Science.gov

Sample records for advanced software techniques

  1. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  2. Advanced fingerprint verification software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradarani, A.; Taylor, J. R. B.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a fingerprint software package that can be used in a wide range of applications from law enforcement to public and private security systems, and to personal devices such as laptops, vehicles, and door- locks. The software and processing units are a unique implementation of new and sophisticated algorithms that compete with the current best systems in the world. Development of the software package has been in line with the third generation of our ultrasonic fingerprinting machine1. Solid and robust performance is achieved in the presence of misplaced and low quality fingerprints.

  3. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  4. Advanced Communication Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Robert A.

    This document contains the proceedings of the workshop Advanced Communication Processing Techniques, held May 14 to 17, 1989, near Ruidoso, New Mexico. Sponsored by the Army Research Office (under Contract DAAL03-89-G-0016) and organized by the Communication Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California, the workshop had as its objective to determine those applications of intelligent/adaptive communication signal processing that have been realized and to define areas of future research. We at the Communication Sciences Institute believe that there are two emerging areas which deserve considerably more study in the near future: (1) Modulation characterization, i.e., the automation of modulation format recognition so that a receiver can reliably demodulate a signal without using a priori information concerning the signal's structure, and (2) the incorporation of adaptive coding into communication links and networks. (Encoders and decoders which can operate with a wide variety of codes exist, but the way to utilize and control them in links and networks is an issue). To support these two new interest areas, one must have both a knowledge of (3) the kinds of channels and environments in which the systems must operate, and of (4) the latest adaptive equalization techniques which might be employed in these efforts.

  5. A comparison of software verification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A controlled experiment performed by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) to compare the effectiveness of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing as software verification techniques is described. The experiment results indicate that code reading provides the greatest error detection capability at the lowest cost, whereas structural testing is the least effective technique. The experiment plan is explained, the experiment results are described, related results from other studies are discussed. The application of these results to the development of software in the flight dynamics environment is considered. Appendices summarize the experiment data and list the test programs.

  6. Dynamic visualization techniques for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-02-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification. The prototype tool is described along with the requirements constraint language after a brief literature review is presented. Examples of how the tool can be used are also presented. In conclusion, the most significant advantage of this tool is to provide a first step in evaluating specification completeness, and to provide a more productive method for program comprehension and debugging. The expected payoff is increased software surety confidence, increased program comprehension, and reduced development and debugging time.

  7. Hybrid analysis techniques for software fault detection

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Since the question Does program P obey specification S' can not be decided in general, every practical software validation technique must compromise accuracy in some way. Testing techniques admit the possibility that a fault will be undetected, as the price for quitting after a finite number of test cases. Formal verification admits the possibility that a proof will not be found for a valid assertion, as the price for quitting after a finite amount of proof effort. No technique so dominates others that a wise validation strategy consists of applying that technique alone; rather, effective validation requires applying several techniques. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of synergistic combinations of fault detection techniques. A framework for comparing techniques and considering their combinations is developed. Techniques that fold a state space depend critically on leaving out the right details to make the space smaller or more regular. One often wishes to argue that simplifications will not hide any of the errors a technique is designed to detect. This claim is formalized as a relation between models of execution, and sufficient conditions for establishing the relation with respect to specification formulas expressed in temporal logic are proved. The framework and theory are applied to two problems in reachability analysis of concurrent software. A method for limiting combinatorial explosion by parceling the analysis of large systems is described. It is justified by showing that analysis of each parcel is an error-preserving abstraction of the global analysis. To ameliorate the problem of spurious error reports, a technique combining reachability analysis with symbolic execution is devised. Soundness of the hybrid technique is established by showing that reachability analysis is an error-preserving abstraction of symbolic execution. A prototype implementation of tools to support analysis of concurrent software is described.

  8. Unstructured Grid Generation Techniques and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posenau, Mary-Anne K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Workshop on Unstructured Grid Generation Techniques and Software was conducted for NASA to assess its unstructured grid activities, improve the coordination among NASA centers, and promote technology transfer to industry. The proceedings represent contributions from Ames, Langley, and Lewis Research Centers, and the Johnson and Marshall Space Flight Centers. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the workshop.

  9. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  10. The advanced software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  11. Control Software for Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded software has been developed specifically for controlling an Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). A Video Guidance Sensor is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. Such a system includes pulsed laser diodes and a video camera, the output of which is digitized. From the positions of digitized target images and known geometric relationships, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. The present software consists of two subprograms running in two processors that are parts of the AVGS. The subprogram in the first processor receives commands from an external source, checks the commands for correctness, performs commanded non-image-data-processing control functions, and sends image data processing parts of commands to the second processor. The subprogram in the second processor processes image data as commanded. Upon power-up, the software performs basic tests of functionality, then effects a transition to a standby mode. When a command is received, the software goes into one of several operational modes (e.g. acquisition or tracking). The software then returns, to the external source, the data appropriate to the command.

  12. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  13. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  14. Advanced qualification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  15. Advanced qualification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winokur, P. S.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Fleetwood, D. M.

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML 'builds in' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish 'process capability' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co-60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  16. Advanced qualification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, P.S.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-kev x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co[sup 60] gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  17. Advanced qualification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winokur, P. S.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Fleetwood, D. M.

    1994-06-01

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML 'builds in' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish 'process capability' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co-60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

  18. Software Framework for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    John Widmann; Sorin Munteanu; Aseem Jain; Pankaj Gupta; Mark Moales; Erik Ferguson; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Yi-dong Lang; Larry Biegler; Michael Locke; Simon Lingard; Jay Yun

    2010-08-01

    This report summarizes the work accomplished during the Phase II development effort of the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The objective of the project is to develop the tools to efficiently combine high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with process modeling software. During the course of the project, a robust integration controller was developed that can be used in any CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling environment. The controller mediates the exchange of information between the process modeling software and the CFD software. Several approaches to reducing the time disparity between CFD simulations and process modeling have been investigated and implemented. These include enabling the CFD models to be run on a remote cluster and enabling multiple CFD models to be run simultaneously. Furthermore, computationally fast reduced-order models (ROMs) have been developed that can be 'trained' using the results from CFD simulations and then used directly within flowsheets. Unit operation models (both CFD and ROMs) can be uploaded to a model database and shared between multiple users.

  19. An Advanced Programming Technique for a Cost-Effective Hardware-Independent Realization of Naval Software Systems. Final Technical Report, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer Symbolic, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A pseudo assembly language, PAL, was developed and specified for use as the lowest level in a general, multilevel programing system for the realization of cost-effective, hardware-independent Naval software. The language was developed as part of the system called FIRMS (Fast Iterative Recursive Macro System) and is sufficiently general to allow…

  20. Techniques in Advanced Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    For ease of presentation, advanced grammar teaching techniques are briefly considered under the headings of structuralism (belief in the effectiveness of presenting grammar rules) and contextualism (belief in the maximum use by students of what they know in the target language). The structuralist's problem of establishing a syllabus is discussed…

  1. Chaste: using agile programming techniques to develop computational biology software.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Francis, Joe; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Cooper, Jonathan; Garny, Alan; Momtahan, Lee; Osborne, James; Pathmanathan, Pras; Rodriguez, Blanca; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Gavaghan, David J

    2008-09-13

    Cardiac modelling is the area of physiome modelling where the available simulation software is perhaps most mature, and it therefore provides an excellent starting point for considering the software requirements for the wider physiome community. In this paper, we will begin by introducing some of the most advanced existing software packages for simulating cardiac electrical activity. We consider the software development methods used in producing codes of this type, and discuss their use of numerical algorithms, relative computational efficiency, usability, robustness and extensibility. We then go on to describe a class of software development methodologies known as test-driven agile methods and argue that such methods are more suitable for scientific software development than the traditional academic approaches. A case study is a project of our own, Cancer, Heart and Soft Tissue Environment, which is a library of computational biology software that began as an experiment in the use of agile programming methods. We present our experiences with a review of our progress thus far, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of this new approach compared with the development methods used in some existing packages. We conclude by considering whether the likely wider needs of the cardiac modelling community are currently being met and suggest that, in order to respond effectively to changing requirements, it is essential that these codes should be more malleable. Such codes will allow for reliable extensions to include both detailed mathematical models--of the heart and other organs--and more efficient numerical techniques that are currently being developed by many research groups worldwide. PMID:18565813

  2. Chaste: using agile programming techniques to develop computational biology software.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Francis, Joe; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Cooper, Jonathan; Garny, Alan; Momtahan, Lee; Osborne, James; Pathmanathan, Pras; Rodriguez, Blanca; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Gavaghan, David J

    2008-09-13

    Cardiac modelling is the area of physiome modelling where the available simulation software is perhaps most mature, and it therefore provides an excellent starting point for considering the software requirements for the wider physiome community. In this paper, we will begin by introducing some of the most advanced existing software packages for simulating cardiac electrical activity. We consider the software development methods used in producing codes of this type, and discuss their use of numerical algorithms, relative computational efficiency, usability, robustness and extensibility. We then go on to describe a class of software development methodologies known as test-driven agile methods and argue that such methods are more suitable for scientific software development than the traditional academic approaches. A case study is a project of our own, Cancer, Heart and Soft Tissue Environment, which is a library of computational biology software that began as an experiment in the use of agile programming methods. We present our experiences with a review of our progress thus far, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of this new approach compared with the development methods used in some existing packages. We conclude by considering whether the likely wider needs of the cardiac modelling community are currently being met and suggest that, in order to respond effectively to changing requirements, it is essential that these codes should be more malleable. Such codes will allow for reliable extensions to include both detailed mathematical models--of the heart and other organs--and more efficient numerical techniques that are currently being developed by many research groups worldwide.

  3. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  4. Constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael; Podolak, Ester; Mckay, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Scientific model building can be an intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot be easily distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. In this paper, we describe a prototype for a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities. Our prototype has been developed in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling, and is being used to construct models of Titan's atmosphere.

  5. Advances in wound debridement techniques.

    PubMed

    Nazarko, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Dead and devitalised tissue interferes with the process of wound healing. Debridement is a natural process that occurs in all wounds and is crucial to healing; it reduces the bacterial burden in a wound and promotes effective inflammatory responses that encourage the formation of healthy granulation tissue (Wolcott et al, 2009). Wound care should be part of holistic patient care. Recent advances in debridement techniques include: biosurgery, hydrosurgery, mechanical debridement, and ultrasound. Biosurgery and mechanical debridement can be practiced by nonspecialist nurses and can be provided in a patient's home, thus increasing the patient's access to debridement therapy and accelerating wound healing.

  6. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  7. Integrated review software advances at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Klosterbuer, S. F.; Michel, K. D.; Betts, S. E.; Determan, J. C.; Longo, J. F.; Parker, R. F.; Pelowitz, D. G.; Rothrock, R. B.; Schneider, C. M.; Nordquist, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1988, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing software for unattended monitoring systems. These systems are composed of three categories of software: acquisition, collection and review. The data acquisition software is contained in modular instrumentation distributed throughout facilities to continuously acquire data from devices ranging from radiation detectors to cameras to binary switches. The data collection software runs on computers connected to the instruments and offloads and stores the acquired data. The review software enables the end user to quickly and easily examine the data collected from these different systems and compare the results to declared operator activities. This paper addresses the review software. The original standalone review software processed only radiation data. This software was expanded to include new programs (tools) to display and correlate video and operator declarations and added an interface to the standard neutron coincidence counter analysis program. This expanded review software containing multiple review tools is referred to collectively as the Integrated Review Software (IRS). The IRS continues to expand and evolve. Two primary IRS developments will be described in this paper. First, the IRS was expanded to include review tools to display and analyze new data types. Position Review was developed to display Global Positioning System (GPS) location data to aid in tracking radiation movements. Isotopic Review is being developed to provide a link to the standard gamma isotopic analysis software. In addition significant enhancements are being added to the existing review tools such as Operator Review, Radiation Review and Digital Video Review. A second IRS development is to produce standardized components with published interfaces enabling other parties to produce custom components that plug into review software. It is anticipated that there will be four primary types of components that could be

  8. Advances in knowledge-based software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this work is that a rigorous and comprehensive software reuse methodology can bring about a more effective and efficient utilization of constrained resources in the development of large-scale software systems by both government and industry. It is also believed that correct use of this type of software engineering methodology can significantly contribute to the higher levels of reliability that will be required of future operational systems. An overview and discussion of current research in the development and application of two systems that support a rigorous reuse paradigm are presented: the Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment (KBSEE) and the Knowledge Acquisition fo the Preservation of Tradeoffs and Underlying Rationales (KAPTUR) systems. Emphasis is on a presentation of operational scenarios which highlight the major functional capabilities of the two systems.

  9. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  10. RFID Communication Using Software Defined Radio Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, M. A.; Islam, M.; Samad, S. A.; Hussain, A.

    2010-06-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is currently the hottest technology in wireless applications area. Its unique advantages such as data transmission with extreme low power or even without power in tag can be the biggest beneficial for goods management. Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a wireless communications system where all of the signal processing is implemented in software. By simply downloading a new program, a software radio is able to interoperate with different wireless protocols, incorporate new services, and upgrade to new standards. In this paper, we build an RFID application simulation environment over the SDR. We do the source to sink transmission simulation by using Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Then, we compare the differences of BER versus SNR performances for input and output signals.

  11. Advances in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Hardware and Software.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Marina; Garcia, Ernest V

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques remain today's most reliable modality for the assessment and quantification of myocardial perfusion. In recent years, the field has experienced tremendous progress both in terms of dedicated cameras for cardiac applications and software techniques for image reconstruction. The most recent advances in single-photon emission computed tomography hardware and software are reviewed, focusing on how these improvements have resulted in an even more powerful diagnostic tool with reduced injected radiation dose and acquisition time.

  12. Advancing Software Architecture Modeling for Large Scale Heterogeneous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan

    2010-11-07

    In this paper we describe how incorporating technology-specific modeling at the architecture level can help reduce risks and produce better designs for large, heterogeneous software applications. We draw an analogy with established modeling approaches in scientific domains, using groundwater modeling as an example, to help illustrate gaps in current software architecture modeling approaches. We then describe the advances in modeling, analysis and tooling that are required to bring sophisticated modeling and development methods within reach of software architects.

  13. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  14. Byonic: Advanced Peptide and Protein Identification Software

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Marshall; Kil, Yong J.; Becker, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Byonic™ is the name of a software package for peptide and protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry. This software, which has only recently become commercially available, facilitates a much wider range of search possibilities than previous search software such as SEQUEST and Mascot. Byonic allows the user to define an essentially unlimited number of variable modification types. Byonic also allows the user to set a separate limit on the number of occurrences of each modification type, so that a search may consider only one or two chance modifications such as oxidations and deamidations per peptide, yet allow three or four biological modifications such as phosphorylations, which tend to cluster together. Hence Byonic can search for 10s or even 100s of modification types simultaneously without a prohibitively large combinatorial explosion. Byonic’s Wildcard Search™ allows the user to search for unanticipated or even unknown modifications alongside known modifications. Finally, Byonic’s Glycopeptide Search allows the user to identify glycopeptides without prior knowledge of glycan masses or glycosylation sites. PMID:23255153

  15. A general software reliability process simulation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and rationale of the generalized software reliability process, together with the design and implementation of a computer program that simulates this process are described. Given assumed parameters of a particular project, the users of this program are able to generate simulated status timelines of work products, numbers of injected anomalies, and the progress of testing, fault isolation, repair, validation, and retest. Such timelines are useful in comparison with actual timeline data, for validating the project input parameters, and for providing data for researchers in reliability prediction modeling.

  16. Techniques, processes, and measures for software safety and reliability. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkman, D

    1992-05-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed survey of current recommended practices and measurement techniques for the development of reliable and safe software-based systems. This report is intended to assist the United States Nuclear Reaction Regulation (NRR) in determining the importance and maturity of the available techniques and in assessing the relevance of individual standards for application to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power generating stations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides technical support for the Instrumentation and Control System Branch (ICSB) of NRRin advanced instrumentation and control systems, distributed digital systems, software reliability, and the application of verificafion and validafion for the development of software.

  17. Advanced techniques of laser telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, S.; Gilardini, A.

    The relationships which govern a laser telemeter; noise sources; and measurement accuracy with pulsed and sinusoidal intensity modulation techniques are discussed. Developments in telemetry instrumention and optical detection are considered. Meteorological interferometers, geodimeters, and military telemeters are described. Propagation attenuation and signal to noise ratios are treated. It is shown that accuracy depends on the product of measurement time and received power. The frequency scanning technique of CW and long pulse telemetry; multifrequency techniques; pulse compression; and vernier technique are outlined.

  18. ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

  19. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  20. Software for the grouped optimal aggregation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. M.; Shaw, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The grouped optimal aggregation technique produces minimum variance, unbiased estimates of acreage and production for countries, zones (states), or any designated collection of acreage strata. It uses yield predictions, historical acreage information, and direct acreage estimate from satellite data. The acreage strata are grouped in such a way that the ratio model over historical acreage provides a smaller variance than if the model were applied to each individual stratum. An optimal weighting matrix based on historical acreages, provides the link between incomplete direct acreage estimates and the total, current acreage estimate.

  1. Using Combined SFTA and SFMECA Techniques for Space Critical Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicodemos, F. G.; Lahoz, C. H. N.; Abdala, M. A. D.; Saotome, O.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the combined Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) and Software Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA) techniques applied to space critical software of satellite launch vehicles. The combined approach is under research as part of the Verification and Validation (V&V) efforts to increase software dependability and as future application in other projects under development at Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (IAE). The applicability of such approach was conducted on system software specification and applied to a case study based on the Brazilian Satellite Launcher (VLS). The main goal is to identify possible failure causes and obtain compensating provisions that lead to inclusion of new functional and non-functional system software requirements.

  2. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  3. Splitting advancement genioplasty: a new genioplasty technique.

    PubMed

    Celik, M; Tuncer, S; Büyükçayir, I

    1999-08-01

    A new genioplasty technique has been described and performed on 16 patients since 1995. The technique has been developed to avoid some undesired results of the current osseous genioplasty techniques and to achieve a more natural appearance in advancement genioplasty. According to the authors' technique, a rectangular part of the outer table of the mentum is split away from the mandible, and is advanced and fixated to the mandible. This technique can be used for advancement cases but not for reduction genioplasty. This technique was performed on 16 patients with only minor complications, including one case of wound dehiscence, one hematoma, and one case of osteomyelitis, which was managed with systemic antibiotic therapy. Aesthetic results were found to be satisfactory according to an evaluation by the authors. When the results were evaluated using pre- and postoperative photos, lip position and projection of the mentum were found to be natural in shape appearance. During the late postoperative period, the new bone formation between the advanced segment and the mandible was demonstrated radiographically. Advantages of the technique include having more contact surfaces for bony healing, a natural position of the lower lip, more natural projection of the mentum, tridimensional movement of the mentum, and improvement in the soft tissue of the neck. The disadvantages of the technique are the potential risk of infection due to dead space from the advancement, manipulation problems during surgery, and possible mental nerve injury. Splitting advancement genioplasty was found to be a useful technique for advancement genioplasty. Splitting advancement genioplasty is a more physiological osteotomy technique than most of osseous genioplasty techniques. PMID:10454320

  4. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-07-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)

  5. Stitching Techniques Advance Optics Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Because NASA depends on the fabrication and testing of large, high-quality aspheric (nonspherical) optics for applications like the James Webb Space Telescope, it sought an improved method for measuring large aspheres. Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Goddard Space Flight Center, QED Technologies, of Rochester, New York, upgraded and enhanced its stitching technology for aspheres. QED developed the SSI-A, which earned the company an R&D 100 award, and also developed a breakthrough machine tool called the aspheric stitching interferometer. The equipment is applied to advanced optics in telescopes, microscopes, cameras, medical scopes, binoculars, and photolithography."

  6. Advanced Spectroscopy Technique for Biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan

    This chapter presents an overview of the applications of optical spectroscopy in biomedicine. We focus on the optical design aspects of advanced biomedical spectroscopy systems, Raman spectroscopy system in particular. Detailed components and system integration are provided. As examples, two real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems, one for skin cancer detection and the other for endoscopic lung cancer detection, and an in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy system for skin assessment are presented. The applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis of the skin, lung, colon, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, breast, and cervix are summarized.

  7. Advances in Games Technology: Software, Models, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Edmond; Brindle, Geoff; Jones, Kevin; Zhou, Suiping; Chaudhari, Narendra S.; Wong, Kok-Wai

    2009-01-01

    Games technology has undergone tremendous development. In this article, the authors report the rapid advancement that has been observed in the way games software is being developed, as well as in the development of games content using game engines. One area that has gained special attention is modeling the game environment such as terrain and…

  8. Advanced software development workstation. OOPSLA 1992 Conference. Trip report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the main trends observed at the Object Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications Conference held in Vancouver, British Columbia. This conference is the main object-oriented event that allows us to assess the dynamism of the technology and to meet the main actors of the field. It is an invaluable source of information for the advanced software development project.

  9. Advanced Spacesuit Informatics Software Design for Power, Avionics and Software Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    A description of the software design for the 2016 edition of the Informatics computer assembly of the NASAs Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU), also called the Advanced Spacesuit. The Informatics system is an optional part of the spacesuit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and warning information. It also provides an interface to the suit mounted camera for recording still images, video, and audio field notes.

  10. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  11. Software for the ACP (Advanced Computer Program) multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Biel, J.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Cook, A.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Kaliher, C.; Hance, R.; Husby, D.; Nash, T.

    1987-02-02

    Software has been developed for use with the Fermilab Advanced Computer Program (ACP) multiprocessor system. The software was designed to make a system of a hundred independent node processors as easy to use as a single, powerful CPU. Subroutines have been developed by which a user's host program can send data to and get results from the program running in each of his ACP node processors. Utility programs make it easy to compile and link host and node programs, to debug a node program on an ACP development system, and to submit a debugged program to an ACP production system.

  12. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  13. Advanced prosthetic techniques for below knee amputations.

    PubMed

    Staats, T B

    1985-02-01

    Recent advances in the evaluation of the amputation stump, the materials that are available for prosthetic application, techniques of improving socket fit, and prosthetic finishings promise to dramatically improve amputee function. Precision casting techniques for providing optimal fit of the amputation stump using materials such as alginate are described. The advantages of transparent check sockets for fitting the complicated amputation stump are described. Advances in research that promise to provide more functional prosthetic feet and faster and more reliable socket molding are the use of CAD-CAM (computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing) and the use of gait analysis techniques to aid in the alignment of the prosthesis after socket fitting. Finishing techniques to provide a more natural appearing prosthesis are described. These advances will gradually spread to the entire prosthetic profession.

  14. Advanced sialoendoscopy techniques, rare findings, and complications.

    PubMed

    Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-12-01

    This article presents and discusses advanced minimally invasive sialoendoscopy and combined methods: endoscopy, endoscopic-assisted techniques, and external-lithotripsy combined procedures. It also presents rare situations and complications encountered during sialoendoscopic procedures. Sialoendoscopy is a relatively novel technique, which adds significant new dimensions to the surgeon's armamentarium for management of inflammatory salivary gland diseases. Because of the rapid development in minimally invasive surgical techniques, surgeons are capable of more facilely treating complicated inflammatory and obstructive conditions of the salivary glands.

  15. Remote software upload techniques in future vehicles and their performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Irina

    Updating software in vehicle Electronic Control Units (ECUs) will become a mandatory requirement for a variety of reasons, for examples, to update/fix functionality of an existing system, add new functionality, remove software bugs and to cope up with ITS infrastructure. Software modules of advanced vehicles can be updated using Remote Software Upload (RSU) technique. The RSU employs infrastructure-based wireless communication technique where the software supplier sends the software to the targeted vehicle via a roadside Base Station (BS). However, security is critically important in RSU to avoid any disasters due to malfunctions of the vehicle or to protect the proprietary algorithms from hackers, competitors or people with malicious intent. In this thesis, a mechanism of secure software upload in advanced vehicles is presented which employs mutual authentication of the software provider and the vehicle using a pre-shared authentication key before sending the software. The software packets are sent encrypted with a secret key along with the Message Digest (MD). In order to increase the security level, it is proposed the vehicle to receive more than one copy of the software along with the MD in each copy. The vehicle will install the new software only when it receives more than one identical copies of the software. In order to validate the proposition, analytical expressions of average number of packet transmissions for successful software update is determined. Different cases are investigated depending on the vehicle's buffer size and verification methods. The analytical and simulation results show that it is sufficient to send two copies of the software to the vehicle to thwart any security attack while uploading the software. The above mentioned unicast method for RSU is suitable when software needs to be uploaded to a single vehicle. Since multicasting is the most efficient method of group communication, updating software in an ECU of a large number of vehicles

  16. Software Partitioning Schemes for Advanced Simulation Computer Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, S. J.

    Conducted to design software partitioning techniques for use by the Air Force to partition a large flight simulator program for optimal execution on alternative configurations, this study resulted in a mathematical model which defines characteristics for an optimal partition, and a manually demonstrated partitioning algorithm design which…

  17. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Damevski, Kostadin

    2009-03-30

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discover through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedened computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative hig-performance scientific computing.

  18. Security Verification Techniques Applied to PatchLink COTS Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt; Andrew, Chris; Jog, Sameer

    2006-01-01

    Verification of the security of software artifacts is a challenging task. An integrated approach that combines verification techniques can increase the confidence in the security of software artifacts. Such an approach has been developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of California at Davis (UC Davis). Two security verification instruments were developed and then piloted on PatchLink's UNIX Agent, a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software product, to assess the value of the instruments and the approach. The two instruments are the Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) -- a model-based verification instrument (JPL), and a Property-Based Tester (UC Davis). Security properties were formally specified for the COTS artifact and then verified using these instruments. The results were then reviewed to determine the effectiveness of the approach and the security of the COTS product.

  19. Software control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip

    2012-09-01

    As PLCs evolve from simple logic controllers into more capable Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to control complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to control such hardware using the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure Control System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a control system capable of controlling enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount control.

  20. Hybrid mesh generation using advancing reduction technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents an extension of the application of the advancing reduction technique to the hybrid mesh generation. The proposed algorithm is based on a pre-generated rectangle mesh (RM) with a certain orientation. The intersection points between the two sets of perpendicular mesh lines in RM an...

  1. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D W; Hartmann Siantar, C

    2002-02-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software product system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. SERA is at a mature level in its life cycle, it has been licensed for research use worldwide, and it has become well established as a computational tool for research. However, along with its strengths, SERA also has some limitations in its structure and computational methodologies. More specifically, it is optimized only for neutron-based applications. Although photon transport can be computed with SERA, the simplified model that is used is designed primarily for photons produced in the neutron transport process. Thus SERA is not appropriate for applications to, for example, standard external-beam photon radiotherapy, which is by far more commonly used in the clinic than neutron based therapy.

  2. Recent advancement of turbulent flow measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, T.; Wang, P.; Cheng, D. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Advancements of the fluctuating density gradient cross beam laser Schlieren technique, the fluctuating line-reversal temperature measurement and the development of the two-dimensional drag-sensing probe to a three-dimensional drag-sensing probe are discussed. The three-dimensionality of the instantaneous momentum vector can shed some light on the nature of turbulence especially with swirling flow. All three measured fluctuating quantities (density, temperature, and momentum) can provide valuable information for theoreticians.

  3. Proposal for constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael H.; Podolak, Esther; Mckay, Christopher P.; Thompson, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific model building can be a time intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. We propose to construct a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. The proposed tool will include an interactive intelligent graphical interface and a high level, domain specific, modeling language. As a testbed for this research, we propose development of a software prototype in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling.

  4. Advanced program development management software system. Software description and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to apply emerging techniques and tools from the computer science discipline of paperless management to the activities of the Space Transportation and Exploration Office (PT01) in Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Program Development, thereby enhancing the productivity of the workforce, the quality of the data products, and the collection, dissemination, and storage of information. The approach used to accomplish the objectives emphasized the utilization of finished form (off-the-shelf) software products to the greatest extent possible without impacting the performance of the end product, to pursue developments when necessary in the rapid prototyping environment to provide a mechanism for frequent feedback from the users, and to provide a full range of user support functions during the development process to promote testing of the software.

  5. VLBI Analysis with the Multi-Technique Software GEOSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierulf, Halfdan Pascal; Andersen, Per-Helge; Boeckmann, Sarah; Kristiansen, Oddgeir

    2010-01-01

    GEOSAT is a multi-technique geodetic analysis software developed at Forsvarets Forsknings Institutt (Norwegian defense research establishment). The Norwegian Mapping Authority has now installed the software and has, together with Forsvarets Forsknings Institutt, adapted the software to deliver datum-free normal equation systems in SINEX format. The goal is to be accepted as an IVS Associate Analysis Center and to provide contributions to the IVS EOP combination on a routine basis. GEOSAT is based on an upper diagonal factorized Kalman filter which allows estimation of time variable parameters like the troposphere and clocks as stochastic parameters. The tropospheric delays in various directions are mapped to tropospheric zenith delay using ray-tracing. Meteorological data from ECMWF with a resolution of six hours is used to perform the ray-tracing which depends both on elevation and azimuth. Other models are following the IERS and IVS conventions. The Norwegian Mapping Authority has submitted test SINEX files produced with GEOSAT to IVS. The results have been compared with the existing IVS combined products. In this paper the outcome of these comparisons is presented.

  6. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  7. Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruchten, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    RADC has had an intensive program to show the feasibility of applying advanced technology to Air Force decision aiding situations. Some aspects of the program, such as Satellite Autonomy, are directly applicable to space systems. For example, RADC has shown the feasibility of decision aids that combine the advantages of laser disks and computer generated graphics; decision aids that interface object-oriented programs with expert systems; decision aids that solve path optimization problems; etc. Some of the key techniques that could be used in space applications are reviewed. Current applications are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages, and examples are given of possible space applications. The emphasis is to share RADC experience in decision aiding techniques.

  8. Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

  9. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented. PMID:26944696

  10. Advanced Bode Plot Techniques for Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeAngelis, D. A.; Schulze, G. W.

    The Bode plot, displayed as either impedance or admittance versus frequency, is the most basic test used by ultrasonic transducer designers. With simplicity and ease-of-use, Bode plots are ideal for baseline comparisons such as spacing of parasitic modes or impedance, but quite often the subtleties that manifest as poor process control are hard to interpret or are nonexistence. In-process testing of transducers is time consuming for quantifying statistical aberrations, and assessments made indirectly via the workpiece are difficult. This research investigates the use of advanced Bode plot techniques to compare ultrasonic transducers with known "good" and known "bad" process performance, with the goal of a-priori process assessment. These advanced techniques expand from the basic constant voltage versus frequency sweep to include constant current and constant velocity interrogated locally on transducer or tool; they also include up and down directional frequency sweeps to quantify hysteresis effects like jumping and dropping phenomena. The investigation focuses solely on the common PZT8 piezoelectric material used with welding transducers for semiconductor wire bonding. Several metrics are investigated such as impedance, displacement/current gain, velocity/current gain, displacement/voltage gain and velocity/voltage gain. The experimental and theoretical research methods include Bode plots, admittance loops, laser vibrometry and coupled-field finite element analysis.

  11. Introducing Risk Management Techniques Within Project Based Software Engineering Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Port, Daniel; Boehm, Barry

    2002-03-01

    In 1996, USC switched its core two-semester software engineering course from a hypothetical-project, homework-and-exam course based on the Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). The revised course is a real-client team-project course based on the CRESST model of learning objectives (content understanding, problem solving, collaboration, communication, and self-regulation). We used the CRESST cognitive demands analysis to determine the necessary student skills required for software risk management and the other major project activities, and have been refining the approach over the last 5 years of experience, including revised versions for one-semester undergraduate and graduate project course at Columbia. This paper summarizes our experiences in evolving the risk management aspects of the project course. These have helped us mature more general techniques such as risk-driven specifications, domain-specific simplifier and complicator lists, and the schedule as an independent variable (SAIV) process model. The largely positive results in terms of review of pass / fail rates, client evaluations, product adoption rates, and hiring manager feedback are summarized as well.

  12. Advanced Data Format (ADF) Software Library and Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The "CFD General Notation System" (CGNS) consists of a collection of conventions, and conforming software, for the storage and retrieval of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data. It facilitates the exchange of data between sites and applications, and helps stabilize the archiving of aerodynamic data. This effort was initiated in order to streamline the procedures in exchanging data and software between NASA and its customers, but the goal is to develop CGNS into a National Standard for the exchange of aerodynamic data. The CGNS development team is comprised of members from Boeing Commercial. Airplane Group, NASA-Ames, NASA-Langley, NASA-Lewis, McDonnell-Douglas Corporation (now Boeing-St. Louis), Air Force-Wright Lab., and ICEM-CFD Engineering. The elements of CGNS address all activities associated with the storage of data on external media and its movement to and from application programs. These elements include: 1) The Advanced Data Format (ADF) Database manager, consisting of both a file format specification and its 1/0 software, which handles the actual reading and writing of data from and to external storage media; 2) The Standard Interface Data Structures (SIDS), which specify the intellectual content of CFD data and the conventions governing naming and terminology; 3) The SIDS-to-ADF File Mapping conventions, which specify the exact location where the CFD data defined by the SIDS is to be stored within the ADF file(s); and 4) The CGNS Mid-level Library, which provides CFD-knowledgeable routines suitable for direct installation into application codes. The ADF is a generic database manager with minimal intrinsic capability. It was written for the purpose of storing large numerical datasets in an efficient, platform independent manner. To be effective, it must be used in conjunction with external agreements on how the data will be organized within the ADF database such defined by the SIDS. There are currently 34 user callable functions that comprise the ADF

  13. Development and validation of techniques for improving software dependability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1992-01-01

    A collection of document abstracts are presented on the topic of improving software dependability through NASA grant NAG-1-1123. Specific topics include: modeling of error detection; software inspection; test cases; Magnetic Stereotaxis System safety specifications and fault trees; and injection of synthetic faults into software.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan : ASC software quality engineering practices Version 3.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Pilch, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) Quality Criteria, Revision 10 (QC-1) as 'conformance to customer requirements and expectations'. This quality plan defines the SNL ASC Program software quality engineering (SQE) practices and provides a mapping of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirement (CPR) 001.3.6; 'Corporate Software Engineering Excellence'. This plan also identifies ASC management's and the software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals. This SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitments to improving software products by applying cost-effective SQE practices. This plan enumerates the SQE practices that comprise the development of SNL ASC's software products and explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices.

