-large-scale integrated circuitry. Principal innovative feature of demodulator is design of half-band digital low-pass filters that remove sum-frequency components.

  8. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-06-16

    An improved receiver and receiver mount for calutrons are described. The receiver can be manipulated from outside the tank by a single control to position it with respect to the beam. A door can be operated exteriorly also to prevent undesired portions of the beam from entering the receiver. The receiver has an improved pocket which is more selective in the ions collected. (T.R.H.)

  9. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  10. HER2-positive patients receiving trastuzumab treatment have a comparable prognosis with HER2-negative advanced gastric cancer patients: a prospective cohort observation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miao-Zhen; Li, Qian; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Tian-Shu; Liu, Qing; Wei, Xiao-Li; Jin, Ying; Wang, De-Shen; Ren, Chao; Bai, Long; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Feng-Hua; Li, Yu-Hong; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-05-15

    The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab has brought survival benefit to patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) that have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over expression or amplification. This study was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of HER2-negative and HER2-positive AGC patients with or without trastuzumab treatment. There were three groups of patients enrolled for analysis. Group A was 51 HER2-positive AGC patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy; group B was a matched control group of 47 HER2-positive patients who received chemotherapy only; group C was a matched group of 251 HER2-negative patients who received chemotherapy. All the patients were enrolled at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between January 2010 and December 2012. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The median duration of follow-up was 13.5 months (range 5-18.6 months). The median OS of these three groups of patients was 14.8 months, 11.3 months and 14.4 months respectively (p < 0.001). The survival difference between group A and B was significant, p < 0.001. Similarly, there was significant difference between group B and C, p < 0.001. Moreover the survival between group A and C was comparable, p = 0.281. The median progression-free survival for these three groups was 7.4, 6.0 and 7.2 months. Multivariate analysis confirmed that trastuzumab treatment was an independent prognostic factor in group A and B patients (p = 0.017). HER2 positive was an independent adverse prognostic factor in group B and C patients (p = 0.013). PMID:24155030

  11. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Brunk, W.O.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given for an improved calutron receiver having a face plate lying at an angle to the direction of the entering ion beams but having an opening, the plane of which is substantially perpendicular to that of the entering ion beams. By so positioning the opening in the receiver, the effective area through which the desired material may enter the receiver is increased, and at the same time the effective area through which containattng material may enter the receiver is reduced.

  12. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.; and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  13. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVpeak) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Livermean + [2 × Liversd]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n = 19, 59%), 65 years or older (n = 21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n = 27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7–22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm3 or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64–5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR3.08,95%CI 1.18–8.02,P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19–22.21, P = .029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07–10.48, P = .038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy. PMID

  14. Double-Nanocarbon Synergistically Modified Na3V2(PO4)3: An Advanced Cathode for High-Rate and Long-Life Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Li, Hui; Guo, Ziyang; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhihong; Xu, Qunjie; Liu, Haimei; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-22

    An advanced cathode material, nitrogen-doped carbon-coated Na3V2(PO4)3 hybriding with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite, namely double-nanocarbon synergistically modified Na3V2(PO4)3 of sodium ion battery, was fabricated through a simple sol-gel approach. According to the systemical analysis of experimental results on this composite structure, it is found that N-doping not only increases Na-ion migration velocity across the carbon-coated layer but also improves the electric conductivity of the carbon layer. More importantly, the CNTs 3D conducting network could significantly accelerate the electron transport between multiple particles of Na3V2(PO4)3, due to the intimate contacts between active materials and CNTs. Consenquently, the electrochemical properties of this double-nanocarbon-modified Na3V2(PO4)3 are significantly enhanced, especially the high-rate capability and long cycle life. For instance, its initial capacity of 94.5 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C decreases to 70 mAh g(-1) at 70 C, and the capacity retention is 74%. Moreover, when dischage rate increases to a higher 30 C, the capacity retention is still as high as 87% after 300 cycles. PMID:27257712

  15. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    York, H.F.

    1959-07-01

    A receiver construction is presented for calutrons having two or more ion sources and an individual receiver unit for each source. Design requirements dictate that the face plate defining the receiver entrance slots be placed at an angle to the approaching beam, which means that ions striking the face plate are likely to be scattcred into the entrance slots of other receivers. According to the present invention, the face plate has a surface provided with parallel ridges so disposed that one side only of each ridge's exposed directly to the ion beam. The scattered ions are directed away from adjacent receivers by the ridges on the lace plate.

  16. Clinical Trial Simulations From a Model‐Based Meta‐Analysis of Studies in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Antiangiogenic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Pithavala, YK; Nickens, DJ; Valota, O; Amantea, MA

    2016-01-01

    A mixed effect model describing median overall survival (mOS) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) treated with antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) was developed from literature data. Data were extracted from 59 studies, representing 4,813 patients. The final model included estimates of mOS after AAT (8.5 months) or placebo (7.1 months) administration. The mOS increased 21% when the AAT was sorafenib (SOR) or 42% when locoregional therapy was coadministered. The mOS decreased when patients received prior systemic therapy (↓7%) or concomitant chemotherapy (↓4%) or the percentage of patients with hepatitis B increased (↓∼0.4%/%). Clinical trial simulations of a phase II comparative trial predicted an mOS ratio (placebo:AAT) of 0.687 or 0.831, with a 65% or 22% probability of demonstrating superiority, for SOR or other AATs, respectively. Additionally, the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the simulated median mOS ratio for non‐SOR AATs was similar to the 95% CI of the hazard ratio (HR) observed in the trial. PMID:27299940

  17. Clinical Trial Simulations From a Model-Based Meta-Analysis of Studies in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zierhut, M L; Chen, Y; Pithavala, Y K; Nickens, D J; Valota, O; Amantea, M A

    2016-05-01

    A mixed effect model describing median overall survival (mOS) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) treated with antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) was developed from literature data. Data were extracted from 59 studies, representing 4,813 patients. The final model included estimates of mOS after AAT (8.5 months) or placebo (7.1 months) administration. The mOS increased 21% when the AAT was sorafenib (SOR) or 42% when locoregional therapy was coadministered. The mOS decreased when patients received prior systemic therapy (↓7%) or concomitant chemotherapy (↓4%) or the percentage of patients with hepatitis B increased (↓∼0.4%/%). Clinical trial simulations of a phase II comparative trial predicted an mOS ratio (placebo:AAT) of 0.687 or 0.831, with a 65% or 22% probability of demonstrating superiority, for SOR or other AATs, respectively. Additionally, the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the simulated median mOS ratio for non-SOR AATs was similar to the 95% CI of the hazard ratio (HR) observed in the trial. PMID:27299940

  18. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect

    Nester, Dean; Crocker, Ben; Smart, Bill

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  19. Radio receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  20. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1958-09-01

    Improvements are described in isotope separation devices of the calutron type and, in particular, deals with a novel caiutron receiver which passes the optimum portions of the ion beam to a collecting chamber. In broad aspects the receiver provides means for pass delimited pontion of the beam and an elongated collecting pocket disposed to receive ions passed by the beam delimiting means. The collecting pocket is transversely partitioned into a plurality of ion receiving compartments respectively defined by a corresponding plurality of separately removable liner elements.

  1. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.H.; Stone, K.F.

    1958-09-01

    S>This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and, more specifically, describes a receiver fer collecting the ion curreot after it is formed into a beam of non-homogeneous isotropic cross-section. The invention embodies a calutron receiver having an ion receiving pocket for separately collecting and retaining ions traveling in a selected portion of the ion beam and anelectrode for intercepting ions traveling in another selected pontion of the ion beam. The electrode is disposed so as to fix the limit of one side of the pontion of the ion beam admitted iato the ion receiving pocket.

  2. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  3. “Picking up the pieces”—Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients’ strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context. PMID:26362533

  4. "Picking up the pieces" - Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients' strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context. PMID:26362533

  5. Polymorphisms of ERCC1 and XRCC1 predict the overall survival of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijian; Yao, Ruyong; Fang, Shibao; Wang, Xiuwen; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of excision repair cross-complementing protein 1 (ERCC1) and X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) gene polymorphisms in 89 patients receiving oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy as a first-line treatment regimen for advanced gastric cancer. ERCC1 codon 118C/T and XRCC1 codon 399A/G polymorphisms were identified using quantitative polymerase chain reactions, and the associations between disease control rate (DCR), median overall survival (mOS) and gene polymorphisms were analyzed. Following two cycles of chemotherapy, a complete response was observed in two patients, a partial response in 18 patients, stable disease in 38 patients and progressive disease in 31 patients. It was determined that ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms are not associated with DCR (P=0.662 and P=0.631, respectively). The mOS of patients exhibiting ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms was eight months, and although no significant association was identified between ERCC1 codon 118 genotypes and mOS (P>0.05), the combination of ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms, as well as the specific presence of the XRCC1 codon 399A/G polymorphism, was associated with mOS (P<0.05). Thus, the present study indicated that the XRCC1 polymorphism and the combination of XRCC1 and ERCC1 polymorphisms were independent predictors for mOS; however, the XRCC1 and ERCC1 genes were not able to predict the DCR. PMID:26770441

  6. Randomized in vivo trial evaluating plaque inhibition benefits of an advanced stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice used in conjunction with power brush technology

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, PG; Boulding, A; Farmer, S; Day, TN; Barker, ML; Harris, R; Mussett, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the plaque inhibition efficacy of a novel stannous-containing sodium fluoride test dentifrice to a standard anticavity negative control dentifrice, when both were used in conjunction with an advanced oscillating–rotating (O/R) power toothbrush. Methods This was a randomized, two-treatment, three-period, double-blind crossover study conducted in a population using an O/R power brush. Subjects brushed twice per day with their assigned dentifrice during the three-treatment periods, each lasting for 17 consecutive days. Each period was separated by a 4-day washout period during which subjects continued to use their O/R power toothbrush. Plaque levels were assessed and averaged amongst three assessments taken on days 15, 16 and 17 at the end of each treatment period using digital plaque imaging analysis. Assessments were carried out on the facial anterior tooth surfaces in the morning before brushing (A.M. prebrush) following whole-mouth brushing (30 s per quadrant) with the assigned dentifrice (A.M. post-brush) and in the afternoon (P.M.). Results Twenty-seven subjects were randomized and completed the study. During the 17-day usage period, the stannous-containing test NaF dentifrice demonstrated a statistically significant lower mean plaque area versus the negative control dentifrice at each assessment timepoint; overnight A.M. prebrush was 33.8% lower (P < 0.0001), A.M. post-brush was 21.8% lower (P < 0.01), and P.M. was 29.2% lower (P < 0.0001). Conclusion A population of O/R power toothbrush users had significantly less plaque coverage for all three measurements when using a stannous-containing NaF dentifrice than when using a negative control (fluoride) dentifrice. PMID:23844867

  7. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products regulates lung fluid balance via protein kinase C-gp91(phox) signaling to epithelial sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Kreiner, Lisa H; Johnson, Nicholle M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a multiligand member of the Ig family, may play a crucial role in the regulation of lung fluid balance. We quantified soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy isoform, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smokers and nonsmokers, and tested the hypothesis that AGEs regulate lung fluid balance through protein kinase C (PKC)-gp91(phox) signaling to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Human bronchoalveolar lavage samples from smokers showed increased AGEs (9.02 ± 3.03 μg versus 2.48 ± 0.53 μg), lower sRAGE (1,205 ± 292 pg/ml versus 1,910 ± 263 pg/ml), and lower volume(s) of epithelial lining fluid (97 ± 14 ml versus 133 ± 17 ml). sRAGE levels did not predict ELF volumes in nonsmokers; however, in smokers, higher volumes of ELF were predicted with higher levels of sRAGE. Single-channel patch clamp analysis of rat alveolar epithelial type 1 cells showed that AGEs increased ENaC activity measured as the product of the number of channels (N) and the open probability (Po) (NPo) from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 0.83 ± 0.22 (P = 0.017) and the subsequent addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.15 ± 0.07 (P = 0.01). In type 2 cells, human AGEs increased ENaC NPo from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.53 ± 0.16 (P = 0.025) and the addition of 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl decreased ENaC NPo to 0.10 ± 0.03 (P = 0.013). Using molecular and biochemical techniques, we observed that inhibition of RAGE and PKC activity attenuated AGE-induced activation of ENaC. AGEs induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and increased gp91(phox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production, a response that was abrogated with RAGE or PKC inhibition. Finally, tracheal instillation of AGEs promoted clearance of lung fluid, whereas concomitant inhibition of RAGE, PKC, and gp91(phox) abrogated the response. PMID:24978055

  8. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you use or have ever used street drugs, or if you have overused prescription medications. Sodium oxybate may be harmful when taken by people other than the person for whom it was prescribed. Do not sell or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ...

  9. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, K.R.

    1958-09-16

    A novel calutron receiver is described for collecting the constituent material of two closely adjacent selected portions of an ion beam in separate compartments. The receiver is so conntructed that ion scatter and intermixing of the closely adjacent beam portions do nnt occur when the ions strike the receiver structure, and the beam is sharply separated Into the two compartments. In essence, these desirable results are achieved by inclining the adjoining wall of one compartment with respect to the approaching ions to reduce possible rebounding of ions from the compartment into the adjacent compartment.

  10. First on-sun test of NaK pool-boiler solar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moss, T. A.; Cordeiro, P. G.; Dudley, V. E.; Rawlinson, K. S.

    During 1989-1990, a refluxing liquid-metal pool-boiler solar receiver designed for dish/Stirling application at 75 kW(sub t) throughput was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver included (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium, and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Following this first demonstration, a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that brings the concept closer to commercialization has been designed, constructed, and successfully tested. For long life, the new receiver is built from Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, the absorber area and vapor-flow passages have been enlarged. To eliminate the need for trace heating, sodium has been replaced by the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. To reduce manufacturing costs, the receiver has a powdered-metal coating instead of EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot restarts, it contains a small amount of xenon. In this paper, we present the receiver design and report the results of on-sun tests using a nominal 75 kW(sub t) test-bed concentrator to characterize boiling stability, hot-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency at temperatures up to 750 C. We also report briefly on late results from an advanced-concepts pool-boiler receiver.