  15. Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.

    PubMed

    Syed, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-15

    Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

  16. Advanced techniques in current signature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1992-03-01

    In general, both ac and dc motors can be characterized as weakly nonlinear systems, in which both linear and nonlinear effects occur simultaneously. Fortunately, the nonlinearities are generally well behaved and understood and an be handled via several standard mathematical techniques already well developed in the systems modeling area; examples are piecewise linear approximations and Volterra series representations. Field measurements of numerous motors and motor-driven systems confirm the rather complex nature of motor current spectra and illustrate both linear and nonlinear effects (including line harmonics and modulation components). Although previous current signature analysis (CSA) work at Oak Ridge and other sites has principally focused on the modulation mechanisms and detection methods (AM, PM, and FM), more recent studies have been conducted on linear spectral components (those appearing in the electric current at their actual frequencies and not as modulation sidebands). For example, large axial-flow compressors ({approximately}3300 hp) in the US gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants exhibit running-speed ({approximately}20 Hz) and high-frequency vibrational information (>1 kHz) in their motor current spectra. Several signal-processing techniques developed to facilitate analysis of these components, including specialized filtering schemes, are presented. Finally, concepts for the designs of advanced digitally based CSA units are offered, which should serve to foster the development of much more computationally capable ``smart`` CSA instrumentation in the next several years. 3 refs.

  17. Inverse lithography technique for advanced CMOS nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaret, Alexandre; Tritchkov, Alexander; Entradas, Jorge; Yesilada, Emek

    2013-04-01

    Resolution Enhancement Techniques have continuously improved over the last decade, driven by the ever growing constraints of lithography process. Despite the large number of RET applied, some hotspot configurations remain challenging for advanced nodes due to aggressive design rules. Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT) is evaluated here as a substitute to the dense OPC baseline. Indeed ILT has been known for several years for its near-to-ideal mask quality, while also being potentially more time consuming in terms of OPC run and mask processing. We chose to evaluate Mentor Graphics' ILT engine "pxOPCTM" on both lines and via hotspot configurations. These hotspots were extracted from real 28nm test cases where the dense OPC solution is not satisfactory. For both layer types, the reference OPC consists of a dense OPC engine coupled to rule-based and/or model-based assist generation method. The same CM1 model is used for the reference and the ILT OPC. ILT quality improvement is presented through Optical Rule Check (ORC) results with various adequate detectors. Several mask manufacturing rule constraints (MRC) are considered for the ILT solution and their impact on process ability is checked after mask processing. A hybrid OPC approach allowing localized ILT usage is presented in order to optimize both quality and runtime. A real mask is prepared and fabricated with this method. Finally, results analyzed on silicon are presented to compare localized ILT to reference dense OPC.

  18. Final Technical Report - Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, Alan

    2014-10-21

    This is a final technical report for the University of Maryland work in the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). The Maryland work focused on software tools for coupling parallel software components built using the Common Component Architecture (CCA) APIs. Those tools are based on the Maryland InterComm software framework that has been used in multiple computational science applications to build large-scale simulations of complex physical systems that employ multiple separately developed codes.

  19. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  20. NASA software specification and evaluation system: Software verification/validation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA software requirement specifications were used in the development of a system for validating and verifying computer programs. The software specification and evaluation system (SSES) provides for the effective and efficient specification, implementation, and testing of computer software programs. The system as implemented will produce structured FORTRAN or ANSI FORTRAN programs, but the principles upon which SSES is designed allow it to be easily adapted to other high order languages.

  1. Advances in procedural techniques--antegrade.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William; Spratt, James C

    2014-05-01

    There have been many technological advances in antegrade CTO PCI, but perhaps most importantly has been the evolution of the "hybrid' approach where ideally there exists a seamless interplay of antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection re-entry and retrograde approaches as dictated by procedural factors. Antegrade wire escalation with intimal tracking remains the preferred initial strategy in short CTOs without proximal cap ambiguity. More complex CTOs, however, usually require either a retrograde or an antegrade dissection re-entry approach, or both. Antegrade dissection re-entry is well suited to long occlusions where there is a healthy distal vessel and limited "interventional" collaterals. Early use of a dissection re-entry strategy will increase success rates, reduce complications, and minimise radiation exposure, contrast use as well as procedural times. Antegrade dissection can be achieved with a knuckle wire technique or the CrossBoss catheter whilst re-entry will be achieved in the most reproducible and reliable fashion by the Stingray balloon/wire. It should be avoided where there is potential for loss of large side branches. It remains to be seen whether use of newer dissection re-entry strategies will be associated with lower restenosis rates compared with the more uncontrolled subintimal tracking strategies such as STAR and whether stent insertion in the subintimal space is associated with higher rates of late stent malapposition and stent thrombosis. It is to be hoped that the algorithms, which have been developed to guide CTO operators, allow for a better transfer of knowledge and skills to increase uptake and acceptance of CTO PCI as a whole. PMID:24694104

  2. Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Julie C

    2012-11-17

    Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

  3. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  4. Applying program comprehension techniques to improve software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifkin, Stan; Deimel, Lionel

    1994-01-01

    Software inspections are widely regarded as a cost-effective mechanism for removing defects in software, though performing them does not always reduce the number of customer-discovered defects. We present a case study in which an attempt was made to reduce such defects through inspection training that introduced program comprehension ideas. The training was designed to address the problem of understanding the artifact being reviewed, as well as other perceived deficiencies of the inspection process itself. Measures, both formal and informal, suggest that explicit training in program understanding may improve inspection effectiveness.

  5. Software-Enabled Project Management Techniques and Their Relationship to the Triple Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elleh, Festus U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between software-enabled project management techniques and the triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). There was the dearth of academic literature that focused on the relationship between software-enabled project management techniques and the triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). Based on the gap…

  6. Software risk estimation and management techniques at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, J.; Lum, K.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss how uncertainty has been incorporated into the JPL software model, probabilistic-based estimates, and how risk is addressed, how cost risk is currently being explored via a variety of approaches, from traditional risk lists, to detailed WBS-based risk estimates to the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool.

  7. Final Report for "Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software"

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software is to fundamentally changing the way scientific software is developed and used by bringing component-based software development technologies to high-performance scientific and engineering computing. The role of Tech-X work in TASCS project is to provide an outreach to accelerator physics and fusion applications by introducing TASCS tools into applications, testing tools in the applications and modifying the tools to be more usable.

  8. Musical Composition and Creativity in an Advanced Software Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    This paper serves as a brief description of research into the use of professional level music software as a learning tool for creativity and composition by primary school children. The research formed the basis of a Master of Information Technology in Education degree at the University of Melbourne. The paper examines the physical environment, the…

  9. Building Software Development Capacity to Advance the State of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Educational technologists may advance the state of the field by increasing capacity to develop software tools and instructional applications. Presently, few academic programs in educational technology require even a single computer programming course. Further, the educational technologists who develop software generally work independently or in…

  10. Award-Winning CARES/Life Ceramics Durability Evaluation Software Is Making Advanced Technology Accessible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Products made from advanced ceramics show great promise for revolutionizing aerospace and terrestrial propulsion and power generation. However, ceramic components are difficult to design because brittle materials in general have widely varying strength values. The CARES/Life software developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center eases this by providing a tool that uses probabilistic reliability analysis techniques to optimize the design and manufacture of brittle material components. CARES/Life is an integrated package that predicts the probability of a monolithic ceramic component's failure as a function of its time in service. It couples commercial finite element programs--which resolve a component's temperature and stress distribution - with reliability evaluation and fracture mechanics routines for modeling strength - limiting defects. These routines are based on calculations of the probabilistic nature of the brittle material's strength.

  11. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Componet Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaraju, Madhusudhan

    2010-10-31

    Advanced Scientific Computing Research Computer Science FY 2010Report Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software: Distributed CCA State University of New York, Binghamton, NY, 13902 Summary The overall objective of Binghamton's involvement is to work on enhancements of the CCA environment, motivated by the applications and research initiatives discussed in the proposal. This year we are working on re-focusing our design and development efforts to develop proof-of-concept implementations that have the potential to significantly impact scientific components. We worked on developing parallel implementations for non-hydrostatic code and worked on a model coupling interface for biogeochemical computations coded in MATLAB. We also worked on the design and implementation modules that will be required for the emerging MapReduce model to be effective for scientific applications. Finally, we focused on optimizing the processing of scientific datasets on multi-core processors. Research Details We worked on the following research projects that we are working on applying to CCA-based scientific applications. 1. Non-Hydrostatic Hydrodynamics: Non-static hydrodynamics are significantly more accurate at modeling internal waves that may be important in lake ecosystems. Non-hydrostatic codes, however, are significantly more computationally expensive, often prohibitively so. We have worked with Chin Wu at the University of Wisconsin to parallelize non-hydrostatic code. We have obtained a speed up of about 26 times maximum. Although this is significant progress, we hope to improve the performance further, such that it becomes a practical alternative to hydrostatic codes. 2. Model-coupling for water-based ecosystems: To answer pressing questions about water resources requires that physical models (hydrodynamics) be coupled with biological and chemical models. Most hydrodynamics codes are written in Fortran, however, while most ecologists work in MATLAB. This

  12. Applying total quality management techniques to improve software development.

    PubMed

    Mezher, T; Assem Abdul Malak, M; el-Medawar, H

    1998-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a new management philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the basis of a continuously improving organization. This paper sheds light on the application of TQM concepts for software development. A fieldwork study was conducted on a Lebanese software development firm and its customers to determine the major problems affecting the organization's operation and to assess the level of adoption of TQM concepts. Detailed questionnaires were prepared and handed out to the firm's managers, programmers, and customers. The results of the study indicate many deficiencies in applying TQM concepts, especially in the areas of planning, defining customer requirements, teamwork, relationship with suppliers, and adopting standards and performance measures. One of the major consequences of these deficiencies is considerably increased programming errors and delays in delivery. Recommendations on achieving quality are discussed.

  13. Recent advances in the CRANK software suite for experimental phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Pannu, Navraj S. Waterreus, Willem-Jan; Skubák, Pavol; Sikharulidze, Irakli; Abrahams, Jan Pieter; Graaff, Rudolf A. G. de

    2011-04-01

    Recent developments in the CRANK software suite for experimental phasing have led to many more structures being built automatically. For its first release in 2004, CRANK was shown to effectively detect and phase anomalous scatterers from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data. Since then, CRANK has been significantly improved and many more structures can be built automatically with single- or multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction or single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering data. Here, the new algorithms that have been developed that have led to these substantial improvements are discussed and CRANK’s performance on over 100 real data sets is shown. The latest version of CRANK is freely available for download at http://www.bfsc.leidenuniv.nl/software/crank/ and from CCP4 (http://www.ccp4.ac.uk/)

  14. Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore » methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less

  15. Advanced numerical methods and software approaches for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    CAREY,GRAHAM F.; PARDHANANI,A.L.; BOVA,STEVEN W.

    2000-03-23

    In this article the authors concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to drift-dominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of upwind and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter-Gummel approach, Petrov-Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), entropy variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of the methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. They have included numerical examples from the recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and they emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, they briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.

  16. Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques for Assertion-Based Software Testing Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Software testing is a very labor intensive and costly task. Therefore, many software testing techniques to automate the process of software testing have been reported in the literature. Assertion-Based automated software testing has been shown to be effective in detecting program faults as compared to traditional black-box and white-box software testing methods. However, the applicability of this approach in the presence of large numbers of assertions may be very costly. Therefore, software developers need assistance while making decision to apply Assertion-Based testing in order for them to get the benefits of this approach at an acceptable level of costs. In this paper, we present an Assertion-Based testing metrics technique that is based on fuzzy logic. The main goal of the proposed technique is to enhance the performance of Assertion-Based software testing in the presence of large numbers of assertions. To evaluate the proposed technique, an experimental study was performed in which the proposed technique is applied on programs with assertions. The result of this experiment shows that the effectiveness and performance of Assertion-Based software testing have improved when applying the proposed testing metrics technique. PMID:26060839

  17. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1: ASC software quality engineering practices, Version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR 1.3.2 and 1.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan. Part 2, Mappings for the ASC software quality engineering practices. Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Molly A.; Heaphy, Robert; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR 1.3.2 and 1.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, 'ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines'. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan part 2 mappings for the ASC software quality engineering practices, version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, Robert; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR001.3.2 and CPR001.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, ''ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines''. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  20. Multidirectional mobilities: Advanced measurement techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, Lars Holger

    Today high noise-and-vibration comfort has become a quality sign of products in sectors such as the automotive industry, aircraft, components, households and manufacturing. Consequently, already in the design phase of products, tools are required to predict the final vibration and noise levels. These tools have to be applicable over a wide frequency range with sufficient accuracy. During recent decades a variety of tools have been developed such as transfer path analysis (TPA), input force estimation, substructuring, coupling by frequency response functions (FRF) and hybrid modelling. While these methods have a well-developed theoretical basis, their application combined with experimental data often suffers from a lack of information concerning rotational DOFs. In order to measure response in all 6 DOFs (including rotation), a sensor has been developed, whose special features are discussed in the thesis. This transducer simplifies the response measurements, although in practice the excitation of moments appears to be more difficult. Several excitation techniques have been developed to enable measurement of multidirectional mobilities. For rapid and simple measurement of the loaded mobility matrix, a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technique is used. The technique has been tested and validated on several structures of different complexity. A second technique for measuring the loaded 6-by-6 mobility matrix has been developed. This technique employs a model of the excitation set-up, and with this model the mobility matrix is determined from sequential measurements. Measurements on ``real'' structures show that both techniques give results of similar quality, and both are recommended for practical use. As a further step, a technique for measuring the unloaded mobilities is presented. It employs the measured loaded mobility matrix in order to calculate compensation forces and moments, which are later applied in order to compensate for the loading of the

  1. Survey of Verification and Validation Techniques for Small Satellite Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current trends and practices in small-satellite software verification and validation. This document is not intended to promote a specific software assurance method. Rather, it seeks to present an unbiased survey of software assurance methods used to verify and validate small satellite software and to make mention of the benefits and value of each approach. These methods include simulation and testing, verification and validation with model-based design, formal methods, and fault-tolerant software design with run-time monitoring. Although the literature reveals that simulation and testing has by far the longest legacy, model-based design methods are proving to be useful for software verification and validation. Some work in formal methods, though not widely used for any satellites, may offer new ways to improve small satellite software verification and validation. These methods need to be further advanced to deal with the state explosion problem and to make them more usable by small-satellite software engineers to be regularly applied to software verification. Last, it is explained how run-time monitoring, combined with fault-tolerant software design methods, provides an important means to detect and correct software errors that escape the verification process or those errors that are produced after launch through the effects of ionizing radiation.

  2. Advances in laparoscopic urologic surgery techniques

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar M.; Humphreys, Mitchell R.

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades witnessed the inception and exponential implementation of key technological advancements in laparoscopic urology. While some of these technologies thrived and became part of daily practice, others are still hindered by major challenges. This review was conducted through a comprehensive literature search in order to highlight some of the most promising technologies in laparoscopic visualization, augmented reality, and insufflation. Additionally, this review will provide an update regarding the current status of single-site and natural orifice surgery in urology. PMID:27134743

  3. Advances in laparoscopic urologic surgery techniques.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar M; Humphreys, Mitchell R

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades witnessed the inception and exponential implementation of key technological advancements in laparoscopic urology. While some of these technologies thrived and became part of daily practice, others are still hindered by major challenges. This review was conducted through a comprehensive literature search in order to highlight some of the most promising technologies in laparoscopic visualization, augmented reality, and insufflation. Additionally, this review will provide an update regarding the current status of single-site and natural orifice surgery in urology. PMID:27134743

  4. Software Health Management: A Short Review of Challenges and Existing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipatsrisawat, Knot; Darwiche, Adnan; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Schumann, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Modern spacecraft (as well as most other complex mechanisms like aircraft, automobiles, and chemical plants) rely more and more on software, to a point where software failures have caused severe accidents and loss of missions. Software failures during a manned mission can cause loss of life, so there are severe requirements to make the software as safe and reliable as possible. Typically, verification and validation (V&V) has the task of making sure that all software errors are found before the software is deployed and that it always conforms to the requirements. Experience, however, shows that this gold standard of error-free software cannot be reached in practice. Even if the software alone is free of glitches, its interoperation with the hardware (e.g., with sensors or actuators) can cause problems. Unexpected operational conditions or changes in the environment may ultimately cause a software system to fail. Is there a way to surmount this problem? In most modern aircraft and many automobiles, hardware such as central electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic components are monitored by IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) systems. These systems can recognize, isolate, and identify faults and failures, both those that already occurred as well as imminent ones. With the help of diagnostics and prognostics, appropriate mitigation strategies can be selected (replacement or repair, switch to redundant systems, etc.). In this short paper, we discuss some challenges and promising techniques for software health management (SWHM). In particular, we identify unique challenges for preventing software failure in systems which involve both software and hardware components. We then present our classifications of techniques related to SWHM. These classifications are performed based on dimensions of interest to both developers and users of the techniques, and hopefully provide a map for dealing with software faults and failures.

  5. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  6. Advanced optical imaging techniques for neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy.

  7. Advanced Optical Imaging Techniques for Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1 mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy. PMID:23831260

  8. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for local tumor hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Lele, P P

    1989-05-01

    Scanned, intensity-modulated, focused ultrasound (SIMFU) presently is the modality of choice for localized, controlled heating of deep as well as superficial tumors noninvasively. With the present SIMFU system, it was possible to heat 88 per cent of deep tumors up to 12 cm in depth and 15 cm in diameter, to 43 degrees C in 3 to 4 minutes. The infiltrative tumor margins could be heated to the desired therapeutic temperature. The temperature outside the treatment field fell off sharply. Excellent objective responses were obtained without local or systemic toxicity. Multiinstitutional clinical trials of local hyperthermia by this promising technique are clearly warranted.

  9. Air pollution monitoring by advanced spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Hodgeson, J A; McClenny, W A; Hanst, P L

    1973-10-19

    The monitoring requirements related to air pollution are many and varied. The molecules of concern differ greatly in their chemical and physical properties, in the nature of their environment, and in their concentration ranges. Furthermore, the application may have specific requirements such as rapid response time, ultrasensitivity, multipollutant capability, or capability for remote measurements. For these reasons, no single spectroscopic technique appears to offer a panacea for all monitoring needs. Instead we have attempted to demonstrate in the above discussion that, regardless of the difficulty and complexity of the monitoring problems, spectroscopy offers many tools by which such problems may be solved.

  10. Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H.; Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A.; Beard, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

  11. Advanced automated char image analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke

    2006-05-15

    Char morphology is an important characteristic when attempting to understand coal behavior and coal burnout. In this study, an augmented algorithm has been proposed to identify char types using image analysis. On the basis of a series of image processing steps, a char image is singled out from the whole image, which then allows the important major features of the char particle to be measured, including size, porosity, and wall thickness. The techniques for automated char image analysis have been tested against char images taken from ICCP Char Atlas as well as actual char particles derived from pyrolyzed char samples. Thirty different chars were prepared in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 1% oxygen, and 100 ms from 15 different world coals sieved into two size fractions (53-75 and 106-125 {mu}m). The results from this automated technique are comparable with those from manual analysis, and the additional detail from the automated sytem has potential use in applications such as combustion modeling systems. Obtaining highly detailed char information with automated methods has traditionally been hampered by the difficulty of automatic recognition of individual char particles. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rama Shankar

    2013-06-01

    Successful mapping of the draft human genome in 2001 and more recent mapping of the human microbiome genome in 2012 have relied heavily on the parallel processing of the second generation/Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) DNA machines at a cost of several millions dollars and long computer processing times. These have been mainly biochemical approaches. Here a system analysis approach is used to review these techniques by identifying the requirements, specifications, test methods, error estimates, repeatability, reliability and trends in the cost reduction. The first generation, NGS and the Third Generation Single Molecule Real Time (SMART) detection sequencing methods are reviewed. Based on the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) data, the achieved cost reduction of 1.5 times per yr. from Sep. 2001 to July 2007; 7 times per yr., from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2010; and 2.5 times per yr. from July 2010 to Jan 2012 are discussed.

  13. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software for Neutron Radiotherapy and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D; Wessol, D; Wemple, C; Harkin, G; Hartmann-Siantar, C

    2002-08-20

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. As a logical next step in the development of modern radiotherapy planning tools to support the most advanced research, INEEL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the developers of the PEREGRTNE computational engine for radiotherapy treatment planning applications, have recently launched a new project to collaborate in the development of a ''next-generation'' multi-modality treatment planning software system that will be useful for all modern forms of radiotherapy.

  14. FY 2002 Report on Software Visualization Techniques for IV and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotta, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major challenges software engineers often face in performing IV&V is developing an understanding of a system created by a development team they have not been part of. As budgets shrink and software increases in complexity, this challenge will become even greater as these software engineers face increased time and resource constraints. This research will determine which current aspects of providing this understanding (e.g., code inspections, use of control graphs, use of adjacency matrices, requirements traceability) are critical to the performing IV&V and amenable to visualization techniques. We will then develop state-of-the-art software visualization techniques to facilitate the use of these aspects to understand software and perform IV&V.

  15. Training Software in Artificial-Intelligence Computing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Rogstad, Eric; Chalfant, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Toolkit is a computer program for training scientists, engineers, and university students in three soft-computing techniques (fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms) used in artificial-intelligence applications. The program promotes an easily understandable tutorial interface, including an interactive graphical component through which the user can gain hands-on experience in soft-computing techniques applied to realistic example problems. The tutorial provides step-by-step instructions on the workings of soft-computing technology, whereas the hands-on examples allow interaction and reinforcement of the techniques explained throughout the tutorial. In the fuzzy-logic example, a user can interact with a robot and an obstacle course to verify how fuzzy logic is used to command a rover traverse from an arbitrary start to the goal location. For the genetic algorithm example, the problem is to determine the minimum-length path for visiting a user-chosen set of planets in the solar system. For the neural-network example, the problem is to decide, on the basis of input data on physical characteristics, whether a person is a man, woman, or child. The AI Toolkit is compatible with the Windows 95,98, ME, NT 4.0, 2000, and XP operating systems. A computer having a processor speed of at least 300 MHz, and random-access memory of at least 56MB is recommended for optimal performance. The program can be run on a slower computer having less memory, but some functions may not be executed properly.

  16. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation: a simplified dome advancement technique.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Link, Richard E; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic Boari flap reimplantation has been used to treat long distal ureteral strictures. This technique requires extensive bladder mobilization and complex intracorporeal suturing. This demonstrates a novel laparoscopic bladder dome advancement approach for ureteral reimplantation. This technique obviates the need for bladder pedicle dissection and simplifies the required suturing.

  17. Evaluation of Advanced Retrieval Techniques in an Experimental Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses subject searching problems in online library catalogs; explains advanced information retrieval (IR) techniques; and describes experiments conducted on a test collection database, CHESHIRE (California Hybrid Extended SMART for Hypertext and Information Retrieval Experimentation), which was created to evaluate IR techniques in online…

  18. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe

  19. Using CONFIG for Simulation of Operation of Water Recovery Subsystems for Advanced Control Software Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Flores, Luis; Fleming, Land; Throop, Daiv

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool, CONFIG, has been developed to support evaluation of the operability life support systems. CON FIG simulates operations scenarios in which flows and pressures change continuously while system reconfigurations occur as discrete events. In simulations, intelligent control software can interact dynamically with hardware system models. CONFIG simulations have been used to evaluate control software and intelligent agents for automating life support systems operations. A CON FIG model of an advanced biological water recovery system has been developed to interact with intelligent control software that is being used in a water system test at NASA Johnson Space Center

  20. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    DOE PAGES

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Janssen, Curtis L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Sosonkina, Masha; Windus, Theresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also addressmore » interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.« less

  1. Recent advances in 3D computed tomography techniques for simulation and navigation in hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masafumi

    2014-04-01

    A few years ago it could take several hours to complete a 3D image using a 3D workstation. Thanks to advances in computer science, obtaining results of interest now requires only a few minutes. Many recent 3D workstations or multimedia computers are equipped with onboard 3D virtual patient modeling software, which enables patient-specific preoperative assessment and virtual planning, navigation, and tool positioning. Although medical 3D imaging can now be conducted using various modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasonography (US) among others, the highest quality images are obtained using CT data, and CT images are now the most commonly used source of data for 3D simulation and navigation image. If the 2D source image is bad, no amount of 3D image manipulation in software will provide a quality 3D image. In this exhibition, the recent advances in CT imaging technique and 3D visualization of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic abnormalities are featured, including scan and image reconstruction technique, contrast-enhanced techniques, new application of advanced CT scan techniques, and new virtual reality simulation and navigation imaging.

  2. Software techniques for a distributed real-time processing system. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, F.; Lecoq, P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes software techniques developed for the Unified Data System (UDS), a distributed processor network for control and data handling onboard a planetary spacecraft. These techniques include a structured language for specifying the programs contained in each module, and a small executive program in each module which performs scheduling and implements the module task.

  3. Advances in gamma titanium aluminides and their manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Kunal; Radhakrishnan, Ramachandran; Wereley, Norman M.

    2012-11-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides display attractive properties for high temperature applications. For over a decade in the 1990s, the attractive properties of titanium aluminides were outweighed by difficulties encountered in processing and machining at room temperature. But advances in manufacturing technologies, deeper understanding of titanium aluminides microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and advances in micro-alloying, has led to the production of gamma titanium aluminide sheets. An in-depth review of key advances in gamma titanium aluminides is presented, including microstructure, deformation mechanisms, and alloy development. Traditional manufacturing techniques such as ingot metallurgy and investment casting are reviewed and advances via powder metallurgy based manufacturing techniques are discussed. Finally, manufacturing challenges facing gamma titanium aluminides, as well as avenues to overcome them, are discussed.

  4. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing... importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing... certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques or products containing same...

  5. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  6. Advanced regenerative-cooling techniques for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Shoji, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A review of regenerative-cooling techniques applicable to advanced planned engine designs for space booster and orbit transportation systems has developed the status of the key elements of this cooling mode. This work is presented in terms of gas side, coolant side, wall conduction heat transfer, and chamber life fatigue margin considerations. Described are preliminary heat transfer and trade analyses performed using developed techniques combining channel wall construction with advanced, high-strength, high-thermal-conductivity materials (NARloy-Z or Zr-Cu alloys) in high heat flux regions, combined with lightweight steel tubular nozzle wall construction. Advanced cooling techniques such as oxygen cooling and dual-mode hydrocarbon/hydrogen fuel operation and their limitations are indicated for the regenerative cooling approach.

  7. Graphical Technique to Support the Teaching/Learning Process of Software Process Reference Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Curiel, Ismael Edrein; Rodríguez-Jacobo, Josefina; Fernández-Zepeda, José Alberto

    In this paper, we propose a set of diagrams to visualize software process reference models (PRM). The diagrams, called dimods, are the combination of some visual and process modeling techniques such as rich pictures, mind maps, IDEF and RAD diagrams. We show the use of this technique by designing a set of dimods for the Mexican Software Industry Process Model (MoProSoft). Additionally, we perform an evaluation of the usefulness of dimods. The result of the evaluation shows that dimods may be a support tool that facilitates the understanding, memorization, and learning of software PRMs in both, software development organizations and universities. The results also show that dimods may have advantages over the traditional description methods for these types of models.

  8. Bi-maxillary advancement surgery: Technique, indications and results.

    PubMed

    Olivi, Pierre; Garcia, Claude

    2014-06-01

    Esthetic analysis of the face in some patients presenting a dental Class II can reveal the need for maxillo-mandibular advancement surgery. In these cases, mandibular advancement alone would provide a result which was satisfactory from the occlusal viewpoint but esthetically displeasing. Using bi-maxillary advancement, the impact of nasal volume is reduced and the nasolabial relationship is corrected. The sub-mandibular length is increased, thus creating a better-defined cervico-mental angle. This treatment technique involving a prior mandibular procedure has the advantage of restoring patients' dental occlusion while optimizing their facial esthetics.

  9. Advanced techniques and technology for efficient data storage, access, and transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Miller, Warner

    1991-01-01

    Advanced techniques for efficiently representing most forms of data are being implemented in practical hardware and software form through the joint efforts of three NASA centers. These techniques adapt to local statistical variations to continually provide near optimum code efficiency when representing data without error. Demonstrated in several earlier space applications, these techniques are the basis of initial NASA data compression standards specifications. Since the techniques clearly apply to most NASA science data, NASA invested in the development of both hardware and software implementations for general use. This investment includes high-speed single-chip very large scale integration (VLSI) coding and decoding modules as well as machine-transferrable software routines. The hardware chips were tested in the laboratory at data rates as high as 700 Mbits/s. A coding module's definition includes a predictive preprocessing stage and a powerful adaptive coding stage. The function of the preprocessor is to optimally process incoming data into a standard form data source that the second stage can handle.The built-in preprocessor of the VLSI coder chips is ideal for high-speed sampled data applications such as imaging and high-quality audio, but additionally, the second stage adaptive coder can be used separately with any source that can be externally preprocessed into the 'standard form'. This generic functionality assures that the applicability of these techniques and their recent high-speed implementations should be equally broad outside of NASA.

  10. Handbook of software quality assurance techniques applicable to the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.L.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a research project to recommend good engineering practices in the application of 10 CFR 50, Appendix B requirements to assure quality in the development and use of computer software for the design and operation of nuclear power plants for NRC and industry. This handbook defines the content of a software quality assurance program by enumerating the techniques applicable. Definitions, descriptions, and references where further information may be obtained are provided for each topic.

  11. Comparative performance evaluation of applying extended PIE technique to accelerate software testability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jun-Ru; Huang, Chin-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Jung; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2012-12-01

    The rapid development of technology provides high performance and reliability for the hardware system; based on this, software engineers can focus their developed software on more convenience and ultra-high reliability. To reach this goal, the testing stage of software development life cycle usually takes more time and effort due to the growing complexity of the software. How to build software that can be tested efficiently has become an important topic in addition to enhancing and developing new testing methods. Thus, research on software testability has been conducted and various methods have been developed. In the past, a dynamic technique for estimating program testability was proposed and called propagation, infection and execution (PIE) analysis. Previous research studies have shown that PIE analysis can complement software testing. However, this method requires a lot of computational overhead in estimating the testability of software components. In this article, we propose an extended PIE (EPIE) method to accelerate the conventional PIE analysis, based on generating group testability as a substitute for statement testability. Our proposed method can be systematically separated into three steps: breaking a program into blocks, dividing the blocks into groups and marking target statements. Experiments and evaluations with the Siemens suite, together with cost-effectiveness analysis, clearly show that the number of analysed statements can be effectively decreased, and the calculated values of testability are still acceptable.

  12. ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz

    2004-08-20

    Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow in the wellbore

  13. Towards a balanced software team formation based on Belbin team role using fuzzy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mazni; Hasan, Bikhtiyar; Ahmad, Mazida; Yasin, Azman; Baharom, Fauziah; Mohd, Haslina; Darus, Norida Muhd

    2016-08-01

    In software engineering (SE), team roles play significant impact in determining the project success. To ensure the optimal outcome of the project the team is working on, it is essential to ensure that the team members are assigned to the right role with the right characteristics. One of the prevalent team roles is Belbin team role. A successful team must have a balance of team roles. Thus, this study demonstrates steps taken to determine balance of software team formation based on Belbin team role using fuzzy technique. Fuzzy technique was chosen because it allows analyzing of imprecise data and classifying selected criteria. In this study, two roles in Belbin team role, which are Shaper (Sh) and Plant (Pl) were chosen to assign the specific role in software team. Results show that the technique is able to be used for determining the balance of team roles. Future works will focus on the validation of the proposed method by using empirical data in industrial setting.

  14. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  15. Cost benefits of advanced software: A review of methodology used at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1993-01-01

    To assist rational investments in advanced software, a formal, explicit, and multi-perspective cost-benefit analysis methodology is proposed. The methodology can be implemented through a six-stage process which is described and explained. The current practice of cost-benefit analysis at KSC is reviewed in the light of this methodology. The review finds that there is a vicious circle operating. Unsound methods lead to unreliable cost-benefit estimates. Unreliable estimates convince management that cost-benefit studies should not be taken seriously. Then, given external demands for cost-benefit estimates, management encourages software enginees to somehow come up with the numbers for their projects. Lacking the expertise needed to do a proper study, courageous software engineers with vested interests use ad hoc and unsound methods to generate some estimates. In turn, these estimates are unreliable, and the cycle continues. The proposed methodology should help KSC to break out of this cycle.

  16. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  17. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Consolidated Progress Report July 2006 - March 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, D E; McInnes, L C; Govindaraju, M; Bramley, R; Epperly, T; Kohl, J A; Nieplocha, J; Armstrong, R; Shasharina, S; Sussman, A L; Sottile, M; Damevski, K

    2009-04-14

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  18. Center for Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kostadin, Damevski

    2015-01-25

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedented computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)1 tackles these these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative high-performance scientific computing.

  19. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  20. Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

  1. An Advanced Time Averaging Modelling Technique for Power Electronic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankuloski, Goce

    For stable and efficient performance of power converters, a good mathematical model is needed. This thesis presents a new modelling technique for DC/DC and DC/AC Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) converters. The new model is more accurate than the existing modelling techniques such as State Space Averaging (SSA) and Discrete Time Modelling. Unlike the SSA model, the new modelling technique, the Advanced Time Averaging Model (ATAM) includes the averaging dynamics of the converter's output. In addition to offering enhanced model accuracy, application of linearization techniques to the ATAM enables the use of conventional linear control design tools. A controller design application demonstrates that a controller designed based on the ATAM outperforms one designed using the ubiquitous SSA model. Unlike the SSA model, ATAM for DC/AC augments the system's dynamics with the dynamics needed for subcycle fundamental contribution (SFC) calculation. This allows for controller design that is based on an exact model.

  2. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high-quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  3. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  4. Advanced Morphological and Functional Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Mattei, Peter A.; Caulo, Massimo; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Navarra, Riccardo; Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Marchini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Recent data documented that glaucoma is not limited to the retinal ganglion cells but that it also extends to the posterior visual pathway. The diagnosis is based on the presence of signs of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and consistent functional visual field alterations. Unfortunately these functional alterations often become evident when a significant amount of the nerve fibers that compose the optic nerve has been irreversibly lost. Advanced morphological and functional magnetic resonance (MR) techniques (morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, arterial spin labeling, and functional connectivity) may provide a means for observing modifications induced by this fiber loss, within the optic nerve and the visual cortex, in an earlier stage. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if the use of these advanced MR techniques could offer the possibility of diagnosing glaucoma at an earlier stage than that currently possible. PMID:26167474

  5. Advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedkowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2008-11-01

    This paper show an advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation. The LRF is the common sensor for unmanned ground vehicle, autonomous mobile robot and security applications. The cost of the measurement system is extremely high, therefore the simulation tool is designed. The simulation gives an opportunity to execute algorithm such as the obstacle avoidance[1], slam for robot localization[2], detection of vegetation and water obstacles in surroundings of the robot chassis[3], LRF measurement in crowd of people[1]. The Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) and alternative technique based on CUDA (NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture) is presented.

  6. Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. (1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. Although very functional, this system is not portable or flexible; the software would have to be substantially rewritten for other applications. (2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. This package is based on a standardized choice of hardware, within which it is capable of building a system to order, automatically constructing graphics, data tables, alarm prioritization rules, and interfaces to peripherals. (3) A software tool, the User Interface Management System (UIMS), is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display. The object-oriented software of the UIMS achieves rapid prototyping of a new interface by standardizing to a class library of software objects instead of hardware objects.

  7. Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1 : ASC software quality engineering practices version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Minana, Molly A.; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in DOE/AL Quality Criteria (QC-1) as conformance to customer requirements and expectations. This quality plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirements (CPR 1.3.2 and CPR 1.3.6) and the Department of Energy (DOE) document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines (GP&G). This quality plan identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities for cost-effective software engineering quality practices. The SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitment to improving software products by applying cost-effective software engineering quality practices. This document explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices; enumerates the practices that compose the development of SNL ASC's software products; and includes a sample assessment checklist that was developed based upon the practices in this document.

  9. A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

  10. Use of software engineering techniques in the design of the ALEPH data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charity, T.; McClatchey, R.; Harvey, J.

    1987-08-01

    The SASD methodology is being used to provide a rigorous design framework for various components of the ALEPH data acquisition system. The Entity-Relationship data model is used to describe the layout and configuration of the control and acquisition systems and detector components. State Transition Diagrams are used to specify control applications such as run control and resource management and Data Flow Diagrams assist in decomposing software tasks and defining interfaces between processes. These techniques encourage rigorous software design leading to enhanced functionality and reliability. Improved documentation and communication ensures continuity over the system life-cycle and simplifies project management.

  11. Advanced techniques in reliability model representation and solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    The current tendency of flight control system designs is towards increased integration of applications and increased distribution of computational elements. The reliability analysis of such systems is difficult because subsystem interactions are increasingly interdependent. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have been working for several years to extend the capability of Markov modeling techniques to address these problems. This effort has been focused in the areas of increased model abstraction and increased computational capability. The reliability model generator (RMG) is a software tool that uses as input a graphical object-oriented block diagram of the system. RMG uses a failure-effects algorithm to produce the reliability model from the graphical description. The ASSURE software tool is a parallel processing program that uses the semi-Markov unreliability range evaluator (SURE) solution technique and the abstract semi-Markov specification interface to the SURE tool (ASSIST) modeling language. A failure modes-effects simulation is used by ASSURE. These tools were used to analyze a significant portion of a complex flight control system. The successful combination of the power of graphical representation, automated model generation, and parallel computation leads to the conclusion that distributed fault-tolerant system architectures can now be analyzed.

  12. Full Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Techniques: Advancements, Indications, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yue, James J.; Long, William

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in both surgical instrumentation and full endoscopic spine techniques have resulted in positive clinical outcomes in the treatment of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pathologies. Endoscopic techniques impart minimal approach related disruption of non-pathologic spinal anatomy and function while concurrently maximizing functional visualization and correction of pathological tissues. An advanced understanding of the applicable functional neuroanatomy, in particular the neuroforamen, is essential for successful outcomes. Additionally, an understanding of the varying types of disc prolapse pathology in relation to the neuroforamen will result in more optimal surgical outcomes. Indications for lumbar endoscopic spine surgery include disc herniations, spinal stenosis, infections, medial branch rhizotomy, and interbody fusion. Limitations are based on both non spine and spine related findings. A high riding iliac wing, a more posteriorly located retroperitoneal cavity, an overly distal or proximally migrated herniated disc are all relative contra-indications to lumbar endoscopic spinal surgery techniques. Modifications in scope size and visual field of view angulation have enabled both anterior and posterior cervical decompression. Endoscopic burrs, electrocautery, and focused laser technology allow for the least invasive spinal surgical techniques in all age groups and across varying body habitus. Complications include among others, dural tears, dysesthsia, nerve injury, and infection. PMID:26114086

  13. Full Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Techniques: Advancements, Indications, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yue, James J; Long, William

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in both surgical instrumentation and full endoscopic spine techniques have resulted in positive clinical outcomes in the treatment of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pathologies. Endoscopic techniques impart minimal approach related disruption of non-pathologic spinal anatomy and function while concurrently maximizing functional visualization and correction of pathological tissues. An advanced understanding of the applicable functional neuroanatomy, in particular the neuroforamen, is essential for successful outcomes. Additionally, an understanding of the varying types of disc prolapse pathology in relation to the neuroforamen will result in more optimal surgical outcomes. Indications for lumbar endoscopic spine surgery include disc herniations, spinal stenosis, infections, medial branch rhizotomy, and interbody fusion. Limitations are based on both non spine and spine related findings. A high riding iliac wing, a more posteriorly located retroperitoneal cavity, an overly distal or proximally migrated herniated disc are all relative contra-indications to lumbar endoscopic spinal surgery techniques. Modifications in scope size and visual field of view angulation have enabled both anterior and posterior cervical decompression. Endoscopic burrs, electrocautery, and focused laser technology allow for the least invasive spinal surgical techniques in all age groups and across varying body habitus. Complications include among others, dural tears, dysesthsia, nerve injury, and infection. PMID:26114086

  14. A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool (http://www.proteosuite.org/?q=other_resources) to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

  15. The origins of bioethics: advances in resuscitations techniques.

    PubMed

    Niebroj, L

    2008-12-01

    During the last years there has been an increasing interest in meta-bioethical issues. This turn in the research focus is regarded as a sign of the maturation of bioethics as a distinct area of an academic inquiry. The role of historic-philosophical reflection is often emphasized. It should be noted that there is a rather common agreement that the future of bioethics lies in the critical reflection on its past, in particular, on the very origins of this discipline. Sharing Caplan's opinion, advances in medicine technologies, especially the introduction of respirators and artificial heart machines, is considered as one of the main issues that started bioethics. Using methods of historical as well as meta-ethical research, this article aims at describing the role of advances in resuscitation techniques in the emergence of bioethics and at exploring how bioethical reflection has been shaped by technological developments. A brief historical analysis permits to say that there is a close bond between the emergence of bioethics and the introduction of sophisticated resuscitation technologies into medical practice. The meta-ethical reflection reveals that advances in resuscitation techniques not only initiated bioethics in the second half of the 20(th) century but influenced its evolution by (i) posing a question of justice in health care, (ii) altering commonly accepted ontological notions of human corporeality, and (iii) reconsidering the very purpose of medicine.

  16. Indications and general techniques for lasers in advanced operative laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, J H

    1991-09-01

    Lasers are but one of the several energy delivery systems used by the operative laparoscopist in the performance of advanced operative laparoscopy. Safety is a key factor in the selection of a laser because the tissue damage produced by this instrument is absolutely predictable. The surgeon must be totally familiar with the chosen wavelength and its tissue reaction if this safety factor is to be realized. Other instruments complement the use of lasers in advanced operative laparoscopy, and without thorough knowledge of all available techniques and instruments, the operative laparoscopist will not achieve the full potential of this specialty. It is beyond the scope of this issue on gynecologic laser surgery to present all of the useful nonlaser techniques. Suffice it to say that we often use laser, loop ligature, sutures, hemoclips, bipolar electricity, hydrodissection, and endocoagulation during the course of a day in the operating room and sometimes during one case. As enthusiasm for advanced operative laparoscopy grows and endoscopic capability increases, more complicated and prolonged surgical feats are reported. Radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy have been performed by the laparoscopic route, and endoscopic management of ovarian tumors also has been reported. At this moment, these must be viewed as "show and tell" procedures unsupported by statistics to demonstrate any advantage (or disadvantage) when compared with conventional surgical methods. The time required of advanced operative laparoscopy for any given procedure is certainly an important factor. Prolonged operative and anesthesia time certainly can negate the supposed benefit of small incisions and minimally invasive surgery. What goes on inside the abdomen is certainly the most important part of advanced operative laparoscopy. Good surgeons must recognize their own limitations and the limitations of available technology. The operative laparoscopist must know when to quit and institute a

  17. NASA's Advanced Multimission Operations System: A Case Study in Formalizing Software Architecture Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    All software systems of significant size and longevity eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by evolving requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the cause, software architecture evolution is commonplace in real world software projects. Recently, software architecture researchers have begun to study this phenomenon in depth. However, this work has suffered from problems of validation; research in this area has tended to make heavy use of toy examples and hypothetical scenarios and has not been well supported by real world examples. To help address this problem, I describe an ongoing effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to re-architect the Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS), which is used to operate NASA's deep-space and astrophysics missions. Based on examination of project documents and interviews with project personnel, I describe the goals and approach of this evolution effort and then present models that capture some of the key architectural changes. Finally, I demonstrate how approaches and formal methods from my previous research in architecture evolution may be applied to this evolution, while using languages and tools already in place at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  18. Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

  19. Advanced computer modeling techniques expand belt conveyor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Alspaugh, M.

    1998-07-01

    Increased mining production is continuing to challenge engineers and manufacturers to keep up. The pressure to produce larger and more versatile equipment is increasing. This paper will show some recent major projects in the belt conveyor industry that have pushed the limits of design and engineering technology. Also, it will discuss the systems engineering discipline and advanced computer modeling tools that have helped make these achievements possible. Several examples of technologically advanced designs will be reviewed. However, new technology can sometimes produce increased problems with equipment availability and reliability if not carefully developed. Computer modeling techniques that help one design larger equipment can also compound operational headaches if engineering processes and algorithms are not carefully analyzed every step of the way.

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  1. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  2. Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. 1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. 2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. 3) A software tool, is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display.

  3. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  4. Techniques for developing reliable and functional materials control and accounting software

    SciTech Connect

    Barlich, G.

    1988-01-01

    The media has increasingly focused on failures of computer systems resulting in financial, material, and other losses and on systems failing to function as advertised. Unfortunately, such failures with equally disturbing losses are possible in computer systems providing materials control and accounting (MCandA) functions. Major improvements in the reliability and correctness of systems are possible with disciplined design and development techniques applied during software development. This paper describes some of the techniques used in the Safeguard Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory for various MCandA systems. 9 refs.

  5. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  6. ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Propagation Experiment: Preprocessing Software User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert K.; Wang, Xuhe; Westenhaver, David

    1996-01-01

    The preprocessing software manual describes the Actspp program originally developed to observe and diagnose Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) propagation terminal/receiver problems. However, it has been quite useful for automating the preprocessing functions needed to convert the terminal output to useful attenuation estimates. Prior to having data acceptable for archival functions, the individual receiver system must be calibrated and the power level shifts caused by ranging tone modulation must be received. Actspp provides three output files: the daylog, the diurnal coefficient file, and the file that contains calibration information.

  7. Recent advances in UHV techniques for particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. Rao

    1995-01-01

    The ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) requirements for storage rings and accelerators, and the development of the science and technology of UHV for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices have been recently reviewed by N.B. Mistry and H.F. Dylla respectively. In this paper, the latest developments in the advancement of UHV techniques for the vacuum integrity of Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and for successfully dealing with the synchrotron radiation related beam line vacuum problem encountered in the design of the SSC are reviewed: the review includes developments in extreme sensitivity He leak detection technique based on the dynamic adsorption and desorption of He, operation of ionization gauges at Lhe temperatures, metal sponges for the effective cryopumping of H{sup 2} and He to pressures better than 10{sup -14} torr, and low cost and high He sensitivity RGA's. The details of a new extreme sensitivity He leak detector system are also discussed here.

  8. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  9. Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Sarcev, Tatjana; Stojanovic, Goran; Carapic, Vladimir; Perin, Branislav; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Kesisis, Georgios; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Foroulis, Christophoros N; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available in almost all high volume centers performing bronchoscopy. Radial EBUS with mini-probes and guiding sheaths provides accurate diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. Combining EBUS guided procedures with rapid on site cytology (ROSE) increases diagnostic yield even more. Electromagnetic navigation technology (EMN) is also widely used for diagnosis of peripheral lesions. Future development will certainly lead to new improvements in technology and creation of new sophisticated tools for research in respiratory endoscopy. Broncho-microscopy, alveoloscopy, optical coherence tomography are some of the new research techniques emerging for rapid technological development.

  10. Recent advances in software for beamline design, accelerator operations and personnel training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Martono, Hendy; Moore, John M.

    2000-03-01

    Accelerators are finding new applications in research, industry, medicine, as well as other fields, and there is a growing need for new tools to improve the productivity of scientists and engineers involved with these emerging accelerator applications. Several advances in computer software have been made that focus on meeting those needs. This paper summarizes recent work in the development of a unique software framework designed specifically to support the accelerator community: the Multi-Platform Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC MP). SPARC MP includes a sophisticated beamline object model, an extensive library of GUI components, and supports a variety of particle optics codes and add-on tools. This framework has been used to create the Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab TM) family of software applications. PBO Lab has been used for beamline design, as a computer aid for teaching particle optics, and to support accelerator operations. Several popular charged particle optics programs, including MARYLIE, TRANSPORT, TURTLE and TRACE 3-D, have been integrated with a new version of PBO Lab. The modeling and simulation capabilities of these codes allow PBO Lab to support a wide spectrum of accelerator types. New external data interface tools are available to import beamline parameters from other sources, for example, to utilize magnet strengths generated by a control system. An overview of the new version of PBO Lab is presented.

  11. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  12. A Visual Basic simulation software tool for performance analysis of a membrane-based advanced water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pal, P; Kumar, R; Srivastava, N; Chowdhury, J

    2014-02-01

    A Visual Basic simulation software (WATTPPA) has been developed to analyse the performance of an advanced wastewater treatment plant. This user-friendly and menu-driven software is based on the dynamic mathematical model for an industrial wastewater treatment scheme that integrates chemical, biological and membrane-based unit operations. The software-predicted results corroborate very well with the experimental findings as indicated in the overall correlation coefficient of the order of 0.99. The software permits pre-analysis and manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. It allows quick performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.

  13. A Visual Basic simulation software tool for performance analysis of a membrane-based advanced water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pal, P; Kumar, R; Srivastava, N; Chowdhury, J

    2014-02-01

    A Visual Basic simulation software (WATTPPA) has been developed to analyse the performance of an advanced wastewater treatment plant. This user-friendly and menu-driven software is based on the dynamic mathematical model for an industrial wastewater treatment scheme that integrates chemical, biological and membrane-based unit operations. The software-predicted results corroborate very well with the experimental findings as indicated in the overall correlation coefficient of the order of 0.99. The software permits pre-analysis and manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. It allows quick performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:23982824

  14. Technique for Early Reliability Prediction of Software Components Using Behaviour Models

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Awad; N. A. Jawawi, Dayang; Adham Isa, Mohd; Imran Babar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Behaviour models are the most commonly used input for predicting the reliability of a software system at the early design stage. A component behaviour model reveals the structure and behaviour of the component during the execution of system-level functionalities. There are various challenges related to component reliability prediction at the early design stage based on behaviour models. For example, most of the current reliability techniques do not provide fine-grained sequential behaviour models of individual components and fail to consider the loop entry and exit points in the reliability computation. Moreover, some of the current techniques do not tackle the problem of operational data unavailability and the lack of analysis results that can be valuable for software architects at the early design stage. This paper proposes a reliability prediction technique that, pragmatically, synthesizes system behaviour in the form of a state machine, given a set of scenarios and corresponding constraints as input. The state machine is utilized as a base for generating the component-relevant operational data. The state machine is also used as a source for identifying the nodes and edges of a component probabilistic dependency graph (CPDG). Based on the CPDG, a stack-based algorithm is used to compute the reliability. The proposed technique is evaluated by a comparison with existing techniques and the application of sensitivity analysis to a robotic wheelchair system as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed technique is more relevant at the early design stage compared to existing works, and can provide a more realistic and meaningful prediction. PMID:27668748

  15. Advanced Techniques for Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J.

    2012-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application.

  16. Certification Aspects in Critical Embedded Software Development with Model Based Techniques: Detection of Unintended Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atencia Yepez, A.; Autrán Cerqueira, J.; Urueña, S.; Jurado, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, developed under contract with European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), analyses in detail which may be the certification implications in the aeronautic industry associated to the application of model-level verification and validation techniques. Particularly, this paper focuses on the problematic of detecting unintended functions by applying Model Coverage Criteria at model level. This point is significantly important for the future extensive use of Model Based approaches in safety critical software, since the uncertainty in the system performance introduced by the unintended functions, which may also lead to unacceptable hazardous or catastrophic events, prevents the system to be compliance with certification requirements. The paper provides a definition and a categorization of unintended functions and gives some relevant examples to assess the efficiency of model- coverage techniques in the detection of UF. The paper explains how this analysis is supported by a methodology based on the study of sources for introducing unintended functions. Finally it is analysed the feasibility of using Model-level verification techniques to support the software certification process.

  17. Techniques for developing approximate optimal advanced launch system guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, Timothy S.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1991-01-01

    An extension to the authors' previous technique used to develop a real-time guidance scheme for the Advanced Launch System is presented. The approach is to construct an optimal guidance law based upon an asymptotic expansion associated with small physical parameters, epsilon. The trajectory of a rocket modeled as a point mass is considered with the flight restricted to an equatorial plane while reaching an orbital altitude at orbital injection speeds. The dynamics of this problem can be separated into primary effects due to thrust and gravitational forces, and perturbation effects which include the aerodynamic forces and the remaining inertial forces. An analytic solution to the reduced-order problem represented by the primary dynamics is possible. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in an asymptotic series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form.

  18. Neurocysticercosis: evaluation with advanced magnetic resonance techniques and atypical forms.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Lázaro Luís Faria; Ferreira, Rafael Martins; da Rocha, Antônio José; Ferreira, Nelson Paes Diniz Fortes

    2005-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system, but its diagnosis remains difficult. The purpose of this article is to perform a critical analysis of the literature and show our experience in the evaluation of NCC. We discuss the advanced MR technique applications such as diffusion and perfusion-weighted imaging, spectroscopy, cisternography with FLAIR, and supplemental O2 and 3D-CISS. The typical manifestations of NCC are described; emphasis is given to the unusual presentations. The atypical forms of neurocysticercosis were divided into: intraventricular, subarachnoid, spinal, orbital, and intraparenchymatous. Special attention was also given to reactivation of previously calcified lesions and neurocysticercosis associated with mesial temporal sclerosis.

  19. COAL AND CHAR STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson; Mark J. Nilges; Boris M. Odintsov; Alex I. Smirnov

    2001-04-30

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During the span of this grant, progress was made on construction and applications to coals and chars of two high frequency EMR systems particularly appropriate for such studies--48 GHz and 95 GHz electron magnetic resonance spectrometer, on new low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments to examine the interaction between water and the surfaces of suspended char particulates in slurries, and on a variety of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to measure characteristics of the water directly in contact with the surfaces and pore spaces of carbonaceous particulates.

  20. Advanced Fibre Bragg Grating and Microfibre Bragg Grating Fabrication Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kit Man

    Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have become a very important technology for communication systems and fibre optic sensing. Typically, FBGs are less than 10-mm long and are fabricated using fused silica uniform phase masks which become more expensive for longer length or non-uniform pitch. Generally, interference UV laser beams are employed to make long or complex FBGs, and this technique introduces critical precision and control issues. In this work, we demonstrate an advanced FBG fabrication system that enables the writing of long and complex gratings in optical fibres with virtually any apodisation profile, local phase and Bragg wavelength using a novel optical design in which the incident angles of two UV beams onto an optical fibre can be adjusted simultaneously by moving just one optical component, instead of two optics employed in earlier configurations, to vary the grating pitch. The key advantage of the grating fabrication system is that complex gratings can be fabricated by controlling the linear movements of two translation stages. In addition to the study of advanced grating fabrication technique, we also focus on the inscription of FBGs written in optical fibres with a cladding diameter of several ten's of microns. Fabrication of microfibres was investigated using a sophisticated tapering method. We also proposed a simple but practical technique to filter out the higher order modes reflected from the FBG written in microfibres via a linear taper region while the fundamental mode re-couples to the core. By using this technique, reflection from the microfibre Bragg grating (MFBG) can be effectively single mode, simplifying the demultiplexing and demodulation processes. MFBG exhibits high sensitivity to contact force and an MFBG-based force sensor was also constructed and tested to investigate their suitability for use as an invasive surgery device. Performance of the contact force sensor packaged in a conforming elastomer material compares favourably to one

  1. Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Tao; Yuan, Qian; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Xiao, Ke-Feng; Yang, Jiang-Gen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml−1 of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved. PMID:25337841

  2. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Gonçalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2015-05-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running on ARM and Intel architectures, and compare their power consumption and performance. We leverage several profiling tools (both in hardware and software) to extract different characteristics of the power use. We report the results of these measurements and the experience gained in developing a set of measurement techniques and profiling tools to accurately assess the power consumption for scientific workloads.

  3. Advances in the Rising Bubble Technique for discharge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgersom, Koen; Luxemburg, Willem; Willemsen, Geert; Bussmann, Luuk

    2014-05-01

    Already in the 19th century, d'Auria described a discharge measurement technique that applies floats to find the depth-integrated velocity (d'Auria, 1882). The basis of this technique was that the horizontal distance that the float travels on its way to the surface is the image of the integrated velocity profile over depth. Viol and Semenov (1964) improved this method by using air bubbles as floats, but still distances were measured manually until Sargent (1981) introduced a technique that could derive the distances from two photographs simultaneously taken from each side of the river bank. Recently, modern image processing techniques proved to further improve the applicability of the method (Hilgersom and Luxemburg, 2012). In the 2012 article, controlling and determining the rising velocity of an air bubble still appeared a major challenge for the application of this method. Ever since, laboratory experiments with different nozzle and tube sizes lead to advances in our self-made equipment enabling us to produce individual air bubbles with a more constant rising velocity. Also, we introduced an underwater camera to on-site determine the rising velocity, which is dependent on the water temperature and contamination, and therefore is site-specific. Camera measurements of the rising velocity proved successful in a laboratory and field setting, although some improvements to the setup are necessary to capture the air bubbles also at depths where little daylight penetrates. References D'Auria, L.: Velocity of streams; A new method to determine correctly the mean velocity of any perpendicular in rivers and canals, (The) American Engineers, 3, 1882. Hilgersom, K.P. and Luxemburg, W.M.J.: Technical Note: How image processing facilitates the rising bubble technique for discharge measurement, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(2), 345-356, 2012. Sargent, D.: Development of a viable method of stream flow measurement using the integrating float technique, Proceedings of

  4. Planning and scheduling the Hubble Space Telescope: Practical application of advanced techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a major astronomical facility that was launched in April, 1990. In late 1993, the first of several planned servicing missions refurbished the telescope, including corrections for a manufacturing flaw in the primary mirror. Orbiting above the distorting effects of the Earth's atmosphere, the HST provides an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, spectral coverage and angular resolution. The HST is arguably the most complex scientific observatory ever constructed and effective use of this valuable resource required novel approaches to astronomical observation and the development of advanced software systems including techniques to represent scheduling preferences and constraints, a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) based scheduler and a rule based planning system. This paper presents a discussion of these systems and the lessons learned from operational experience.

  5. Integrating advanced materials simulation techniques into an automated data analysis workflow at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M; Campbell, Stuart I; Delaire, Olivier A; Doucet, Mathieu; Goswami, Monojoy; Hagen, Mark E; Lynch, Vickie E; Proffen, Thomas E; Ren, Shelly; Savici, Andrei T; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will review developments on the integration of advanced modeling and simulation techniques into the analysis step of experimental data obtained at the Spallation Neutron Source. A workflow framework for the purpose of refining molecular mechanics force-fields against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data is presented. The workflow combines software components to submit model simulations to remote high performance computers, a message broker interface for communications between the optimizer engine and the simulation production step, and tools to convolve the simulated data with the experimental resolution. A test application shows the correction to a popular fixed-charge water model in order to account polarization effects due to the presence of solvated ions. Future enhancements to the refinement workflow are discussed. This work is funded through the DOE Center for Accelerating Materials Modeling.

  6. Advanced Software for Analysis of High-Speed Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poplawski, J. V.; Rumbarger, J. H.; Peters, S. M.; Galatis, H.; Flower, R.

    2003-01-01

    COBRA-AHS is a package of advanced software for analysis of rigid or flexible shaft systems supported by rolling-element bearings operating at high speeds under complex mechanical and thermal loads. These loads can include centrifugal and thermal loads generated by motions of bearing components. COBRA-AHS offers several improvements over prior commercial bearing-analysis programs: It includes innovative probabilistic fatigue-life-estimating software that provides for computation of three-dimensional stress fields and incorporates stress-based (in contradistinction to prior load-based) mathematical models of fatigue life. It interacts automatically with the ANSYS finite-element code to generate finite-element models for estimating distributions of temperature and temperature-induced changes in dimensions in iterative thermal/dimensional analyses: thus, for example, it can be used to predict changes in clearances and thermal lockup. COBRA-AHS provides an improved graphical user interface that facilitates the iterative cycle of analysis and design by providing analysis results quickly in graphical form, enabling the user to control interactive runs without leaving the program environment, and facilitating transfer of plots and printed results for inclusion in design reports. Additional features include roller-edge stress prediction and influence of shaft and housing distortion on bearing performance.

  7. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

  8. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in themore » soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.« less

  9. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  10. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal communication protocol software user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Communication Protocol Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Communication Protocol Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Communication Protocol Software allows users to control and configure the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix (IFSM) on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload. Besides IFSM control, the C&PM Software System is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during signal fade events, and data display. The Communication Protocol Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA CR-189162) outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Communication Protocol Software. Configuration files used to control the IFSM, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed. The Communication Protocol Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA CR-189163, to be published) is a programmer's guide to the Communication Protocol Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Communication Protocol Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Communication Protocol Software Test Plan (NASA CR-189164, to be published) provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software. Included in the Test Plan is command transmission, telemetry reception, error detection, and error recovery procedures.

  11. An Advanced Educational Program for Software Design Engineering at Graduate School of Information Science and Technology of Osaka University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Toshimitsu; Inoue, Katsuro; Murakami, Koso; Fujiwara, Toru; Nishio, Shojiro

    This paper gives an overview of an advanced educational program for software design engineering that is currently conducted at Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University under the grant “ Initiatives for Attractive Education in Graduate Schools” from MEXT. Software design engineering is highly expected to play a critical role in winning success in designing the next-generation software systems. The aim of the program is to bring up young researchers with the latest design methodologies and practical design experience, who can pioneer the frontier of software design engineering. The program is conducted with the collaboration of industries that have rich practical experience and are facing the engineering problems to be solved in developing the next-generation software.

  12. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviére, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-04-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs “radio-hybrid” measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluorescence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of detector effects, and the read-in of multiple data formats including data from various radio simulation codes. The source code of this radio functionality can be made available to interested parties on request.

  13. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples /Copenhagen Astron. Observ. /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs 'radio-hybrid' measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluorescence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of detector effects, and the read-in of multiple data formats including data from various radio simulation codes. The source code of this radio functionality can be made available to interested parties on request.

  14. A review of hemorheology: Measuring techniques and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Patrícia C.; Pinho, Fernando T.; Alves, Manuel A.; Oliveira, Mónica S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Significant progress has been made over the years on the topic of hemorheology, not only in terms of the development of more accurate and sophisticated techniques, but also in terms of understanding the phenomena associated with blood components, their interactions and impact upon blood properties. The rheological properties of blood are strongly dependent on the interactions and mechanical properties of red blood cells, and a variation of these properties can bring further insight into the human health state and can be an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. In this article, we provide both a reference for hemorheological research and a resource regarding the fundamental concepts in hemorheology. This review is aimed at those starting in the field of hemodynamics, where blood rheology plays a significant role, but also at those in search of the most up-to-date findings (both qualitative and quantitative) in hemorheological measurements and novel techniques used in this context, including technical advances under more extreme conditions such as in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow or under extensional flow, which impose large deformations comparable to those found in the microcirculatory system and in diseased vessels. Given the impressive rate of increase in the available knowledge on blood flow, this review is also intended to identify areas where current knowledge is still incomplete, and which have the potential for new, exciting and useful research. We also discuss the most important parameters that can lead to an alteration of blood rheology, and which as a consequence can have a significant impact on the normal physiological behavior of blood.

  15. Advances in Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Nanofibers Preparation by Electrospinning Technique.

    PubMed

    Della Pina, C; Busacca, C; Frontera, P; Antonucci, P L; Scarpino, L A; Sironi, A; Falletta, E

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are drawing a great deal of interest from academia and industry due to their multiple applications, especially in biomedical field. PANI nanofibers were successfully electrospun for the first time by MacDiarmid and co-workers at the beginning of the millennium and since then many efforts have been addressed to improve their quality. However, traditional PANI prepared from aniline monomer shows some drawbacks, such as presence of toxic (i.e., benzidine) and inorganic (salts and metals) co-products, that complicate polymer post-treatment, and low solubility in common organic solvents, making hard its processing by electrospinning technique. Some industrial sectors, such as medical and biomedical, need to employ materials free from toxic and polluting species. In this regard, the oxidative polymerization of N-(4-aminophenyl)aniline, aniline dimer, to produce poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline), P4ADA, a kind of PANI, represents an innovative alternative to the traditional synthesis because the obtained polymer results free from carcinogenic and/or polluting co-products, and, moreover, more soluble than traditional PANI. This latter feature can be exploited to obtain P4ADA nanofibers by electrospinning technique. In this paper we report the advances obtained in the P4ADA nanofibers electrospinnig. A comparison among polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), as the second polymer to facilitate the electrospinning process, is shown. In order to increase the conductivity of P4ADA nanofibers, two strategies were adopted and compared: selective insulating binder removal from electrospun nanofibers by a rinsing tratment, afterwards optimizing the minimum amount of binder necessary for the electrospinning process. Moreover, the effect of PEO/P4ADA weight ratio on the fibers morphology and conductivity was highlighted. PMID:27483933

  16. Advances in Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Nanofibers Preparation by Electrospinning Technique.

    PubMed

    Della Pina, C; Busacca, C; Frontera, P; Antonucci, P L; Scarpino, L A; Sironi, A; Falletta, E

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are drawing a great deal of interest from academia and industry due to their multiple applications, especially in biomedical field. PANI nanofibers were successfully electrospun for the first time by MacDiarmid and co-workers at the beginning of the millennium and since then many efforts have been addressed to improve their quality. However, traditional PANI prepared from aniline monomer shows some drawbacks, such as presence of toxic (i.e., benzidine) and inorganic (salts and metals) co-products, that complicate polymer post-treatment, and low solubility in common organic solvents, making hard its processing by electrospinning technique. Some industrial sectors, such as medical and biomedical, need to employ materials free from toxic and polluting species. In this regard, the oxidative polymerization of N-(4-aminophenyl)aniline, aniline dimer, to produce poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline), P4ADA, a kind of PANI, represents an innovative alternative to the traditional synthesis because the obtained polymer results free from carcinogenic and/or polluting co-products, and, moreover, more soluble than traditional PANI. This latter feature can be exploited to obtain P4ADA nanofibers by electrospinning technique. In this paper we report the advances obtained in the P4ADA nanofibers electrospinnig. A comparison among polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), as the second polymer to facilitate the electrospinning process, is shown. In order to increase the conductivity of P4ADA nanofibers, two strategies were adopted and compared: selective insulating binder removal from electrospun nanofibers by a rinsing tratment, afterwards optimizing the minimum amount of binder necessary for the electrospinning process. Moreover, the effect of PEO/P4ADA weight ratio on the fibers morphology and conductivity was highlighted.

  17. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:26856870

  18. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.

  19. Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, John W.; Wies, Richard; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2008-11-25

    Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing

  20. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  1. Achieving miniature sensor systems via advanced packaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartup, David C.; Bobier, Kevin; Demmin, Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    Demands for miniaturized networked sensors that can be deployed in large quantities dictate that the packages be small and cost effective. In order to accomplish these objectives, system developers generally apply advanced packaging techniques to proven systems. A partnership of Nova Engineering and Tessera begins with a baseline of Nova's Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) technology and utilizes Tessera's three-dimensional (3D) Chip-Scale Packaging (CSP), Multi-Chip Packaging (MCP), and System-in-Package (SIP) innovations to enable novel methods for fabricating compact, vertically integrated sensors utilizing digital, RF, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. These technologies, applied to a variety of sensors and integrated radio architectures, enable diverse multi-modal sensing networks with wireless communication capabilities. Sensors including imaging, accelerometers, acoustical, inertial measurement units, and gas and pressure sensors can be utilized. The greatest challenge to high density, multi-modal sensor networks is the ability to test each component prior to integration, commonly called Known Good Die (KGD) testing. In addition, the mix of multi-sourcing and high technology magnifies the challenge of testing at the die level. Utilizing Tessera proprietary CSP, MCP, and SIP interconnection methods enables fully testable, low profile stacking to create multi-modal sensor radios with high yield.