  11. First on-sun test of NaK-78 pool-boiler solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    During 1989--1990, a refluxing liquid-metal pool-boiler solar receiver designed for dish/Stirling application at 75 kW[sub t] throughput was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver included (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Following this first demonstration, a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that brings the concept closer to commercialization has been designed, constructed, and successfully tested. For long life, the new receiver is built from Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, the absorber area and vapor-flow passages have been enlarged. To eliminate the need for trace heating, sodium has been replaced by the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. To reduce manufacturing costs, the receiver has a powdered-metal coating instead of EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot it contains a small amount of xenon. In this paper, we present the receiver design and report the results of on-sun tests using a nominal 75 kW[sub t] test-bed concentrator to characterize boiling stability, hot-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency at temperatures up to 750[degrees]C. We also report briefly on late results from an advanced-concepts pool-boiler receiver.

  12. First on-sun test of NaK-78 pool-boiler solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1993-06-01

    During 1989--1990, a refluxing liquid-metal pool-boiler solar receiver designed for dish/Stirling application at 75 kW{sub t} throughput was successfully demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories. Significant features of this receiver included (1) boiling sodium as the heat transfer medium and (2) electric-discharge-machined (EDM) cavities as artificial nucleation sites to stabilize boiling. Following this first demonstration, a second-generation pool-boiler receiver that brings the concept closer to commercialization has been designed, constructed, and successfully tested. For long life, the new receiver is built from Haynes Alloy 230. For increased safety factors against film boiling and flooding, the absorber area and vapor-flow passages have been enlarged. To eliminate the need for trace heating, sodium has been replaced by the sodium-potassium alloy NaK-78. To reduce manufacturing costs, the receiver has a powdered-metal coating instead of EDM cavities for stabilization of boiling. To control incipient-boiling superheats, especially during hot it contains a small amount of xenon. In this paper, we present the receiver design and report the results of on-sun tests using a nominal 75 kW{sub t} test-bed concentrator to characterize boiling stability, hot-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency at temperatures up to 750{degrees}C. We also report briefly on late results from an advanced-concepts pool-boiler receiver.

  13. Onset, advance and withdrawal of southwest monsoon over Indian subcontinent: A study from precipitable water measurement using ground based GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puviarasan, N.; Sharma, A. K.; Ranalkar, Manish; Giri, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Southwest monsoon (SWM) normally sets over Kerala by 1st June. It subsequently advances northwards and covers the entire country by 15th July. Prior knowledge of determination of date of onset of monsoon (DOM) is vital for many applications. However, accurate determination of DOM avoiding false or 'bogus' onset still remains a challenge to meteorological community. An incorrect identification of onset may lead to declaration of early onset. India Meteorological Department (IMD) has traditionally adopted an objective method to declare onset and withdrawal of monsoon based on rainfall over some specific stations in addition to wind field and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from a bounded region. An augmentation of existing criteria of monsoon onset using high temporal resolution tropospheric precipitable water (PW) content over a station obtained through ground based GPS receiver is proposed. It has been shown that variation of PW content is an indicator of the state of monsoon and can potentially be included in operational criteria for declaring onset and withdrawal of monsoon. In the paper, we present daily variation of PW during SWM at five stations viz. Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Mumbai and Delhi. The superposed epoch analysis of PW variation for 13 days with respect to arrival and withdrawal date of SWM reveals that over Kolkata at the time of arrival of monsoon the PW (mm)/SD (Standard Deviation) increases from 48.62/2.5 (day -6) to 61.4/1.9 (day 0) and on withdrawal it decreases from 48.62/4.56 (day -6) to 22.55 mm/4.0 (day 0). Similarly in Guwahati, Mumbai and Delhi the value of PW/SD increase from 53.81/4.2, 43.10/7.2 and 44.6/5.0 mm to 62.74/1.5, 62.09/1.6 and 61.88/2.3 mm and on withdrawal it reduces to 27.12/4.2, 25.94/2.6 and 20.46/4.6 mm respectively. It is also noticed that there is a sharp variation of PW from day -2 to day 0, which indicates GPS PW can be considered as a precursor for monsoon arrival and withdrawal.

  14. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: EOS AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2 Receiver Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The AMSU-A receiver subsystem comprises two separated receiver assemblies; AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2 (P/N 1356441-1). The AMSU-A1 receiver contains 13 channels and the AMSU-A2 receiver 2 channels. The AMSU-A1 receiver assembly is further divided into two parts; AMSU-A1-1 (P/N 1356429-1) and AMSU-A1-2 (P/N 1356409-1), which contain 9 and 4 channels, respectively. The receiver assemblies are highlighted and illustrate the functional block diagrams of the AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2 systems. The AMSU-A receiver subsystem stands in between the antenna and signal processing subsystems of the AMSU-A instrument and comprises the RF and IF components from isolators to attenuators. It receives the RF signals from the antenna subsystem, down-converts the RF signals to IF signals, amplifies and defines the IF signals to proper power level and frequency bandwidth as specified for each channel, and inputs the IF signals to the signal processing subsystem. This test report presents the test data of the EOS AMSU-A Flight Model No. 1 (FM-1) receiver subsystem. The tests are performed per the Acceptance Test Procedure for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A. The functional performance tests are conducted either at the component or subsystem level. While the component-level tests are performed over the entire operating temperature range predicted by thermal analysis, the subsystem-level tests are conducted at ambient temperature only.

  15. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  16. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improvement in a calutron receiver for collecting the isotopes ts described. The electromagnetic separation of the isotopes produces a mass spectrum of closely adjacent beams of ions at the foci regions, and a dividing wall between the two pockets is arranged at an angle. Substantially all of the tons of the less abundant isotope enter one of the pockets and strike one side of the wall directly, while substantially none of the tons entering the other pocket strikes the wall directly.

  17. Sodium homeostasis with chronic sodium loading in preascitic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F; Liu, P; Blendis, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preascitic cirrhotic patients receiving 200 mmol of sodium daily for seven days remain in positive sodium balance. Thereafter, sodium handling is unknown.
AIM—To assess renal sodium handling in preascitic cirrhosis on a high sodium diet for five weeks.
METHODS—Sixteen biopsy proven preascitic cirrhotics were assessed at weekly intervals for five weeks on a diet of 200 mmol sodium/day using a daily weight diary and weekly 24 hour urinary sodium estimations. Fasting supine neurohormone levels were measured at baseline and weekly for five weeks while haemodynamics were measured at baseline and at five weeks.
RESULTS—The daily diet of 200 mmol of sodium resulted in weight gain and a positive sodium balance for three weeks, associated with significant suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, and a significant rise in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.05). Patients' weights plateaued during week 4, associated with complete sodium balance and significant suppression of plasma noradrenaline levels (p<0.05). This was followed by a negative sodium balance and weight loss, and finally complete sodium balance, again despite a mean net gain of 2.3 (0.3) kg, associated with a return of plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels to within normal ranges. The lack of increase in central blood volume in addition to the persistent increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels indicated that residual volume expansion, consequent to persistent weight gain, was distributed on the venous side of the circulation. No free fluid was seen on repeat abdominal ultrasound after five weeks.
CONCLUSION—Preascitic cirrhotics have a natriuretic "escape" after three weeks on high sodium dietary intake, associated with elevated plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels and suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. With continued suppressed sympathetic activity, preascitics re-establish complete sodium balance

  18. Sodium MRI: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-05-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges, limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  19. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  20. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  1. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  2. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  5. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  6. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  7. Integrated Advance Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: EOS AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2 Receivers Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This test report presents the test data of the EOS AMSU-A Flight Model No.1 (FM-1) receiver subsystem. The tests are performed per the Acceptance Test Procedure for the AMSU-A Reseiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A. The functional performance tests are conducted either at the component or subsystem level. While the component-level tests are performed over the entire operating temperature range predicted by thermal analysis, the subsystem-level test are conducted at ambient temperature only.

  8. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  9. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  10. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  11. DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

    2005-12-01

    The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

  12. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-06-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to ‑11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC).

  13. eNOS polymorphisms and clinical outcome in advanced HCC patients receiving sorafenib: final results of the ePHAS study.

    PubMed

    Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Marisi, Giorgia; Faloppi, Luca; Scarpi, Emanuela; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Iavarone, Massimo; Lauletta, Gianfranco; Corbelli, Jody; Valgiusti, Martina; Facchetti, Floriana; Della Corte, Cristina; Neri, Luca Maria; Tamberi, Stefano; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario; Amadori, Dino; Nanni, Oriana; Tenti, Elena; Ulivi, Paola; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca

    2016-05-10

    Sorafenib may reduce endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGF-R), leading to a decrease in nitric oxide production. In the Italian multicenter ePHAS (eNOS polymorphisms in HCC and sorafenib) study, we analyzed the role of eNOS polymorphisms in relation to clinical outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib. Our retrospective study included a training cohort of 41 HCC patients and a validation cohort of 87 HCC patients, all undergoing sorafenib treatment. Three eNOS polymorphisms (eNOS -786T>C, eNOS VNTR 27bp 4a/b and eNOS+894G>T) were analyzed by direct sequencing or Real Time PCR in relation to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (log-rank test). In univariate analysis, training cohort patients homozygous for eNOS haplotype (HT1:T-4b at eNOS-786/eNOS VNTR) had a lower median PFS (2.6 vs. 5.8 months, P < 0.0001) and OS (3.2 vs.14.6 months, P = 0.024) than those with other haplotypes. In the validation set, patients homozygous for HT1 had a lower median PFS (2.0 vs. 6.7 months, P < 0.0001) and OS (6.4 vs.18.0 months, P < 0.0001) than those with other haplotypes. Multivariate analysis confirmed this haplotype as the only independent prognostic factor. Our results suggest that haplotype HT1 in the eNOS gene may be capable of identifying a subset of HCC patients who are resistant to sorafenib. PMID:27058899

  14. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to −11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC). PMID:27270381

  15. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications.

    PubMed

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to -11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC). PMID:27270381

  16. The relationship between pathologic nodal disease and residual tumor viability after induction chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma receiving a tri-modality regimen

    PubMed Central

    Rybicki, Lisa A.; Sohal, Davendra; Allende, Daniela S.; Videtic, Gregory M. M.; Rodriguez, Cristina P.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Murthy, Sudish C.; Raja, Siva; Raymond, Daniel; Ives, Denise I.; Bodmann, Joanna W.; Adelstein, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A complete pathologic response to induction chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) has been identified as a favorable prognostic factor for patients with loco-regionally advanced (LRA) adenocarcinoma (ACA) of the esophagus and gastro-esophageal junction (E/GEJ). Nodal involvement at the time of surgery has been found to be prognostically unfavorable. Less is known, however, about the prognostic import of less than complete pathologic regression and its relationship to residual nodal disease after induction chemotherapy. Methods Between February 2008 and January 2012, 60 evaluable patients with ACA of the E/GEJ enrolled in a phase II trial of induction chemotherapy, surgery, and post-operative CRT. Eligibility required a clinical stage of T3-T4 or N1 or M1a (AJCC 6th). Induction chemotherapy with epirubicin 50 mg/m2 d1, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 d1, and fluorouracil 200 mg/m2/day continuous infusion for 3 weeks, was given every 21 days for three courses and was followed by surgical resection. Adjuvant CRT consisted of 50-55 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy/d and two courses of cisplatin (20 mg/m2/d) and fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2/d) over 4 days during weeks 1 and 4 of radiotherapy. Residual viability (RV) was defined as the amount of remaining tumor in relation to acellular mucin pools and scarring. Results Of the 60 evaluable patients, 54 completed induction therapy and underwent curative intent surgery. The Kaplan-Meier projected 3-year overall survival (OS) for patients with pathologic N0 (n=20), N1 (n=12), N2 (n=13), and N3 (n=9) disease is 73%, 57%, 35%, and 0% respectively (P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier projected 3-year OS of patients with low (0-25%, n=19), intermediate (26-75%, n=26), and high (>75%, n=9) residual tumor viability was 67%, 42%, and 17% respectively (P=0.004). On multivariable analysis (MVA), both the pN descriptor and RV were independently prognostic for OS. In patients with less nodal dissemination (N0/N1), RV was prognostic for OS [3-year OS 85% (0-25% viable) vs. 51

  17. A 3T Sodium and Proton Composite Array Breast Coil

    PubMed Central

    Kaggie, Joshua D.; Hadley, J. Rock; Badal, James; Campbell, John R.; Park, Daniel J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Morrell, Glen; Newbould, Rexford D.; Wood, Ali F.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether a sodium phased array would improve sodium breast MRI at 3T. The secondary objective was to create acceptable proton images with the sodium phased array in place. Methods A novel composite array for combined proton/sodium 3T breast MRI is compared to a coil with a single proton and sodium channel. The composite array consists of a 7-channel sodium receive array, a larger sodium transmit coil, and a 4-channel proton transceive array. The new composite array design utilizes smaller sodium receive loops than typically used in sodium imaging, uses novel decoupling methods between the receive loops and transmit loops, and uses a novel multi-channel proton transceive coil. The proton transceive coil reduces coupling between proton and sodium elements by intersecting the constituent loops to reduce their mutual inductance. The coil used for comparison consists of a concentric sodium and proton loop with passive decoupling traps. Results The composite array coil demonstrates a 2–5x improvement in SNR for sodium imaging and similar SNR for proton imaging when compared to a simple single-loop dual resonant design. Conclusion The improved SNR of the composite array gives breast sodium images of unprecedented quality in reasonable scan times. PMID:24105740

  18. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  19. Aptiom (eslicarbazepine acetate) as a dual inhibitor of β-secretase and voltage-gated sodium channel: advancement in Alzheimer's disease-epilepsy linkage via an enzoinformatics study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Rizvi, Syed M D; Hameed, Nida; Biswas, Deboshree; Khan, Mahiuddin; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are increasingly identified as one of the major causes of epilepsy. The relationship of epileptic activity to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of clinical importance. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VSC) is one of the best targets in the treatment of epilepsy while β-secretase (BACE) has long been observed as a curative target for AD. To explore a possible link between the treatment of AD and epilepsy, the molecular interactions of recently Food and Drug Administration approved antiepileptic drug Aptiom (Eslicarbazepine acetate) with BACE and VSC were studied. Docking study was performed using 'Autodock4.2'. Hydrophobic and pi-pi interactions play critical role in the correct positioning of Eslicarbazepine acetate within the catalytic site of VSC and BACE enzyme to permit docking. Free energy of binding (ΔG) of 'Eslicarbazepine acetate-VSC' interaction and 'Eslicarbazepine acetate-CAS domain of BACE' interaction was found to be -5.97 and -7.19 kcal/mol, respectively. Hence, Eslicarbazepine acetate might act as a potent dual inhibitor of BACE and VSC. However, scope still remains in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of BACE-Eslicarbazepine acetate and VSC-Eslicarbazepine acetate complexes by X-ray crystallography to validate the described data. Further, Aptiom (Eslicarbazepine acetate) could be expected to form the basis of future dual therapy against epilepsy associated neurological disorders. PMID:25230222

  20. Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

    2010-05-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  1. On board low noise 30 GHz receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambrosio, A.; Castelli, G.; Mazzini, C.