  2. Removing baseline flame's spectrum by using advanced recovering spectrum techniques.

    PubMed

    Arias, Luis; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Torres, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured flame spectra is proposed. The algorithm estimates the continuous background based on previous information obtained from a learning database of continuous flame spectra. Then, the discontinuous flame emission is calculated by subtracting the estimated continuous baseline from the measured spectrum. The key issue subtending the learning database is that the continuous flame emissions are predominant in the sooty regions, in absence of discontinuous radiation. The proposed algorithm was tested using natural gas and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions, and the goodness-of-fit coefficient (GFC) quality metric was used to quantify the performance in the estimation process. Additionally, the commonly used first derivative method (FDM) for baseline removing was applied to the same testing spectra in order to compare and to evaluate the proposed technique. The achieved results show that the proposed method is a very attractive tool for designing advanced combustion monitoring strategies of discontinuous emissions. PMID:22945158

  3. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  4. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask ‘how are nanoshapes created?’, ‘how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?’, ‘how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?’. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

  5. Hybrid inverse lithography techniques for advanced hierarchical memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guangming; Hooker, Kevin; Irby, Dave; Zhang, Yunqiang; Ward, Brian; Cecil, Tom; Hall, Brett; Lee, Mindy; Kim, Dave; Lucas, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Traditional segment-based model-based OPC methods have been the mainstream mask layout optimization techniques in volume production for memory and embedded memory devices for many device generations. These techniques have been continually optimized over time to meet the ever increasing difficulties of memory and memory periphery patterning. There are a range of difficult issues for patterning embedded memories successfully. These difficulties include the need for a very high level of symmetry and consistency (both within memory cells themselves and between cells) due to circuit effects such as noise margin requirements in SRAMs. Memory cells and access structures consume a large percentage of area in embedded devices so there is a very high return from shrinking the cell area as much as possible. This aggressive scaling leads to very difficult resolution, 2D CD control and process window requirements. Additionally, the range of interactions between mask synthesis corrections of neighboring areas can extend well beyond the size of the memory cell, making it difficult to fully take advantage of the inherent designed cell hierarchy in mask pattern optimization. This is especially true for non-traditional (i.e., less dependent on geometric rule) OPC/RET methods such as inverse lithography techniques (ILT) which inherently have more model-based decisions in their optimizations. New inverse methods such as model-based SRAF placement and ILT are, however, well known to have considerable benefits in finding flexible mask pattern solutions to improve process window, improve 2D CD control, and improve resolution in ultra-dense memory patterns. They also are known to reduce recipe complexity and provide native MRC compliant mask pattern solutions. Unfortunately, ILT is also known to be several times slower than traditional OPC methods due to the increased computational lithographic optimizations it performs. In this paper, we describe and present results for a methodology to

  6. BioBrick assembly standards and techniques and associated software tools.

    PubMed

    Røkke, Gunvor; Korvald, Eirin; Pahr, Jarle; Oyås, Ove; Lale, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    The BioBrick idea was developed to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology. BioBricks are DNA sequences that serve a defined biological function and can be readily assembled with any other BioBrick parts to create new BioBricks with novel properties. In order to achieve this, several assembly standards can be used. Which assembly standards a BioBrick is compatible with, depends on the prefix and suffix sequences surrounding the part. In this chapter, five of the most common assembly standards will be described, as well as some of the most used assembly techniques, cloning procedures, and a presentation of the available software tools that can be used for deciding on the best method for assembling of different BioBricks, and searching for BioBrick parts in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts database. PMID:24395353

  7. BioBrick assembly standards and techniques and associated software tools.

    PubMed

    Røkke, Gunvor; Korvald, Eirin; Pahr, Jarle; Oyås, Ove; Lale, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    The BioBrick idea was developed to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology. BioBricks are DNA sequences that serve a defined biological function and can be readily assembled with any other BioBrick parts to create new BioBricks with novel properties. In order to achieve this, several assembly standards can be used. Which assembly standards a BioBrick is compatible with, depends on the prefix and suffix sequences surrounding the part. In this chapter, five of the most common assembly standards will be described, as well as some of the most used assembly techniques, cloning procedures, and a presentation of the available software tools that can be used for deciding on the best method for assembling of different BioBricks, and searching for BioBrick parts in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts database.

  8. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  9. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  10. Advanced Techniques for Simulating the Behavior of Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

    2009-12-01

    research is to simulate the look and behavior of sand, this work will go beyond simple particle collision. In particular, we can continue to use our parallel algorithms not only on single particles but on particle “clumps” that consist of multiple combined particles. Since sand is typically not spherical in nature, these particle “clumps” help to simulate the coarse nature of sand. In a simulation environment, multiple combined particles could be used to simulate the polygonal and granular nature of sand grains. Thus, a diversity of sand particles can be generated. The interaction between these particles can then be parallelized using GPU hardware. As such, this research will investigate different graphics and physics techniques and determine the tradeoffs in performance and visual quality for sand simulation. An enhanced sand model through the use of high performance computing and GPUs has great potential to impact research for both earth and space scientists. Interaction with JPL has provided an opportunity for us to refine our simulation techniques that can ultimately be used for their vehicle simulator. As an added benefit of this work, advancements in simulating sand can also benefit scientists here on earth, especially in regard to understanding landslides and debris flows.

  11. PREFACE: 16th International workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in physics research (ACAT2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, L.; Lokajicek, M.; Tumova, N.

    2015-05-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 16th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2014), this year the motto was ''bridging disciplines''. The conference took place on September 1-5, 2014, at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. The 16th edition of ACAT explored the boundaries of computing system architectures, data analysis algorithmics, automatic calculations, and theoretical calculation technologies. It provided a forum for confronting and exchanging ideas among these fields, where new approaches in computing technologies for scientific research were explored and promoted. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 140 participants from all over the world. The workshop's 16 invited speakers presented key topics on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics. During the workshop, 60 talks and 40 posters were presented in three tracks: Computing Technology for Physics Research, Data Analysis - Algorithms and Tools, and Computations in Theoretical Physics: Techniques and Methods. The round table enabled discussions on expanding software, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration in the respective areas. ACAT 2014 was generously sponsored by Western Digital, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hewlett Packard, DataDirect Networks, M Computers, Bright Computing, Huawei and PDV-Systemhaus. Special appreciations go to the track liaisons Lorenzo Moneta, Axel Naumann and Grigory Rubtsov for their work on the scientific program and the publication preparation. ACAT's IACC would also like to express its gratitude to all referees for their work on making sure the contributions are published in the proceedings. Our thanks extend to the conference liaisons Andrei Kataev and Jerome Lauret who worked with the local contacts and made this conference possible as well as to the program

  12. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M.

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  13. Hybrid Modeling for Scenario-Based Evaluation of Failure Effects in Advanced Hardware-Software Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an incremental scenario-based simulation approach to evaluation of intelligent software for control and management of hardware systems. A hybrid continuous/discrete event simulation of the hardware dynamically interacts with the intelligent software in operations scenarios. Embedded anomalous conditions and failures in simulated hardware can lead to emergent software behavior and identification of missing or faulty software or hardware requirements. An approach is described for extending simulation-based automated incremental failure modes and effects analysis, to support concurrent evaluation of intelligent software and the hardware controlled by the software

  14. Investigation of joining techniques for advanced austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Kikuchi, Y.; Shi, C.; Gill, T.P.S.

    1991-05-01

    Modified Alloys 316 and 800H, designed for high temperature service, have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Assessment of the weldability of the advanced austenitic alloys has been conducted at the University of Tennessee. Four aspects of weldability of the advanced austenitic alloys were included in the investigation.

  15. Framework programmable platform for the advanced software development workstation. Integration mechanism design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Reddy, Uday; Ackley, Keith; Futrell, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by this model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  16. Recent advances in biosensor techniques for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K R

    2006-05-24

    Biosensors for environmental applications continue to show advances and improvements in areas such as sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity. In addition to detecting and measuring specific compounds or compound classes such as pesticides, hazardous industrial chemicals, toxic metals, and pathogenic bacteria, biosensors and bioanalytical assays have been designed to measure biological effects such as cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, biological oxygen demand, pathogenic bacteria, and endocrine disruption effects. This article is intended to discuss recent advances in the area of biosensors for environmental applications.

  17. Influence of Finite Element Software on Energy Release Rates Computed Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Goetze, Dirk; Ransom, Jonathon (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    Strain energy release rates were computed along straight delamination fronts of Double Cantilever Beam, End-Notched Flexure and Single Leg Bending specimens using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Th e results were based on finite element analyses using ABAQUS# and ANSYS# and were calculated from the finite element results using the same post-processing routine to assure a consistent procedure. Mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from post-processing finite elem ent results were in good agreement for all element types used and all specimens modeled. Compared to previous studies, the models made of s olid twenty-node hexahedral elements and solid eight-node incompatible mode elements yielded excellent results. For both codes, models made of standard brick elements and elements with reduced integration did not correctly capture the distribution of the energy release rate acr oss the width of the specimens for the models chosen. The results suggested that element types with similar formulation yield matching results independent of the finite element software used. For comparison, m ixed-mode strain energy release rates were also calculated within ABAQUS#/Standard using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on. For all specimens mod eled, mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from ABAQUS# finite element results using post-processing were almost identical to re sults calculated using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on.

  18. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Security Portal Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-04-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  19. Development of tools for safety analysis of control software in advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Guarro, S.; Yau, M.; Motamed, M.

    1996-04-01

    Software based control systems have gained a pervasive presence in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plant control and protection systems which are within the oversight and licensing responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. While the cost effectiveness and flexibility of software based plant process control is widely recognized, it is very difficult to achieve and prove high levels of demonstrated dependability and safety assurance for the functions performed by process control software, due to the very flexibility and potential complexity of the software itself. The development of tools to model, analyze and test software design and implementations in the context of the system that the software is designed to control can greatly assist the task of providing higher levels of assurance than those obtainable by software testing alone. This report presents and discusses the development of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) and its application in the dependability and assurance analysis of software-based control systems. The features of the methodology and full-scale examples of application to both generic process and nuclear power plant control systems are presented and discussed in detail. The features of a workstation software tool developed to assist users in the application of DFM are also described.

  20. Framework Programmable Platform for the advanced software development workstation: Framework processor design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Ackley, Keith A.; Crump, Wes; Sanders, Les

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Framework Processor (FP) component of the Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FFP) is described. The FFP is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this Framework Processor will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to provide automated support for the management and control of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  1. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  2. Recent advances in microscopic techniques for visualizing leukocytes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rohit; Tikoo, Shweta; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes are inherently motile and interactive cells. Recent advances in intravital microscopy approaches have enabled a new vista of their behavior within intact tissues in real time. This brief review summarizes the developments enabling the tracking of immune responses in vivo. PMID:27239292

  3. Bricklaying Curriculum: Advanced Bricklaying Techniques. Instructional Materials. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Raymond J.; Hendrix, Laborn J.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist bricklaying instructors in providing performance-based instruction in advanced bricklaying. Included in the first section of the guide are units on customized or architectural masonry units; glass block; sills, lintels, and copings; and control (expansion) joints. The next two units deal with cut,…

  4. Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

  5. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation: Preliminary system design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Ackley, Keith A.; Crump, John W., IV; Henderson, Richard; Futrell, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The focus here is on the design of components that make up the FPP. These components serve as supporting systems for the Integration Mechanism and the Framework Processor and provide the 'glue' that ties the FPP together. Also discussed are the components that allow the platform to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous environment and to manage the development and evolution of software system artifacts.

  6. Backscattered Electron Microscopy as an Advanced Technique in Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsley, David Henry; Manley, Curtis Robert

    1989-01-01

    Three uses of this method with sandstone, desert varnish, and granite weathering are described. Background information on this technique is provided. Advantages of this type of microscopy are stressed. (CW)

  7. Electroextraction and electromembrane extraction: Advances in hyphenation to analytical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Oedit, Amar; Ramautar, Rawi; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Electroextraction (EE) and electromembrane extraction (EME) are sample preparation techniques that both require an electric field that is applied over a liquid‐liquid system, which enables the migration of charged analytes. Furthermore, both techniques are often used to pre‐concentrate analytes prior to analysis. In this review an overview is provided of the body of literature spanning April 2012–November 2015 concerning EE and EME, focused on hyphenation to analytical techniques. First, the theoretical aspects of concentration enhancement in EE and EME are discussed to explain extraction recovery and enrichment factor. Next, overviews are provided of the techniques based on their hyphenation to LC, GC, CE, and direct detection. These overviews cover the compounds and matrices, experimental aspects (i.e. donor volume, acceptor volume, extraction time, extraction voltage, and separation time) and the analytical aspects (i.e. limit of detection, enrichment factor, and extraction recovery). Techniques that were either hyphenated online to analytical techniques or show high potential with respect to online hyphenation are highlighted. Finally, the potential future directions of EE and EME are discussed. PMID:26864699

  8. Advanced millimeter-wave security portal imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-03-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance as a security tool to augment conventional metal detectors and baggage x-ray systems for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This acceptance indicates that the technology has matured; however, many potential improvements can yet be realized. The authors have developed a number of techniques over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, and high-frequency high-bandwidth techniques. All of these may improve the performance of new systems; however, some of these techniques will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. Reducing this cost may require the development of novel array designs. In particular, RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems. Highfrequency, high-bandwidth designs are difficult to achieve with conventional mm-wave electronic devices, and RF photonic devices may be a practical alternative. In this paper, the mm-wave imaging techniques developed at PNNL are reviewed and the potential for implementing RF photonic mm-wave array designs is explored.

  9. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  11. Brain development in preterm infants assessed using advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David

    2014-03-01

    Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.

  12. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  13. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  14. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  15. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  16. Single Molecule Techniques for Advanced in situ Hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Hollars, C W; Stubbs, L; Carlson, K; Lu, X; Wehri, E

    2003-02-03

    One of the most significant achievements of modern science is completion of the human genome sequence, completed in the year 2000. Despite this monumental accomplishment, researchers have only begun to understand the relationships between this three-billion-nucleotide genetic code and the regulation and control of gene and protein expression within each of the millions of different types of highly specialized cells. Several methodologies have been developed for the analysis of gene and protein expression in situ, yet despite these advancements, the pace of such analyses is extremely limited. Because information regarding the precise timing and location of gene expression is a crucial component in the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of disease, there is an enormous incentive to develop technologies that accelerate the analytical process. Here we report on the use of plasmon resonant particles as advanced probes for in situ hybridization. These probes are used for the detection of low levels of gene-probe response and demonstrate a detection method that enables precise, simultaneous localization within a cell of the points of expression of multiple genes or proteins in a single sample.

  17. Automated Authorship Attribution Using Advanced Signal Classification Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Maryam; Putniņš, Tālis J.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Allison, Andrew; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Abbott, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop two automated authorship attribution schemes, one based on Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) and the other based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM). The classification features we exploit are based on word frequencies in the text. We adopt an approach of preprocessing each text by stripping it of all characters except a-z and space. This is in order to increase the portability of the software to different types of texts. We test the methodology on a corpus of undisputed English texts, and use leave-one-out cross validation to demonstrate classification accuracies in excess of 90%. We further test our methods on the Federalist Papers, which have a partly disputed authorship and a fair degree of scholarly consensus. And finally, we apply our methodology to the question of the authorship of the Letter to the Hebrews by comparing it against a number of original Greek texts of known authorship. These tests identify where some of the limitations lie, motivating a number of open questions for future work. An open source implementation of our methodology is freely available for use at https://github.com/matthewberryman/author-detection. PMID:23437047

  18. Developments and advances concerning the hyperpolarisation technique SABRE.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Ryan E

    2015-10-01

    To overcome the inherent sensitivity issue in NMR and MRI, hyperpolarisation techniques are used. Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) is a hyperpolarisation technique that utilises parahydrogen, a molecule that possesses a nuclear singlet state, as the source of polarisation. A metal complex is required to break the singlet order of parahydrogen and, by doing so, facilitates polarisation transfer to analyte molecules ligated to the same complex through the J-coupled network that exists. The increased signal intensities that the analyte molecules possess as a result of this process have led to investigations whereby their potential as MRI contrast agents has been probed and to understand the fundamental processes underpinning the polarisation transfer mechanism. As well as discussing literature relevant to both of these areas, the chemical structure of the complex, the physical constraints of the polarisation transfer process and the successes of implementing SABRE at low and high magnetic fields are discussed. PMID:26264565

  19. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.

  20. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  1. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  2. Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Li, Jipeng; Chen, Mingjiao; Fan, Xianqun; Zhou, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting technology shows potential in tissue engineering for the fabrication of scaffolds, cells, tissues and organs reproducibly and with high accuracy. Bioprinting technologies are mainly divided into three categories, inkjet-based bioprinting, pressure-assisted bioprinting and laser-assisted bioprinting, based on their underlying printing principles. These various printing technologies have their advantages and limitations. Bioprinting utilizes biomaterials, cells or cell factors as a "bioink" to fabricate prospective tissue structures. Biomaterial parameters such as biocompatibility, cell viability and the cellular microenvironment strongly influence the printed product. Various printing technologies have been investigated, and great progress has been made in printing various types of tissue, including vasculature, heart, bone, cartilage, skin and liver. This review introduces basic principles and key aspects of some frequently used printing technologies. We focus on recent advances in three-dimensional printing applications, current challenges and future directions. PMID:27645770

  3. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  4. Advanced techniques for constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jeffrey R; Balaraman, Gouthaman S; Niesen, Michiel J M; Larsen, Adrien B; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-04-30

    Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) methods provide a more natural description of a protein by using bond, angle, and torsional coordinates instead of a Cartesian coordinate representation. Freezing high-frequency bonds and angles in the ICMD model gives rise to constrained ICMD (CICMD) models. There are several theoretical aspects that need to be developed to make the CICMD method robust and widely usable. In this article, we have designed a new framework for (1) initializing velocities for nonindependent CICMD coordinates, (2) efficient computation of center of mass velocity during CICMD simulations, (3) using advanced integrators such as Runge-Kutta, Lobatto, and adaptive CVODE for CICMD simulations, and (4) cancelling out the "flying ice cube effect" that sometimes arises in Nosé-Hoover dynamics. The Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) method is an implementation of a CICMD method that we have developed to study protein dynamics. GNEIMO allows for a hierarchy of coarse-grained simulation models based on the ability to rigidly constrain any group of atoms. In this article, we perform tests on the Lobatto and Runge-Kutta integrators to determine optimal simulation parameters. We also implement an adaptive coarse-graining tool using the GNEIMO Python interface. This tool enables the secondary structure-guided "freezing and thawing" of degrees of freedom in the molecule on the fly during molecular dynamics simulations and is shown to fold four proteins to their native topologies. With these advancements, we envision the use of the GNEIMO method in protein structure prediction, structure refinement, and in studying domain motion.

  5. Advancing botnet modeling techniques for military and security simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2011-06-01

    Simulation environments serve many purposes, but they are only as good as their content. One of the most challenging and pressing areas that call for improved content is the simulation of bot armies (botnets) and their effects upon networks and computer systems. Botnets are a new type of malware, a type that is more powerful and potentially dangerous than any other type of malware. A botnet's power derives from several capabilities including the following: 1) the botnet's capability to be controlled and directed throughout all phases of its activity, 2) a command and control structure that grows increasingly sophisticated, and 3) the ability of a bot's software to be updated at any time by the owner of the bot (a person commonly called a bot master or bot herder.) Not only is a bot army powerful and agile in its technical capabilities, a bot army can be extremely large, can be comprised of tens of thousands, if not millions, of compromised computers or it can be as small as a few thousand targeted systems. In all botnets, their members can surreptitiously communicate with each other and their command and control centers. In sum, these capabilities allow a bot army to execute attacks that are technically sophisticated, difficult to trace, tactically agile, massive, and coordinated. To improve our understanding of their operation and potential, we believe that it is necessary to develop computer security simulations that accurately portray bot army activities, with the goal of including bot army simulations within military simulation environments. In this paper, we investigate issues that arise when simulating bot armies and propose a combination of the biologically inspired MSEIR infection spread model coupled with the jump-diffusion infection spread model to portray botnet propagation.

  6. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  7. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers.

  8. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers. PMID:23674920

  9. The emerging role of advanced neuroimaging techniques for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Nowosielski, Martha; Radbruch, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Brain metastases are an increasingly encountered and frightening manifestation of systemic cancer. More effective therapeutic strategies for the primary tumor are resulting in longer patient survival on the one hand while on the other, better brain tumor detection has resulted from increased availability and development of more precise brain imaging methods. This review focuses on the emerging role of functional neuroimaging techniques; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as positron emission tomography (PET), in establishing diagnosis, for monitoring treatment response with an emphasis on new targeted as well as immunomodulatory therapies and for predicting prognosis in patients with brain metastases.

  10. Advanced terahertz techniques for quality control and counterfeit detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Anwar, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports our invented methods for detection of counterfeit electronic. These versatile techniques are also handy in quality control applications. Terahertz pulsed laser systems are capable of giving the material characteristics and thus make it possible to distinguish between the materials used in authentic components and their counterfeit clones. Components with material defects can also be distinguished in section in this manner. In this work different refractive indices and absorption coefficients were observed for counterfeit components compared to their authentic counterparts. Existence of unexpected ingredient materials was detected in counterfeit components by Fourier Transform analysis of the transmitted terahertz pulse. Thicknesses of different layers are obtainable by analyzing the reflected terahertz pulse. Existence of unexpected layers is also detectable in this manner. Recycled, sanded and blacktopped counterfeit electronic components were detected as a result of these analyses. Counterfeit ICs with die dislocations were detected by depicting the terahertz raster scanning data in a coordinate plane which gives terahertz images. In the same manner, raster scanning of the reflected pulse gives terahertz images of the surfaces of the components which were used to investigate contaminant materials and sanded points on the surfaces. The results of the later technique, reveals the recycled counterfeit components.

  11. Advanced microscopy techniques resolving complex precipitates in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikaly, W.; Soto, R.; Bano, X.; Issartel, C.; Rigaut, G.; Charaï, A.

    1999-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy as well as analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques such as high resolution, electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) and elemental mapping via a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF) have been used to study complex precipitation in commercial dual phase steels microalloyed with titanium. Titanium nitrides, titanium carbosulfides, titanium carbonitrides and titanium carbides were characterized in this study. Both carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were used as sample preparation techniques. On both the microscopic and nanometric scales, it was found that a large amount of precipitation occurred heterogeneously on already existing inclusions/precipitates. CaS inclusions (1 to 2 μm), already present in liquid steel, acted as nucleation sites for TiN precipitating upon the steel's solidification. In addition, TiC nucleated on existing smaller TiN (around 30 to 50 nm). Despite the complexity of such alloys, the statistical analysis conducted on the non-equilibrium samples were found to be in rather good agreement with the theoretical equilibrium calculations. Heterogeneous precipitation must have played a role in bringing these results closer together.

  12. Comparison of three advanced chromatographic techniques for cannabis identification.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, D; Albessard, F; Bigot, M C; Moulin, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of chromatography technology, with the increasing availability of easier-to-use mass spectrometers combined with gas chromatography (GC), the use of diode-array or programmable variable-wavelength ultraviolet absorption detectors in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the availability of scanners capable of reading thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates in the ultraviolet and visible regions, has made for easier, quicker and more positive identification of cannabis samples that standard analytical laboratories are occasionally required to undertake in the effort to combat drug addiction. At laboratories that do not possess the technique of GC combined with mass spectrometry, which provides an irrefutable identification, the following procedure involving HPLC or TLC techniques may be used: identification of the chromatographic peaks corresponding to each of the three main cannabis constituents-cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabinol (CBN)-by comparison with published data in conjunction with a specific absorption spectrum for each of those constituents obtained between 200 and 300 nm. The collection of the fractions corresponding to the three major cannabinoids at the HPLC system outlet and the cross-checking of their identity in the GC process with flame ionization detection can further corroborate the identification and minimize possible errors due to interference.

  13. Recent Advances in Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurement Techniques and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone

    2006-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced instrument concepts and technologies for future spaceborne atmospheric radars, with an over-arching objective of making such instruments more capable in supporting future science needs and more cost effective. Two such examples are the Second-Generation Precipitation Radar (PR-2) and the Nexrad-In-Space (NIS). PR-2 is a 14/35-GHz dual-frequency rain radar with a deployable 5-meter, wide-swath scanned membrane antenna, a dual-polarized/dual-frequency receiver, and a realtime digital signal processor. It is intended for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operations to provide greatly enhanced rainfall profile retrieval accuracy while consuming only a fraction of the mass of the current TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). NIS is designed to be a 35-GHz Geostationary Earth Orbiting (GEO) radar for providing hourly monitoring of the life cycle of hurricanes and tropical storms. It uses a 35-m, spherical, lightweight membrane antenna and Doppler processing to acquire 3-dimensional information on the intensity and vertical motion of hurricane rainfall.

  14. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Alex I. Smirnov; Mark J. Nilges; R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1998-03-31

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. We have achieved substantial progress on upgrading the high field (HF) EMR (W-band, 95 GHz) spectrometers that are especially advantageous for such studies. Particularly, we have built a new second W-band instrument (Mark II) in addition to our Mark I. Briefly, Mark II features: (i) an Oxford custom-built 7 T superconducting magnet which is scannable from 0 to 7 T at up to 0.5 T/min; (ii) water-cooled coaxial solenoid with up to ±550 G scan under digital (15 bits resolution) computer control; (iii) custom-engineered precision feed-back circuit, which is used to drive this solenoid, is based on an Ultrastab 860R sensor that has linearity better than 5 ppm and resolution of 0.05 ppm; (iv) an Oxford CF 1200 cryostat for variable temperature studies from 1.8 to 340 K. During this grant period we have completed several key upgrades of both Mark I and II, particularly microwave bridge, W-band probehead, and computer interfaces. We utilize these improved instruments for HF EMR studies of spin-spin interaction and existence of different paramagnetic species in carbonaceous solids.

  15. Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Carrie J.; Shelper, Todd B.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2014-01-01

    Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor cells. In addition, a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two-dimensional monolayer conditions do not respond to cancer therapeutics/compounds in a similar manner. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing 3D cell culture models in drug discovery programs; however, it is evident that further research is required for the development of more complex models that incorporate the majority of the cellular and physical properties of a tumor. PMID:24887773

  16. Advanced coding techniques for few mode transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Chigo; van Uden, Roy; Chen, Haoshuo; de Waardt, Huug; Koonen, Ton

    2015-01-26

    We experimentally verify the advantage of employing advanced coding schemes such as space-time coding and 4 dimensional modulation formats to enhance the transmission performance of a 3-mode transmission system. The performance gain of space-time block codes for extending the optical signal-to-noise ratio tolerance in multiple-input multiple-output optical coherent spatial division multiplexing transmission systems with respect to single-mode transmission performance are evaluated. By exploiting the spatial diversity that few-mode-fibers offer, with respect to single mode fiber back-to-back performance, significant OSNR gains of 3.2, 4.1, 4.9, and 6.8 dB at the hard-decision forward error correcting limit are demonstrated for DP-QPSK 8, 16 and 32 QAM, respectively. Furthermore, by employing 4D constellations, 6 × 28Gbaud 128 set partitioned quadrature amplitude modulation is shown to outperform conventional 8 QAM transmission performance, whilst carrying an additional 0.5 bit/symbol.

  17. Techniques and software for optimum and efficient mission science sequence development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Highly successful mission operations require efficient and cost-effective science sequence development. Of key importance is the Science Planning and Operations Team's (SPOT's) ability to complete science observation design and integration early in the sequence development process (i.e., before the sequence enters into a formal change control process). Once under formal change control, careful change paper documentation, Flight Team checks, and mission software checks make sequence changes more labor-intensive. This paper discusses team organization, strategies, scheduling, and software employed by the Voyager and Galileo SPOT's to complete science observation design and integration early in the sequence development process.

  18. Advances in the NetCDF Data Model, Format, and Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rew, R. K.; Hartnett, E. J.; Heimbigner, D.; Caron, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two decades of experience facilitating the creation of and access to portable, self-describing scientific data have resulted in Unidata's network Common Data Form (netCDF), with an associated data model, freely available reference software, and endorsement as a standard by groups including NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Group. NetCDF is now widely used in climate, ocean, and atmospheric sciences, and has proved general enough for other uses, such as neural imaging, molecular dynamics, and fusion energy research. A variety of software packages, data archives, and client/server systems are available for the access, analysis, visualization, and use of netCDF data, as well as other kinds of data through a netCDF programming interface. The widely used Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions, based on the netCDF "classic" data model but applicable to other formats, add a useful layer of semantics for interoperability, and define "CF compliance" as a standard for Earth science metadata. Broad adoption of CF Conventions make practical the development of CF-compliant software that can access such data and metadata. The simple netCDF data model has recently been extended to improve its ability to faithfully represent earth science data and metadata. The netCDF software that implements the enhanced data model provides backward compatibility with existing data and applications, while making access to useful features available through additional programming interfaces that extend the netCDF classic interfaces. This presentation provides an up-to-date overview of netCDF including a summary of the enhanced netCDF data model, describes experience developing generic software to handle its features, and offers guidelines based on that experience for incrementally adapting existing netCDF software to take advantage of benefits offered by the enhanced netCDF data model.

  19. Research in software allocation for advanced manned mission communications and tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnagiris, Tom; Wolff, Bill; Kusmanoff, Antone

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the planned processing hardware and software/firmware for the Communications and Tracking System of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) was performed. The intent of the assessment was to determine the optimum distribution of software/firmware in the processing hardware for maximum throughput with minimum required memory. As a product of the assessment process an assessment methodology was to be developed that could be used for similar assessments of future manned spacecraft system designs. The assessment process was hampered by changing requirements for the Space Station. As a result, the initial objective of determining the optimum software/firmware allocation was not fulfilled, but several useful conclusions and recommendations resulted from the assessment. It was concluded that the assessment process would not be completely successful for a system with changing requirements. It was also concluded that memory requirements and hardware requirements were being modified to fit as a consequence of the change process, and although throughput could not be quantitized, potential problem areas could be identified. Finally, inherent flexibility of the system design was essential for the success of a system design with changing requirements. Recommendations resulting from the assessment included development of common software for some embedded controller functions, reduction of embedded processor requirements by hardwiring some Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) to make better use of processor capabilities, and improvement in communications between software development personnel to enhance the integration process. Lastly, a critical observation was made regarding the software integration tasks did not appear to be addressed in the design process to the degree necessary for successful satisfaction of the system requirements.

  20. Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

  1. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  2. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - Site Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2008-12-03

    This report summarizes LLNL's progress for the period April through September of 2008 for the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) SciDAC. The TASCS project is organized into four major thrust areas: CCA Environment (72%), Component Technology Initiatives (16%), CCA Toolkit (8%), and User and Application Outreach & Support (4%). The percentage of LLNL's effort allocation is shown in parenthesis for each thrust area. Major thrust areas are further broken down into activity areas, LLNL's effort directed to each activity is shown in Figure 1. Enhancements, Core Tools, and Usability are all part of CCA Environment, and Software Quality is part of Component Technology Initiatives. The balance of this report will cover our accomplishments in each of these activity areas.

  3. Silicon and germanium crystallization techniques for advanced device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaocheng

    Three-dimensional architectures are believed to be one of the possible approaches to reduce interconnect delay in integrated circuits. Metal-induced crystallization (MIC) can produce reasonably high-quality Si crystals with low-temperature processing, enabling the monolithic integration of multilevel devices and circuits. A two-step MIC process was developed to make single-crystal Si pillars on insulator by forming a single-grain NiSi2 template in the first step and crystallizing the amorphous Si by NiSi2-mediated solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) in the second step. A transmission electron microscopy study clearly showed the quality improvement over the traditional MIC process. Another crystallization technique developed is rapid melt growth (RMG) for the fabrication of Ge crystals and Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates. Ge is an important semiconductor with high carrier mobility and excellent optoelectronic properties. GeOI substrates are particularly desired to achieve high device performances and to solve the process problems traditionally associated with bulk Ge wafers. High-quality Ge crystals and GeOI structures were grown on Si substrates using the novel rapid melt growth technique that integrates the key elements in Czochralski growth---seeding, melting, epitaxy and defect necking. Growth velocity and nucleation rate were calculated to determine the RMG process window. Self-aligned microcrucibles were created to hold the Ge liquid during the RMG annealing. Material characterization showed a very low defect density in the RMG GeOI structures. The Ge films are relaxed, with their orientations controlled by the Si substrates. P-channel MOSFETs and p-i-n photodetectors were fabricated with the GeOI substrates. The device properties are comparable to those obtained with bulk Ge wafers, indicating that the RMG GeOI substrates are well suited for device fabrication. A new theory, growth-induced barrier lowering (GIBL), is proposed to understand the defect generation in

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Demonstrated for Fabricating Developmental Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, Chip

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Engineering Development Division has been working in support of innovative gas turbine engine systems under development by Glenn's Combustion Branch. These one-of-a-kind components require operation under extreme conditions. High-temperature ceramics were chosen for fabrication was because of the hostile operating environment. During the designing process, it became apparent that traditional machining techniques would not be adequate to produce the small, intricate features for the conceptual design, which was to be produced by stacking over a dozen thin layers with many small features that would then be aligned and bonded together into a one-piece unit. Instead of using traditional machining, we produced computer models in Pro/ENGINEER (Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC), Needham, MA) to the specifications of the research engineer. The computer models were exported in stereolithography standard (STL) format and used to produce full-size rapid prototype polymer models. These semi-opaque plastic models were used for visualization and design verification. The computer models also were exported in International Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) format and sent to Glenn's Thermal/Fluids Design & Analysis Branch and Applied Structural Mechanics Branch for profiling heat transfer and mechanical strength analysis.

  5. Simulation of an advanced techniques of ion propulsion Rocket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of Deuterium,Argon gas and Hexagonal shape Magneto hydrodynamic(MHD) techniques because of the stimulation indirectly generated the power from ionization chamber,design of thrust range is 1.2 N with 40 KW of electric power and high efficiency.The proposed work is the study of MHD power generation through ionization level of Deuterium gas and combination of two gaseous ions(Deuterium gas ions + Argon gas ions) at acceleration stage.IPR consists of three parts 1.Hexagonal shape MHD based power generator through ionization chamber 2.ion accelerator 3.Exhaust of Nozzle.Initially the required energy around 1312 KJ/mol is carrying out the purpose of deuterium gas which is changed to ionization level.The ionized Deuterium gas comes out from RF ionization chamber to nozzle through MHD generator with enhanced velocity then after voltage is generated across the two pairs of electrode in MHD.it will produce thrust value with the help of mixing of Deuterium ion and Argon ion at acceleration position.The simulation of the IPR system has been carried out by MATLAB.By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results,if reaches that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with 40KW power for simulating the IPR system.