    An advanced receiver for onboard application in a 30/20 GHz SS-TDMA satellite communication system is described. The basic requirements of the receiver are a total noise temperature of 1000 K and a bandwidth of 250 MHz. Attention is given to system requirements, the receiver configuration, the parametric preamplifier, and the down converter and IF preamplifier.

  2. Diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  3. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  4. Prognostic Significance of Ascites and Serum Sodium in Patients with Low Meld Scores

    PubMed Central

    Prohic, Dzanela; Mesihovic, Rusmir; Vanis, Nenad; Puhalovic, Amra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to determine ascites and serum sodium significance in short term mortality prediction in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. Methods: a cohort of 115 cirrhotic patients referred to our Department were followed up for 6 months in non-transplant settings. The c index equivalent to the area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) was calculated and compared to estimate the short-term prognostic accuracy of the following parameters: ascites, serum sodium and MELD score. Results: in patients with a MELD score less than 21, ascites and low serum sodium (c index 0,687, p<0 0,001 and 0,748, p<0,001 respectively) showed better prognostic accuracy and were independent predictors of mortality. For MELD scores above 21, only MELD was an independent mortality prognostic factor (c index 0,710, p<0,001). Conclusion: in our study, sample ascites and low serum sodium help identify patients with advanced liver disease who are at high risk of mortality despite low MELD scores. These parameters should be considered as additional prognostic parameters that could improve available treatment options and outcomes in this group of patients. PMID:26980932

  5. Next generation digital GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, G. B.; Yakos, Michael D.

    1990-07-01

    The architecture and technology features of the next-generation (NGR) digital GPS receiver manufactured by Collins are described. The project's objective was to develop an advanced GPS receiver chipset with high antijam capabilities. The program, initiated in 1985, has provided the technology for miniature receiver products for both unmanned and manned vehicle applications. A two-channel version of the receiver is currently in full-scale development for tactical missile applications. A five-channel version is being tested and evaluated as a drop-in replacement for RCVR-3A, the US Department of Defense standard high dynamic receiver. The NGR design started with the digital signal processing architecture developed for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) hand-held GPS receiver. Enhancements were made to improve the antijam and signal acquisition performance. Producible, qualifiable and cost-effective silicon monolithic microwave integrated circuits and semicustom digital technologies were used to develop the core GPS chipset. A system design approach was established to permit reuse of mature and validated GPS software.

  6. LANL receiver system development

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B.; Cooke, B.; Cafferty, M.; Olivas, N.

    1997-08-01

    The CALIOPE receiver system development at LANL is the story of two technologies. The first of these technologies consists of off-the-shelf mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detectors and amplifiers. The vendor for this system is Kolmar Technologies. This system was fielded in the Tan Trailer I (TTI) in 1995 and will be referred to in this paper as GEN I. The second system consists of a MCT detector procured from Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) and an amplifier designed and built by LANL. This system was fielded in the Tan Trailer II (TTII) system at the NTS tests in 1996 and will be referred to as GEN II. The LANL CALIOPE experimental plan for 1996 was to improve the lidar system by progressing to a higher rep rate laser to perform many shots in a much shorter period of time. In keeping with this plan, the receiver team set a goal of developing a detector system that was background limited for the projected 100 nanosecond (ns) laser pulse. A set of detailed simulations of the DIAL lidar experiment was performed. From these runs, parameters such as optimal detector size, field of view of the receiver system, nominal laser return power, etc. were extracted. With this information, detector physics and amplifier electronic models were developed to obtain the required specifications for each of these components. These derived specs indicated that a substantial improvement over commercially available, off-the-shelf, amplifier and detector technologies would be needed to obtain the goals. To determine if the original GEN I detector was usable, the authors performed tests on a 100 micron square detector at cryogenic temperatures. The results of this test and others convinced them that an advanced detector was required. Eventually, a suitable detector was identified and a number of these single element detectors were procured from SBRC. These single element detectors were witness for the detector arrays built for another DOE project.

  7. Sodium channels, inherited epilepsy, and antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Catterall, William A

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons, mutations in sodium channels cause inherited forms of epilepsy, and sodium channel blockers-along with other classes of drugs-are used in therapy of epilepsy. A mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel is a complex containing a large, pore-forming α subunit and one or two smaller β subunits. Extensive structure-function studies have revealed many aspects of the molecular basis for sodium channel structure, and X-ray crystallography of ancestral bacterial sodium channels has given insight into their three-dimensional structure. Mutations in sodium channel α and β subunits are responsible for genetic epilepsy syndromes with a wide range of severity, including generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), Dravet syndrome, and benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures. These seizure syndromes are treated with antiepileptic drugs that offer differing degrees of success. The recent advances in understanding of disease mechanisms and sodium channel structure promise to yield improved therapeutic approaches. PMID:24392695

  8. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  9. A multi-mode multi-band RF receiver front-end for a TD-SCDMA/LTE/LTE-advanced in 0.18-μm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Guo; Haiying, Zhang

    2012-09-01

    A fully integrated multi-mode multi-band directed-conversion radio frequency (RF) receiver front-end for a TD-SCDMA/LTE/LTE-advanced is presented. The front-end employs direct-conversion design, and consists of two differential tunable low noise amplifiers (LNA), a quadrature mixer, and two intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers. The two independent tunable LNAs are used to cover all the four frequency bands, achieving sufficient low noise and high gain performance with low power consumption. Switched capacitor arrays perform a resonant frequency point calibration for the LNAs. The two LNAs are combined at the driver stage of the mixer, which employs a folded double balanced Gilbert structure, and utilizes PMOS transistors as local oscillator (LO) switches to reduce flicker noise. The front-end has three gain modes to obtain a higher dynamic range. Frequency band selection and mode of configuration is realized by an on-chip serial peripheral interface (SPI) module. The front-end is fabricated in a TSMC 0.18-μm RF CMOS process and occupies an area of 1.3 mm2. The measured double-sideband (DSB) noise figure is below 3.5 dB and the conversion gain is over 43 dB at all of the frequency bands. The total current consumption is 31 mA from a 1.8-V supply.

  10. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  11. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  14. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  15. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  16. Utility of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the Initial Staging and Response Assessment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hulikal, Narendra; Gajjala, Sivanath Reddy; Kalawat, Teck Chand; Kottu, Radhika; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi

    2015-12-01

    In India up to 50 % of breast cancer patients still present as locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The conventional methods of metastatic work up include physical examination, bone scan, chest & abdominal imaging, and biochemical tests. It is likely that the conventional staging underestimates the extent of initial spread and there is a need for more sophisticated staging procedure. The PET/CT can detect extra-axillary and occult distant metastases and also aid in predicting response to chemotherapy at an early point in time. To evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT in initial staging and response assessment of patients with LABC receiving NACT. A prospective study of all biopsy confirmed female patients diagnosed with LABC receiving NACT from April 2013 to May 2014. The conventional work up included serum chemistry, CECT chest and abdomen and bone scan. A baseline whole body PET/CT was done in all patients. A repeat staging evaluation and a whole body PET/CT was done after 2/3rd cycle of NACT in non-responders and after 3/4 cycles in clinical responders. The histopathology report of the operative specimen was used to document the pathological response. The FDG PET/CT reported distant metastases in 11 of 38 patients, where as conventional imaging revealed metastases in only 6. Almost all the distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were detected with PET/CT, which showed additional sites of metastasis in 3 patients. In 2 patients, PET/CT detected osteolytic bone metastasis which were not detected by bone scan. In 5 patients PET CT detected N3 disease which were missed on conventional imaging. A total of 14 patients had second PET/CT done to assess the response to NACT and 11 patients underwent surgery. Two patients had complete pathological response. Of these 1 patient had complete metabolic and morphologic response and other had complete metabolic and partial morphologic response on second PET/CT scan. The 18 FDG PET/CT can detect more number of

  17. Sodium-Oxygen Battery: Steps Toward Reality.

    PubMed

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Li, Chunmei; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Carrasco, Javier; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-04-01

    Rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries are receiving significant interest as a possible alternative to current state of the art lithium ion batteries due to their potential to provide higher gravimetric energies, giving significantly lighter or longer-lasting batteries. Recent advances suggest that the Na-O2 battery, in many ways analogous to Li-O2 yet based on the reversible formation of sodium superoxide (NaO2), has many advantages such as a low charge overpotential (∼100 mV) resulting in improved efficiency. In this Perspective, we discuss the current state of knowledge in Na-O2 battery technology, with an emphasis on the latest experimental studies, as well as theoretical models. We offer special focus on the principle outstanding challenges and issues and address the advantages/disadvantages of the technology when compared with Li-O2 batteries as well as other state-of-the-art battery technologies. We finish by detailing the direction required to make Na-O2 batteries both commercially and technologically viable. PMID:26961215

  18. Rechargeable sodium alloy anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.

    1988-06-28

    A secondary battery is described comprising: (a) an anode which comprises an alloy of sodium and one or metals selected from the group consisting of tin, lead antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellerium, (b) an electrolyte comprising one or more organic solvents and one or more sodium salts dissolved therein forming dissolved sodium cations in solution; and (c) a cathode; the sodium cations from the electrolyte alloying with the one or more metals of the alloy in the anode during the charging of the battery and sodium in the alloy disoloving in the electrolyte during the discharging of the battery.

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N 108) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F05 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, R.; Krimchansky, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 108) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F05 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F05, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The ATP for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A, is prepared to describe in detail the configuration of the test setups and the procedures of the tests to verify that the receiver subsystem meets the specifications as required either in the AMSU-A Instrument Performance and Operation Specifications, S-480-80, or in AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem Specifications, AE-26608, derived by the Aerojet System Engineering. Test results that verify the conformance to the specifications demonstrate the acceptability of that particular receiver subsystem.

  20. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2016-09-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , P<0·001) and directly related to serum sodium (r = 0·57, P<0·05). The RBC fractional sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, P<0·01) compared to controls. Inhibition in both high (145 mmol l(-1) )- and low (120 mmol l(-1) )-sodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0·03-0·007), especially the O-sensitive, F-insensitive efflux was increased (+ 225%, P = 0·01-0·006). Fractional F-sensitive transport was normal in cirrhosis. RBC sodium influx was largely normal in cirrhosis. In conclusion, RBC sodium content is reduced in patients with cirrhosis with a direct relation to serum sodium. Increased RBC sodium efflux is especially related to ouabain-sensitive, furosemide-insensitive transport and thus most likely due to upregulated activity of the sodium-potassium pump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide-sensitive sodium transport in cirrhosis. PMID:26016736

  1. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 109) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409 S/N F06, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  2. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  3. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  4. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  5. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  6. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A(AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT AMSU-A2 Receiver Assembly, (P/N 1356441-1, S.N F04) S/N 107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapper, R.

    1998-01-01

    The AMSU-A receiver subsystem comprises two separated receiver assemblies; AMSU-Al and AMSU-A2(PN1356441-1). The AMSU-A1 receiver contains 13 channels and the AMSU-A2 receiver 2 channels. The AMSU-AL receiver assembly is further divided into two parts; AMSU-A 1-1 (P/N 1356429-1) and AMSU-A 1-2 (P/N 1356409-1), which contain 9 and 4 channels, respectively. The AMSU-A receiver subsystem stands in between the antenna and signal processing subsystems of the AMSU-A instrument and comprises the RF and IF components from RF isolators to IF attenuators. It receives the RF signals from the antenna subsystem, down-converts the RF signals to IF signals, amplifies and defines the IF signals to proper power level and frequency bandwidth as specified for each channel, and inputs the IF signals to the signal processing subsystem. The test reports for the METSAT AMSU-A receiver subsystem are prepared separately for the A1 and A2 receivers so that each receiver stands alone during integration of instruments into the spacecraft. This test report presents the test data of the METSAT AMSU-A2 Flight Model No.4 (FM4) receiver. The tests are performed per the Acceptance Test Procedure for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A. The functional performance tests are conducted either at the component or subsystem level. While the component-level tests are performed over the entire operating temperature range predicted by thermal analysis, the subsystem-level tests are conducted at ambient temperature only.

  7. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  8. Usefulness of Interim FDG-PET After Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Sequential Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Cho, Yoojin; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Choi, Seung-Ho; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jae Seung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) has been used to select patients for organ preservation and determine subsequent treatments in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN). Still, the clinical outcomes of LASCCHN patients who showed response to ICT are heterogeneous. We evaluated the efficacy of interim 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after ICT in this specific subgroup of LASCCHN patients who achieved partial response (PR) after ICT to predict clinical outcomes after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with LASCCHN who showed PR to ICT by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors before definitive CCRT were chosen in this retrospective analysis. FDG-PET was performed before and 2-4 weeks after ICT to assess the extent of disease at baseline and the metabolic response to ICT, respectively. We examined the correlation of the metabolic response by the percentage decrease of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on the primary tumor or lymph node after ICT or a specific threshold of SUVmax on interim FDG-PET with clinical outcomes including complete response (CR) rate to CCRT, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: A SUVmax of 4.8 on interim FDG-PET could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 20%, p = 0.001), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.5 mo, p < 0.001), and OS (median, not reached vs. 12.0 months, p = 0.001) with a median follow-up of 20.3 months in surviving patients. A 65% decrease in SUVmax after ICT from baseline also could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.9 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median, not reached vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.001) of the patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that interim FDG-PET after ICT might be a useful determinant to predict clinical outcomes in patients with LASCCHN receiving sequential ICT followed by CCRT.

  9. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to sodium polystyrene sulfonate, other polystyrene sulfonate resins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients ... salt substitutes containing potassium or foods that are high in potassium.

  10. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  11. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  12. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  13. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

    1969-01-01

    Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

  14. Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, François

    2012-01-01

    The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors. PMID:22961543

  15. Data-fusion receiver

    DOEpatents

    Gabelmann, Jeffrey M.; Kattner, J. Stephen; Houston, Robert A.

    2006-12-19

    This invention is an ultra-low frequency electromagnetic telemetry receiver which fuses multiple input receive sources to synthesize a decodable message packet from a noise corrupted telemetry message string. Each block of telemetry data to be sent to the surface receiver from a borehole tool is digitally encoded into a data packet prior to transmission. The data packet is modulated onto the ULF EM carrier wave and transmitted from the borehole to the surface and then are simultaneously detected by multiple receive sensors disbursed within the rig environment. The receive sensors include, but are not limited to, electric field and magnetic field sensors. The spacing of the surface receive elements is such that noise generators are unequally coupled to each receive element due to proximity and/or noise generator type (i.e. electric or magnetic field generators). The receiver utilizes a suite of decision metrics to reconstruct the original, non noise-corrupted data packet from the observation matrix via the estimation of individual data frames. The receiver will continue this estimation process until: 1) the message validates, or 2) a preset "confidence threshold" is reached whereby frames within the observation matrix are no longer "trusted".

  16. Hybrid receiver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M. S.; Mcadam, P. L.; Saunders, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a 4 month study to design a hybrid analog/digital receiver for outer planet mission probe communication links. The scope of this study includes functional design of the receiver; comparisons between analog and digital processing; hardware tradeoffs for key components including frequency generators, A/D converters, and digital processors; development and simulation of the processing algorithms for acquisition, tracking, and demodulation; and detailed design of the receiver in order to determine its size, weight, power, reliability, and radiation hardness. In addition, an evaluation was made of the receiver's capabilities to perform accurate measurement of signal strength and frequency for radio science missions.

  17. Optical superheterodyne receiver.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, K.; Lang, K.; Lucy, R. F.; Peters, C. J.

    1967-01-01

    Optical communication experiments to compare coherent and noncoherent optical detection fading characteristics in different weather conditions, using laser transmitter and optical superheterodyne receiver

  18. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N:107) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies: P/N 1356429-1, S/N:F04, P/N 1356409-1,S/N F04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N: 107) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1, SIN: F04, P/N 1356409- 1, S/N: F04, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The AMSU-A receiver subsystem comprises two separated receiver assemblies; AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2 (P/N 1356441-1). The AMSU-A1 receiver contains 13 channels and the AMSU-A2 receiver 2 channels. The AMSU-A receiver assembly is further divided into two parts; AMSU-A I - I (P/N 13 5 6429- 1) and AMSU-A 1 -2 (P/N 1356409-1), which contain 9 and 4 channels, respectively. The AMSU-A receiver subsystem is located in between the antenna and signal processing subsystems of the AMSU-A instrument and comprises the RF and IF components from isolators to attenuators. It receives the RF signals from the antenna subsystem, down-converts the RF signals to IF signals, amplifies and defines the IF signals to proper power level and frequency bandwidth as specified for each channel, and inputs the IF signals to the signal processing subsystem. The test reports for the METSAT AMSU-A receiver subsystem are prepared separately for Al and A2 receivers so that each receiver stands alone during integration of instruments into the spacecraft. This test report presents the test data of the N4ETSAT AMSU-A1 Flight Model No. 4 (FM-4) receiver subsystem. The tests are performed per the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A. The functional performance tests are conducted either at the component or subsystem level. While the component-level tests are performed over the entire operating temperature range predicted by thermal analysis, most subsystem-level tests are conducted at ambient temperature only. Key performances (bandpass characteristics and noise figure) of the receiver subsystem are verified over the operating temperature.

  20. Right to Receive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborn, Richard

    The concept of a United States citizen's right to receive information is acquiring increased judicial recognition. This report traces the evolution of that right from its philosophical basis in the United States Consitution, through its interpretation by the Supreme Court, up to the current concern that the public receive certain economic…

  1. High-temperature solar central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinrood, A. C.

    1981-07-01

    Designs and concepts for solar central receiver thermal power plants are reviewed. Concentrations of over 1,000 suns are now possible, and seven prototype plants, producing from 1-10 MWe, are close to completion, employing cavity and external receiver configurations. Heat transfer fluids are discussed, noting that the water/steam cycle is emerging as the dominant mode; liquid sodium is benefitting from extensive testing for nuclear power plants; molten salt provides thermal storage at $10-30/kWt-hr; high temperature gas systems (815 C) can be applied for gypsum board drying and NH3 production. Heliostats are all of a steel/glass configuration and require mass production to become economical. Thermal storage systems, applications for repowering in conjunction with conventional power plants, and cogeneration for electricity/process heat are examined, and power costs are projected to match those of coal if the central receiver construction costs can be halved.

  2. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  3. Dietary Sodium in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Julie A.; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake. PMID:20557489

  4. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  5. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  6. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  7. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  8. CALUTRON RECEIVER STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Roush, J.L.

    1959-09-01

    A receiver is described for collecting isotopes in a calutron The receiver has several compartments, formed by a sertes of parallel metal plates and an open front. Each plate has flanges which space it from the other plates and a flexible extension pressing against a common supporting red to maintain the plate in assembled relation when all but the last rod is removed. The plates may be removed individualy from the front of the receiver, cleaned ard replaced without disturbing the alignment of the other plates.

  9. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  10. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  11. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc. ...

  12. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes as a suspension and as an oral powder for suspension to take by mouth. The suspension ... evenly.If you are taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate powder by mouth, mix the powder with 20 to ...

  13. Ceramic Solar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar receiver uses ceramic honeycomb matrix to absorb heat from Sun and transfer it to working fluid at temperatures of 1,095 degrees and 1,650 degrees C. Drives gas turbine engine or provides heat for industrial processes.

  14. Ultrasonic pulser-receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.

    2006-09-12

    Ultrasonic pulser-receiver circuitry, for use with an ultrasonic transducer, the circuitry comprising a circuit board; ultrasonic pulser circuitry supported by the circuit board and configured to be coupled to an ultrasonic transducer and to cause the ultrasonic transducer to emit an ultrasonic output pulse; receiver circuitry supported by the circuit board, coupled to the pulser circuitry, including protection circuitry configured to protect against the ultrasonic pulse and including amplifier circuitry configured to amplify an echo, received back by the transducer, of the output pulse; and a connector configured to couple the ultrasonic transducer directly to the circuit board, to the pulser circuitry and receiver circuitry, wherein impedance mismatches that would result if the transducer was coupled to the circuit board via a cable can be avoided.

  15. Solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  16. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  17. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

  18. EHF low-noise FET receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellenberg, J. M.; Watkins, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Extremely high frequency (EHF) receivers for military and NASA programs must be small, lightweight, and highly reliable. In connection with recent advances in the development of mm-wave FET devices and circuits, a basis has been obtained for the eventual replacement of diode mixer front-ends by FET preamplifiers in receivers up to 94 GHz. By placing a low noise amplifier in front of the mixer it is possible to achieve a lower system noise figure than that found in conventional mm-wave receivers. A broader bandwidth can also be provided. Attention is given to the receiver configuration, a low noise FET amplifier, an image rejection filter, a dual-gate FET mixer, a FET local oscillator, and a FET receiver.

  19. Receiver System: Lessons Learned From Solar Two

    SciTech Connect

    LITWIN, ROBERT Z.; PACHECO, JAMES E.

    2002-03-01

    The Boeing Company fabricated the Solar Two receiver as a subcontractor for the Solar Two project. The receiver absorbed sunlight reflected from the heliostat field. A molten-nitrate-salt heat transfer fluid was pumped from a storage tank at grade level, heated from 290 to 565 C by the receiver mounted on top of a tower, then flowed back down into another storage tank. To make electricity, the hot salt was pumped through a steam generator to produce steam that powered a conventional Rankine steam turbine/generator. This evaluation identifies the most significant Solar Two receiver system lessons learned from the Mechanical Design, Instrumentation and Control, Panel Fabrication, Site Construction, Receiver System Operation, and Management from the perspective of the receiver designer/manufacturer. The lessons learned on the receiver system described here consist of two parts: the Problem and one or more identified Solutions. The appendix summarizes an inspection of the advanced receiver panel developed by Boeing that was installed and operated in the Solar Two receiver.

  20. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.B.

    1982-07-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectangular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable, and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  1. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectagular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable; and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  2. Highly directional acoustic receivers.

    PubMed

    Cray, Benjamin A; Evora, Victor M; Nuttall, Albert H

    2003-03-01

    The theoretical directivity of a single combined acoustic receiver, a device that can measure many quantities of an acoustic field at a collocated point, is presented here. The formulation is developed using a Taylor series expansion of acoustic pressure about the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system. For example, the quantities measured by a second-order combined receiver, denoted a dyadic sensor, are acoustic pressure, the three orthogonal components of acoustic particle velocity, and the nine spatial gradients of the velocity vector. The power series expansion, which can be of any order, is cast into an expression that defines the directivity of a single receiving element. It is shown that a single highly directional dyadic sensor can have a directivity index of up to 9.5 dB. However, there is a price to pay with highly directive sensors; these sensors can be significantly more sensitive to nonacoustic noise sources. PMID:12656387

  3. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  4. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  5. Simplified OMEGA receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The details are presented of methods for providing OMEGA navigational information including the receiver problem at the antenna and informational display and housekeeping systems based on some 4 bit data processing concepts. Topics discussed include the problem of limiters, zero crossing detectors, signal envelopes, internal timing circuits, phase counters, lane position displays, signal integrators, and software mapping problems.

  6. Submillimeter wave heterodyne receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Ward, John (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In an embodiment, a submillimeter wave heterodyne receiver includes a finline ortho-mode transducer comprising thin tapered metallic fins deposited on a thin dielectric substrate to separate a vertically polarized electromagnetic mode from a horizontally polarized electromagnetic mode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  7. Olympus beacon receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostergaard, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A medium-size Beacon Receiving System for reception and processing of the B1 (20 GHz) and B2 (30 GHz) beacons from Olympus has been developed. Integration of B1 and B2 receiving equipment into one system using one antenna and a common computer for control and data processing provides the advantages of a compact configuration and synchronization of the two receiver chains. Range for co-polar signal attenuation meaurement is about 30 dB for both beacons, increasing to 40 dB for B2 if the receivers are synchronized to B1. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB. Cross-polarization discriminations of the order of 10 to 30 dB may be determined with an accuracy of 1 to 2 dB. A number of radiometers for complementary measurements of atmospheric attenuation of 13 to 30 GHz has also been constructed. A small multi-frequency system for operation around 22 GHz and 31 GHz is presently under development.

  8. Io's sodium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-11-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  9. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  10. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms For skin exposure, the person may receive: Irrigation (washing of the skin). Perhaps every few hours ... For eye exposure, the person may receive: Extensive irrigation to flush out the eye Medicines

  11. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  12. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  13. Sodium and water balance in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Cody, R J; Covit, A B; Schaer, G L; Laragh, J H; Sealey, J E; Feldschuh, J

    1986-01-01

    As the characteristics of sodium and water balance in heart failure remain undefined, we evaluated the hemodynamic, metabolic, and hormonal effects of balanced sodium intake in 10 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. We discontinued diuretics to avoid their confounding influence, and all patients received 1 wk of 10 meq and 100 meq balanced sodium intake and controlled free water. Comparing sodium intake of 10 with 100 meq, the following observations were made. There was weight gain (2.0 kg) and increased sodium excretion (11 +/- 3 to 63 +/- 15 meq/24 h), unaccompanied by increase of blood volume. Both renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system activity were greater during the 10 meq diet, and suppressed with the 100 meq sodium diet. For both diets, plasma renin and urinary aldosterone excretion were correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = -0.768, r = -0.726, respectively; P less than 0.005). Systemic hemodynamics were minimally changed with increased sodium intake. However, reversal of vasoconstriction by captopril during the 10 meq diet, and its ineffectiveness during the 100 meq diet, indicated a renin-dependent mechanism in the former, and a renin-independent mechanism in the latter diet. There were two subgroups of response to the 100 meq diet: one group (n = 5) achieved neutral balance, while the second (n = 5) avidly retained sodium and water. Renin-angiotensin system activity was significantly higher in the latter group, and the mechanism for differences in sodium excretion for the subgroups could not be identified by blood volume or hemodynamic parameters. Orthostatic hypotension during tilt was greater during the 10 meq sodium diet, and in all cases, related to ineffective hemodynamic and hormonal compensatory responses. PMID:3517066

  14. A digital beacon receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransome, Peter D.

    1988-01-01

    A digital satellite beacon receiver is described which provides measurement information down to a carrier/noise density ratio approximately 15 dB below that required by a conventional (phase locked loop) design. When the beacon signal fades, accuracy degrades gracefully, and is restored immediately (without hysteresis) on signal recovery, even if the signal has faded into the noise. Benefits of the digital processing approach used include the minimization of operator adjustments, stability of the phase measuring circuits with time, repeatability between units, and compatibility with equipment not specifically designed for propagation measuring. The receiver has been developed for the European Olympus satellite which has continuous wave (CW) beacons at 12.5 and 29.7 GHz, and a switched polarization beacon at 19.8 GHz approximately, but the system can be reconfigured for CW and polarization-switched beacons at other frequencies.