  6. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  7. Recent advances in techniques for tsetse-fly control*

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, K. J. R.

    1967-01-01

    With the advent of modern persistent insecticides, it has become possible to utilize some of the knowledge that has accumulated on the ecology and bionomics of Glossina and to devise more effective techniques for the control and eventual extermination of these species. The present article, based on experience of the tsetse fly problem in Northern Nigeria, points out that the disadvantages of control techniques—heavy expenditure of money and manpower and undue damage to the biosystem—can now largely be overcome by basing the application of insecticides on knowledge of the habits of the particular species of Glossina in a particular environment. Two factors are essential to the success of a control project: the proper selection of sites for spraying (the concept of restricted application) and the degree of persistence of the insecticide used. Reinfestation from within or outside the project area must also be taken into account. These and other aspects are discussed in relation to experience gained from a successful extermination project carried out in the Sudan vegetation zone and from present control activities in the Northern Guinea vegetation zone. PMID:5301739

  8. Advanced pattern-matching techniques for autonomous acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendra, P. M.; Westover, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    The key objective of this effort is the development of pattern-matching algorithms which can impart autonomous acquisition capability to precision-guided munitions such as Copperhead and Hellfire. Autonomous acquisition through pattern matching holds the promise of eliminating laser designation and enhancing fire power by multiple target prioritization. The pattern-matching approach being developed under this program is based on a symbolic pattern-matching framework, which is suited for the autonomous acquisition scenario. It is based on matching a symbolic representation derived from the two images, and it can accommodate the stringent pattern-matchine criteria established by the scenario: enormous differences in the scene perspective, aspect and range between the two sensors, differences in sensor characteristics and illumination, and scene changes such as target motion and obscuration from one view point ot the other. This report contains a description of an efficient branch-and-bound technique for symbolic pattern matching. Also presented are the results of applying a simulation of the algorithm to pairs of FLIR images of military vehicles in cluttered environments as well as pairs of images from different sensors (FLIR and silicon TV). The computational requirements are analyzed toward real-time implementation, and avenues of future work are recommended.

  9. Advanced signal processing technique for damage detection in steel tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Umar; Yadav, Susheel Kumar; Dao, Cac Minh; Dao, Kiet; Kundu, Tribikram

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, ultrasonic guided waves gained attention for reliable testing and characterization of metals and composites. Guided wave modes are excited and detected by PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducers either in transmission or reflection mode. In this study guided waves are excited and detected in the transmission mode and the phase change of the propagating wave modes are recorded. In most of the other studies reported in the literature, the change in the received signal strength (amplitude) is investigated with varying degrees of damage while in this study the change in phase is correlated with the extent of damage. Feature extraction techniques are used for extracting phase and time-frequency information. The main advantage of this approach is that the bonding condition between the transducer and the specimen does not affect the phase while it can affect the strength of recorded signal. Therefore, if the specimen is not damaged but the transducer-specimen bonding is deteriorated then the received signal strength is altered but the phase remains same and thus false positive predictions for damage can be avoided.

  10. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2000-08-28

    This project targets the development of (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling non-conventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and well index (for use in simulation models), including the effects of wellbore flow; and (3) accurate approaches to account for heterogeneity in the near-well region.

  11. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  12. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  13. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.; Stebbins, J. P.; Smith, A. W.; Pullen, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method for the prediction of propellant-material compatibility for periods of time up to ten years is presented. Advanced sensitive measurement techniques used in the prediction method are described. These include: neutron activation analysis, radioactive tracer technique, and atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite tube furnace sampler. The results of laboratory tests performed to verify the prediction method are presented.

  14. Endoscopic therapy for early gastric cancer: Standard techniques and recent advances in ESD

    PubMed Central

    Kume, Keiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now a well-known endoscopic therapy for early gastric cancer. ESD was introduced to resect large specimens of early gastric cancer in a single piece. ESD can provide precision of histologic diagnosis and can also reduce the recurrence rate. However, the drawback of ESD is its technical difficulty, and, consequently, it is associated with a high rate of complications, the need for advanced endoscopic techniques, and a lengthy procedure time. Various advances in the devices and techniques used for ESD have contributed to overcoming these drawbacks. PMID:24914364

  15. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  16. Probability-Based Software for Grid Optimization: Improved Power System Operations Using Advanced Stochastic Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: Sandia National Laboratories is working with several commercial and university partners to develop software for market management systems (MMSs) that enable greater use of renewable energy sources throughout the grid. MMSs are used to securely and optimally determine which energy resources should be used to service energy demand across the country. Contributions of electricity to the grid from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar are intermittent, introducing complications for MMSs, which have trouble accommodating the multiple sources of price and supply uncertainties associated with bringing these new types of energy into the grid. Sandia’s software will bring a new, probability-based formulation to account for these uncertainties. By factoring in various probability scenarios for electricity production from renewable energy sources in real time, Sandia’s formula can reduce the risk of inefficient electricity transmission, save ratepayers money, conserve power, and support the future use of renewable energy.

  17. A simple technique for morphological measurement of cerebral arterial circle variations using public domain software (Osiris).

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saeed; Dadmehr, Majid; Eftekhar, Behzad; McConnell, Douglas J; Ganji, Sarah; Azari, Hassan; Kamali-Ardakani, Shahab; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a straightforward method to measure the dimensions and identify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle using the general-purpose software program Osiris. This user-friendly and portable program displays, manipulates, and analyzes medical digital images, and it has the capability to determine morphometric properties of selected blood vessels (or other anatomical structures) in humans and animals. To ascertain morphometric variations in the cerebral arterial circle, 132 brains of recently deceased fetuses, infants, and adults were dissected. The dissection procedure was first digitized, and then the dimensions were measured with Osiris software. Measurements of each vessel's length and external diameters were used to identify and classify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle. The most commonly observed anatomical variations were uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery. This study demonstrates that public domain software can be used to measure and classify cerebral arterial circle vessels. This method could be extended to examine other anatomical regions or to study other animals. Additionally, knowledge of variations within the circle could be applied clinically to enhance diagnostic and treatment specificity.

  18. [Our experience with the treatment of high perianal fistulas with the mucosal flap advancement technique].

    PubMed

    Marino, Giuseppe; Greco, Ettore; Gasparrini, Marcello; Romanzi, Aldo; Ottaviani, Maurizio; Nasi, Stefano; Pasquini, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the treatment of high transphincteric anal fistulas with the mucosal flap advancement technique. This technique, though by no means easy to perform, allows fistulas to be treated in a single surgical session in comparison to the technique in which setone is used or to the less well known transposition techniques, given the same long-term results in terms of continence and recurrence rate. After a brief overview of the problem, from the points of view of both aetiopathogenesis and classification, the principal surgical treatment techniques are described, presenting the results and complications observed in the authors' own case series. PMID:15038659

  19. Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

  20. Parallel supercomputing: Advanced methods, algorithms and software for large-scale problems. Final report, August 1, 1987--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, G.F.; Young, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    The focus of the subject DOE sponsored research concerns parallel methods, algorithms, and software for complex applications such as those in coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The research has been directed principally toward the solution of large-scale PDE problems using iterative solvers for finite differences and finite elements on advanced computer architectures. This work embraces parallel domain decomposition, element-by-element, spectral, and multilevel schemes with adaptive parameter determination, rational iteration and related issues. In addition to the fundamental questions related to developing new methods and mapping these to parallel computers, there are important software issues. The group has played a significant role in the development of software both for iterative solvers and also for finite element codes. The research in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) led to sustained multi-Gigaflop performance rates for parallel-vector computations of realistic large scale applications (not computational kernels alone). The main application areas for these performance studies have been two-dimensional problems in CFD. Over the course of this DOE sponsored research significant progress has been made. A report of the progression of the research is given and at the end of the report is a list of related publications and presentations over the entire grant period.

  1. Effects of copper content on the shell characteristics of hollow steel spheres manufactured using an advanced powder metallurgy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazegaran, Hamid; Kiani-Rashid, Ali-Reza; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati

    2016-04-01

    Metallic hollow spheres are used as base materials in the manufacture of hollow sphere structures and metallic foams. In this study, steel hollow spheres were successfully manufactured using an advanced powder metallurgy technique. The spheres' shells were characterized by optical microscopy in conjunction with microstructural image analysis software, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microscopic evaluations revealed that the shells consist of sintered iron powder, sintered copper powder, sodium silicate, and porosity regions. In addition, the effects of copper content on various parameters such as shell defects, microcracks, thickness, and porosities were investigated. The results indicated that increasing the copper content results in decreases in the surface fraction of shell porosities and the number of microcracks and an increase in shell thickness.

  2. c5++ - Multi-Technique Analysis Software for Next Generation Geodetic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Otsubo, toshimichi; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Processing of space geodetic techniques should be carried out with consistent and utmost up-todate physical models. Therefore, c5++ is being developed, which will act as a framework under which dedicated space geodetic applications can be created. Due to its nature, combination of different techniques as well as automated processing of VLBI experiments will become possible with c5++.

  3. Techniques and software tools for estimating ultrasonic signal-to-noise ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; McKillip, Matthew; Engle, Brady J.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    2016-02-01

    At Iowa State University's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (ISU CNDE), the use of models to simulate ultrasonic inspections has played a key role in R&D efforts for over 30 years. To this end a series of wave propagation models, flaw response models, and microstructural backscatter models have been developed to address inspection problems of interest. One use of the combined models is the estimation of signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) in circumstances where backscatter from the microstructure (grain noise) acts to mask sonic echoes from internal defects. Such S/N models have been used in the past to address questions of inspection optimization and reliability. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Center at ISU, an effort was recently initiated to improve existing research-grade software by adding graphical user interface (GUI) to become user friendly tools for the rapid estimation of S/N for ultrasonic inspections of metals. The software combines: (1) a Python-based GUI for specifying an inspection scenario and displaying results; and (2) a Fortran-based engine for computing defect signal and backscattered grain noise characteristics. The latter makes use of several models including: the Multi-Gaussian Beam Model for computing sonic fields radiated by commercial transducers; the Thompson-Gray Model for the response from an internal defect; the Independent Scatterer Model for backscattered grain noise; and the Stanke-Kino Unified Model for attenuation. The initial emphasis was on reformulating the research-grade code into a suitable modular form, adding the graphical user interface and performing computations rapidly and robustly. Thus the initial inspection problem being addressed is relatively simple. A normal-incidence pulse/echo immersion inspection is simulated for a curved metal component having a non-uniform microstructure, specifically an equiaxed, untextured microstructure in which the average

  4. A Novel Microcharacterization Technique in the Measurement of Strain and Orientation Gradient in Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmestai, H.; Harris, K.; Lourenco, L.

    1997-01-01

    Representation of morphology and evolution of the microstructure during processing and their relation to properties requires proper experimental techniques. Residual strains, lattice distortion, and texture (micro-texture) at the interface and the matrix of a layered structure or a functionally gradient material and their variation are among parameters important in materials characterization but hard to measure with present experimental techniques. Current techniques available to measure changes in interred material parameters (residual stress, micro-texture, microplasticity) produce results which are either qualitative or unreliable. This problem becomes even more complicated in the case of a temperature variation. These parameters affect many of the mechanical properties of advanced materials including stress-strain relation, ductility, creep, and fatigue. A review of some novel experimental techniques using recent advances in electron microscopy is presented here to measure internal stress, (micro)texture, interracial strength and (sub)grain formation and realignment. Two of these techniques are combined in the chamber of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to measure strain and orientation gradients in advanced materials. These techniques which include Backscattered Kikuchi Diffractometry (BKD) and Microscopic Strain Field Analysis are used to characterize metallic and intermetallic matrix composites and superplastic materials. These techniques are compared with the more conventional x-ray diffraction and indentation techniques.

  5. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  6. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  7. CalVR: an advanced open source virtual reality software framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Jürgen P.; Prudhomme, Andrew; Weber, Philip; DeFanti, Thomas A.

    2013-03-01

    We developed CalVR because none of the existing virtual reality software frameworks offered everything we needed, such as cluster-awareness, multi-GPU capability, Linux compatibility, multi-user support, collaborative session support, or custom menu widgets. CalVR combines features from multiple existing VR frameworks into an open-source system, which we use in our laboratory on a daily basis, and for which dozens of VR applications have already been written at UCSD but also other research laboratories world-wide. In this paper, we describe the philosophy behind CalVR, its standard and unique features and functions, its programming interface, and its inner workings.

  8. A USNRC perspective on the use of commercial-off-shelf software (COTS) in advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.

    1997-12-01

    The use of commercially available digital computer systems and components in safety critical systems (nuclear power plant, military, and commercial applications) is increasing rapidly. While this paper focuses on the software aspects of the application most of these continents are applicable to the hardware aspects as well. Commercial dedication (the process of assuring that a commercial grade item will perform its intended safety function) has demonstrated benefits in cost savings and a wide base of user experience, however, care must be taken to avoid difficulties with some aspects of the dedication process such as access to vendor development information, configuration management long term support, and system integration.

  9. Enhancing the Performance of Assisted Execution Runtime Systems through Hardware/Software Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kestor, Gokcen; Gioiosa, Roberto; Unsal, Osman; Cristal, Adrian; Valero, Mateo

    2012-06-01

    To meet the expected performance, future exascale systems will require programmers to increase the level of parallelism of their applications. Novel programming models simplify parallel programming at the cost of increasing runtime overheard. Assisted execution models have the potential of reducing this overhead but they generally also reduce processor utilization. We propose an integrated hardware/software solution that automatically partition hardware resources between application and auxiliary threads. Each system level performs well-defined tasks efficiently: 1) the runtime system is enriched with a mechanism that automatically detects computing power requirements of running threads and drives the hardware actuators; 2) the hardware enforces dynamic resource partitioning; 3) the operating system provides an efficient interface between the runtime system and the hardware resource allocation mechanism. As a test case, we apply this adaptive approach to STM2, an software transactional memory system that implements the assisted execution model. We evaluate the proposed adaptive solution on an IBMPOWER7 system using Eigenbench and STAMP benchmark suite. Results show that our approach performs equal or better than the original STM2 and achieves up to 65% and 86% performance improvement for Eigenbench and STAMP applications, respectively.

  10. Advances in high-resolution imaging – techniques for three-dimensional imaging of cellular structures

    PubMed Central

    Lidke, Diane S.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental goal in biology is to determine how cellular organization is coupled to function. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of organelle composition and structure is needed. Although visualization of cellular organelles using fluorescence or electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool for the cell biologist, recent advances are providing a clearer picture of the cell than ever before. In particular, advanced light-microscopy techniques are achieving resolutions below the diffraction limit and EM tomography provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of cellular structures. The ability to perform both fluorescence and electron microscopy on the same sample (correlative light and electron microscopy, CLEM) makes it possible to identify where a fluorescently labeled protein is located with respect to organelle structures visualized by EM. Here, we review the current state of the art in 3D biological imaging techniques with a focus on recent advances in electron microscopy and fluorescence super-resolution techniques. PMID:22685332

  11. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 2: Advanced techniques. The linear channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is presented for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the linear satellite channel. The underlying principle used is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum-likelihood decision rule. The application of the performance prediction tools, e.g., channel cutoff rate and bit error probability transfer function bounds to these modulation/demodulation techniques.

  12. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  13. Advances in hardware, software, and automation for 193nm aerial image measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Schmid, R.; Seyfarth, A.; Waechter, M.; Harnisch, W.; Doornmalen, H. v.

    2005-05-01

    A new, second generation AIMS fab 193 system has been developed which is capable of emulating lithographic imaging of any type of reticles such as binary and phase shift masks (PSM) including resolution enhancement technologies (RET) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) or scatter bars. The system emulates the imaging process by adjustment of the lithography equivalent illumination and imaging conditions of 193nm wafer steppers including circular, annular, dipole and quadrupole type illumination modes. The AIMS fab 193 allows a rapid prediction of wafer printability of critical mask features, including dense patterns and contacts, defects or repairs by acquiring through-focus image stacks by means of a CCD camera followed by quantitative image analysis. Moreover the technology can be readily applied to directly determine the process window of a given mask under stepper imaging conditions. Since data acquisition is performed electronically, AIMS in many applications replaces the need for costly and time consuming wafer prints using a wafer stepper/ scanner followed by CD SEM resist or wafer analysis. The AIMS fab 193 second generation system is designed for 193nm lithography mask printing predictability down to the 65nm node. In addition to hardware improvements a new modular AIMS software is introduced allowing for a fully automated operation mode. Multiple pre-defined points can be visited and through-focus AIMS measurements can be executed automatically in a recipe based mode. To increase the effectiveness of the automated operation mode, the throughput of the system to locate the area of interest, and to acquire the through-focus images is increased by almost a factor of two in comparison with the first generation AIMS systems. In addition a new software plug-in concept is realised for the tools. One new feature has been successfully introduced as "Global CD Map", enabling automated investigation of global mask quality based on the local determination of

  14. An efficient technique for Bayesian modeling of family data using the BUGS software

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Harold T.; Perls, Thomas T.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling) software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods. PMID:25477899

  15. Applications of artificial intelligence to space station and automated software techniques: High level robot command language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a system that will allow a person not necessarily skilled in the art of programming robots to quickly and naturally create the necessary data and commands to enable a robot to perform a desired task. The system will use a menu driven graphical user interface. This interface will allow the user to input data to select objects to be moved. There will be an imbedded expert system to process the knowledge about objects and the robot to determine how they are to be moved. There will be automatic path planning to avoid obstacles in the work space and to create a near optimum path. The system will contain the software to generate the required robot instructions.

  16. Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 3: Advanced techniques. The nonlinear channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the nonlinear satellite channel is presented. The underlying principle used throughout is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum likelihood decision rule and aproximations to it. The bit error probability transfer function bounds developed in great detail in Part 4 is applied to these modulation/demodulation techniques. The effects of the various degrees of receiver mismatch are considered both theoretically and by numerous illustrative examples.

  17. Performance requirements of real-time continuous media computing: specification techniques and hardware/software implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Venkatesh; Subrahmanyam, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Today's typical multimedia computer consists of a fast CPU and multimedia peripherals such as attached sound and video support hardware. In such a machine, the low-level audio and video handling may be performed by these peripherals while any significant processing on these media requires the intimate involvement of the CPU, main memory system and the operating system. Given that these components are not typically designed to meet the real-time requirements of continuous media, there are a number of constraints on the nature of multimedia applications that can be executed. To get around these constraints, demanding multimedia applications may typically be offloaded to attached peripheral compute engines which are customized to execute the applications. This approach requires dedicating resources to specific applications and suffers from the problem that such applications are not flexible integrated with the main system. We posit that new software and hardware technologies are needed to truly integrate real-time multimedia processing capabilities within a multimedia computer. The design of these technologies must be based on a thorough understanding of the timing and real-time computing requirements of various types of continuous media. Formal mechanisms are needed to express and analyze these requirements in order for multimedia operating systems to efficiently and correctly schedule the use of computing and communication resources. Indeed such mechanisms may be used to guide the specification and design of hardware and software processing component. In this paper, we present a framework for specifying the timing properties and computational requirements of continuous media. We discuss the usefulness of this framework in the context of some common audio and video data formats. We also discuss the impact of this framework on the design of resource scheduling mechanisms. Finally we offer some insights on designing audio/video processing engines based on real

  18. Advances in Software Tools for Pre-processing and Post-processing of Overset Grid Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in three pieces of software for performing pre-processing and post-processing work on numerical computations using overset grids are presented. The first is the OVERGRID graphical interface which provides a unified environment for the visualization, manipulation, generation and diagnostics of geometry and grids. Modules are also available for automatic boundary conditions detection, flow solver input preparation, multiple component dynamics input preparation and dynamics animation, simple solution viewing for moving components, and debris trajectory analysis input preparation. The second is a grid generation script library that enables rapid creation of grid generation scripts. A sample of recent applications will be described. The third is the OVERPLOT graphical interface for displaying and analyzing history files generated by the flow solver. Data displayed include residuals, component forces and moments, number of supersonic and reverse flow points, and various dynamics parameters.

  19. Advanced software development workstation. Comparison of two object-oriented development methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an attempt to clarify some of the concerns raised about the OMT method, specifically that OMT is weaker than the Booch method in a few key areas. This interim report specifically addresses the following issues: (1) is OMT object-oriented or only data-driven?; (2) can OMT be used as a front-end to implementation in C++?; (3) the inheritance concept in OMT is in contradiction with the 'pure and real' inheritance concept found in object-oriented (OO) design; (4) low support for software life-cycle issues, for project and risk management; (5) uselessness of functional modeling for the ROSE project; and (6) problems with event-driven and simulation systems. The conclusion of this report is that both Booch's method and Rumbaugh's method are good OO methods, each with strengths and weaknesses in different areas of the development process.

  20. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  1. Heat transfer monitoring by means of the hot wire technique and finite element analysis software.

    PubMed

    Hernández Wong, J; Suarez, V; Guarachi, J; Calderón, A; Rojas-Trigos, J B; Juárez, A G; Marín, E

    2014-01-01

    It is reported the study of the radial heat transfer in a homogeneous and isotropic substance with a heat linear source in its axial axis. For this purpose, the hot wire characterization technique has been used, in order to obtain the temperature distribution as a function of radial distance from the axial axis and time exposure. Also, the solution of the transient heat transport equation for this problem was obtained under appropriate boundary conditions, by means of finite element technique. A comparison between experimental, conventional theoretical model and numerical simulated results is done to demonstrate the utility of the finite element analysis simulation methodology in the investigation of the thermal response of substances.

  2. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  3. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software maintenance manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document. The EC&M Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189161) is a programmer's guide that describes current implementation of the EC&M software from a technical perspective. An overview of the EC&M software, computer algorithms, format representation, and computer hardware configuration are included in the manual.

  4. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  5. Clinical decision support systems for brain tumor characterization using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, Evangelia; Kousi, Evanthia; Svolos, Patricia; Kapsalaki, Efthychia; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Kappas, Constastine; Tsougos, Ioannis

    2014-04-28

    In recent years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging have been used in order to resolve demanding diagnostic problems such as brain tumor characterization and grading, as these techniques offer a more detailed and non-invasive evaluation of the area under study. In the last decade a great effort has been made to import and utilize intelligent systems in the so-called clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for automatic processing, classification, evaluation and representation of MRI data in order for advanced MRI techniques to become a part of the clinical routine, since the amount of data from the aforementioned techniques has gradually increased. Hence, the purpose of the current review article is two-fold. The first is to review and evaluate the progress that has been made towards the utilization of CDSS based on data from advanced MRI techniques. The second is to analyze and propose the future work that has to be done, based on the existing problems and challenges, especially taking into account the new imaging techniques and parameters that can be introduced into intelligent systems to significantly improve their diagnostic specificity and clinical application.

  6. Advanced microprocessor based power protection system using artificial neural network techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Kalam, A.; Zayegh, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an intelligent embedded microprocessor based system for fault classification in power system protection system using advanced 32-bit microprocessor technology. The paper demonstrates the development of protective relay to provide overcurrent protection schemes for fault detection. It also describes a method for power fault classification in three-phase system based on the use of neural network technology. The proposed design is implemented and tested on a single line three phase power system in power laboratory. Both the hardware and software development are described in detail.

  7. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    DOE PAGES

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed formore » the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.« less

  8. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed for the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.

  9. Advancing global marine biogeography research with open-source GIS software and cloud-computing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujioka, Ei; Vanden Berghe, Edward; Donnelly, Ben; Castillo, Julio; Cleary, Jesse; Holmes, Chris; McKnight, Sean; Halpin, patrick

    2012-01-01

    Across many scientific domains, the ability to aggregate disparate datasets enables more meaningful global analyses. Within marine biology, the Census of Marine Life served as the catalyst for such a global data aggregation effort. Under the Census framework, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System was established to coordinate an unprecedented aggregation of global marine biogeography data. The OBIS data system now contains 31.3 million observations, freely accessible through a geospatial portal. The challenges of storing, querying, disseminating, and mapping a global data collection of this complexity and magnitude are significant. In the face of declining performance and expanding feature requests, a redevelopment of the OBIS data system was undertaken. Following an Open Source philosophy, the OBIS technology stack was rebuilt using PostgreSQL, PostGIS, GeoServer and OpenLayers. This approach has markedly improved the performance and online user experience while maintaining a standards-compliant and interoperable framework. Due to the distributed nature of the project and increasing needs for storage, scalability and deployment flexibility, the entire hardware and software stack was built on a Cloud Computing environment. The flexibility of the platform, combined with the power of the application stack, enabled rapid re-development of the OBIS infrastructure, and ensured complete standards-compliance.

  10. Softform for facial rejuvenation: historical review, operative techniques, and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Miller, P J; Levine, J; Ahn, M S; Maas, C S; Constantinides, M

    2000-01-01

    The deep nasolabial fold and other facial furrows and wrinkles have challenged the facial plastic surgeon. A variety of techniques have been used in the past to correct these troublesome defects. Advances in the last five years in new materials and design have created a subcutaneous implant that has excellent properties. This article reviews the development and use of Softform facial implant.

  11. Traditional Materials and Techniques Used as Instructional Devices in an Advanced Business Spanish Conversation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivieso, Jorge

    Spanish language training at the Thunderbird Graduate School of International Management is discussed, focusing on the instructional materials and classroom techniques used in advanced Spanish conversation classes. While traditional materials (dialogues, dictation, literature, mass media, video- and audiotapes) and learning activities (recitation,…

  12. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, John; Zhang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We…

  13. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  14. A software channel compression technique for faster reconstruction with many channels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Vijayakumar, Sathya; Li, Yu; Hertel, Sarah; Duensing, George R

    2008-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, highly parallel imaging using coil arrays with a large number of elements is an area of growing interest. With increasing channel numbers for parallel acquisition, the increased reconstruction time and extensive computer memory requirements have become significant concerns. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to develop a channel compression technique. This technique efficiently reduces the size of parallel imaging data acquired from a multichannel coil array, thereby significantly reducing the reconstruction time and computer memory requirement without undermining the benefits of multichannel coil arrays. Clinical data collected with a 32-channel cardiac coil are used in all of the experiments. The performance of the proposed method on parallel, partially acquired data, as well as fully acquired data, was evaluated. Experimental results show that the proposed method dramatically reduces the processing time without considerable degradation in the quality of reconstructed images. It is also demonstrated that this PCA technique can be used to perform intensity correction in parallel imaging applications.

  15. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal power control and rain fade software test plan, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Power Control and Rain Fade Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software automatically controls the LET uplink power to compensate for signal fades. Besides power augmentation, the C&PM Software system is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, control of the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload, and data display. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 is a programmer's guide to the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Power Control and Rain Fade Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Power Control and Rain Fade Test Plan provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software using a predetermined signal fade event. The Test Plan also provides a means to demonstrate the capability of the software.

  16. Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

  17. An open software framework for advancement of x-ray optics simulation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, David L.; Chubar, Oleg; Nagler, Robert; Krzywinski, Jacek; Boehnlein, Amber

    2014-09-01

    Accurate physical-optics based simulation of emission, transport and use in experiments of fully- and partially-coherent X-ray radiation is essential for both designers and users of experiments at state-of-the-art light sources: low-emittance storage rings, energy-recovery linacs and free-electron lasers. To be useful for different applications, the simulations must include accurate physical models for the processes of emission, for the structures of X-ray optical elements, interaction of the radiation with samples, and propagation of scattered X-rays to a detector. Based on the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) open source computer code, we are developing a simulation framework, including a graphical user interface, web interface for client-server simulations, data format for wave-optics based representation of partially-coherent X-ray radiation, and a dictionary for universal description of optical elements. Also, we are evaluating formats for sample and experimental data representation for different types of experiments and processing. The simulation framework will facilitate start-to-end simulations by different computer codes complementary to SRW, for example GENESIS and FAST codes for simulating self-amplified spontaneous emission, SHADOW and McXtrace geometrical ray-tracing codes, as well as codes for simulation of interaction of radiation with matter and data processing in experiments exploiting coherence of radiation. The development of the new framework is building on components developed for the Python-based RadTrack software, which is designed for loose coupling of multiple electron and radiation codes to enable sophisticated workflows. We are exploring opportunities for collaboration with teams pursuing similar developments at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and the European XFEL.

  18. Advanced imaging techniques for assessment of structure, composition and function in biofilm systems.

    PubMed

    Neu, Thomas R; Manz, Bertram; Volke, Frank; Dynes, James J; Hitchcock, Adam P; Lawrence, John R

    2010-04-01

    Scientific imaging represents an important and accepted research tool for the analysis and understanding of complex natural systems. Apart from traditional microscopic techniques such as light and electron microscopy, new advanced techniques have been established including laser scanning microscopy (LSM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These new techniques allow in situ analysis of the structure, composition, processes and dynamics of microbial communities. The three techniques open up quantitative analytical imaging possibilities that were, until a few years ago, impossible. The microscopic techniques represent powerful tools for examination of mixed environmental microbial communities usually encountered in the form of aggregates and films. As a consequence, LSM, MRI and STXM are being used in order to study complex microbial biofilm systems. This mini review provides a short outline of the more recent applications with the intention to stimulate new research and imaging approaches in microbiology.

  19. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The search for advanced measurement techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants was conducted in several parts. A comprehensive survey of the existing measurement and testing technology for determining material-propellant interactions was performed. Selections were made from those existing techniques which were determined could meet or be made to meet the requirements. Areas of refinement or changes were recommended for improvement of others. Investigations were also performed to determine the feasibility and advantages of developing and using new techniques to achieve significant improvements over existing ones. The most interesting demonstration was that of the new technique, the volatile metal chelate analysis. Rivaling the neutron activation analysis in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the volatile metal chelate technique was fully demonstrated.

  20. New technique to count mosquito adults: using ImageJ software to estimate number of mosquito adults in a trap.

    PubMed

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Dickson, Sammie

    2012-12-01

    A new technique is described here to count mosquitoes using open-source software. We wanted to develop a protocol that would estimate the total number of mosquitoes from a picture using ImageJ. Adult mosquitoes from CO2-baited traps were spread on a tray and photographed. The total number of mosquitoes in a picture was estimated using various calibrations on ImageJ, and results were compared with manual counting to identify the ideal calibration. The average trap count was 1,541, and the average difference between the manual count and the best calibration was 174.11 +/- 21.59, with 93% correlation. Subsequently, contents of a trap were photographed 5 different times after they were shuffled between each picture to alter the picture pattern of adult mosquitoes. The standard error among variations stayed below 50, indicating limited variation for total count between pictures of the same trap when the pictures were processed through ImageJ. These results indicate the software could be utilized efficiently to estimate total number of mosquitoes from traps.

  1. Nondestructive Characterization by Advanced Synchrotron Light Techniques: Spectromicroscopy and Coherent Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Margaritondo, Giorgio; Hwu, Yeukuang; Je, Jung Ho

    2008-01-01

    The advanced characteristics of synchrotron light has led in recent years to the development of a series of new experimental techniques to investigate chemical and physical properties on a microscopic scale. Although originally developed for materials science and biomedical research, such techniques find increasing applications in other domains – and could be quite useful for the study and conservation of cultural heritage. Specifically, they can nondestructively provide detailed chemical composition information that can be useful for the identification of specimens, for the discovery of historical links based on the sources of chemical raw materials and on chemical processes, for the analysis of damage, their causes and remedies and for many other issues. Likewise, morphological and structural information on a microscopic scale is useful for the identification, study and preservation of many different cultural and historical specimens. We concentrate here on two classes of techniques: in the first case, photoemission spectromicroscopy. This is the result of the advanced evolution of photoemission techniques like ESCA (Electron Microscopy for Chemical Analysis). By combining high lateral resolution to spectroscopy, photoemission spectromicroscopy can deliver fine chemical information on a microscopic scale in a nondestructive fashion. The second class of techniques exploits the high lateral coherence of modern synchrotron sources, a byproduct of the quest for high brightness or brilliance. We will see that such techniques now push radiology into the submicron scale and the submillisecond time domain. Furthermore, they can be implemented in a tomographic mode, increasing the information and becoming potentially quite useful for the analysis of cultural heritage specimens.

  2. Development of low-cost test techniques for advancing film cooling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soechting, F. O.; Landis, K. K.; Dobrowolski, R.

    1987-06-01

    A program for studying advanced film hole geometries that will provide improved film effectiveness levels relative to those reported in the literature is described. A planar wind tunnel was used to conduct flow visualization studies on different film hole shapes, followed by film effectiveness measurements. The most promising geometries were then tested in a two-dimensional cascade to define the film effectiveness distributions, while duplicating a turbine airfoil curvature, Mach number, and acceleration characteristics. The test techniques are assessed and typical results are presented. It was shown that smoke flow visualization is an excellent low-cost technique for observing film coolant-to-mainstream characteristics and that reusable liquid crystal sheets provide an accurate low-cost technique for measuring near-hole film effectiveness contours. Cascade airfoils constructed using specially developed precision fabrication techniques provided high-quality film effectiveness data.

  3. Advances in the surface modification techniques of bone-related implants for last 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Chen, Cen; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Lee, In-Seop

    2014-01-01

    At the time of implanting bone-related implants into human body, a variety of biological responses to the material surface occur with respect to surface chemistry and physical state. The commonly used biomaterials (e.g. titanium and its alloy, Co–Cr alloy, stainless steel, polyetheretherketone, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and various calcium phosphates) have many drawbacks such as lack of biocompatibility and improper mechanical properties. As surface modification is very promising technology to overcome such problems, a variety of surface modification techniques have been being investigated. This review paper covers recent advances in surface modification techniques of bone-related materials including physicochemical coating, radiation grafting, plasma surface engineering, ion beam processing and surface patterning techniques. The contents are organized with different types of techniques to applicable materials, and typical examples are also described. PMID:26816626

  4. Advanced semiconductor diagnosis by multidimensional electron-beam-induced current technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Yuan, X; Sekiguchi, T

    2008-01-01

    We present advanced semiconductor diagnosis by using electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. By varying the parameters such as temperature, accelerating voltage (V(acc)), bias voltage, and stressing time, it is possible to extend EBIC application from conventional defect characterization to advanced device diagnosis. As an electron beam can excite a certain volume even beneath the surface passive layer, EBIC can be effectively employed to diagnose complicated devices with hybrid structure. Three topics were selected to demonstrate EBIC applications. First, the recombination activities of grain boundaries and their interaction with Fe impurity in photovoltaic multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) are clarified by temperature-dependent EBIC. Second, the detection of dislocations between strained-Si and SiGe virtual substrate are shown to overcome the limitation of depletion region. Third, the observation of leakage sites in high-k gate dielectric is demonstrated for the characterization of advanced hybrid device structures.

  5. Recent advancements in nanoelectrodes and nanopipettes used in combined scanning electrochemical microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Christine

    2014-01-21

    In recent years, major developments in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) have significantly broadened the application range of this electroanalytical technique from high-resolution electrochemical imaging via nanoscale probes to large scale mapping using arrays of microelectrodes. A major driving force in advancing the SECM methodology is based on developing more sophisticated probes beyond conventional micro-disc electrodes usually based on noble metals or carbon microwires. This critical review focuses on the design and development of advanced electrochemical probes particularly enabling combinations of SECM with other analytical measurement techniques to provide information beyond exclusively measuring electrochemical sample properties. Consequently, this critical review will focus on recent progress and new developments towards multifunctional imaging.

  6. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  7. The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

  8. Advanced digital modulation: Communication techniques and monolithic GaAs technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Oliver, J. D., Jr.; Kot, R. C.; Richards, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Communications theory and practice are merged with state-of-the-art technology in IC fabrication, especially monolithic GaAs technology, to examine the general feasibility of a number of advanced technology digital transmission systems. Satellite-channel models with (1) superior throughput, perhaps 2 Gbps; (2) attractive weight and cost; and (3) high RF power and spectrum efficiency are discussed. Transmission techniques possessing reasonably simple architectures capable of monolithic fabrication at high speeds were surveyed. This included a review of amplitude/phase shift keying (APSK) techniques and the continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) methods, of which MSK represents the simplest case.

  9. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed. PMID:25348145

  10. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  11. An example of requirements for Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system using structured techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclees, Robert E.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements are presented for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system generated using structured techniques. The requirements definition starts from initially performing a mission analysis to identify the high level control system requirements and functions necessary to satisfy the mission flight. The result of the study is an example set of control system requirements partially represented using a derivative of Yourdon's structured techniques. Also provided is a research focus for studying structured design methodologies and in particular design-for-validation philosophies.

  12. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The application of existing and new technology to the problem of determining the long-term performance capability of liquid rocket propulsion feed systems is discussed. The long term performance of metal to metal valve seats in a liquid propellant fuel system is stressed. The approaches taken in conducting the analysis are: (1) advancing the technology of characterizing components through the development of new or more sensitive techniques and (2) improving the understanding of the physical of degradation.

  13. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains

  14. Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

  15. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  16. The problem diagnosis and resolution techniques applied to the primary on-board GN&C software developed for the NASA Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, C. G.; Keller, T. W.

    A systematic process for the timely diagnosis of user-reported problems involving the Space Shuttle primary on-board software is discussed. The Shuttle on-board software users and support approach are briefly described. The problem-diagnostic procedures described include fact finding, iterative problem resolution techniques, program cross reference, magnified timeline construction, cause and effect graphs, cyclic or multipass process evaluation, trap patches and traces, process desensitization, and common denominator determination. The subsequent process of problem resolution is then discussed.

  17. Advanced Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy Techniques for the Investigation of Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Neil R.

    The ubiquitous cross beta sheet peptide motif is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases while at the same time offers remarkable potential for constructing isomorphic high-performance bionanomaterials. Despite an emerging understanding of the complex folding landscape of cross beta structures in determining disease etiology and final structure, we lack knowledge of the critical initial stages of nucleation and growth. In this dissertation, I advance our understanding of these key stages in the cross-beta nucleation and growth pathways using cutting-edge microscopy techniques. In addition, I present a new combined time-resolved fluorescence analysis technique with the potential to advance our current understanding of subtle molecular level interactions that play a pivotal role in peptide self-assembly. Using the central nucleating core of Alzheimer's Amyloid-beta protein, Abeta(16 22), as a model system, utilizing electron, time-resolved, and non-linear microscopy, I capture the initial and transient nucleation stages of peptide assembly into the cross beta motif. In addition, I have characterized the nucleation pathway, from monomer to paracrystalline nanotubes in terms of morphology and fluorescence lifetime, corroborating the predicted desolvation process that occurs prior to cross-beta nucleation. Concurrently, I have identified unique heterogeneous cross beta domains contained within individual nanotube structures, which have potential bionanomaterials applications. Finally, I describe a combined fluorescence theory and analysis technique that dramatically increases the sensitivity of current time-resolved techniques. Together these studies demonstrate the potential for advanced microscopy techniques in the identification and characterization of the cross-beta folding pathway, which will further our understanding of both amyloidogenesis and bionanomaterials.

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) software assurance plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert; Smith, Claude

    1994-01-01

    This document defines the responsibilities of Software Quality Assurance (SOA) for the development of the flight software installed in EOS/AMSU-A instruments, and the ground support software used in the test and integration of the EOS/AMSU-A instruments.

  19. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document.

  20. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate ('dynamic fatigue') testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rate in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  1. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  2. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  3. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  4. Advances in iterative non-uniformity correction techniques for infrared scene projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; LaVeigne, Joe; Prewarski, Marcus; Nehring, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Santa Barbara Infrared (SBIR) is continually developing improved methods for non-uniformity correction (NUC) of its Infrared Scene Projectors (IRSPs) as part of its comprehensive efforts to achieve the best possible projector performance. The most recent step forward, Advanced Iterative NUC (AI-NUC), improves upon previous NUC approaches in several ways. The key to NUC performance is achieving the most accurate possible input drive-to-radiance output mapping for each emitter pixel. This requires many highly-accurate radiance measurements of emitter output, as well as sophisticated manipulation of the resulting data set. AI-NUC expands the available radiance data set to include all measurements made of emitter output at any point. In addition, it allows the user to efficiently manage that data for use in the construction of a new NUC table that is generated from an improved fit of the emitter response curve. Not only does this improve the overall NUC by offering more statistics for interpolation than previous approaches, it also simplifies the removal of erroneous data from the set so that it does not propagate into the correction tables. AI-NUC is implemented by SBIR's IRWindows4 automated test software as part its advanced turnkey IRSP product (the Calibration Radiometry System or CRS), which incorporates all necessary measurement, calibration and NUC table generation capabilities. By employing AI-NUC on the CRS, SBIR has demonstrated the best uniformity results on resistive emitter arrays to date.

  5. Review of recent advances in analytical techniques for the determination of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Maura; Li, Qiang; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Methods and advances for monitoring neurotransmitters in vivo or for tissue analysis of neurotransmitters over the last five years are reviewed. The review is organized primarily by neurotransmitter type. Transmitter and related compounds may be monitored by either in vivo sampling coupled to analytical methods or implanted sensors. Sampling is primarily performed using microdialysis, but low-flow push-pull perfusion may offer advantages of spatial resolution while minimizing the tissue disruption associated with higher flow rates. Analytical techniques coupled to these sampling methods include liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, enzyme assays, sensors, and mass spectrometry. Methods for the detection of amino acid, monoamine, neuropeptide, acetylcholine, nucleoside, and soluable gas neurotransmitters have been developed and improved upon. Advances in the speed and sensitivity of these methods have enabled improvements in temporal resolution and increased the number of compounds detectable. Similar advances have enabled improved detection at tissue samples, with a substantial emphasis on single cell and other small samples. Sensors provide excellent temporal and spatial resolution for in vivo monitoring. Advances in application to catecholamines, indoleamines, and amino acids have been prominent. Improvements in stability, sensitivity, and selectivity of the sensors have been of paramount interest. PMID:19800472

  6. New Generation of High Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging Technique for Advanced Material Characterization: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, R. Gr.

    The role of non-destructive material characterization and NDT is changing at a rapid rate, continuing to evolve alongside the dramatic development of novel techniques based on the principles of high-resolution imaging. The modern use of advanced optical, thermal, ultrasonic, laser-ultrasound, acoustic emission, vibration, electro-magnetic, and X-ray techniques, etc., as well as refined measurement and signal/data processing devices, allows for continuous generation of on-line information. As a result real-time process monitoring can be achieved, leading to the more effective and efficient control of numerous processes, greatly improving manufacturing as a whole. Indeed, concurrent quality inspection has become an attainable reality. With the advent of new materials for use in various structures, joints, and parts, however, innovative applications of modern NDT imaging techniques are necessary to monitor as many stages of manufacturing as possible. Simply put, intelligent advance manufacturing is impossible without actively integrating modern non-destructive evaluation into the production system.

  7. Application of Advanced Atomic Force Microscopy Techniques to Study Quantum Dots and Bio-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, Nataliia

    In recent years, there has been an increase in research towards micro- and nanoscale devices as they have proliferated into diverse areas of scientific exploration. Many of the general fields of study that have greatly affected the advancement of these devices includes the investigation of their properties. The sensitivity of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows detecting charges up to the single electron value in quantum dots in ambient conditions, the measurement of steric forces on the surface of the human cell brush, determination of cell mechanics, magnetic forces, and other important properties. Utilizing AFM methods, the fast screening of quantum dot efficiency and the differences between cancer, normal (healthy) and precancer (immortalized) human cells has been investigated. The current research using AFM techniques can help to identify biophysical differences of cancer cells to advance our understanding of the resistance of the cells against the existing medicine.

  8. Impact of advanced microstructural characterization techniques on modeling and analysis of radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.; Odette, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of radiation-induced alterations of dimensional and mechanical properties has been shown to be a direct and often predictable consequence of radiation-induced microstructural changes. Recent advances in understanding of the nature and role of each microstructural component in determining the property of interest has led to a reappraisal of the type and priority of data needed for further model development. This paper presents an overview of the types of modeling and analysis activities in progress, the insights that prompted these activities, and specific examples of successful and ongoing efforts. A review is presented of some problem areas that in the authors' opinion are not yet receiving sufficient attention and which may benefit from the application of advanced techniques of microstructural characterization. Guidelines based on experience gained in previous studies are also provided for acquisition of data in a form most applicable to modeling needs.

  9. Extrusion based rapid prototyping technique: an advanced platform for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Enamul; Chuan, Y Leng; Pashby, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Advances in scaffold design and fabrication technology have brought the tissue engineering field stepping into a new era. Conventional techniques used to develop scaffolds inherit limitations, such as lack of control over the pore morphology and architecture as well as reproducibility. Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, a layer-by-layer additive approach offers a unique opportunity to build complex 3D architectures overcoming those limitations that could ultimately be tailored to cater for patient-specific applications. Using RP methods, researchers have been able to customize scaffolds to mimic the biomechanical properties (in terms of structural integrity, strength, and microenvironment) of the organ or tissue to be repaired/replaced quite closely. This article provides intensive description on various extrusion based scaffold fabrication techniques and review their potential utility for TE applications. The extrusion-based technique extrudes the molten polymer as a thin filament through a nozzle onto a platform layer-by-layer and thus building 3D scaffold. The technique allows full control over pore architecture and dimension in the x- and y- planes. However, the pore height in z-direction is predetermined by the extruding nozzle diameter rather than the technique itself. This review attempts to assess the current state and future prospects of this technology.

  10. Techniques for measurement of the thermal expansion of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques available to measure small thermal displacements in flat laminates and structural tubular elements of advanced composite materials are described. Emphasis is placed on laser interferometry and the laser interferometric dilatometer system used at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. Thermal expansion data are presented for graphite-fiber reinforced 6061 and 2024 aluminum laminates and for graphite fiber reinforced AZ91 C and QH21 A magnesium laminates before and after processing to minimize or eliminate thermal strain hysteresis. Data are also presented on the effects of reinforcement volume content on thermal expansion of silicon-carbide whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum.

  11. Measuring the microbiome: perspectives on advances in DNA-based techniques for exploring microbial life

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, John; Gilbert, Jack A.; Moore, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in ‘microbiome studies’: molecular, statistical and graphical techniques to explore and quantify how microbial organisms affect our environments and ourselves given recent increases in sequencing technology. Microbiome studies are moving beyond mere inventories of specific ecosystems to quantifications of community diversity and descriptions of their ecological function. We review the last 24 months of progress in this sort of research, and anticipate where the next 2 years will take us. We hope that bioinformaticians will find this a helpful springboard for new collaborations with microbiologists. PMID:22308073

  12. Advanced techniques in IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2006-04-01

    Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  13. New radiation techniques for treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Silvano, G

    2006-03-01

    Local control is a main step to cure NSCLC because at least 30-40% of patients die for local or regional progression of their disease. Surgery is still the more efficient approach to increase survival but radiation therapy is the only treatment that can cure patients with T1-T2 lesions if they are not suitable for surgery or refuse it. However, doses higher than 60-66 Gy must be given to improve tumor control but doses to the organs at risk (OAR) are the main limit to deliver more than 70 Gy to the planning treatment volume (PTV). The optimal solution would be to 'paint' the dose to the PTV avoiding as possible OARs, but this ballistic precision was not possible till some years ago because of both technology and respiratory movement control. In last ten years many new techniques have been made available for treating NSCLC with radiation more accurately. Some techniques like Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT), Stereotactic Radiotherapy can be carried out also with a traditional linear accelerator (LINAC) updated with the new software and hardware, using or not radiopaque markers inside the tumor. On the other hand, a new generation of machines like Cyberknife or Tomotherapy have been especially projected to optimize stereotactic technique and IMRT, respectively, and respiratory gating systems are now disposable from several manufactures. PMID:16608978

  14. Arthroscopically assisted Sauvé-Kapandji procedure: an advanced technique for distal radioulnar joint arthritis.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Riccardo; Khanchandani, Prakash; Da Rin, Ferdinando; Borelli, Pierpaolo P; Mathoulin, Christophe; Atzei, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Osteoarthritis of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) leads to chronic wrist pain, weakness of grip strength, and limitation of motion, all of which affect the quality of life of the patient. Over the years, several procedures have been used for the treatment of this condition; however, this condition still remains a therapeutic challenge for the hand surgeons. Many procedures such as Darrach procedure, Bower procedure, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure, and ulnar head replacement have been used. Despite many advances in wrist arthroscopy, arthroscopy has not been used for the treatment of arthritis of the DRUJ. We describe a novel technique of arthroscopically assisted Sauvé-Kapandji procedure for the arthritis of the DRUJ. The advantages of this technique are its less invasive nature, preservation of the extensor retinaculum, more anatomical position of the DRUJ, faster rehabilitation, and a better cosmesis.

  15. A comparison of conventional and advanced ultrasonic inspection techniques in the characterization of TMC materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Mark R.; Handley, Scott M.; Miller, James G.; Reighard, Mark K.

    1992-01-01

    Results obtained with a conventional ultrasonic inspection technique as well as those obtained with more advanced ultrasonic NDE methods in the characterization of an 8-ply quasi-isotropic titanium matrix composite (TMC) specimen are presented. Images obtained from a conventional ultrasonic inspection of TMC material are compared with those obtained using more sophisticated ultrasonic inspection methods. It is suggested that the latter techniques are able to provide quantitative images of TMC material. They are able to reveal the same potential defect indications while simultaneously providing more quantitative information concerning the material's inherent properties. Band-limited signal loss and slope-of-attenuation images provide quantitative data on the inherent material characteristics and defects in TMC.

  16. Chemistry of Metal-organic Frameworks Monitored by Advanced X-ray Diffraction and Scattering Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mazaj, Matjaž; Kaučič, Venčeslav; Zabukovec Logar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The research on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) experienced rapid progress in recent years due to their structure diversity and wide range of application opportunities. Continuous progress of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods enables more and more detailed insight into MOF's structural features and significantly contributes to the understanding of their chemistry. Improved instrumentation and data processing in high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods enables the determination of new complex MOF crystal structures in powdered form. By the use of neutron diffraction techniques, a lot of knowledge about the interaction of guest molecules with crystalline framework has been gained in the past few years. Moreover, in-situ time-resolved studies by various diffraction and scattering techniques provided comprehensive information about crystallization kinetics, crystal growth mechanism and structural dynamics triggered by external physical or chemical stimuli. The review emphasizes most relevant advanced structural studies of MOFs based on powder X-ray and neutron scattering. PMID:27640372

  17. Chemistry of Metal-organic Frameworks Monitored by Advanced X-ray Diffraction and Scattering Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mazaj, Matjaž; Kaučič, Venčeslav; Zabukovec Logar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The research on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) experienced rapid progress in recent years due to their structure diversity and wide range of application opportunities. Continuous progress of X-ray and neutron diffraction methods enables more and more detailed insight into MOF's structural features and significantly contributes to the understanding of their chemistry. Improved instrumentation and data processing in high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods enables the determination of new complex MOF crystal structures in powdered form. By the use of neutron diffraction techniques, a lot of knowledge about the interaction of guest molecules with crystalline framework has been gained in the past few years. Moreover, in-situ time-resolved studies by various diffraction and scattering techniques provided comprehensive information about crystallization kinetics, crystal growth mechanism and structural dynamics triggered by external physical or chemical stimuli. The review emphasizes most relevant advanced structural studies of MOFs based on powder X-ray and neutron scattering.

  18. Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

    2006-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

  19. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  20. Recent advances in molecular techniques to study microbial communities in food-associated matrices and processes.

    PubMed

    Justé, A; Thomma, B P H J; Lievens, B

    2008-09-01

    In the last two decades major changes have occurred in how microbial ecologists study microbial communities. Limitations associated with traditional culture-based methods have pushed for the development of culture-independent techniques, which are primarily based on the analysis of nucleic acids. These methods are now increasingly applied in food microbiology as well. This review presents an overview of current community profiling techniques with their (potential) applications in food and food-related ecosystems. We critically assessed both the power and limitations of these techniques and present recent advances in the field of food microbiology attained by their application. It is unlikely that a single approach will be universally applicable for analyzing microbial communities in unknown matrices. However, when screening samples for well-defined species or functions, techniques such as DNA arrays and real-time PCR have the potential to overtake current culture-based methods. Most importantly, molecular methods will allow us to surpass our current culturing limitations, thus revealing the extent and importance of the 'non-culturable' microbial flora that occurs in food matrices and production.

  1. Advanced techniques for array processing. Final report, 1 Mar 89-30 Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, B.

    1991-05-30

    Array processing technology is expected to be a key element in communication systems designed for the crowded and hostile environment of the future battlefield. While advanced array processing techniques have been under development for some time, their practical use has been very limited. This project addressed some of the issues which need to be resolved for a successful transition of these promising techniques from theory into practice. The main problem which was studied was that of finding the directions of multiple co-channel transmitters from measurements collected by an antenna array. Two key issues related to high-resolution direction finding were addressed: effects of system calibration errors, and effects of correlation between the received signals due to multipath propagation. A number of useful theoretical performance analysis results were derived, and computationally efficient direction estimation algorithms were developed. These results include: self-calibration techniques for antenna arrays, sensitivity analysis for high-resolution direction finding, extensions of the root-MUSIC algorithm to arbitrary arrays and to arrays with polarization diversity, and new techniques for direction finding in the presence of multipath based on array interpolation. (Author)

  2. Advancement of an Infra-Red Technique for Whole-Field Concentration Measurements in Fluidized Beds

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Jose A.; de Nooijer, Niek C. A.; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For a better understanding and description of the mass transport phenomena in dense multiphase gas-solids systems such as fluidized bed reactors, detailed and quantitative experimental data on the concentration profiles is required, which demands advanced non-invasive concentration monitoring techniques with a high spatial and temporal resolution. A novel technique based on the selective detection of a gas component in a gas mixture using infra-red properties has been further developed. The first stage development was carried out using a very small sapphire reactor and CO2 as tracer gas. Although the measuring principle was demonstrated, the real application was hindered by the small reactor dimensions related to the high costs and difficult handling of large sapphire plates. In this study, a new system has been developed, that allows working at much larger scales and yet with higher resolution. In the new system, propane is used as tracer gas and quartz as reactor material. In this study, a thorough optimization and calibration of the technique is presented which is subsequently applied for whole-field measurements with high temporal resolution. The developed technique allows the use of a relatively inexpensive configuration for the measurement of detailed concentration fields and can be applied to a large variety of important chemical engineering topics. PMID:26927127

  3. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  4. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) software management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This document defines the responsibilites for the management of the like-cycle development of the flight software installed in the AMSU-A instruments, and the ground support software used in the test and integration of the AMSU-A instruments.

  5. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Brennan S.; Van Nynatten, Logan R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle. PMID:27775563

  6. Management of metastatic malignant thymoma with advanced radiation and chemotherapy techniques: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G Kesava

    2015-02-25

    Malignant thymomas are rare epithelial neoplasms of the anterior superior mediastinum that are typically invasive in nature and have a higher risk of relapse that may ultimately lead to death. Here we report a case of an advanced malignant thymoma that was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection and subsequently with advanced and novel radiation therapy techniques. A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with a stage IV malignant thymoma with multiple metastatic lesions involving the left peripheral lung and pericardium. Initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a cisplatin-based regimen resulted in a partial response allowing the inoperable tumor to become operable. Following surgical resection of the residual disease, the tumor recurred within a year. The patient then underwent a course of targeted three-dimensional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Five years after radiation therapy, the localized soft tissue thickening at the left upper lung anterior pleural space had resolved. Seven years after radiation therapy the tumor mass had completely resolved. No recurrences were seen and the patient is well even 8 years after IMRT/IGRT with a favorable outcome. Chemotherapy with targeted three-dimensional IMRT/IGRT should be considered the primary modality for the management of advanced malignant thymoma patients.

  7. Advanced MRI Techniques in the Evaluation of Complex Cystic Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Popli, Manju Bala; Gupta, Pranav; Arse, Devraj; Kumar, Pawan; Kaur, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this research work was to evaluate complex cystic breast lesions by advanced MRI techniques and correlating imaging with histologic findings. METHODS AND MATERIALS In a cross-sectional design from September 2013 to August 2015, 50 patients having sonographically detected complex cystic lesions of the breast were included in the study. Morphological characteristics were assessed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI along with diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were used to further classify lesions into benign and malignant categories. All the findings were correlated with histopathology. RESULTS Of the 50 complex cystic lesions, 32 proved to be benign and 18 were malignant on histopathology. MRI features of heterogeneous enhancement on CE-MRI (13/18), Type III kinetic curve (13/18), reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (18/18), and tall choline peak (17/18) were strong predictors of malignancy. Thirteen of the 18 lesions showed a combination of Type III curve, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient value, and tall choline peak. CONCLUSIONS Advanced MRI techniques like dynamic imaging, diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR spectroscopy provide a high level of diagnostic confidence in the characterization of complex cystic breast lesion, thus allowing early diagnosis and significantly reducing patient morbidity and mortality. From our study, lesions showing heterogeneous contrast enhancement, Type III kinetic curve, diffusion restriction, and tall choline peak were significantly associated with malignant complex cystic lesions of the breast. PMID:27330299

  8. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T; Cabre, Philippe; Marignier, Romain; Tedder, Thomas; van Pelt, Danielle; Broadley, Simon; Chitnis, Tanuja; Wingerchuk, Dean; Pandit, Lekha; Leite, Maria Isabel; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Kleiter, Ingo; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Han, May; Hellwig, Kerstin; van Herle, Katja; John, Gareth; Hooper, D Craig; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas; Yeaman, Michael R; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zamvil, Scott; Stüve, Olaf; Aktas, Orhan; Smith, Terry J; Jacob, Anu; O'Connor, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease.

  9. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A.; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C.; Tenembaum, Silvia N.; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease. PMID:26010909

  10. Use of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Stephane; Renard, Felix; Achard, Sophie; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A; Palace, Jacqueline; Asgari, Nasrin; Klawiter, Eric C; Tenembaum, Silvia N; Banwell, Brenda; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Levy, Michael; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Chan, Koon Ho; Schippling, Sven; Paul, Friedemann; Kim, Ho Jin; de Seze, Jerome; Wuerfel, Jens T; Cabre, Philippe; Marignier, Romain; Tedder, Thomas; van Pelt, Danielle; Broadley, Simon; Chitnis, Tanuja; Wingerchuk, Dean; Pandit, Lekha; Leite, Maria Isabel; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Kleiter, Ingo; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Han, May; Hellwig, Kerstin; van Herle, Katja; John, Gareth; Hooper, D Craig; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas; Yeaman, Michael R; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zamvil, Scott; Stüve, Olaf; Aktas, Orhan; Smith, Terry J; Jacob, Anu; O'Connor, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease. PMID:26010909

  11. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  12. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  13. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America airborne investigation are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are being investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the mission science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of intervening optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the Earth's surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture to support the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and ACT-America programs.

  14. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  15. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the concept for two separate but closely related software systems. The first is the special test equipment (STE) software used at Aerojet for AMSU-A instrument testing, and the second is the workstation software used at the spacecraft integration facility to monitor the AMSU-A instrument when installed on the spacecraft. The primary use of the STE software is to monitor the data output from the AMSU-A instruments, to command the instruments, and to perform automated thermal-vacuum calibration testing. The primary use of the workstation software is to monitor the AMSU-A instrument's performance through an Ethernet link during the instrument/spacecraft integration process.

  16. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  17. Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Geist, R.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    'This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology. This report summarizes work after approximately 1.5 years of a 3-year project. The autonomous, non-contact creation of a virtual environment from an existing, real environment (virtualization) is an integral part of the workcell functionality. This requires that the virtual world be geometrically correct. To this end, the authors have encountered severe sensitivity in quadric estimation. As a result, alternative procedures for geometric rendering, iterative correction approaches, new calibration methods and associated hardware, and calibration quality examination software have been developed. Following geometric rendering, the authors have focused on improving the color and texture recognition components of the system. In particular, the authors have moved beyond first-order illumination modeling to include higher order diffuse effects. This allows us to combine the surface geometric information, obtained from the laser projection and surface recognition components of the system, with a stereo camera image. Low-level controllers for Puma 560 robotic arms were designed and implemented using QNX. The resulting QNX/PC based low-level robot control system is called QRobot. A high-level trajectory generator and application programming interface (API) as well as a new, flexible robot control API was required. Force/torque sensors and interface hardware have been identified and ordered. A simple 3-D OpenGL-based graphical Puma 560 robot simulator was developed and interfaced with ARCL and RCCL to assist in the development of robot motion programs.'

  18. A novel mask proximity correction software combining accuracy and reduced writing time for the manufacturing of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Patrick; Martin, Luc; Browning, Clyde; Farys, Vincent; Sundermann, Frank; Narukawa, Shogo; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya

    2012-06-01

    The new generations of photomasks are seen to bring more and more challenges to the mask manufacturer. Maskshops face two conflicting requirements, namely improving pattern fidelity and reducing or at least maintaining acceptable writing time. These requirements are getting more and more challenging since pattern size continuously shrinks and data volumes continuously grows. Although the classical dose modulation Proximity Effect Correction is able to provide sufficient process control to the mainstream products, an increased number of published and wafer data show that the mask process is becoming a nonnegligible contributor to the 28nm technology yield. We will show in this paper that a novel approach of mask proximity effect correction is able to meet the dual challenge of the new generation of masks. Unlike the classical approach, the technique presented in this paper is based on a concurrent optimization of the dose and geometry of the fractured shots. Adding one more parameter allows providing the best possible compromise between accuracy and writing time since energy latitude can be taken into account as well. This solution is implemented in the Inscale software package from Aselta Nanographics. We have assessed the capability of this technology on several levels of a 28nm technology. On this set, the writing time has been reduced up to 25% without sacrificing the accuracy which at the same time has been improved significantly compared to the existing process. The experiments presented in the paper confirm that a versatile proximity effect correction strategy, combining dose and geometry modulation helps the users to tradeoff between resolution/accuracy and e-beam write time.

  19. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Experimental Programs and Software Advancing DOE’s Waste Disposal/Tank Closure Efforts – 15436

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Heather; Flach, Greg; Smith, Frank; Langton, Christine; Brown, Kevin; Mallick, Pramod

    2015-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Tank Waste Management-sponsored Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is chartered with providing the technical basis for implementing cement-based waste forms and radioactive waste containment structures for long-term disposal. DOE needs in this area include the following to support progress in final treatment and disposal of legacy waste and closure of High-Level Waste (HLW) tanks in the DOE complex: long-term performance predictions, flow sheet development and flow sheet enhancements, and conceptual designs for new disposal facilities. The DOE-EM Cementitious Barriers Partnership is producing software and experimental programs resulting in new methods and data needed for end-users involved with environmental cleanup and waste disposal. Both the modeling tools and the experimental data have already benefited the DOE sites in the areas of performance assessments by increasing confidence backed up with modeling support, leaching methods, and transport properties developed for actual DOE materials. In 2014, the CBP Partnership released the CBP Software Toolbox –“Version 2.0” which provides concrete degradation models for 1) sulfate attack, 2) carbonation, and 3) chloride initiated rebar corrosion, and includes constituent leaching. These models are applicable and can be used by both DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for service life and long-term performance evaluations and predictions of nuclear and radioactive waste containment structures across the DOE complex, including future SRS Saltstone and HLW tank performance assessments and special analyses, Hanford site HLW tank closure projects and other projects in which cementitious barriers are required, the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project which requires source terms from cementitious containment structures as input to their flow simulations, regulatory reviews of DOE performance

  20. The Case for Open Source Software: The Interactional Discourse Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seongsook

    2016-01-01

    Computational techniques and software applications for the quantitative content analysis of texts are now well established, and many qualitative data software applications enable the manipulation of input variables and the visualization of complex relations between them via interactive and informative graphical interfaces. Although advances in…

  1. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  2. An Advanced Flaw-Response Modelling Approach for Inspection Qualification Using a Multi-Agent System Software Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, James P.; McLean, Neil; Gachagan, Anthony; McArthur, Stephen D. J.; Hayward, Gordon

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the application of a Multi-Agent System used in the design and qualification of ultrasonic NDT inspections using theoretical ultrasonic flaw-response modelling. When a large number of models are available the selection of the most appropriate one for a given inspection scenario becomes time-consuming; the disparate nature of the software models prevents easy integration with other NDT software tools to automate this process. A prototype Inspection Qualification Multi-Agent System has been developed which incorporates a rule-based software system to perform the flaw-response model selection procedure.

  3. Utilization of advanced calibration techniques in stochastic rock fall analysis of quarry slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preh, Alexander; Ahmadabadi, Morteza; Kolenprat, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    In order to study rock fall dynamics, a research project was conducted by the Vienna University of Technology and the Austrian Central Labour Inspectorate (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection). A part of this project included 277 full-scale drop tests at three different quarries in Austria and recording key parameters of the rock fall trajectories. The tests involved a total of 277 boulders ranging from 0.18 to 1.8 m in diameter and from 0.009 to 8.1 Mg in mass. The geology of these sites included strong rock belonging to igneous, metamorphic and volcanic types. In this paper the results of the tests are used for calibration and validation a new stochastic computer model. It is demonstrated that the error of the model (i.e. the difference between observed and simulated results) has a lognormal distribution. Selecting two parameters, advanced calibration techniques including Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique, Maximum Likelihood and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are utilized to minimize the error. Validation of the model based on the cross validation technique reveals that in general, reasonable stochastic approximations of the rock fall trajectories are obtained in all dimensions, including runout, bounce heights and velocities. The approximations are compared to the measured data in terms of median, 95% and maximum values. The results of the comparisons indicate that approximate first-order predictions, using a single set of input parameters, are possible and can be used to aid practical hazard and risk assessment.

  4. Visualizing epigenetics: current advances and advantages in HDAC PET imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Schroeder, F A; Hooker, J M

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal gene regulation as a consequence of flawed epigenetic mechanisms may be central to the initiation and persistence of many human diseases. However, the association of epigenetic dysfunction with disease and the development of therapeutic agents for treatment are slow. Developing new methodologies used to visualize chromatin-modifying enzymes and their function in the human brain would be valuable for the diagnosis of brain disorders and drug discovery. We provide an overview of current invasive and noninvasive techniques for measuring expression and functions of chromatin-modifying enzymes in the brain, emphasizing tools applicable to histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes as a leading example. The majority of current techniques are invasive and difficult to translate to what is happening within a human brain in vivo. However, recent progress in molecular imaging provides new, noninvasive ways to visualize epigenetics in the human brain. Neuroimaging tool development presents a unique set of challenges in order to identify and validate CNS radiotracers for HDACs and other histone-modifying enzymes. We summarize advances in the effort to image HDACs and HDAC inhibitory effects in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) and highlight generalizable techniques that can be adapted to investigate other specific components of epigenetic machinery. Translational tools like neuroimaging by PET and magnetic resonance imaging provide the best way to link our current understanding of epigenetic changes with in vivo function in normal and diseased brains. These tools will be a critical addition to ex vivo methods to evaluate - and intervene - in CNS dysfunction.

  5. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V. Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1–20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ∼0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  6. New advanced surface modification technique: titanium oxide ceramic surface implants: long-term clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Lajos; Barabas, Jozsef; Nemeth, Zsolt; Maironna, Carlo

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background to advanced surface modification technologies and to present a new technique, involving the formation of a titanium oxide ceramic coating, with relatively long-term results of its clinical utilization. Three general techniques are used to modify surfaces: the addition or removal of material and the change of material already present. Surface properties can also be changed without the addition or removal of material, through the laser or electron beam thermal treatment. The new technique outlined in this paper relates to the production of a corrosion-resistant 2000-2500 A thick, ceramic oxide layer with a coherent crystalline structure on the surface of titanium implants. The layer is grown electrochemically from the bulk of the metal and is modified by heat treatment. Such oxide ceramic-coated implants have a number of advantageous properties relative to implants covered with various other coatings: a higher external hardness, a greater force of adherence between the titanium and the oxide ceramic coating, a virtually perfect insulation between the organism and the metal (no possibility of metal allergy), etc. The coated implants were subjected to various physical, chemical, electronmicroscopic, etc. tests for a qualitative characterization. Finally, these implants (plates, screws for maxillofacial osteosynthesis and dental root implants) were applied in surgical practice for a period of 10 years. Tests and the experience acquired demonstrated the good properties of the titanium oxide ceramic-coated implants.