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  16. Multichannel homodyne receiver

    DOEpatents

    Landt, Jeremy A.

    1982-01-01

    A homodyne radar transmitter/receiver device which produces a single combined output which contains modulated backscatter information for all phase conditions of both modulated and unmodulated backscatter signals. The device utilizes taps along coaxial transmission lines, strip transmission line, and waveguides which are spaced by 1/8 wavelength or 1/6 wavelength, etc. This greatly reduces costs by eliminating separate transmission and reception antennas and an expensive arrangement of power splitters and mixers utilized in the prior art.

  17. Multichannel homodyne receiver

    DOEpatents

    Landt, J.A.

    1981-01-19

    A homodyne radar transmitter/receiver device which produces a single combined output which contains modulated backscatter information for all phase conditions of both modulated and unmodulated backscatter signals is described. The device utilizes taps along coaxial transmission lines, strip transmission line, and waveguides which are spaced by 1/8 wavelength or 1/6 wavelength, etc. This greatly reduces costs by eliminating separate transmission and reception antennas and an expensive arrangement of power splitters and mixers utilized in the prior art.

  18. Galileo probe relay receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prouty, D. A.; Von Der Embse, U. A.

    1982-01-01

    For the Jovian mission, the data link from the Galileo probe to the orbiter uses suppressed-carrier Manchester encoded BPSK modulation and is protected with R = 1/2, K = 7 convolutional coding. The receiver closes the link by acquiring, tracking, and demodulating the data. It has to operate in a highly stressed environment with severe frequency offset, frequency rate, wind gust, and antenna spin conditions. Salient features are described and breadboard test data presented.

  19. Development of an ATSC multimedia datacasting receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Gilles; Liu, Hong; Li, Wei

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents the development of an ATSC terrestrial data receiver to be used in multimedia datacasting for remote and rural communities. In the context of a project put forward at the Communications Research Centre Canada to deliver interactive multimedia to remote and rural areas in Canada, a receiver capable of extracting Internet Packets (IP) as well as video and audio transport streams (TS) based on the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) terrestrial digital television system is developed. This paper describes the design, implementation, functionality, as well as several applications of this receiver which plays an important role in the interactive multimedia datacasting system. The ATSC terrestrial transmission chain from the server at the transmitter site to the receiver (client) at the end-user's premise is presented. A number of possible implementations for a return channel are proposed. Preliminary results of laboratory trials as well as plans for field trials are presented.

  20. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  1. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  3. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Takawale, Rahul V.; Mali, Vishal R.; Kapase, Chinmay U.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP) against sodium oxalate (NaOx) induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o.), NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p.), LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg), Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg). Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules. PMID:22707863

  4. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver Development Activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-08

    Over the past decade, Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the development of receivers to transfer energy from the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. Through the isothermal evaporation and condensation of sodium. a heat-pipe receiver can efficiently transfer energy to an engine's working fluid and compensate for irregularities in the flux distribution that is delivered by the concentrator. The operation of the heat pipe is completely passive because the liquid sodium is distributed over the solar-heated surface by capillary pumping provided by a wick structure. Tests have shown that using a heat pipe can boost the system performance by twenty percent when compared to directly illuminating the engine heater tubes. Designing heat pipe solar receivers has presented several challenges. The relatively large area ({approximately}0.2 m{sup 2}) of the receiver surface makes it difficult to design a wick that can continuously provide liquid sodium to all regions of the heated surface. Selecting a wick structure with smaller pores will improve capillary pumping capabilities of the wick, but the small pores will restrict the flow of liquid and generate high pressure drops. Selecting a wick that is comprised of very tine filaments can increase the permeability of the wick and thereby reduce flow losses, however, the fine wick structure is more susceptible to corrosion and mechanical damage. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the issues encountered in the design of heat pipe solar receivers and solutions to problems that have arisen. Topics include: flow characterization in the receiver, the design of wick systems. the minimization of corrosion and dissolution of metals in sodium systems. and the prevention of mechanical failure in high porosity wick structures.

  5. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  6. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  7. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  8. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-06-04

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, {+-}UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 21 figs.

  9. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-09-06

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, [+-] UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 16 figs.

  10. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  11. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Katabami, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  12. Weather Data Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Northern Video Graphics, Inc. developed a low-cost satellite receiving system for users such as independent meteorologists, agribusiness firms, small airports or flying clubs, marine vessels and small TV stations. Called Video Fax, it is designed for use with certain satellites; the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) spacecraft operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Space Agency's Meteosat and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite. By dictum of the World Meteorological Organization, signals from satellites are available to anyone without cost so the Video Fax user can acquire signals directly from the satellite and cut out the middle man, enabling savings. Unit sells for about one-fifth the cost of the equipment used by TV stations. It consists of a two-meter antenna; a receiver; a microprocessor-controlled display computer; and a video monitor. Computer stores data from the satellites and converts it to an image which is displayed on the monitor. Weather map can be preserved as signal data on tape, or it can be stored in a video cassette as a permanent image.

  13. Sodium disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Naureen; Martins, David; Nagami, Glenn; Levine, Barton; Norris, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of sodium imbalance are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can have a substantial impact on the prognosis of the patient. These disorders are more common in the elderly. Sodium disorders can cause serious neurologic symptoms and even death, particularly among hospitalized patients. The identification of sodium abnormalities and appropriate clinical intervention are critical for improving patient outcomes. Early recognition of hyponatremia and hypernatremia can provide a clue to an underlying disorder. In this update, we have summarized age-related homeostatic changes that impair sodium balance, medications that alter salt and water handling, and the recognition and management of sodium disorders in elderly patients. PMID:15712785

  14. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  15. Solar thermal energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  1. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended.... (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion... the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size...

  2. Prognosis Can Be Predicted More Accurately Using Pre- and Postchemoradiotherapy Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels Compared to Only Prechemoradiotherapy Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Who Received Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, SooYoon; Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung; Lee, Yoon Suk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of a change in the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. A total of 110 patients with clinical T3/T4 or node-positive disease underwent nCRT and curative total mesorectal resection from February 2006 to December 2013. Serum CEA level was measured before nCRT, after nCRT, and then again after surgery. A cut-off value for CEA level to predict prognosis was determined using the maximally selected log-rank test. According to the test, patients were classified into 3 groups, based on their CEA levels (Group A: pre-CRT CEA ≤3.2; Group B: pre-CRT CEA level >3.2 and post-CRT CEA ≤2.8; and Group C: pre-CRT CEA >3.2 and post-CRT CEA >2.8). The median follow-up time was 31.1 months. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of Group A and Group B were similar, while Group C showed a significantly lower 3-year DFS rate (82.5% vs. 89.5% vs. 55.1%, respectively, P = 0.001). Other clinicopathological factors that showed statistical significance on univariate analysis were pre-CRT CEA, post-CRT CEA, tumor distance from the anal verge, surgery type, downstage, pathologic N stage, margin status and perineural invasion. The CEA group (P = 0.001) and tumor distance from the anal verge (P = 0.044) were significant prognostic factors for DFS on multivariate analysis. Post-CRT CEA level may be a useful prognostic factor in patients whose prognosis cannot be predicted exactly by pre-CRT CEA levels alone in the neoadjuvant treatment era. Combined pre-CRT CEA and post-CRT CEA levels enable us to predict prognosis more accurately and determine treatment and follow-up policies. Further large-scale studies are necessary to validate the prognostic value of CEA levels. PMID:26962798

  3. Evaluation of cartilage repair and osteoarthritis with sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Zbýň, Štefan; Mlynárik, Vladimír; Juras, Vladimir; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2016-02-01

    The growing need for early diagnosis and higher specificity than that which can be achieved with morphological MRI is a driving force in the application of methods capable of probing the biochemical composition of cartilage tissue, such as sodium imaging. Unlike morphological imaging, sodium MRI is sensitive to even small changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, which plays a key role in cartilage homeostasis. Recent advances in high- and ultrahigh-field MR systems, gradient technology, phase-array radiofrequency coils, parallel imaging approaches, MRI acquisition strategies and post-processing developments have resulted in many clinical in vivo sodium MRI studies of cartilage, even at 3 T. Sodium MRI has great promise as a non-invasive tool for cartilage evaluation. However, further hardware and software improvements are necessary to complete the translation of sodium MRI into a clinically feasible method for 3-T systems. This review is divided into three parts: (i) cartilage composition, pathology and treatment; (ii) sodium MRI; and (iii) clinical sodium MRI studies of cartilage with a focus on the evaluation of cartilage repair tissue and osteoarthritis. PMID:25810325

  4. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 laser and electro-optic technology for space-based sodium lidar instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nm. A CW External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nm. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nm. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9W @ 532 nm wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  5. Sodium channel Nax is a regulator in epithelial sodium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zhong, Aimei; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Zhong; Zeitchek, Michael; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Zhao, Jingling; Porterfield, D Marshall; Surmeier, D James; Leung, Kai P; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms by which the epidermis responds to disturbances in barrier function and restores homeostasis are unknown. With a perturbation of the epidermal barrier, water is lost, resulting in an increase in extracellular sodium concentration. We demonstrate that the sodium channel Nax functions as a sodium sensor. With increased extracellular sodium, Nax up-regulates prostasin, which results in activation of the sodium channel ENaC, resulting in increased sodium flux and increased downstream mRNA synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Nax is present in multiple epithelial tissues, and up-regulation of its downstream genes is found in hypertrophic scars. In animal models, blocking Nax expression results in improvement in scarring and atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, both of which are pathological conditions characterized by perturbations in barrier function. These findings support an important role for Nax in maintaining epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26537257

  6. ADMX Receiver and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagon, Ana; ADMX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    ADMX looks for the excess radiation deposited into a cavity from the conversion of a dark matter axion into a microwave photon. The sensitivity of the experiment increases by reducing the background thermal noise and minimizing the electronic noise of the readout system. The axion masses that the experiment can detect are determined by the resonant frequency of the cavity mode of interest, which is tuned using a two rod configuration. One can also increase the search rate by measuring the output from two cavity modes at once, which requires two separate readout schemes. I will discuss the ADMX dual-channel receiver which has been upgraded to have near quantum-limited sensitivity on both channels, and describe how the correct modes are verified, using simulations, in the presence of dense electromagnetic structure. I conclude by describing upgrades to the ADMX analysis which allow for real-time exclusion limits. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-97ER41029, DE-FG02-96ER40956, DE- AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC03-76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  7. Anchorage Receives Record Snowfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The forecast called for flurries, but the snow accumulated on the ground in Anchorage, Alaska, at the rate of 2 inches per hour (5 cm per hour) for much of Saturday, March 16, 2002. By the time the winter storm passed on Sunday afternoon, Anchorage had received 28.6 inches (72.6 cm) of snow, surpassing by far the previous record of 15.6 inches (39.6 cm) set on December 29, 1955. Flights were canceled and schools were closed as a result of the storm. This true-color image of Alaska was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 18. It appears another large, low-pressure system is heading toward the Anchorage region, which could bring substantially more snowfall. The low-pressure system can be identified by the characteristic spiral pattern of clouds located off Alaska's southwestern coast in this scene.

  8. Development and testing of a fluidized bed solar thermal receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, D.M.; Archer, D.H.; Neale, D.H.; Brown, C.T.; Lefferdo, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for effective solar thermal receivers are compared with the characteristics of fluidized beds to demonstrate the compatibility of the two technologies. The Westinghouse design and construction of a solar thermal fluidized bed air heater for industrial process heat is described. Tests of the unit with concentrated solar radiation at the Georgia Tech Advanced Components Test Facility are outlined and receiver performance is evaluated.

  9. RECEIVING WATER QUALITY DATABASE FOR TESTING OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many mathematical models exist for simulation of quantity and quality parameters of receiving waters. Such models are frequently used in the evaluation of effects on receiving waters of pollution control alternatives such as advanced waste treatment and nonpoint source runoff aba...

  10. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.

    In this dissertation I examine the properties and origins of the most energetic component of Mercury's atmosphere and how it couples to the planet's magnetosphere and space environment. Mercury' s atmosphere consists of particles liberated from its surface that follow ballistic, collisionless trajectories under the influence of gravity and solar radiation pressure. This tenuous atmosphere can be classified as an exosphere where the exobase boundary is the planet's surface. To explain how this exosphere is sustained, a number of theories have been presented: (1) thermal evaporation from the hot surface; (2) photo-desorption of surface materials by UV solar radiation; (3) sputtering by plasma surface interactions; and (4) vaporization of the surface by micro-meteorite impacts. Using a 3-dimensional numerical model, I determine the role each source has in populating the exosphere. New observations of Mercury's escaping atmosphere are presented using novel imaging techniques in which sodium acts as a tracer to identify atmospheric sources. I discuss the implications of these measurements for our understanding of the physical processes at work in the exosphere, and provide a foundation for modeling such processes. For the first time, this work quantifies the variability in the loss of Mercury's sodium as a seasonal effect. My observations show that atmospheric escape can, at times, exceed 1024 Na atoms/s, nearly twice the highest rate previously reported. By forward modeling Mercury' s atmospheric escape, I place new constraints on the source properties and eliminate the prevailing theory that the escaping tail is sputtered from the surface by solar wind ions. The MESSENGER spacecraft has recently discovered that sodium is distributed unevenly over the surface and that the magnetosphere is offset from the planet's center. Using the first model to include these effects, I demonstrate the magnetosphere's influence upon exospheric sources by simulating asymmetries observed

  11. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys to stop working) who are on dialysis and are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, ... gluconate injection is usually given during 8 consecutive dialysis sessions for a total of 8 doses. If ...

  12. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  13. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium.

    PubMed

    Higbie, James M; Rochester, Simon M; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-03-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF THE RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SODIUM SELENITE ON SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita; Barros, Silvana Pereira; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotector effect of sodium selenite on the ultrastructure of submandibular glands in rats. Fifty-seven male albino Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: control, irradiated, sodium selenite and irradiated/sodium selenite. The animals in the sodium selenite and irradiated/sodium selenite groups received intraperitoneal injections of sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before irradiation. The animals belonging to the irradiated and irradiated/sodium selenite groups were submitted to 15 Gy of gamma radiation in the head and neck region. The submandibular glands were removed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. The ionizing radiation induced damage to the secretory cells, especially the serous cells, right from the first period. Vacuolization, lysis of cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear alterations occurred. The sodium selenite group also presented cellular alterations in the study periods, but with less damage compared to that caused by radiation. There was greater similarity between the irradiated/sodium selenite group and the control group than with the other groups treated in all study periods. Despite the alterations observed in the sodium selenite group, sodium selenite presented a radioprotective action on the secretory cells of submandibular glands. PMID:19089124

  15. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Posthumus, K.J.C.M.; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

  17. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  18. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  19. Recent Advances in Nuclear Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine. PMID:27540423

  20. High temperature solar thermal receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A design concept for a high temperature solar thermal receiver to operate at 3 atmospheres pressure and 2500 F outlet was developed. The performance and complexity of windowed matrix, tube-header, and extended surface receivers were evaluated. The windowed matrix receiver proved to offer substantial cost and performance benefits. An efficient and cost effective hardware design was evaluated for a receiver which can be readily interfaced to fuel and chemical processes or to heat engines for power generation.

  1. Sodium Deoxycholate for Submental Contouring.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, S; Beleznay, K; Beleznay, J D A

    2016-09-01

    The chin and jaw line are integral parts of an individual's aesthetic profile, and the presence of submental fat detracts from this and can lead to displeasure with one's facial appearance. While liposuction and cosmetic surgery are regarded as the gold standard in treating submental fat, surgical intervention is not appealing to all patients and has potential surgical complications including longer recovery, and contour irregularities. Despite ample advances in aesthetic medicine to enhance the appearance of the face, very little is available in non-invasive options to reduce submental fat that has been supported by robust evidence. ATX-101, a proprietary formulation of deoxycholic acid that is synthetically derived, has been extensively explored in a vigorous clinical development program that has established the safety and efficacy of the injectable. It has recently received approval by regulatory authorities in Canada (Belkyra™) and the US (Kybella®) for the treatment of submental fat. PMID:27603325

  2. Receiving signals of any polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlson, J. E.; Seidel, B. L.; Stelzried, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Two-channel detection accomodates linear, circular, and elliptical polarization in one receiving unit. Receiver employs orthomode transducer which breaks any type signal into one left and one right circular component. These are processed in separate receiver channels with equal time-delay, and then recombined for data extraction. System eliminates losses due to polarization mismatch.

  3. Advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, D. J.

    1985-12-01

    A collection of papers on advanced signal processing in radar, sonar, and communications is presented. The topics addressed include: transmitter aerials, high-power amplifier design for active sonar, radar transmitters, receiver array technology for sonar, new underwater acoustic detectors, diversity techniques in communications receivers, GaAs IC amplifiers for radar and communication receivers, integrated optical techniques for acoustooptic receivers, logarithmic receivers, CCD processors for sonar, acoustooptic correlators, designing in silicon, very high performance integrated circuits, and digital filters. Also discussed are: display types, scan converters in sonar, display ergonomics, simulators, high throughput sonar processors, optical fiber systems for signal processing, satellite communications, VLSI array processor for image and signal processing, ADA, future of cryogenic devices for signal processing applications, advanced image understanding, and VLSI architectures for real-time image processing.

  4. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  5. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  6. Slow sodium: an oral slowly released sodium chloride preparation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, E M; Curtis, J R; Jewkes, R J; Jones, B E; Luck, V A; de Wardener, H E; Phillips, N

    1971-09-11

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  7. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  9. Reflux solar receiver design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diver, R. B.

    Reflux heat-pipe and pool-boiler receivers are being developed to improve upon the performance and life of directly-illuminated tube receiver technology used in previous successful demonstrations of dish-Stirling systems. The design of a reflux receiver involves engineering tradeoffs. In this paper, on-sun performance measurements of the Sandia pool-boiler receiver are compared with results from the reflux receiver thermal analysis model, AEETES. Flux and performance implications of various design options are analyzed and discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  14. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  17. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  4. Designing & Optimizing a Moving Magnet Pump for Liquid Sodium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvasta, Michael G.

    Advanced materials such as NF-616, NF-709, HT-UPS, and silicon carbide (SiC) have greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. Thus, using these high-strength materials to build sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) could potentially reduce construction costs by lessening the required amount of material, and increase the efficiency of electromagnetic pumps by limiting ohmic heating within the pump duct walls. However, information pertaining to the sodium-compatibility of these alloys and ceramics is very sparse. Therefore, two separate test facilities were built to study the impact of both static and dynamic sodium corrosion The dynamic test facility enabled sodium corrosion to be studied under prototypic SFR operating conditions (T = 500 [C], V = 9.35 [m/s], CO = 2-3 [wppm]). The oxygen concentration, CO, within the dynamic test facility was maintained using a cold trap and measured with a plugging meter. The flow rate of the sodium was measured using a calibrated electromagnetic flowmeter. A moving magnet pump (MMP) was used to move the liquid sodium past the corrosion samples at a high velocity. Using newly developed theory, it was found that MMP performance could be accurately modeled and predicted for a wide variety of pump configurations.

  5. Principles of sodium homeostasis and sodium signalling in astroglia.

    PubMed

    Rose, Christine R; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-10-01

    Sodium homeostasis is at the center stage of astrocyte (and brain) physiology because the large inwardly directed Na(+) gradient provides the energy for transport of ions, neurotransmitters, amino acids and many other molecules across the plasmalemma and endomembranes. Cell imaging with commercially available chemical indicators allows analysis of dynamic changes in intracellular Na(+) concentration (Na(+) ]i ), albeit further technological developments, such as genetically-controlled or membrane targeted indicators or dyes usable for advanced microscopy (such as fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy) are urgently needed. Thus, important questions related to the existence of Na(+) gradients between different cellular compartments or occurrence of localised Na(+) micro/nanodomains at the plasma membrane remain debatable. Extrusion of Na(+) (and hence Na(+) homeostasis) in astrocytes is mediated by the ubiquitously expressed Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA), the major energy consumer of the brain. The activity of the NKA is counteracted by constant constitutive influx of Na(+) through transporters such as the NKCC1 (Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) -co-transport) or the NBC (Na(+) -2 HCO3--co-transport). In addition, Na(+) -permeable ion channels at the plasma membrane as well as Na(+) -dependent solute carrier transporters provide for Na(+) influx into astrocytes. Activation of these pathways in response to neuronal activity results in an increase of [Na(+) ]i in astrocytes and there is manifold evidence for diverse signalling functions of these [Na(+) ]i transients. Thus, in addition to its established homeostatic functions, activity dependent fluctuations of astrocyte [Na(+) ]i regulate signalling cascades by feeding back on Na(+) -dependent transporters. The Na(+) signalling system may be ideally placed for fast coordinating signalling between neuronal activity and glial "homeostatic" Na(+) -dependent transporters. GLIA 2016;64:1611-1627. PMID:26919326

  6. Sensible heat receiver for solar dynamic space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Petrefski, Chris

    1991-01-01

    A sensible heat receiver is considered which uses a vapor grown carbon fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage medium and which was designed for a 7-kW Brayton engine. This heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver thermal analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The sensible heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers analyzed in other studies, while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The concept also satisfies the design requirements for a 7-kW Brayton engine system. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material.

  7. Sensible heat receiver for solar dynamic space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Petrefski, Chris

    1991-01-01

    A sensible heat receiver considered in this study uses a vapor grown carbon fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage media and was designed for a 7 kW Brayton engine. The proposed heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver thermal analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The sensible heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers analyzed in other studies while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The concept also satisfies the design requirements for a 7 kW Brayton engine system. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material.

  8. Bragg-cell receiver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lonnie A.

    1987-01-01

    Bragg-cell receivers are employed in specialized Electronic Warfare (EW) applications for the measurement of frequency. Bragg-cell receiver characteristics are fully characterized for simple RF emitter signals. This receiver is early in its development cycle when compared to the IFM receiver. Functional mathematical models are derived and presented in this report for the Bragg-cell receiver. Theoretical analysis is presented and digital computer signal processing results are presented for the Bragg-cell receiver. Probability density function analysis are performed for output frequency. Probability density function distributions are observed to depart from assumed distributions for wideband and complex RF signals. This analysis is significant for high resolution and fine grain EW Bragg-cell receiver systems.

  9. RFI receiver. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, R.

    1980-01-01

    An S-band radio frequency interference (RFI) receiver to analyze and identify sources of RFI problems in the Deep Space Network DSN tracking stations is described. The RFI receiver is a constant gain, double conversion, open loop receiver with dual sine/cosine channel outputs, providing a total of 20 MHZ monitoring capability. This receiver is computer controlled using a MODCOMP II miniprocessor. The RFI receiver has been designed to operate at a 150 Kelvin system noise temperature accomplished by cascading two low noise field effect transistor (FET) amplifiers for the receiver front-end. The first stage low noise FET amplifier is mounted at the feed horn to minimize any cable losses to achieve a lower system noise temperature. The receiver is tunable over the frequency range of 2150 to 2450 MHz in both sine/cosine output channels with a resolution of 100 kHz.

  10. Performance testing of lidar receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, M. Y.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the considerations about the different types of noise sources, dynamic range, and linearity of a lidar receiver, one requires information about the pulse shape retaining capabilities of the receiver. For this purpose, relatively precise information about the height resolution as well as the recovery time of the receiver, due both to large transients and to fast changes in the received signal, is required. As more and more analog receivers using fast analog to digital converters and transient recorders will be used in the future lidar systems, methods to test these devices are essential. The method proposed for this purpose is shown. Tests were carried out using LCW-10, LT-20, and FTVR-2 as optical parts of the optical pulse generator circuits. A commercial optical receiver, LNOR, and a transient recorder, VK 220-4, were parts of the receiver system.

  11. Low Response of Renin-Angiotensin System to Sodium Intake Intervention in Chinese Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weijing; Cai, Qingqing; Yuan, Woliang; Liu, Yu; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A; Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The interactions of sodium balance and response of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are important for maintaining the hemodynamic stability in physiological conditions. However, the influence of short-term sodium intake intervention in the response of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on hypertensive patients is still unclear. Thus, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of short-term sodium intake intervention on the response of RAS in hypertensive patients.One hundred twenty-five primary Chinese hypertensive patients were divided into high, moderate, and low sodium groups by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (UNa). All the patients received a 10-day dietary sodium intake intervention with standardized sodium (173.91mmol/day) and potassium (61.53mmol/day). Blood pressure, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, plasma sodium, potassium, creatinine, the levels of plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II concentrations (AT-II), and plasma aldosterone concentrations were detected before and after the intervention.Before the intervention, no differences were found in blood pressure and RAS among 3 groups. After standardized dietary sodium intake intervention, both UNa excretion and systolic pressure decreased in high-sodium group, while they increased in moderate and low-sodium groups. Intriguingly, there were no changes in the levels of plasma renin activity, AT-II, and plasma aldosterone concentrations among 3 groups during the intervention.The present study demonstrated that the influenced sodium excretion and blood pressure by short-term sodium intake intervention were independent of RAS quick response in Chinese hypertensive patients. PMID:26871780

  12. Advances in HgCdTe APDs and LADAR Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven; McKeag, William; Wang, Jinxue; Jack, Michael; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon is developing NIR sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) for scanning and staring 3D LADAR systems. High sensitivity is obtained by integrating high performance detectors with gain i.e. APDs with very low noise Readout Integrated Circuits. Unique aspects of these designs include: independent acquisition (non-gated) of pulse returns, multiple pulse returns with both time and intensity reported to enable full 3D reconstruction of the image. Recent breakthrough in device design has resulted in HgCdTe APDs operating at 300K with essentially no excess noise to gains in excess of 100, low NEP <1nW and GHz bandwidths and have demonstrated linear mode photon counting. SCAs utilizing these high performance APDs have been integrated and demonstrated excellent spatial and range resolution enabling detailed 3D imagery both at short range and long ranges. In this presentation we will review progress in high resolution scanning, staring and ultra-high sensitivity photon counting LADAR sensors.

  13. Thermal evaluation of advanced solar dynamic heat receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal performance of a variety of concepts for thermal energy storage as applied to solar dynamic applications is discussed. It is recognized that designs providing large thermal gradients or large temperature swings during orbit are susceptible to early mechanical failure. Concepts incorporating heat pipe technology may encounter operational limitations over sufficiently large ranges. By reviewing the thermal performance of basic designs, the relative merits of the basic concepts are compared. In addition the effect of thermal enhancement and metal utilization as applied to each design provides a partial characterization of the performance improvements to be achieved by developing these technologies.

  14. Forty mouse strain survey of water and sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2007-01-01

    We measured voluntary water and sodium intakes of 40 inbred strains of mice. Groups of ~10 males and ~10 females from each strain received a series of 48-h tests with a choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of one of the following: water, 25, 75, and 225 mM NaCl, 25, 75, and 225 sodium lactate. Sodium solution intakes were influenced by strain, sex, anion and concentration: Nine strains drank significantly more chloride than lactate, and only one strain (I/LnJ) drank significantly more lactate than chloride. The other 30 strains drank similar volumes of chloride and lactate. Sodium intakes were higher in females than males of 8 strains and did not differ by sex in the other 32 strains. Some strains had consistently high sodium intakes and preferred all sodium solutions to water (129S1/SvImJ, MA/MyJ, NZW/LacJ and SWR/J), some showed indifference (i.e. preferences not significantly different from 50%) to all concentrations tested (A/J, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and SEA/GnJ), and some had consistently low sodium intakes (AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, JF1/Ms, LP/J, NON/LtJ, PERA/EiJ, PL/J, and RIIIS/J). The results illustrate the diversity of voluntary sodium intake in mice and will assist in the selection of appropriate strains for focused genetic and physiological analyses. PMID:17490693

  15. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  16. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. It was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, using a clear filter whose wavelength range was approximately 400 to 1100 nanometers. This picture differs in two main ways from the green-yellow filter image of the same scene which was released yesterday.