  7. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1-20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ˜0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  8. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    PubMed

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed.

  9. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques. PMID:25566219

  10. Recent advances in molecular medicine techniques for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    França, R F O; da Silva, C C; De Paula, S O

    2013-06-01

    In recent years we have observed great advances in our ability to combat infectious diseases. Through the development of novel genetic methodologies, including a better understanding of pathogen biology, pathogenic mechanisms, advances in vaccine development, designing new therapeutic drugs, and optimization of diagnostic tools, significant infectious diseases are now better controlled. Here, we briefly describe recent reports in the literature concentrating on infectious disease control. The focus of this review is to describe the molecular methods widely used in the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases with regard to the innovation of molecular techniques. Since the list of pathogenic microorganisms is extensive, we emphasize some of the major human infectious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, rotavirus, herpes virus, viral hepatitis, and dengue fever). As a consequence of these developments, infectious diseases will be more accurately and effectively treated; safe and effective vaccines are being developed and rapid detection of infectious agents now permits countermeasures to avoid potential outbreaks and epidemics. But, despite considerable progress, infectious diseases remain a strong challenge to human survival. PMID:23339016

  11. Recent advances in molecular medicine techniques for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    França, R F O; da Silva, C C; De Paula, S O

    2013-06-01

    In recent years we have observed great advances in our ability to combat infectious diseases. Through the development of novel genetic methodologies, including a better understanding of pathogen biology, pathogenic mechanisms, advances in vaccine development, designing new therapeutic drugs, and optimization of diagnostic tools, significant infectious diseases are now better controlled. Here, we briefly describe recent reports in the literature concentrating on infectious disease control. The focus of this review is to describe the molecular methods widely used in the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases with regard to the innovation of molecular techniques. Since the list of pathogenic microorganisms is extensive, we emphasize some of the major human infectious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, rotavirus, herpes virus, viral hepatitis, and dengue fever). As a consequence of these developments, infectious diseases will be more accurately and effectively treated; safe and effective vaccines are being developed and rapid detection of infectious agents now permits countermeasures to avoid potential outbreaks and epidemics. But, despite considerable progress, infectious diseases remain a strong challenge to human survival.

  12. Fault-tolerant software for the FIMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.

    1984-01-01

    The work reported here provides protection against software failures in the task dispatcher of the FTMP, a particularly critical portion of the system software. Faults in other system modules and application programs can be handled by similar techniques but are not covered in this effort. Goals of the work reported here are: (1) to develop provisions in the software design that will detect and mitigate software failures in the dispatcher portion of the FTMP Executive and, (2) to propose the implementation of specific software reliability measures in other parts of the system. Beyond the specific support to the FTMP project, the work reported here represents a considerable advance in the practical application of the recovery block methodology for fault tolerant software design.

  13. Recent advances on techniques and theories of feedforward networks with supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Klasa, Stan

    1992-07-01

    The rediscovery and popularization of the back propagation training technique for multilayer perceptrons as well as the invention of the Boltzmann Machine learning algorithm has given a new boost to the study of supervised learning networks. In recent years, besides the widely spread applications and the various further improvements of the classical back propagation technique, many new supervised learning models, techniques as well as theories, have also been proposed in a vast number of publications. This paper tries to give a rather systematical review on the recent advances on supervised learning techniques and theories for static feedforward networks. We summarize a great number of developments into four aspects: (1) Various improvements and variants made on the classical back propagation techniques for multilayer (static) perceptron nets, for speeding up training, avoiding local minima, increasing the generalization ability, as well as for many other interesting purposes. (2) A number of other learning methods for training multilayer (static) perceptron, such as derivative estimation by perturbation, direct weight update by perturbation, genetic algorithms, recursive least square estimate and extended Kalman filter, linear programming, the policy of fixing one layer while updating another, constructing networks by converting decision tree classifiers, and others. (3) Various other feedforward models which are also able to implement function approximation, probability density estimation and classification, including various models of basis function expansion (e.g., radial basis functions, restricted coulomb energy, multivariate adaptive regression splines, trigonometric and polynomial bases, projection pursuit, basis function tree, and may others), and several other supervised learning models. (4) Models with complex structures, e.g., modular architecture, hierarchy architecture, and others. (5) A number of theoretical issues involving the universal

  14. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Flight Software (FSW): A Unique Approach to Exercise in Long Duration Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangieri, Mark

    2005-01-01

    ARED flight instrumentation software is associated with an overall custom designed resistive exercise system that will be deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). This innovative software application fuses together many diverse and new technologies into a robust and usable package. The software takes advantage of touchscreen user interface technology by providing a graphical user interface on a Windows based tablet PC, meeting a design constraint of keyboard-less interaction with flight crewmembers. The software interacts with modified commercial data acquisition (DAQ) hardware to acquire multiple channels of sensor measurment from the ARED device. This information is recorded on the tablet PC and made available, via International Space Station (ISS) Wireless LAN (WLAN) and telemetry subsystems, to ground based mission medics and trainers for analysis. The software includes a feature to accept electronically encoded prescriptions of exercises that guide crewmembers through a customized regimen of resistive weight training, based on personal analysis. These electronically encoded prescriptions are provided to the crew via ISS WLAN and telemetry subsystems. All personal data is securely associated with an individual crew member, based on a PIN ID mechanism.

  15. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and

  16. Advanced Modeling Techniques to Study Anthropogenic Influences on Atmospheric Chemical Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Rohit

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a collaborative effort between research groups at MCNC and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The overall objective of this research is to improve the level of understanding of the processes that determine the budgets of chemically and radiatively active compounds in the atmosphere through development and application of advanced methods for calculating the chemical change in atmospheric models. The research performed during the second year of this project focused on four major aspects: (1) The continued development and refinement of multiscale modeling techniques to address the issue of the disparate scales of the physico-chemical processes that govern the fate of atmospheric pollutants; (2) Development and application of analysis methods utilizing process and mass balance techniques to increase the interpretive powers of atmospheric models and to aid in complementary analysis of model predictions and observations; (3) Development of meteorological and emission inputs for initial application of the chemistry/transport model over the north Atlantic region; and, (4) The continued development and implementation of a totally new adaptive chemistry representation that changes the details of what is represented as the underlying conditions change.

  17. Advancing the frontiers in nanocatalysis, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion by innovations of surface techniques.

    PubMed

    Somorjai, Gabor A; Frei, Heinz; Park, Jeong Y

    2009-11-25

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ("green chemistry") and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  18. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study.

  19. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

    2000-03-31

    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

  20. Investigation to advance prediction techniques of the low-speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.; Strash, D.; Nathman, J.; Dvorak, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program, VSAERO, has been applied to a number of V/STOL configurations with a view to advancing prediction techniques for the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics. The program couples a low-order panel method with surface streamline calculation and integral boundary layer procedures. The panel method--which uses piecewise constant source and doublet panels-includes an iterative procedure for wake shape and models boundary layer displacement effect using the source transpiration technique. Certain improvements to a basic vortex tube jet model were installed in the code prior to evaluation. Very promising results were obtained for surface pressures near a jet issuing at 90 deg from a flat plate. A solid core model was used in the initial part of the jet with a simple entrainment model. Preliminary representation of the downstream separation zone significantly improve the correlation. The program accurately predicted the pressure distribution inside the inlet on the Grumman 698-411 design at a range of flight conditions. Furthermore, coupled viscous/potential flow calculations gave very close correlation with experimentally determined operational boundaries dictated by the onset of separation inside the inlet. Experimentally observed degradation of these operational boundaries between nacelle-alone tests and tests on the full configuration were also indicated by the calculation. Application of the program to the General Dynamics STOL fighter design were equally encouraging. Very close agreement was observed between experiment and calculation for the effects of power on pressure distribution, lift and lift curve slope.

  1. Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.; Frei, H.; Park, J.Y.

    2009-07-23

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  2. Procedural guidance using advance imaging techniques for percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Quaife, Robert A; Salcedo, Ernesto E; Carroll, John D

    2014-02-01

    The complexity of structural heart disease interventions such as edge-to edge mitral valve repair requires integration of multiple highly technical imaging modalities. Real time imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is a relatively new technique that first, allows clear volumetric imaging of target structures such as the mitral valve for both pre-procedural diagnosis and planning in patients with degenerative or functional mitral valve regurgitation. Secondly it provides intra-procedural, real-time panoramic volumetric 3D view of structural heart disease targets that facilitates eye-hand coordination while manipulating devices within the heart. X-ray fluoroscopy and RT 3D TEE images are used in combination to display specific targets and movement of catheter based technologies in 3D space. This integration requires at least two different image display monitors and mentally fusing the individual datasets by the operator. Combined display technology such as this, allow rotation and orientation of both dataset perspectives necessary to define targets and guidance of structural disease device procedures. The inherently easy concept of direct visual feedback and eye-hand coordination allows safe and efficient completion of MitraClip procedures. This technology is now merged into a single structural heart disease guidance mode called EchoNavigator(TM) (Philips Medical Imaging Andover, MA). These advanced imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of structural heart disease interventions and this experience is exemplified by a cooperative imaging approach used for guidance of edge-to-edge mitral valve repair procedures.

  3. Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Scheduling Environment is a software product designed and marketed by AVYX, Inc. to provide scheduling solutions for complex manufacturing environments. It can be adapted to specific scheduling and manufacturing processes and has led to substantial cost savings. The system was originally developed for NASA use in scheduling Space Shuttle flights and satellite activities. AVYX, Inc. is an offshoot of a company formed to provide computer-related services to NASA. TREES-plus, the company's initial product became the programming language for the advanced scheduling environment system.

  4. EPS in Environmental Microbial Biofilms as Examined by Advanced Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, T. R.; Lawrence, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Biofilm communities are highly structured associations of cellular and polymeric components which are involved in biogenic and geogenic environmental processes. Furthermore, biofilms are also important in medical (infection), industrial (biofouling) and technological (biofilm engineering) processes. The interfacial microbial communities in a specific habitat are highly dynamic and change according to the environmental parameters affecting not only the cellular but also the polymeric constituents of the system. Through their EPS biofilms interact with dissolved, colloidal and particulate compounds from the bulk water phase. For a long time the focus in biofilm research was on the cellular constituents in biofilms and the polymer matrix in biofilms has been rather neglected. The polymer matrix is produced not only by different bacteria and archaea but also by eukaryotic micro-organisms such as algae and fungi. The mostly unidentified mixture of EPS compounds is responsible for many biofilm properties and is involved in biofilm functionality. The chemistry of the EPS matrix represents a mixture of polymers including polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, neutral polymers, charged polymers, amphiphilic polymers and refractory microbial polymers. The analysis of the EPS may be done destructively by means of extraction and subsequent chemical analysis or in situ by means of specific probes in combination with advanced imaging. In the last 15 years laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has been established as an indispensable technique for studying microbial communities. LSM with 1-photon and 2-photon excitation in combination with fluorescence techniques allows 3-dimensional investigation of fully hydrated, living biofilm systems. This approach is able to reveal data on biofilm structural features as well as biofilm processes and interactions. The fluorescent probes available allow the quantitative assessment of cellular as well as polymer distribution. For this purpose

  5. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  6. Recent Advances in Stable Isotope Techniques for N2O Source Partitioning in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggs, E.; Mair, L.; Mahmood, S.

    2007-12-01

    The use of 13C, 15N and 18O enables us to overcome uncertainties associated with soil C and N processes and to assess the links between species diversity and ecosystem function. Recent advances in stable isotope techniques enable determination of process rates, and are fundamental for examining interactions between C and N cycles. Here we will introduce the 15N-, 18O- and 13C-enrichment techniques we have developed to distinguish between different N2O-producing processes in situ in soils, presenting selected results, and will critically assess their potential, alone and in combination with molecular techniques, to help address key research questions for soil biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. We have developed 15N- 18O-enrichment techniques to distinguish between, and to quantify, N2O production during ammonia oxidation, nitrifier denitrification and denitrification. This provides a great advantage over natural abundance approaches as it enables quantification of N2O from each microbial source, which can be coupled with quantification of N2 production, and used to examine interactions between different processes and cycles. These approaches have also provided new insights into the N cycle and how it interacts with the C cycle. For example, we now know that ammonia oxidising bacteria significantly contribute to N2O emissions from soils, both via the traditionally accepted ammonia oxidation pathway, and also via denitrification (nitrifier denitrification) which can proceed even under aerobic conditions. We are also linking emissions from each source to diversity and activity of relevant microbial functional groups, for example through the development and application of a specific nirK primer for the nitrite reductase in ammonia oxidising bacteria. Recently, isotopomers have been proposed as an alternative for source partitioning N2O at natural abundance levels, and offers the potential to investigate N2O production from nitrate ammonification, and overcomes the

  7. Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E; Caird, J A; Barty, C J; Joyce, D B; Schmid, K; Schmid, F

    2007-10-09

    Ti:sapphire has become the premier lasing medium material for use in solid-state femtosecond high-peak power laser systems because of its wide wavelength tuning range. With a tuneable range from 680 to 1100 nm, peaking at 800 nm, Ti:sapphire lasing crystals can easily be tuned to the required pump wavelength and provide very high pump brightness due to their good beam quality and high output power of typically several watts. Femtosecond lasers are used for precision cutting and machining of materials ranging from steel to tooth enamel to delicate heart tissue and high explosives. These ultra-short pulses are too brief to transfer heat or shock to the material being cut, which means that cutting, drilling, and machining occur with virtually no damage to surrounding material. Furthermore, these lasers can cut with high precision, making hairline cuts of less than 100 microns in thick materials along a computer-generated path. Extension of laser output to higher energies is limited by the size of the amplification medium. Yields of high quality large diameter crystals have been constrained by lattice distortions that may appear in the boule limiting the usable area from which high quality optics can be harvested. Lattice distortions affect the transmitted wavefront of these optics which ultimately limits the high-end power output and efficiency of the laser system, particularly when operated in multi-pass mode. To make matters even more complicated, Ti:sapphire is extremely hard (Mohs hardness of 9 with diamond being 10) which makes it extremely difficult to accurately polish using conventional methods without subsurface damage or significant wavefront error. In this presentation, we demonstrate for the first time that Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) can be used to compensate for the lattice distortions in Ti:sapphire by perturbing the transmitted wavefront. The advanced MRF techniques developed allow for precise polishing of the optical inverse of lattice

  8. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  9. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  10. Automated digital image analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass, and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples, but this technique may be susceptible to inter-/intraobserver variability, which may induce false positive/negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digital image analysis (ADIA) technique for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number, islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation. Islets were isolated and purified from n = 42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy or automatically quantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope with built-in NIS-Elements Advanced Research (AR) software. The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible for engraftment compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(2) = 0.91) and total islet number (r(2) = 0.88) and thus increased to r(2) = 0.93 when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intraobserver reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method versus the ADIA method (p < 0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10 and 50 µm in size. Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments software is an unbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size of each islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of this

  11. Software verification and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

  12. Craniospinal Irradiation Techniques: A Dosimetric Comparison of Proton Beams With Standard and Advanced Photon Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Myonggeun; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Jinsung; Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Dae Woong; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Sang Hoon

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for craniospinal irradiation in cancer in children. Methods and Materials: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), tomotherapy (TOMO), and proton beam treatment (PBT) in the scattering mode was planned for each of 10 patients at our institution. Dosimetric benefits and organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risks were based on comparisons of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and on the application of organ equivalent doses (OEDs), respectively. Results: When we analyzed the organ-at-risk volumes that received 30%, 60%, and 90% of the prescribed dose (PD), we found that PBT was superior to TOMO and 3D-CRT. On average, the doses delivered by PBT to the esophagus, stomach, liver, lung, pancreas, and kidney were 19.4 Gy, 0.6 Gy, 0.3 Gy, 2.5 Gy, 0.2 Gy, and 2.2 Gy for the PD of 36 Gy, respectively, which were significantly lower than the doses delivered by TOMO (22.9 Gy, 4.5 Gy, 6.1 Gy, 4.0 Gy, 13.3 Gy, and 4.9 Gy, respectively) and 3D-CRT (34.6 Gy, 3.6 Gy, 8.0 Gy, 4.6 Gy, 22.9 Gy, and 4.3 Gy, respectively). Although the average doses delivered by PBT to the chest and abdomen were significantly lower than those of 3D-CRT or TOMO, these differences were reduced in the head-and-neck region. OED calculations showed that the risk of secondary cancers in organs such as the stomach, lungs, thyroid, and pancreas was much higher when 3D-CRT or TOMO was used than when PBT was used. Conclusions: Compared with photon techniques, PBT showed improvements in most dosimetric parameters for CSI patients, with lower OEDs to organs at risk.

  13. Advances in turbulent mixing techniques to study microsecond protein folding reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Sagar V.; Chan, Alexander; Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R. Paul; Matthews, C. Robert; Irving, Thomas C.; Perot, Blair; Bilsel, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational advances in the protein folding arena have shown that the readout of the one-dimensional sequence information into three-dimensional structure begins within the first few microseconds of folding. The initiation of refolding reactions has been achieved by several means, including temperature jumps, flash photolysis, pressure jumps and rapid mixing methods. One of the most commonly used means of initiating refolding of chemically-denatured proteins is by turbulent flow mixing with refolding dilution buffer, where greater than 99% mixing efficiency has been achieved within 10’s of microseconds. Successful interfacing of turbulent flow mixers with complementary detection methods, including time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (trFL), Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), Circular Dichroism (CD), Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Hydrogen Exchange (HX) followed by Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), and Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy (FTIR), has made this technique very attractive for monitoring various aspects of structure formation during folding. Although continuous-flow (CF) mixing devices interfaced with trFL detection have a dead time of only 30 µs, burst-phases have been detected in this time scale during folding of peptides and of large proteins (e.g., CheY and TIM barrels). Furthermore, a major limitation of CF mixing technique has been the requirement of large quantities of sample. In this brief communication, we will discuss the recent flurry of activity in micromachining and microfluidics, guided by computational simulations, that are likely to lead to dramatic improvements in time resolution and sample consumption for CF mixers over the next few years. PMID:23868289

  14. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  15. Photoelectric photometry era at the Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences II. Software and reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaňko, M.; Komžík, R.; Kollár, V.; Sekeráš, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a continuation of Paper9 I describing the photoelectric photometry at the Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences at Tatranská Lomnica. In this article we show the observation principles and the basic ideas and philosophy of the photometer control software — the code UNIV, written by R. Komžík and V. Kollár, and used for the data resulting from observations.

  16. Analysis of deformation patterns through advanced DINSAR techniques in Istanbul megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balik Sanli, F.; Calò, F.; Abdikan, S.; Pepe, A.; Gorum, T.

    2014-09-01

    As result of the Turkey's economic growth and heavy migration processes from rural areas, Istanbul has experienced a high urbanization rate, with severe impacts on the environment in terms of natural resources pressure, land-cover changes and uncontrolled sprawl. As a consequence, the city became extremely vulnerable to natural and man-made hazards, inducing ground deformation phenomena that threaten buildings and infrastructures and often cause significant socio-economic losses. Therefore, the detection and monitoring of such deformation patterns is of primary importance for hazard and risk assessment as well as for the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies. Aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of deformations affecting the Istanbul metropolitan area, by exploiting advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. In particular, we apply the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach to a dataset of 43 TerraSAR-X images acquired, between November 2010 and June 2012, along descending orbits with an 11-day revisit time and a 3 m × 3 m spatial resolution. The SBAS processing allowed us to remotely detect and monitor subsidence patterns over all the urban area as well as to provide detailed information at the scale of the single building. Such SBAS measurements, effectively integrated with ground-based monitoring data and thematic maps, allows to explore the relationship between the detected deformation phenomena and urbanization, contributing to improve the urban planning and management.

  17. Advanced real-time dynamic scene generation techniques for improved performance and fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mark H.; Buford, James A.; Mayhall, Anthony J.

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in real-time synthetic scene generation for Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) improve both performance and fidelity. Modeling ground target scenarios requires tradeoffs because of limited texture memory for imagery and limited main memory for elevation data. High- resolution insets have been used in the past to provide better fidelity in specific areas, such as in the neighborhood of a target. Improvements for ground scenarios include smooth transitions for high-resolution insets to reduce high spatial frequency artifacts at the borders of the inset regions and dynamic terrain paging to support large area databases. Transport lag through the scene generation system, including sensor emulation and interface components, has been dealt with in the past through the use of sub-window extraction from oversize scenes. This compensates for spatial effects of transport lag but not temporal effects. A new system has been developed and used successfully to compensate for a flashing coded beacon in the scene. Other techniques have been developed to synchronize the scene generator with the seeker under test (SUT) and to model atmospheric effects, sensor optic and electronics, and angular emissivity attenuation.

  18. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  19. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Frazin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012

  20. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization Using Ground-based Coronagraphs

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gładysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012. PMID:26347393

  1. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  2. Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of {approximately}2 {pi} mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces.

  3. Software engineering project management - A state-of-the-art report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, R. H.; Lehman, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The management of software engineering projects in the aerospace industry was investigated. The survey assessed such features as contract type, specification preparation techniques, software documentation required by customers, planning and cost-estimating, quality control, the use of advanced program practices, software tools and test procedures, the education levels of project managers, programmers and analysts, work assignment, automatic software monitoring capabilities, design and coding reviews, production times, success rates, and organizational structure of the projects.

  4. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  5. Keeping it Together: Advanced algorithms and software for magma dynamics (and other coupled multi-physics problems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M.; Wilson, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    A quantitative theory of magma production and transport is essential for understanding the dynamics of magmatic plate boundaries, intra-plate volcanism and the geochemical evolution of the planet. It also provides one of the most challenging computational problems in solid Earth science, as it requires consistent coupling of fluid and solid mechanics together with the thermodynamics of melting and reactive flows. Considerable work on these problems over the past two decades shows that small changes in assumptions of coupling (e.g. the relationship between melt fraction and solid rheology), can have profound changes on the behavior of these systems which in turn affects critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in exploring and understanding this physically rich system requires a computational framework that allows more flexible, high-level description of multi-physics problems as well as increased flexibility in composing efficient algorithms for solution of the full non-linear coupled system. Fortunately, recent advances in available computational libraries and algorithms provide a platform for implementing such a framework. We present results from a new model building system that leverages functionality from both the FEniCS project (www.fenicsproject.org) and PETSc libraries (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) along with a model independent options system and gui, Spud (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud). Key features from FEniCS include fully unstructured FEM with a wide range of elements; a high-level language (ufl) and code generation compiler (FFC) for describing the weak forms of residuals and automatic differentiation for calculation of exact and approximate jacobians. The overall strategy is to monitor/calculate residuals and jacobians for the entire non-linear system of equations within a global non-linear solve based on PETSc's SNES routines. PETSc already provides a wide range of solvers and preconditioners, from

  6. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  7. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  8. Effect of practice management softwares among physicians of developing countries with special reference to Indian scenario by Mixed Method Technique

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Currently, many cheaper “practice management software” (PMS) are available in developing countries including India; despite their availability and benefits, its penetration and usage vary from low to moderate level, justifying the importance of this study area. Materials and Methods: First preferred reporting items for systematic-review and meta-analysis (2009) guidelines were considered; followed by an extensive systematic-review of available studies in literature related to developing countries, on key search term from main abstracting databases: PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, BIO-MED Central, Cochrane Library, world CAT-library till 15 June 2014; where any kind of article whether published or unpublished, in any sort or form or any language indicating the software usage were included. Thereafter, meta-analysis on Indian studies revealing the magnitude of usage in Indian scenario by Open Meta-(analyst) software using binary random effects (REs) model was done. Studies from developed countries were excluded in our study. Results: Of 57 studies included in a systematic review from developing countries, only 4 Indian studies were found eligible for meta-analysis. RE model revealed although not-significant results (total participants = 243,526; range: 100–226,228, overall odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval = P < 0.05 and tests for heterogeneity: Q [df = 3] = 0.8 Het. P = 0.85). The overall magnitude of usage of PMS on Indian physicians practice was however found between 10% and 45%. Conclusion: Although variable and nonsignificant effect of usage of PM software on practice of physicians in developing countries like India was found; there is a need to recognize the hidden potential of this system. Hence, more in-depth research in future needs to be done, in order to find a real impact of this system. PMID:25949969

  9. APPLICATION OF ADVANCED IN VITRO TECHNIQUES TO MEASURE, UNDERSTAND AND PREDICT THE KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a research program in metabolism that involves numerous collaborators across EPA as well as other federal and academic labs. A primary goal is to develop and apply advanced in vitro techniques to measure, understand and predict the kinetics and mechanisms of xen...

  10. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization

  11. Landslide detection and long-term monitoring in urban area by means of advanced interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Liguori, Vincenzo; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    This work aims at illustrating the potential of advanced interferometric techniques for detection and long-term monitoring of landslide ground deformations at local scale. Space-born InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been successfully exploited in recent years to measure ground deformations associated to processes with slow kinematics, such as landslides, tectonic motions, subsidence or volcanic activity, thanks to both the standard single-interferogram approach (centimeter accuracy) and advanced time-series analyses of long temporal radar satellite data stacks (millimeter accuracy), such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques. In order to get a complete overview and an in-depth knowledge of an investigated landslide, InSAR satellite measures can support conventional in situ data. This methodology allows studying the spatial pattern and the temporal evolution of ground deformations, improving the spatial coverage and overcoming issues related to installation of ground-based instrumentation and data acquisition in unstable areas. Here we describe the application of the above-mentioned methodology on the test area of Agrigento, Sicily (Italy), affected by hydrogeological risk. The town is located in Southern Sicily, at edge of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt, on the Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene sediments of the Gela Nappe. Ground instabilities affect the urban area and involve the infrastructures of its NW side, such as the Cathedral, the Seminary and many private buildings. An integration between InSAR analyses and conventional field investigations (e.g. structural damages and fractures surveys) was therefore carried out, to support Regional Civil Protection authorities for emergency management and risk mitigation. The results of InSAR analysis highlighted a general stability of the whole urban area between 1992 and 2007. However, very high deformation rates (up to 10-12 mm/y) were identified in 1992-2000 in the W slope of the

  12. [Recent advances of anastomosis techniques of esophagojejunostomy after laparoscopic totally gastrectomy in gastric tumor].

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Ke, Chongwei

    2015-05-01

    The esophageal jejunum anastomosis of the digestive tract reconstruction techniques in laparoscopic total gastrectomy includes two categories: circular stapler anastomosis techniques and linear stapler anastomosis techniques. Circular stapler anastomosis techniques include manual anastomosis method, purse string instrument method, Hiki improved special anvil anastomosis technique, the transorally inserted anvil(OrVil(TM)) and reverse puncture device technique. Linear stapler anastomosis techniques include side to side anastomosis technique and Overlap side to side anastomosis technique. Esophageal jejunum anastomosis technique has a wide selection of different technologies with different strengths and the corresponding limitations. This article will introduce research progress of laparoscopic total gastrectomy esophagus jejunum anastomosis from both sides of the development of anastomosis technology and the selection of anastomosis technology.

  13. Revealing text in a complexly rolled silver scroll from Jerash with computed tomography and advanced imaging software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann Barfod, Gry; Larsen, John Møller; Lichtenberger, Achim; Raja, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Throughout Antiquity magical amulets written on papyri, lead and silver were used for apotropaic reasons. While papyri often can be unrolled and deciphered, metal scrolls, usually very thin and tightly rolled up, cannot easily be unrolled without damaging the metal. This leaves us with unreadable results due to the damage done or with the decision not to unroll the scroll. The texts vary greatly and tell us about the cultural environment and local as well as individual practices at a variety of locations across the Mediterranean. Here we present the methodology and the results of the digital unfolding of a silver sheet from Jerash in Jordan from the mid-8th century CE. The scroll was inscribed with 17 lines in presumed pseudo-Arabic as well as some magical signs. The successful unfolding shows that it is possible to digitally unfold complexly folded scrolls, but that it requires a combination of the know-how of the software and linguistic knowledge.

  14. Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1999-06-01

    This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology.

  15. Computer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and development of computer software. Programing, programing languages, types of software (including dynamic spreadsheets), and software of the future are among the topics considered. (JN)

  16. Integration of case tools for software project management

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.; Shinagawa, Y.; Khan, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    Building and maintenance of high quality large software projects is a complex and difficult process. Tools employing software metrics are becoming an effective aid for management of such large projects. In this paper, we briefly trace the evolution of such tools from their beginnings up until the current trends of integrated CASE tools. We present a generic integrated CASE environment incorporating a formal set of software metrics with a suite of advanced analytic techniques. The proposed integrated CASE environment is an enhancement of currently used tools, and can enable more efficient and cost-effective management of large and complex software projects.

  17. Advanced remote sensing techniques for forestry applications: an application case in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis; Romeijn, Paul P.; Supit, Iwan; Demargne, Louis

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper reports the operational implementation of new techniques for the exploitation of remote sensing data (SAR and optical) in the framework of forestry applications. In particular, we present a new technique for standing timber volume estimation. This technique is based on remote sensing knowledge (SAR and optical synergy) and forestry knowledge (forest structure models), proved fairly accurate. To illustrate the application of these techniques, an operational commercial case study regarding forest concessions in Sarawak is presented. Validation of this technique by comparison of the remote sensing results and the database of the customer has shown that this technique is fairly accurate.

  18. An advanced technique for speciation of organic nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, S.; Robinson, J.; Hays, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    threshold as water-soluble free AA, with an average concentration of 22 ± 9 ng m-3 (N=13). Following microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis, the total AA concentration in the forest environment increased significantly (70 ± 35 ng m-3) and additional compounds (methionine, isoleucine) were detected above the reporting threshold. The ability to quantify AA in aerosol samples without derivatization reduces time consuming preparation procedures while providing the advancement of selective mass determination that eliminates potential interferences associated with traditional fluorescence detection. This step forward in precise mass determination with the use of internal standardization, improves the confidence of compound identification. With the increasing focus on WSOC (including ON) characterization in the atmospheric science community, native detection by LC-MS (Q-TOF) will play a central role in determining the most direct approach to quantify an increasing fraction of the co-extracted polar organic compounds. Method application for further characterization of atmospheric ON will be discussed. Reference: Samy, S., Robinson, J., and M.D. Hays. "An Advanced LC-MS (Q-TOF) Technique for the Detection of Amino Acids in Atmospheric Aerosols", Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5238-2

  19. Fundus image fusion in EYEPLAN software: An evaluation of a novel technique for ocular melanoma radiation treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Daftari, Inder K.; Mishra, Kavita K.; O'Brien, Joan M.; and others

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate a novel approach for treatment planning using digital fundus image fusion in EYEPLAN for proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) planning for ocular melanoma. The authors used a prototype version of EYEPLAN software, which allows for digital registration of high-resolution fundus photographs. The authors examined the improvement in tumor localization by replanning with the addition of fundus photo superimposition in patients with macular area tumors. Methods: The new version of EYEPLAN (v3.05) software allows for the registration of fundus photographs as a background image. This is then used in conjunction with clinical examination, tantalum marker clips, surgeon's mapping, and ultrasound to draw the tumor contour accurately. In order to determine if the fundus image superimposition helps in tumor delineation and treatment planning, the authors identified 79 patients with choroidal melanoma in the macular location that were treated with PBRT. All patients were treated to a dose of 56 GyE in four fractions. The authors reviewed and replanned all 79 macular melanoma cases with superimposition of pretreatment and post-treatment fundus imaging in the new EYEPLAN software. For patients with no local failure, the authors analyzed whether fundus photograph fusion accurately depicted and confirmed tumor volumes as outlined in the original treatment plan. For patients with local failure, the authors determined whether the addition of the fundus photograph might have benefited in terms of more accurate tumor volume delineation. Results: The mean follow-up of patients was 33.6{+-}23 months. Tumor growth was seen in six eyes of the 79 macular lesions. All six patients were marginal failures or tumor miss in the region of dose fall-off, including one patient with both in-field recurrence as well as marginal. Among the six recurrences, three were managed by enucleation and one underwent retreatment with proton therapy. Three

  20. Techniques Optimized for Reducing Instabilities in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloys for Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Locci, Ivan E.; Garg, anita; Ritzert, Frank J.