    First, the sky around Io is brighter, partly because the wider wavelength range of the clear filter lets in more scattered light from Io's illuminated crescent and from Prometheus' sunlit plume. Nonetheless, the overall sky brightness in this frame is comparable to that seen through the green-yellow filter, indicating that even here much of the diffuse sky emission is coming from the wavelength range of the green-yellow filter (i.e., from Io's Sodium Cloud).

    The second major difference is that a quite large roundish spot has appeared in Io's southern hemisphere. This spot -- which has been colored red -- corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele. The green-yellow filter image bears a much smaller trace of this emission because the clear filter is far more sensitive to those relatively long wavelengths where thermal emission is strongest.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. Structure and function of voltage-gated sodium channels at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Catterall, William A

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in nerve, muscle and other excitable cells. Early physiological studies described sodium selectivity, voltage-dependent activation and fast inactivation, and developed conceptual models for sodium channel function. This review article follows the topics of my 2013 Sharpey-Schafer Prize Lecture and gives an overview of research using a combination of biochemical, molecular biological, physiological and structural biological approaches that have elucidated the structure and function of sodium channels at the atomic level. Structural models for voltage-dependent activation, sodium selectivity and conductance, drug block and both fast and slow inactivation are discussed. A perspective for the future envisions new advances in understanding the structural basis for sodium channel function and the opportunity for structure-based discovery of novel therapeutics. PMID:24097157

  18. A comparison of the efficacy of the alginate preparation, Gaviscon Advance, with placebo in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the sodium alginate preparation, Gaviscon Advance, with placebo in the relief of symptoms of reflux oesophagitis. This was a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study conducted at 13 GP centres in the UK. Patients aged between 18 and 70 years, who had experienced symptoms of reflux oesophagitis within the previous 24 h, and on two other occasions within the previous week, were recruited into the study. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and then reassessed after two and four weeks of treatment with sodium alginate or placebo, for symptoms of reflux oesophagitis in the previous 24 h. Patients were required to fill out a diary card twice daily, from which frequency and severity of symptoms were assessed, and the percentage of symptom-free days and nights calculated. Of the 100 patients recruited into the study, 98 received medication (safety population; placebo, n = 50; sodium alginate, n = 48) and 94 were eligible for inclusion in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo, n = 48; sodium alginate, n = 46). For this population, sodium alginate was assessed as significantly superior by both investigators and patients at week two (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and at week four (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Significantly more patients in the safety population on placebo withdrew from the study (40%) compared with sodium alginate (21%; p = 0.04), due primarily to lack of effect and adverse events. The sodium alginate preparation demonstrated a superior efficacy compared with placebo, which was achieved in a more acceptable volume of medication than a previous standard preparation, Liquid Gaviscon. The reduced dosage volume of the 'new' preparation (Gaviscon Advance) may be expected to improve patient compliance, and thereby increase treatment efficacy. PMID:10621921

  19. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  20. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  1. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  2. VLBI2010 Receiver Back End Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a receiver back-end to convert analog RF signals from the receiver front end into channelized digital data streams to be recorded or transmitted electronically. The back end functions are typically performed in two steps: conversion of analog RF inputs into IF bands (see Table 2), and conversion of IF bands into channelized digital data streams (see Tables 1a, 1b and 1c). The latter IF systems are now completely digital and generically referred to as digital back ends (DBEs). In Table 2 two RF conversion systems are compared, and in Tables 1a, 1b, and 1c nine DBE systems are compared. Since DBE designs are advancing rapidly, the data in these tables are only guaranteed to be current near the update date of this document.

  3. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  4. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  5. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and....1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  6. Immigration: perspectives from receiving countries.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the issue of international migration from the standpoint of receiving countries. He attempts "to understand how and why migrant-receiving countries respond as they do, and to suggest some of the new issues in international migration that arise in a world in which the supply of would-be migrants and refugees is now greater than receiving countries are willing to accept." PMID:12283227

  7. Sodium selenite and cancer related lymphedema: Biological and pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Christina; Dawzcynski, Horst; Schingale, Franz-Josef

    2016-09-01

    A significant percentage of cancer patients develop secondary lymphedema after surgery or radiotherapy. The preferred treatment of secondary lymphedema is complex physical therapy. Pharmacotherapy, for example with diuretics, has received little attention, because they were not effective and only offered short-term solutions. Sodium selenite showed promise as a cost-effective, nontoxic anti-inflammatory agent. Treatment with sodium selenite lowers reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, causes a spontaneous reduction in lymphedema volume, increases the efficacy of physical therapy for lymphedema, and reduces the incidence of erysipelas infections in patients with chronic lymphedema. Besides biological effects in reducing excessive production of ROS, sodium selenite also displays various pharmacological effects. So far the exact mechanisms of these pharmacological effects are mostly unknown, but probably include inhibition of adhesion protein expression. PMID:27267968

  8. Sodium zeolite A supplementation and its impact on the skeleton of dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty calves were placed on study at three days of age, and were placed according to birth order into one of two groups: SS, which received 0.05% BW sodium zeolite A (SZA) added to their milk replacer and CO, which received only milk replacer. Blood samples were taken on d 0, 30, and 60 for osteoca...

  9. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  10. R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly blockages

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.

    2011-07-01

    In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)

  11. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  12. Advanced Energy Storage for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is planning a number of space science and space exploration missions into the early 21st century. The JPL Advanced Battery Program, which has the goal of developing batteries for these missions, is described. Under program consideration are Li-SOCl(sub 2) cells, secondary lithium cells, advanced metal hydride cells, and high-temperature sodium-nickel chloride cells.

  13. Chronic sodium depletion increases myocardial calcium content in normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Bond, M; Fouad-Tarazi, F M

    1989-03-01

    Increased myocardial contractility was found in the perfused heart isolated from sodium depleted Sprague-Dawley rats. Previously, it was reported that in vitro exposure of different cardiac preparations to low Na+ buffers was associated with both an increased contractility and an increased Ca2+ content in the cells. Therefore, this study was designed to examine increases in ventricular Ca2+ content in the hearts of chronically sodium depleted rats. Two groups of 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. One group (n = 5) received furosemide (5 mg/kg/day IP for 4 days), a low Na+ diet and distilled drinking water for 6 weeks (low sodium plus diuretics group = LSD). The other group (n = 5) received the same low Na+ diet, but 0.5% NaCl was supplemented in drinking water (regular sodium group = RS). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly during the dietary period in all rats. At the end of the 6 weeks, heart weight as well as water and electrolyte contents of the heart were measured in all animals. Results showed that both body weight and heart weight were significantly lower in LSD than in RS. Moreover, ventricular Na+ content was reduced while ventricular Ca2+ content was doubled in LSD compared to RS (8.2 +/- 0.2 units vs. 9.2 +/- 0.3 units, p less than .05 and 0.45 +/- 0.13 units vs. 0.23 +/- 0.01 units, p less than .01, respectively). We conclude that in vivo sodium depletion induces an increase in ventricular calcium content; this increased myocardial calcium may be related to the increased in vitro cardiac contractility observed after chronic in vivo sodium depletion, but its distribution between intracellular and extracellular compartments needs to be determined. PMID:2923136

  14. Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Shimmura, S; Ono, M; Shinozaki, K; Toda, I; Takamura, E; Mashima, Y; Tsubota, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Several studies in the past have attempted to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eyes. However, results have been conflicting and a definite conclusion has not yet been reached. This study recruited a larger group of patients and has incorporated for the first time both fluorescein and rose bengal staining in the evaluation of the epithelium. METHODS--Eighteen albino rabbit corneas were used in a basic animal study to demonstrate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate by comparing the effects on the rate of epithelial healing. The optimal concentration to be used in the clinical trial was determined from the results of the basic study. In the clinical study 104 patients with dry eye syndrome were enrolled in a double masked controlled clinical trial. Patients received sodium hyaluronate drops in one eye and control medication in the other eye for 4 weeks. Grading of subjective symptoms and clinical examinations were performed at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS--In the animal study sodium hyaluronate at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% significantly accelerated the recovery time of iodine vapour induced corneal erosions (p < 0.01). In the clinical study no statistical significance was observed in the improvement of subjective symptoms or rose bengal staining, while fluorescein scores significantly improved in eyes receiving sodium hyaluronate (p = 0.0001) at 4 weeks. CONCLUSION--Sodium hyaluronate drops applied in six daily doses could not be demonstrated to offer advantages over conventional tear supplies in the improvement of subjective symptoms, but may play a role in maintaining a healthy corneal epithelium. Images PMID:8534643

  15. The sodium/sulphur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    1984-02-01

    Problems encountered in the design and development of a practical sodium/sulphur battery are reviewed and several solutions are offered. Consideration is given to the degradation of the solid electrolyte, beta alumina; problems with the sodium electrode associated with the sodium/beta alumina interface; and the loss of capacity identified with the sulphur electrode. Attention is also given to the search for corrosion-resistant materials for use as the current collector and to the geometry of the cell design. Criteria for a successful road vehicle battery are discussed.

  16. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  17. Interference-Detection Module in a Digital Radar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, Mark; Berkun, Andrew; Chu, Anhua; Freedman, Adam; Jourdan, Michael; McWatters, Dalia; Paller, Mimi

    2009-01-01

    A digital receiver in a 1.26-GHz spaceborne radar scatterometer now undergoing development includes a module for detecting radio-frequency interference (RFI) that could contaminate scientific data intended to be acquired by the scatterometer. The role of the RFI-detection module is to identify time intervals during which the received signal is likely to be contaminated by RFI and thereby to enable exclusion, from further scientific data processing, of signal data acquired during those intervals. The underlying concepts of detection of RFI and rejection of RFI-contaminated signal data are also potentially applicable in advanced terrestrial radio receivers, including software-defined radio receivers in general, receivers in cellular telephones and other wireless consumer electronic devices, and receivers in automotive collision-avoidance radar systems.

  18. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  19. Safety Overview of Postmarketing and Clinical Experience of Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem): Abuse, Misuse, Dependence, and Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. Grace; Swick, Todd J.; Carter, Lawrence P.; Thorpy, Michael J.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study reviewed the cumulative postmarketing and clinical safety experience with sodium oxybate (Xyrem®), a treatment approved for cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Study objectives were to investigate the occurrence of abuse/misuse of sodium oxybate since first market introduction in 2002, classify cases using DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse and dependence, and describe specific characteristics of these cases. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed postmarketing spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from 15 countries for all cases containing reporting terminology related to abuse/misuse to determine its occurrence. All death cases independent of causality were reviewed to identify associated risk factors. Results: Approximately 26,000 patients worldwide received sodium oxybate from first market introduction in 2002 through March 2008. Of those 26,000 patients, 0.2% reported ≥ 1 of the events studied. These included 10 cases (0.039%) meeting DSM-IV abuse criteria, 4 cases (0.016%) meeting DSM-IV dependence criteria, 8 cases (0.031%, including 3 of the previous 4) with withdrawal symptoms reported after discontinuation of sodium oxybate, 2 confirmed cases (0.008%) of sodium oxybate–facilitated sexual assault, 8 cases (0.031%) of overdose with suicidal intent, 21 deaths (0.08%) in patients receiving sodium oxybate treatment with 1 death known to be related to sodium oxybate, and 3 cases (0.01%) of traffic accidents involving drivers taking sodium oxybate. During this period, approximately 600,000 bottles of sodium oxybate were distributed, and 5 incidents (0.0009%) of diversion were reported. Conclusion: Cumulative postmarketing and clinical experience indicates a very low risk of abuse/misuse of sodium oxybate. Citation: Wang YG; Swick TJ; Carter LP; Thorpy MJ; Benowitz NL. Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion. J Clin Sleep

  20. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  1. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  2. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  3. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  4. [Hypolactatemic effect of sodium difluoroacetate].

    PubMed

    Dalstein, J M; Ribes, G; Campo, P; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1980-01-01

    In the anesthetized rat, the intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg sodium difluoroacetate (DFA), an activator of the pyruvate dehydrogenase, counteracted the hyperlactatemia induced by a high dose of phenformin (40 mg/kg) injected concomitantly. In the normal conscious dog, the administration of 150 mg/kg by gastric intubation decreased the blood lactate and pyruvate levels; however, this effect was less marked than that produced by the same dose of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA). PMID:6449260

  5. Design of a Nested Eight-Channel Sodium and Four-Channel Proton Coil for 7 Tesla Knee Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ryan; Madelin, Guillaume; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Wiggins, Graham C.