    2002-01-01

    is a three-phase constituent composed of TCP and stringers of gamma phase in a matrix of gamma prime. An incoherent grain boundary separates the SRZ from the gammagamma prime microstructure of the superalloy. The SRZ is believed to form as a result of local chemistry changes in the superalloy due to the application of the diffusion aluminide bondcoat. Locally high surface stresses also appear to promote the formation of the SRZ. Thus, techniques that change the local alloy chemistry or reduce surface stresses have been examined for their effectiveness in reducing SRZ. These SRZ-reduction steps are performed on the test specimen or the turbine blade before the bondcoat is applied. Stressrelief heat treatments developed at NASA Glenn have been demonstrated to reduce significantly the amount of SRZ that develops during subsequent high-temperature exposures. Stress-relief heat treatments reduce surface stresses by recrystallizing a thin surface layer of the superalloy. However, in alloys with very high propensities to form SRZ, stress relief heat treatments alone do not eliminate SRZ entirely. Thus, techniques that modify the local chemistry under the bondcoat have been emphasized and optimized successfully at Glenn. One such technique is carburization, which changes the local chemistry by forming submicron carbides near the surface of the superalloy. Detailed characterizations have demonstrated that the depth and uniform distribution of these carbides are enhanced when a stress relief treatment and an appropriate surface preparation are employed in advance of the carburization treatment. Even in alloys that have the propensity to develop a continuous SRZ layer beneath the diffusion zone, the SRZ has been completely eliminated or reduced to low, manageable levels when this combination of techniques is utilized. Now that the techniques to mitigate SRZ have been established at Glenn, TCP phase formation is being emphasized in ongoing work under the UEET Program. The

  1. Investigation of Advanced Dose Verification Techniques for External Beam Radiation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asuni, Ganiyu Adeniyi

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have been introduced in radiation therapy to achieve highly conformal dose distributions around the tumour while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. These techniques have increased the need for comprehensive quality assurance tests, to verify that customized patient treatment plans are accurately delivered during treatment. in vivo dose verification, performed during treatment delivery, confirms that the actual dose delivered is the same as the prescribed dose, helping to reduce treatment delivery errors. in vivo measurements may be accomplished using entrance or exit detectors. The objective of this project is to investigate a novel entrance detector designed for in vivo dose verification. This thesis is separated into three main investigations, focusing on a prototype entrance transmission detector (TRD) developed by IBA Dosimetry, Germany. First contaminant electrons generated by the TRD in a 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. This study demonstrates that modification of the contaminant electron model in the treatment planning system is required for accurate patient dose calculation in buildup regions when using the device. Second, the ability of the TRD to accurately measure dose from IMRT and VMAT was investigated by characterising the spatial resolution of the device. This was accomplished by measuring the point spread function with further validation provided by MC simulation. Comparisons of measured and calculated doses show that the spatial resolution of the TRD allows for measurement of clinical IMRT fields within acceptable tolerance. Finally, a new general research tool was developed to perform MC simulations for VMAT and IMRT treatments, simultaneously tracking dose deposition in both the patient CT geometry and an arbitrary planar detector system, generalized to handle either entrance or exit orientations. It was

  2. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  3. Payload software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A software analysis was performed of known STS sortie payload elements and their associated experiments. This provided basic data for STS payload software characteristics and sizes. A set of technology drivers was identified based on a survey of future technology needs and an assessment of current software technology. The results will be used to evolve a planned approach to software technology development. The purpose of this plan is to ensure that software technology is advanced at a pace and a depth sufficient to fulfill the identified future needs.

  4. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  5. Emergency Department Visit Forecasting and Dynamic Nursing Staff Allocation Using Machine Learning Techniques With Readily Available Open-Source Software.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Gallardo-Antolín, Ascensión; Cuchí Alfaro, Miguel; Pérez Pérez, María Carmen; Montero Martínez, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Although emergency department visit forecasting can be of use for nurse staff planning, previous research has focused on models that lacked sufficient resolution and realistic error metrics for these predictions to be applied in practice. Using data from a 1100-bed specialized care hospital with 553,000 patients assigned to its healthcare area, forecasts with different prediction horizons, from 2 to 24 weeks ahead, with an 8-hour granularity, using support vector regression, M5P, and stratified average time-series models were generated with an open-source software package. As overstaffing and understaffing errors have different implications, error metrics and potential personnel monetary savings were calculated with a custom validation scheme, which simulated subsequent generation of predictions during a 4-year period. Results were then compared with a generalized estimating equation regression. Support vector regression and M5P models were found to be superior to the stratified average model with a 95% confidence interval. Our findings suggest that medium and severe understaffing situations could be reduced in more than an order of magnitude and average yearly savings of up to €683,500 could be achieved if dynamic nursing staff allocation was performed with support vector regression instead of the static staffing levels currently in use.

  6. Revealing text in a complexly rolled silver scroll from Jerash with computed tomography and advanced imaging software

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann Barfod, Gry; Larsen, John Møller; Raja, Rubina

    2015-01-01

    Throughout Antiquity magical amulets written on papyri, lead and silver were used for apotropaic reasons. While papyri often can be unrolled and deciphered, metal scrolls, usually very thin and tightly rolled up, cannot easily be unrolled without damaging the metal. This leaves us with unreadable results due to the damage done or with the decision not to unroll the scroll. The texts vary greatly and tell us about the cultural environment and local as well as individual practices at a variety of locations across the Mediterranean. Here we present the methodology and the results of the digital unfolding of a silver sheet from Jerash in Jordan from the mid-8th century CE. The scroll was inscribed with 17 lines in presumed pseudo-Arabic as well as some magical signs. The successful unfolding shows that it is possible to digitally unfold complexly folded scrolls, but that it requires a combination of the know-how of the software and linguistic knowledge. PMID:26648504

  7. Software for the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment-4/5 (CanX-4/-5) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Matthew Leigh

    The CanX-4 and CanX-5 mission currently under development at The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies Space Flight Laboratory UTIAS/SFL is a challenging formation flying technology demonstration. Its requirements of sub-metre control accuracy have yet to be realized with nanosatellites. Many large technical challenges must be addressed in order to ensure the success of the CanX-4/5 mission. This includes the development of software for an intersatellite communication system, integration and optimization of key formation flying algorithms onto the Payload On-Board Computer as well as the development of a Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator for full on-orbit mission simulations. This thesis will provide background knowledge of the Space Flight Laboratory and its activities, the CanX-4/5 mission, and finally highlight the authors contributions to overcoming each of these technical challenges and ensuring the success of the CanX-4 and CanX-5 mission.

  8. Status Report on the Development of Micro-Scheduling Software for the Advanced Outage Control Center Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn St. Germain; Kenneth Thomas; Ronald Farris; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet, refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are difficult to coordinate. Finding ways to improve refueling outage performance while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a R&D program which works with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current NPPs. The Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, this INL R&D project is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This report describes specific recent efforts to develop a capability called outage Micro-Scheduling. Micro-Scheduling is the ability to allocate and schedule outage support task resources on a sub-hour basis. Micro-Scheduling is the real-time fine-tuning of the outage schedule to react to the actual progress of the primary outage activities to ensure that support task resources are

  9. Beyond whole-body imaging: advanced imaging techniques of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, James; Raptis, Constantine A; McConathy, Jonathan E; Laforest, Richard; Siegel, Barry A; Woodard, Pamela K; Fowler, Kathryn

    2015-02-01

    PET/MRI is a hybrid imaging modality that is gaining clinical interest with the first Food and Drug Administration-approved simultaneous imaging system recently added to the clinical armamentarium. Several advanced PET/MRI applications, such as high-resolution anatomic imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, motion correction, and cardiac imaging, show great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this article is to highlight several advanced PET/MRI applications through case examples and review of the current literature.

  10. The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1985-01-01

    The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

  11. Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E; Caird, J A; Barty, C J

    2008-02-26

    Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.

  12. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1992-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES, AVHRR, and SSM/I sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  13. A Symphony of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Offers a descriptive table of databases that help higher education institutions orchestrate advancement operations. Information includes vendor, contact, software, price, database engine/server platform, recommended reporting tools, record capacity, and client type. (EV)

  14. Practical quality metrics for resolution enhancement software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Robert E.; Lucas, Kevin; Wynd, Raphael; Boatright, Mike; Thompson, Matthew A.; Reich, Alfred J.

    2003-06-01

    The past few years have seen an explosion in the application of software techniques to improve lithographic printing. Techniques such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks (PSM) increase resolution and CD control by distorting the mask pattern data from the original designed pattern. These software techniques are becoming increasingly complicated and non-intuitive; and the rate of complexity increase appears to be accelerating [1]. The benefits of these techniques to improve CD control and lower cost of ownership (COO) is balanced against the effort required to implement them and the additional problems they create. One severe problem for users of immature and complex software tools and methodologies is quality control, [2] as it ultimately becomes a COO problem. Software quality can be defined very simply as the ability of an application to meet detailed customer requirements. Software quality practice can be defined as the adherence to proven methods for planning, developing, testing and maintaining software. Although software quality for lithographic resolution enhancement is extremely important, the understanding and recognition of good software development practices among lithographers is generally poor. We therefore start by reviewing the essential terms and concepts of software quality that impact lithography and COO. We then propose methods by which semiconductor process and design engineers can estimate and compare the quality of the software tools and vendors they are evaluating or using. We include examples from advanced process technology resolution enhancement work that highlight the need for high-quality software practices, and show how to avoid many problems. Note that, although several authors have worked in software application development, our analysis here is somewhat of a black box analysis. The black box is the software development organization of an RET software supplier. Our access to actual developers within these

  15. Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

    2013-04-01

    For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR's, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR's DVH's as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment.

  16. Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR’s, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR’s DVH’s as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment. PMID:23776314

  17. [Advancement of colloidal gold chromatographic technique in screening of ochratoxin A].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-lu; Wang, Yu-ting; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Ming; Ou-Yang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, existing in a variety of foodstuffs and Chinese medicines. OTA is difficult to be detected in practice because of the characteristics such as trace amounts, toxicity, existing in complex matrices. In the numerous detection technologies, colloidal gold chromatographic techniques are highly sensitive, specific, cost-effective and user-friendly, and are being used increasingly for OTA screening. Recently, with the development of aptamer technology and its application in chromatographic technique, a newly colloidal gold aptamer chromatographic technique has been developed. This review elaborates the structures and principles of both traditional and newly colloidal gold chromatographic techniques, focuses on newly colloidal gold aptamer chromatographic technique, summarizes and compares their use in rapid detection of OTA. Finally, in order to provide a reference for better research of related work, the development trends of this novel technique are prospected.

  18. Adaptations of advanced safety and reliability techniques to petroleum and other industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The underlying philosophy of the general approach to failure reduction and control is presented. Safety and reliability management techniques developed in the industries which have participated in the U.S. space and defense programs are described along with adaptations to nonaerospace activities. The examples given illustrate the scope of applicability of these techniques. It is indicated that any activity treated as a 'system' is a potential user of aerospace safety and reliability management techniques.

  19. Biological Imaging Software Tools

    PubMed Central

    Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Berthold, Michael R.; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B.S.; Martone, Maryann E.; Murphy, Robert F.; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L.; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R.; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis, and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the challenges in that domain, and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open source options. PMID:22743775

  20. Euromech 260: Advanced non-intrusive experimental techniques in fluid and plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following topics are discussed: coherent anti-Stokes and elastic Rayleigh scattering; elastic scattering and non linear dynamics; fluorescence; molecular tracking techniques and particle image velocimetry.

  1. Cathodoluminescence Spectrum Imaging Software

    2011-04-07

    The software developed for spectrum imaging is applied to the analysis of the spectrum series generated by our cathodoluminescence instrumentation. This software provides advanced processing capabilities s such: reconstruction of photon intensity (resolved in energy) and photon energy maps, extraction of the spectrum from selected areas, quantitative imaging mode, pixel-to-pixel correlation spectrum line scans, ASCII, output, filling routines, drift correction, etc.

  2. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

    2014-05-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling.

  3. Automated Digital Image Analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2013-04-29

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples,but this technique may be susceptible to inter / intra observer variability, which may induce false positive / negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digitalimage analysis (ADIA) technique, for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number,islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation.Islets were isolated and purified from n=42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone,and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy, or automaticallyquantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope, with built in NIS-ElementsAdvanced Research (AR) software.The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible forengraftment compared to the standard manual method (P<0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(sup)2(/sup)≤0.91), and total islet number (r(sup)2(/sup)=0.88), and thus, increased to (r(sup)2(/sup)=0.93) when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intra-observer reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (P<0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method vs. the ADIA method(p<0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10-50 μm in size.Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments (Nikon) software is anunbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size ofeach islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of

  4. Seminar Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Society for Computer Simulation International is a professional technical society that distributes information on methodology techniques and uses of computer simulation. The society uses NETS, a NASA-developed program, to assist seminar participants in learning to use neural networks for computer simulation. NETS is a software system modeled after the human brain; it is designed to help scientists exploring artificial intelligence to solve pattern matching problems. Examples from NETS are presented to seminar participants, who can then manipulate, alter or enhance them for their own applications.

  5. Advanced karst hydrological and contaminant monitoring techniques for real-time and high resolution applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In telogenetic and soil-mantled karst aquifers, the movement of autogenic recharge through the epikarstic zone and into the regional aquifer can be a complex process and have implications for flooding, groundwater contamination, and other difficult to capture processes. Recent advances in instrument...

  6. Advance Appropriations: A Needless and Confusing Education Budget Technique. Federal Education Budget Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This report argues that advance appropriations serve no functional purpose for schools, but they create a loss of transparency, comparability, and simplicity in federal education budgeting. It allocates spending before future budgets have been established. The approach was originally used to skirt spending limits and budget procedures in place…

  7. A New Measurement Technique of the Characteristics of Nutrient Artery Canals in Tibias Using Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System Software

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiantao; Zhang, Hao; Yin, Peng; Su, Xiuyun; Zhao, Zhe; Zhou, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Li, Zhirui; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    We established a novel measurement technique to evaluate the anatomic information of nutrient artery canals using Mimics (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System) software, which will provide full knowledge of nutrient artery canals to assist in the diagnosis of longitudinal fractures of tibia and choosing an optimal therapy. Here we collected Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format of 199 patients hospitalized in our hospital. All three-dimensional models of tibia in Mimics were reconstructed. In 3-matic software, we marked five points in tibia which located at intercondylar eminence, tibia tuberosity, outer ostium, inner ostium, and bottom of medial malleolus. We then recorded Z-coordinates values of the five points and performed statistical analysis. Our results indicate that foramen was found to be absent in 9 (2.3%) tibias, and 379 (95.2%) tibias had single nutrient foramen. The double foramina was observed in 10 (2.5%) tibias. The mean of tibia length was 358 ± 22 mm. The mean foraminal index was 31.8%  ± 3%. The mean distance between tibial tuberosity and foramen (TFD) is 66 ± 12 mm. Foraminal index has significant positive correlation with TFD (r = 0.721, P < 0.01). Length of nutrient artery canals has significant negative correlation with TFD (r = −0.340, P < 0.01) and has significant negative correlation with foraminal index (r = −0.541, P < 0.01). PMID:26788498

  8. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  9. Time-frequency and advanced frequency estimation techniques for the investigation of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    Kopsinis, Yannis; Aboutanios, Elias; Waters, Dean A; McLaughlin, Steve

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, techniques for time-frequency analysis and investigation of bat echolocation calls are studied. Particularly, enhanced resolution techniques are developed and/or used in this specific context for the first time. When compared to traditional time-frequency representation methods, the proposed techniques are more capable of showing previously unseen features in the structure of bat echolocation calls. It should be emphasized that although the study is focused on bat echolocation recordings, the results are more general and applicable to many other types of signal. PMID:20136233

  10. Advanced techniques for noise source identification on a large generator unit

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.D. ); Yang, S.J. )

    1993-03-01

    Power station acoustic noise assessment, which has experienced increased environmental awareness and subsequently more stringent legislation for a number of years, has received and added stimulus due to the recent advent of powerful measurement and analysis techniques including sound intensity and coherence. These experimental techniques are explained and results, for a generator unit, illustrate their value in providing a unique, correlated insight into noise problems. This includes noise quantification, full explanation of site sound pressure level in terms of the various influences and major noise source identification. These techniques are widely applicable and an invaluable aid to any industrial noise problem.

  11. Time-frequency and advanced frequency estimation techniques for the investigation of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    Kopsinis, Yannis; Aboutanios, Elias; Waters, Dean A; McLaughlin, Steve

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, techniques for time-frequency analysis and investigation of bat echolocation calls are studied. Particularly, enhanced resolution techniques are developed and/or used in this specific context for the first time. When compared to traditional time-frequency representation methods, the proposed techniques are more capable of showing previously unseen features in the structure of bat echolocation calls. It should be emphasized that although the study is focused on bat echolocation recordings, the results are more general and applicable to many other types of signal.

  12. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  13. Nde of Advanced Automotive Composite Materials that Apply Ultrasound Infrared Thermography Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hyun; Park, Soo-Keun; Kim, Jae-Yeol

    The infrared thermographic nondestructive inspection technique is a quality inspection and stability assessment method used to diagnose the physical characteristics and defects by detecting the infrared ray radiated from the object without destructing it. Recently, the nondestructive inspection and assessment that use the ultrasound-infrared thermography technique are widely adopted in diverse areas. The ultrasound-infrared thermography technique uses the phenomenon that the ultrasound wave incidence to an object with cracks or defects on its mating surface generates local heat on the surface. The car industry increasingly uses composite materials for their lightweight, strength, and environmental resistance. In this study, the car piston passed through the ultrasound-infrared thermography technique for nondestructive testing, among the composite material car parts. This study also examined the effects of the frequency and power to optimize the nondestructive inspection.

  14. Recent advances in freeze-fracture electron microscopy: the replica immunolabeling technique

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Freeze-fracture electron microscopy is a technique for examining the ultrastructure of rapidly frozen biological samples by transmission electron microscopy. Of a range of approaches to freeze-fracture cytochemistry that have been developed and tried, the most successful is the technique termed freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL). In this technique, samples are frozen, fractured and replicated with platinum-carbon as in standard freeze fracture, and then carefully treated with sodium dodecylsulphate to remove all the biological material except a fine layer of molecules attached to the replica itself. Immunogold labeling of these molecules permits their distribution to be seen superimposed upon high resolution planar views of membrane structure. Examples of how this technique has contributed to our understanding of lipid droplet biogenesis and function are discussed. PMID:18385807

  15. Assessment of recent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, Christoph; Emmenegger, Lukas; Firdaus, Mohd; Hatakka, Juha; Heimann, Martin; Kozlova, Elena; Spain, T. Gerard; Steinbacher, Martin; van der Schoot, Marcel V.; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements were made almost exclusively using nondispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) techniques, respectively. Recently, commercially available instruments based on spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have become more widely available and affordable. This resulted in a widespread use of these techniques at many measurement stations. This paper is focused on the comparison between a CRDS "travelling instrument" that has been used during performance audits within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with instruments incorporating other, more traditional techniques for measuring CO2 and CH4 (NDIR and GC/FID). We demonstrate that CRDS instruments and likely other spectroscopic techniques are suitable for WMO/GAW stations and allow a smooth continuation of historic CO2 and CH4 time series. Moreover, the analysis of the audit results indicates that the spectroscopic techniques have a number of advantages over the traditional methods which will lead to the improved accuracy of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements.

  16. An overview on in situ micronization technique - An emerging novel concept in advanced drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K R; Prasanna Raju, Y; Harini Chowdary, V; Sushma, M; Vijay Kumar, N

    2014-09-01

    The use of drug powders containing micronized drug particles has been increasing in several pharmaceutical dosage forms to overcome the dissolution and bioavailability problems. Most of the newly developed drugs are poorly water soluble which limits dissolution rate and bioavailability. The dissolution rate can be enhanced by micronization of the drug particles. The properties of the micronized drug substance such as particle size, size distribution, shape, surface properties, and agglomeration behaviour and powder flow are affected by the type of micronization technique used. Mechanical communition, spray drying and supercritical fluid (SCF) technology are the most commonly employed techniques for production of micronized drug particles but the characteristics of the resulting drug product cannot be controlled using these techniques. Hence, a newer technique called in situ micronization is developed in order to overcome the limitations associated with the other techniques. This review summarizes the existing knowledge on in situ micronization techniques. The properties of the resulting drug substance obtained by in situ micronization were also compared.

  17. An overview on in situ micronization technique – An emerging novel concept in advanced drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, K.R.; Prasanna Raju, Y.; Harini Chowdary, V.; Sushma, M.; Vijay Kumar, N.

    2013-01-01

    The use of drug powders containing micronized drug particles has been increasing in several pharmaceutical dosage forms to overcome the dissolution and bioavailability problems. Most of the newly developed drugs are poorly water soluble which limits dissolution rate and bioavailability. The dissolution rate can be enhanced by micronization of the drug particles. The properties of the micronized drug substance such as particle size, size distribution, shape, surface properties, and agglomeration behaviour and powder flow are affected by the type of micronization technique used. Mechanical communition, spray drying and supercritical fluid (SCF) technology are the most commonly employed techniques for production of micronized drug particles but the characteristics of the resulting drug product cannot be controlled using these techniques. Hence, a newer technique called in situ micronization is developed in order to overcome the limitations associated with the other techniques. This review summarizes the existing knowledge on in situ micronization techniques. The properties of the resulting drug substance obtained by in situ micronization were also compared. PMID:25161371

  18. Three case reports of the metabolic and electroencephalographic changes during advanced Buddhist meditation techniques.

    PubMed

    Benson, H; Malhotra, M S; Goldman, R F; Jacobs, G D; Hopkins, P J

    1990-01-01

    To examine the extent to which advanced meditative practices might alter body metabolism and the electroencephalogram (EEG), we investigated three Tibetan Buddhist monks living in the Rumtek monastery in Sikkim, India. In a study carried out in February 1988, we found that during the practice of several different meditative practices, resting metabolism (VO2) could be both raised (up to 61%) and lowered (down to 64%). The reduction from rest is the largest ever reported. On the EEG, marked asymmetry in alpha and beta activity between the hemispheres and increased beta activity were present. From these three case reports, we conclude that advanced meditative practices may yield different alterations in metabolism (there are also forms of meditation that increase metabolism) and that the decreases in metabolism can be striking.

  19. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  20. Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for external cooling of an advanced reactor vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun

    Nucleate boiling is a well-recognized means for passively removing high heat loads (up to ˜106 W/m2) generated by a molten reactor core under severe accident conditions while maintaining relatively low reactor vessel temperature (<800 °C). With the upgrade and development of advanced power reactors, however, enhancing the nucleate boiling rate and its upper limit, Critical Heat Flux (CHF), becomes the key to the success of external passive cooling of reactor vessel undergoing core disrupture accidents. In the present study, two boiling heat transfer enhancement methods have been proposed, experimentally investigated and theoretically modelled. The first method involves the use of a suitable surface coating to enhance downward-facing boiling rate and CHF limit so as to substantially increase the possibility of reactor vessel surviving high thermal load attack. The second method involves the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design to facilitate the process of steam venting through the annular channel formed between the reactor vessel and the insulation structure, which in turn would further enhance both the boiling rate and CHF limit. Among the various available surface coating techniques, metallic micro-porous layer surface coating has been identified as an appropriate coating material for use in External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) based on the overall consideration of enhanced performance, durability, the ease of manufacturing and application. Since no previous research work had explored the feasibility of applying such a metallic micro-porous layer surface coating on a large, downward facing and curved surface such as the bottom head of a reactor vessel, a series of characterization tests and experiments were performed in the present study to determine a suitable coating material composition and application method. Using the optimized metallic micro-porous surface coatings, quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were conducted in the Sub

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Advanced fit technique for astrophysical spectra (Bukvic+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukvic, S.; Spasojevic, Dj.; Zigman, V.

    2007-11-01

    Simple FORTRAN90 Demo of a complete program that uses DLSFIT routine (Bukvic, Spasojevic, and Zigman) for robust data fitting. The program consists of: 1) main program: DLSFITAADemo 2) subroutine DLSFIT, which performs DSL data fitting, 3) subroutine fit - WLS "working engine" for DLSFIT, 4) copyright protected FORTRAN77 subroutines: mrqmin, mrqcof, lfit, covsrt, gaussj, zbrent from: Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, by Press, W.H., Teukolsky, S.A., Vetterling, W.T., and Flannery, B.P., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001, software version 2.10: available on WEB site: http//www.nr.com Tested with Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6 and Intel 9.1 compilers. Should be compiled with REAL(8) as default real kind. (1 data file).

  2. Comparison of analysis techniques for aerial image metrology on advanced photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seolchong; Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yang, Hyunjo; Schulz, Kristian; Garetto, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    The standard method for defect disposition and verification of repair success in the mask shop is through the utilization of the aerial imaging platform, AIMSTM. The CD (Critical Dimension) deviation of the defective or repaired region as well as the pattern shift can be calculated by comparing the measured aerial images of this region to that of a reference. Through this analysis it can be determined if the defect or repaired region will be printed on the wafer under the illumination conditions of the scanner. The analysis of the measured aerial images from the AIMSTM are commonly performed manually using the analysis software available on the system or with the help of an analysis software called RV (Repair Verification). Because the process is manual, it is not standardized and is subject to operator variations. This method of manual aerial image analysis is time consuming, dependent on the skill level of the operator and significantly contributes to the overall mask manufacturing process flow. AutoAnalysis (AA), the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, provides fully automated analysis of AIMSTM aerial images [1] and runs in parallel to the measurement of the aerial images. In this paper, we investigate the initial AutoAnalysis performance compared to the conventional method using RV and its application to a production environment. The evaluation is based on the defect CD of three pattern types: contact holes, dense line and spaces and peripheral structure. The defect analysis results for different patterns and illumination conditions will be correlated and challenges in transitioning to the new approach will be discussed.

  3. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  4. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  5. Advanced Endovascular Approaches in the Management of Challenging Proximal Aortic Neck Anatomy: Traditional Endografts and the Snorkel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Quatromoni, Jon G.; Orlova, Ksenia; Foley, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in endovascular technology, and access to this technology, have significantly changed the field of vascular surgery. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), in which endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has replaced the traditional open surgical approach in patients with suitable anatomy. However, approximately one-third of patients presenting with AAAs are deemed ineligible for standard EVAR because of anatomic constraints, the majority of which involve the proximal aneurysmal neck. To overcome these challenges, a bevy of endovascular approaches have been developed to either enhance stent graft fixation at the proximal neck or extend the proximal landing zone to allow adequate apposition to the aortic wall and thus aneurysm exclusion. This article is composed of two sections that together address new endovascular approaches for treating aortic aneurysms with difficult proximal neck anatomy. The first section will explore advancements in the traditional EVAR approach for hostile neck anatomy that maximize the use of the native proximal landing zone; the second section will discuss a technique that was developed to extend the native proximal landing zone and maintain perfusion to vital aortic branches using common, off-the-shelf components: the snorkel technique. While the techniques presented differ in terms of approach, the available clinical data, albeit limited, support the notion that they may both have roles in the treatment algorithm for patients with challenging proximal neck anatomy. PMID:26327748

  6. Advanced Endovascular Approaches in the Management of Challenging Proximal Aortic Neck Anatomy: Traditional Endografts and the Snorkel Technique.

    PubMed

    Quatromoni, Jon G; Orlova, Ksenia; Foley, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in endovascular technology, and access to this technology, have significantly changed the field of vascular surgery. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), in which endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has replaced the traditional open surgical approach in patients with suitable anatomy. However, approximately one-third of patients presenting with AAAs are deemed ineligible for standard EVAR because of anatomic constraints, the majority of which involve the proximal aneurysmal neck. To overcome these challenges, a bevy of endovascular approaches have been developed to either enhance stent graft fixation at the proximal neck or extend the proximal landing zone to allow adequate apposition to the aortic wall and thus aneurysm exclusion. This article is composed of two sections that together address new endovascular approaches for treating aortic aneurysms with difficult proximal neck anatomy. The first section will explore advancements in the traditional EVAR approach for hostile neck anatomy that maximize the use of the native proximal landing zone; the second section will discuss a technique that was developed to extend the native proximal landing zone and maintain perfusion to vital aortic branches using common, off-the-shelf components: the snorkel technique. While the techniques presented differ in terms of approach, the available clinical data, albeit limited, support the notion that they may both have roles in the treatment algorithm for patients with challenging proximal neck anatomy.

  7. A numerical technique for calculation of the noise of high-speed propellers with advanced blade geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nystrom, P. A.; Farassat, F.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical technique and computer program were developed for the prediction of the noise of propellers with advanced geometry. The blade upper and lower surfaces are described by a curvilinear coordinate system, which was also used to divide the blade surfaces into panels. Two different acoustic formulations in the time domain were used to improve the speed and efficiency of the noise calculations: an acoustic formualtion with the Doppler factor singularity for panels moving at subsonic speeds and the collapsing sphere formulation for panels moving at transonic or supersonic speeds. This second formulation involves a sphere which is centered at the observer position and whose radius decreases at the speed of sound. The acoustic equation consisted of integrals over the curve of intersection for both the sphere and the panels on the blade. Algorithms used in some parts of the computer program are discussed. Comparisons with measured acoustic data for two model high speed propellers with advanced geometry are also presented.

  8. Advanced Analytical Techniques for the Measurement of Nanomaterials in Food and Agricultural Samples: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanotechnology offers substantial prospects for the development of state-of-the-art products and applications for agriculture, water treatment, and food industry. Profuse use of nanoproducts will bring potential benefits to farmers, the food industry, and consumers, equally. However, after end-user applications, these products and residues will find their way into the environment. Therefore, discharged nanomaterials (NMs) need to be identified and quantified to determine their ecotoxicity and the levels of exposure. Detection and characterization of NMs and their residues in the environment, particularly in food and agricultural products, have been limited, as no single technique or method is suitable to identify and quantify NMs. In this review, we have discussed the available literature concerning detection, characterization, and measurement techniques for NMs in food and agricultural matrices, which include chromatography, flow field fractionation, electron microscopy, light scattering, and autofluorescence techniques, among others. PMID:23483065

  9. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  10. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  11. Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques for characterizing the properties of cellulosic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Ryan Bradley

    The measurement of nanomechanical properties is of great interest to science and industry. Key to progress in this area is the development of new techniques and analysis methods to identify, measure, and quantify these properties. In this dissertation, new data analysis methods and experimental techniques for measuring nanomechanical properties with the atomic force microscope (AFM) are considered. These techniques are then applied to the study of cellulose nanoparticles, an abundant, plant derived nanomaterial. Quantifying uncertainty is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nano-engineered materials and products. However, rigorous uncertainty quantification is rarely applied for material property measurements with the AFM. A framework is presented to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. This method is demonstrated by quantifying uncertainty in force displacement AFM based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of tunicate cellulose nanocrystals. Next, a more comprehensive study of different types of cellulose nanoparticles is undertaken with contact resonance (CR) AFM. CR-AFM is a dynamic AFM technique that exploits the resonance frequency of the AFM cantilever while it is permanent contact with the sample surface to predict nanomechanical properties. This technique offers improved measurement sensitivity over static AFM methods for some material systems. The effects of cellulose source material and processing technique on the properties of cellulose nanoparticles are compared. Finally, dynamic AFM cantilever vibration shapes are studied. Many AFM modes exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in permanent contact with a sample to extract local material properties. A common challenge to these modes is that they assume a certain shape of cantilever vibration, which is not accessible in

  12. Image enhancement and advanced information extraction techniques for ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Nalepka, R. F.; Sarno, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was demonstrated and concluded that: (1) the atmosphere has significant effects on ERTS MSS data which can seriously degrade recognition performance; (2) the application of selected signature extension techniques serve to reduce the deleterious effects of both the atmosphere and changing ground conditions on recognition performance; and (3) a proportion estimation algorithm for overcoming problems in acreage estimation accuracy resulting from the coarse spatial resolution of the ERTS MSS, was able to significantly improve acreage estimation accuracy over that achievable by conventional techniques, especially for high contrast targets such as lakes and ponds.

  13. Advanced computer techniques for inverse modeling of electric current in cardiac tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Romero, L.A.; Diegert, C.F.

    1996-08-01

    For many years, ECG`s and vector cardiograms have been the tools of choice for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac conduction problems, such as found in reentrant tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Through skillful analysis of these skin-surface measurements of cardiac generated electric currents, a physician can deduce the general location of heart conduction irregularities. Using a combination of high-fidelity geometry modeling, advanced mathematical algorithms and massively parallel computing, Sandia`s approach would provide much more accurate information and thus allow the physician to pinpoint the source of an arrhythmia or abnormal conduction pathway.

  14. Recent Advances in Nanobiotechnology and High-Throughput Molecular Techniques for Systems Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Ahn, Eun Hyun; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based tools are beginning to emerge as promising platforms for quantitative high-throughput analysis of live cells and tissues. Despite unprecedented progress made over the last decade, a challenge still lies in integrating emerging nanotechnology-based tools into macroscopic biomedical apparatuses for practical purposes in biomedical sciences. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and limitations in the analysis and control of mechanical, biochemical, fluidic, and optical interactions in the interface areas of nanotechnology-based materials and living cells in both in vitro and in vivo settings. PMID:24258011

  15. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  16. Principles and techniques in the design of ADMS+. [advanced data-base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Kang, Hyunchul

    1986-01-01

    'ADMS+/-' is an advanced data base management system whose architecture integrates the ADSM+ mainframe data base system with a large number of work station data base systems, designated ADMS-; no communications exist between these work stations. The use of this system radically decreases the response time of locally processed queries, since the work station runs in a single-user mode, and no dynamic security checking is required for the downloaded portion of the data base. The deferred update strategy used reduces overhead due to update synchronization in message traffic.

  17. Precision bone and muscle loss measurements by advanced, multiple projection DEXA (AMPDXA) techniques for spaceflight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, H. K. Jr; Beck, T. J.; Feldmesser, H. S.; Magee, T. C.; Spisz, T. S.; Pisacane, V. L.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced, multiple projection, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanner system is under development. The AMPDXA is designed to make precision bone and muscle loss measurements necessary to determine the deleterious effects of microgravity on astronauts as well as develop countermeasures to stem their bone and muscle loss. To date, a full size test system has been developed to verify principles and the results of computer simulations. Results indicate that accurate predictions of bone mechanical properties can be determined from as few as three projections, while more projections are needed for a complete, three-dimensional reconstruction. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced retrieval method in satellite remote sensing atmosphere: the technique of computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Xun, Yulong

    1998-08-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a modern medical diagnostic technique in which x-ray transmission measurements at numerous angles through the human body are processed by computer to produce cross-sectional pictures of the body. This technique also has found applications in such diverse fields as materials testing, astronomy, microscopy, image processing and oceanography.In this paper, a modification of this technique, using emitted IR or microwave radiation instead of transmitted x-ray radiation, can be applied to satellite radiance measurements taken along the orbital track at various angles. The channels of IR sensors for the CT retrieval are selected from HITRAN Database, and analyzed by Eigen-value analysis. We discuss in detail the effect retrieval result of CT technique form projection-angle. Finally, using the balloon sounding data, the result of CT are compared with the result of conventional method. Because the advantage over conventional remote sensing methods is the additional information acquired by viewing a given point in the atmosphere at several angles as well as several frequencies. The results show that the temperature profiles by CT retrieval are better than the conventional method.

  19. Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

  20. Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Aziz, Khalid

    2001-08-23

    Research results for the second year of this project on the development of improved modeling techniques for non-conventional (e.g., horizontal, deviated or multilateral) wells were presented. The overall program entails the development of enhanced well modeling and general simulation capabilities. A general formulation for black-oil and compositional reservoir simulation was presented.