    2012-01-01

    The critical design aim for a dual-tuned sodium/proton coil is to maximize sodium sensitivity and transmit field (B1+) homogeneity while simultaneously providing adequate proton sensitivity and homogeneity. While most dual-frequency coils utilize lossy high-impedance trap circuits or PIN diodes to allow dual-resonance, we explored a nested-coil design for sodium/proton knee imaging at 7T. A stand-alone eight-channel sodium receive array was implemented without standard dual-resonance circuitry to provide improved sodium signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over a volume coil. A detunable sodium birdcage was added for homogeneous sodium excitation and a four-channel proton transmit-receive array was added to provide anatomical reference imaging and B0 shimming capability. Both modules were implemented with minimal disturbance to the eight-channel sodium array by managing their respective resonances and geometrical arrangement. In vivo sodium SNR was 1.2 to 1.7 times greater in the developed eight-channel array than in a mono-nuclear sodium birdcage coil, while the developed four-channel proton array provided SNR similar to that of a commercial mono-nuclear proton birdcage coil. PMID:22887123

  6. Sodium and water: an overview.

    PubMed

    Papper, S

    1976-01-01

    The renal regulation of sodium is intertwined with the extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). Most adjustments in sodium elimination in man are accomplished via alterations in tubular reabsorption. The latter is sensitive to change in ECFV. An expanded ECFV results in less reabsorption and more excretion of sodium, and a contracted ECFV has the converse effect. There are direct and indirect mechanisms whereby ECFV influences sodium reabsorption. Patients with nephrotic syndrome, heart failure, and cirrhosis "behave" physiologically as normal individuals with a contracted ECFV. Water balance is normally determined by intake and losses in sweat which is always hypoosmotic to plasma, by evaporation from skin and lungs, and through renal excretion. The major factors that determine the ability to concentrate the urine are (1) the establishment of a concentrated environment around the collecting ducts, and (2) the elaboration and effects on the kidney of antidiuretic hormone. The evaluation of a patient with abnormalities of sodium and water rests initially and largely on clinical information. The clinical setting provides clues to anticipating, preventing, and interpreting distortions of body sodium and water. The laboratory can detect an abnormality, confirm or refute clinical assessment, and assist in the quantitative aspects of treatment and its efficacy. PMID:961714

  7. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  8. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  11. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  12. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  15. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  18. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  19. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  1. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  3. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  5. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  6. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  7. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  8. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  10. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium sesquicarbonate (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O, CAS Reg. No..., centrifugation, and drying; (2) double refining of trona ore, a naturally occurring impure sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  16. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS Reg. No. 9003-04-7) may be... aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination of Weight Average...

  17. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  20. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  6. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  12. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  18. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenstine, John R.; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara L.; Ellis, Michael C.

    2009-03-01

    A heat pipe solar receiver operating in the 1050° C range is proposed for use in the hydrogen reduction process for the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil. The heat pipe solar receiver is designed to accept, isothermalize and transfer solar thermal energy to reactors for oxygen production. This increases the available area for heat transfer, and increases throughput and efficiency. The heat pipe uses sodium as the working fluid, and Haynes 230 as the heat pipe envelope material. Initial design requirements have been established for the heat pipe solar receiver design based on information from the NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. Multiple heat pipe solar receiver designs were evaluated based on thermal performance, temperature uniformity, and integration with the solar concentrator and the regolith reactor(s). Two designs were selected based on these criteria: an annular heat pipe contained within the regolith reactor and an annular heat pipe with a remote location for the reactor. Additional design concepts have been developed that would use a single concentrator with a single solar receiver to supply and regulate power to multiple reactors. These designs use variable conductance or pressure controlled heat pipes for passive power distribution management between reactors. Following the design study, a demonstration heat pipe solar receiver was fabricated and tested. Test results demonstrated near uniform temperature on the outer surface of the pipe, which will ultimately be in contact with the regolith reactor.

  19. Sodium pump organization in dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Blom, Hans; Bernhem, Kristoffer; Brismar, Hjalmar

    2016-10-01

    Advancement in fluorescence imaging with the invention of several super-resolution microscopy modalities (e.g., PALM/STORM and STED) has opened up the possibility of deciphering molecular distributions on the nanoscale. In our quest to better elucidate postsynaptic protein distribution in dendritic spines, we have applied these nanoscopy methods, where generated results could help improve our understanding of neuronal functions. In particular, we have investigated the principal energy transformer in the brain, i.e., the [Formula: see text]-ATPase (or sodium pump), an essential protein responsible for maintaining resting membrane potential and a major controller of intracellular ion homeostasis. In these investigations, we have focused on estimates of protein amount, giving assessments of how variations may depend on labeling strategies, sample analysis, and choice of nanoscopic imaging method, concluding that all can be critical factors for quantification. We present a comparison of these results and discuss the influences this may have for homeostatic sodium regulation in neurons and energy consumption. PMID:27175374

  20. Coe Receives 2007 Gilbert Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, Scott W.; Coe, Robert S.

    2008-05-01

    Robert S. Coe received the 2007 William Gilbert Award at the 2007 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes outstanding and unselfish work in magnetism of Earth materials and of the Earth and planets.

  1. Structural and electronic properties of sodium nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Luis A.; Reyes-Nava, Juan A.; Garzon, Ignacio L.

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances on mass selection of sodium nanoclusters and their characterization by photoemission electron spectroscopy [1] have given useful data for a variety of clusters sizes. These data may lead to assignments of the relevant structures by comparing the measured photoelectron spectra (PES) with the electronic density of states (DOS) obtained from DFT calculations. In this work, the lowest energy structures modeled by the many-body Gupta potential, are obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations for Nan (n= 178, 204, 271, 298-300, 309). DFT calculations were then performed for neutral, positively- and negatively-charged Nan clusters. A comparison between the DOS of clusters of the same size but different charge will be presented, as well as between the available experimental PES and the theoretical obtained DOS.[1] H. Haberland, T. Hippler, J. Donges, O. Kostko, M. Schmidt, B. von Issendorff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035701 (2005).

  2. Streak camera receiver definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hunkler, L. T., Sr.; Letzring, S. A.; Jaanimagi, P.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed streak camera definition studies were made as a first step toward full flight qualification of a dual channel picosecond resolution streak camera receiver for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter and Ranging System (GLRS). The streak camera receiver requirements are discussed as they pertain specifically to the GLRS system, and estimates of the characteristics of the streak camera are given, based upon existing and near-term technological capabilities. Important problem areas are highlighted, and possible corresponding solutions are discussed.

  3. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    PubMed

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  4. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  8. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  9. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  10. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  11. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  12. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  16. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  17. Evaluation of solar-air-heating central-receiver concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Williams, T.A.; Brown, D.R.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Hauser, S.G.; McLean, M.A.; Paluszek, A.M.; Young, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The potential of seven proposed air-heating central receiver concepts are evaluated based on an independent, uniform of each one's performance and cost. The concepts include: metal tubes, ceramic tubes, sodium heat pipes, ceramic matrix, ceramic domes, small particles, and volumetric heat exchange. The selection of design points considered in the analysis, the method and ground rules used in formulating the conceptual designs are discussed, and each concept design is briefly described. The method, ground rules, and models used in the performance evaluation and cost analysis and the results are presented. (LEW)

  18. PPM Receiver Implemented in Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew; Kang, Edward; Lay, Norman; Vilnrotter, Victor; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement

    2010-01-01

    A computer program has been written as a tool for developing optical pulse-position- modulation (PPM) receivers in which photodetector outputs are fed to analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and all subsequent signal processing is performed digitally. The program can be used, for example, to simulate an all-digital version of the PPM receiver described in Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals (NPO-40711), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The program can also be translated into a design for digital PPM receiver hardware. The most notable innovation embodied in the software and the underlying PPM-reception concept is a digital processing subsystem that performs synchronization of PPM time slots, even though the digital processing is, itself, asynchronous in the sense that no attempt is made to synchronize it with the incoming optical signal a priori and there is no feedback to analog signal processing subsystems or ADCs. Functions performed by the software receiver include time-slot synchronization, symbol synchronization, coding preprocessing, and diagnostic functions. The program is written in the MATLAB and Simulink software system. The software receiver is highly parameterized and, hence, programmable: for example, slot- and symbol-synchronization filters have programmable bandwidths.

  19. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    DOEpatents

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  20. Frequency synthesizers for telemetry receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Ronald C.

    1990-07-01

    The design of a frequency synthesizer is presented for telemetry receivers. The synthesizer contains two phase-locked loops, each with a programmable frequency counter, and incorporates fractional frequency synthesis but does not use a phase accumulator. The selected receiver design has a variable reference loop operating as a part of the output loop. Within the synthesizer, a single VTO generates the output frequency that is voltage-tunable from 375-656 MHz. The single-sideband phase noise is measured with an HP 8566B spectrum analyzer, and the receiver's bit error rate (BER) is measured with a carrier frequency of 250 MHz, synthesized LO at 410 MHz, and the conditions of BPSK, NRZ-L, and 2.3 kHz bit rate. The phase noise measurement limits and the BER performance data are presented in tabular form.

  1. Receiver-exciter controller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-06-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  2. Receiver-exciter controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  3. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  4. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  5. The sodium-sulphur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. W.

    1981-09-01

    The sodium-sulphur battery is considered as a candidate for electric vehicle and bulk storage applications markets estimated to exceed one billion pounds sterling globally by the turn of the century. The sodium-sulphur device offers five times the energy density of conventional batteries, potential cost reductions due to the use of cheap and readily available construction materials, and operates at the relatively low temperatures of 300-400 C. The cells have a solid electrolyte, made by sintering alumina containing 10% sodium oxide, while the electrodes are liquid at operating temperatures. Ceramic element lives in excess of 1000 cycles have been achieved. Attention is given such design details as the thermal and physical properties of glass/ceramic seals and current collector materials and structure.

  6. Brenguier Receives 2009 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Nikolai; Brenguier, Florent

    2010-04-01

    Florent Brenguier received the 2009 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award at the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14-18 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes the scientific accomplishments of a young scientist who makes outstanding contributions to the advancement of seismology.

  7. The GBT 4mm Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; White, S.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Maddalena, R. J.; Simon, R.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2013-01-01

    The new 4mm receiver (67--93 GHz) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built to take advantage of the improved surface accuracy of the dish. The low frequency end of the 3mm atmospheric window is not available with ALMA (<84 GHz), and the sensitivity of the GBT is better than any other facility within this band. We discuss the design and performance of this new receiver for the GBT, and highlight the science opportunities available with the instrument. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Digital Receiver for Microwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, Steven W.; Hampson, Grant A.; Johnson, Joel T.

    2005-01-01

    A receiver proposed for use in L-band microwave radiometry (for measuring soil moisture and sea salinity) would utilize digital signal processing to suppress interfering signals. Heretofore, radio frequency interference has made it necessary to limit such radiometry to a frequency band about 20 MHz wide, centered at .1,413 MHz. The suppression of interference in the proposed receiver would make it possible to expand the frequency band to a width of 100 MHz, thereby making it possible to obtain greater sensitivity and accuracy in measuring moisture and salinity

  9. Optical receivers using rough reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the possible use of rough, or nondiffraction-limited, reflectors for collecting optical signals. It is shown that in the absence of background radiation, the reflector's surface quality has little effect on the performance of a properly designed receiver, but that the presence of even small amounts of background radiation can lead to severe performance degradation. Techniques are suggested for improving receiver performance in high-background environments, and bounds and approximations to the exact error-probability expressions are derived.

  10. Advancing toward Shared Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Lisa; Thorn, Judi

    2007-01-01

    In May 2004, a group of 25 teachers at Jenks High School in Oklahoma received an invitation to the Summer 2004 Advance. Although many organizations hold retreats for their employees, the administrators wanted to send a different message: we're not retreating; we're advancing! Like many states, Oklahoma suffered a school budget crisis during the…

  11. Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Ullah, M; Khan, Mz

    2008-10-01

    Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and hematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and volume of testes, atrophied seminiferous tubules, and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at high levels, that is, 6400 mg/L in drinking water is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant. PMID:19042964

  12. Galactic Sodium from AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2007-11-01

    Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models which include sodium from type II supernovae (SNe) alone underestimate the abundance of sodium in the interstellar medium by a factor of 2 to 3 over about 3 ridex in metallicity and predict a flat behavior in the evolution of riNafe at super-solar metallicities. Conversely, recent observations of stars with rifeh ˜ +0.4 suggest that riNafe increases at high metallicity. We have combined stellar evolution models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with the latest SN yields in an attempt to resolve these problems dots and have created many more.

  13. Tremor due to sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Hyman, N M; Dennis, P D; Sinclair, K G

    1979-08-01

    Four patients developed postural tremor after ingestion of sodium valproate. The tremor was recorded by a variable-capacitance transducer and was of the "benign essential" type. The dosages of sodium valproate varied between 1000 mg and 2000 mg daily and serum levels were between 34.9 microgram per milliliter and 154.3 microgram per milliliter. Tremor was ameliorated in two cases when the dosage was reduced. In only one case was the serum level in the toxic range for our laboratory. The pharmacology of essential tremor is unknown; production of a similar tremor by a drug could serve as a biochemical model. PMID:379690

  14. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode.

  15. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  16. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  17. Ceramic technology for solar thermal receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Smoak, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The high-temperature capability, resistance to corrosive environments and non-strategic nature of ceramics have prompted applications in the solar thermal field whose advantages over metallic devices of comparable performance may begin to be assessed. It is shown by a survey of point-focusing receiver designs employing a variety of ceramic compositions and fabrication methods that the state-of-the-art in structural ceramics is not sufficiently advanced to fully realize the promised benefits of higher temperature capabilities at lower cost than metallic alternatives. The ceramics considered include alumina, berylia, magnesia, stabilized zirconia, fused silica, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, mullite and cordierite, processed by such methods as isostatic pressing, dry pressing, slip casting, extrusion, calendaring and injection molding.

  18. Microwave blackbodies for spaceborne receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of microwave blackbody targets are explained as they apply to the calibration of spaceborne receivers. Also described are several practicable, blackbody targets used to test and calibrate receivers in the laboratory and in the thermal vacuum chamber. Problems with the precision and the accuracy of blackbody targets, and blackbody target design concepts that overcome some of the accuracy limitations present in existing target designs, are presented. The principle of the Brewster angle blackbody target is described where the blackbody is applied as a fixed-temperature test target in the laboratory and as a variable-temperature target in the thermal vacuum chamber. The reflectivity of a Brewster angle target is measured in the laboratory. From this measurement, the emissivity of the target is calculated. Radiatively cooled thermal suspensions are discussed as the coolants of blackbody targets and waveguide terminations that function as calibration devices in spaceborne receivers. Examples are given for the design of radiatively cooled thermal suspensions. Corrugated-horn antennas used to observe the cosmic background and to provide a cold-calibration source for spaceborne receivers are described.

  19. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne

    2006-12-26

    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  20. Clark Receives Ocean Sciences Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Michael R.; Clark, H. Lawrence

    2008-09-01

    H. Lawrence Clark received the 2008 Ocean Sciences Award at the 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, held 2-7 March 2008 in Orlando, Fla. The award is given in recognition of outstanding and long-standing service to the ocean sciences.