Science.gov

Sample records for advanced solid-core nuclear

  1. The solid-core heat-exchanger nuclear rocket program

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    As measured by the results of its accomplishments, the nuclear rocket program was a success. Why, then, was it cancelled? In my opinion, the cancellation resulted from the success of the Apollo program. President Kennedy declared that putting a man on the moon by 1969 would be a national objective. Upon the Apollo program`s completion, space spectaculars lost their attraction, and the manned exploration of Mars, which could have been accomplished with nuclear rockets, was shelved. Perhaps another generation of physicists and engineers will experience the thrill and satisfaction of participating in a nuclear-propulsion-based program for space exploration in decades to come.

  2. Multiphysics Computational Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational heat transfer methodology to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine - the Small Engine. In addition, the effects of power profile and hydrogen conversion on heat transfer efficiency and thrust performance were also investigated. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics platform, while formulations of conjugate heat transfer were implemented to describe the heat transfer from solid to hydrogen inside the solid-core reactor. The computational domain covers the entire thrust chamber so that the afore-mentioned heat transfer effects impact the thrust performance directly. The result shows that the computed core-exit gas temperature, specific impulse, and core pressure drop agree well with those of design data for the Small Engine. Finite-rate chemistry is very important in predicting the proper energy balance as naturally occurring hydrogen decomposition is endothermic. Locally strong hydrogen conversion associated with centralized power profile gives poor heat transfer efficiency and lower thrust performance. On the other hand, uniform hydrogen conversion associated with a more uniform radial power profile achieves higher heat transfer efficiency, and higher thrust performance.

  3. Multiphysics Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics methodology. Formulations for heat transfer in solids and porous media were implemented and anchored. A two-pronged approach was employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of hydrogen dissociation and recombination on heat transfer and thrust performance. The formulations and preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

  4. Lunar Nuclear Power Plant With Solid Core Reactor, Heatpipes and Thermoelectric Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ring, Peter J.; Brown, Neil; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bass, John C.

    2008-01-21

    This is a lunar nuclear power plant with the advantages of minimum mass, with no moving parts, no pumped liquid coolant, a solid metal rugged core, with no single point of failure. The electrical output is 100 kilowatts with a 500 kilowatt thermal reactor. The thermoelectric converters surround the potassium heatpipes from the core and water heatpipes surround the converter and connect to the radiator. The solid core reactor is made from HT9 alloy. The fuel is uranium oxide with 90% enrichment. The thermoelectric converter is bonded to the outside of the 1.10 inch ID heat pipe and is 30 inches long. The thermoelectric couple is Si/SiGe-Si/SiC Quantum Well with over 20% efficiency with an 890 K hot side and a 490 K cold side and produces 625 Watts. 176 converters produce 110 kWe. With less than 10% loss in controls this yields 100 kWe for use. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is designed and fabricated by HIPing to keep brittle materials in compression and to ensure conductivity. The solid core is fabricated by machining the heatpipe tubes with 6 grooves that are diffusion bonded together by HIPing to form the fuel tubes. The maximum temperature of the heat pipes is 940 K and the return flow temperature is 890 K. The reactor core is hexagonal shaped, 61 cm. wide and 76.2 cm high with 12 rotating control drums surrounding it. There is shielding to protect components and human habitation. The radiator is daisy shaped at 45 degrees with each petal 5.5 meters long. The design life is ten years.

  5. Lunar Nuclear Power Plant With Solid Core Reactor, Heatpipes and Thermoelectric Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ring, Peter J.; Brown, Neil; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bass, John C.

    2008-01-01

    This is a lunar nuclear power plant with the advantages of minimum mass, with no moving parts, no pumped liquid coolant, a solid metal rugged core, with no single point of failure. The electrical output is 100 kilowatts with a 500 kilowatt thermal reactor. The thermoelectric converters surround the potassium heatpipes from the core and water heatpipes surround the converter and connect to the radiator. The solid core reactor is made from HT9 alloy. The fuel is uranium oxide with 90% enrichment. The thermoelectric converter is bonded to the outside of the 1.10 inch ID heat pipe and is 30 inches long. The thermoelectric couple is Si/SiGe-Si/SiC Quantum Well with over 20% efficiency with an 890 K hot side and a 490 K cold side and produces 625 Watts. 176 converters produce 110 kWe. With less than 10% loss in controls this yields 100 kWe for use. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is designed and fabricated by HIPing to keep brittle materials in compression and to ensure conductivity. The solid core is fabricated by machining the heatpipe tubes with 6 grooves that are diffusion bonded together by HIPing to form the fuel tubes. The maximum temperature of the heat pipes is 940 K and the return flow temperature is 890 K. The reactor core is hexagonal shaped, 61 cm. wide and 76.2 cm high with 12 rotating control drums surrounding it. There is shielding to protect components and human habitation. The radiator is daisy shaped at 45 degrees with each petal 5.5 meters long. The design life is ten years.

  6. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  7. Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D.; Houts, Mike

    2006-01-20

    The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D.; Houts, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding, (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Program ELM: A tool for rapid thermal-hydraulic analysis of solid-core nuclear rocket fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic analysis codes and presents a new code, Program ELM, for analysis of fuel elements. ELM is a concise computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in a nuclear thermal rocket reactor with axial coolant passages. The program was developed as a tool to swiftly evaluate various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations generated for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition which have been used in previous programs. Thus, a consistent comparison of these correlations was performed, as well as a comparison with data from the NRX reactor experiments from the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) project. This report describes the ELM Program algorithm, input/output, and validation efforts and provides a listing of the code.

  10. ELM - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SOLID-CORE NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ELM is a simple computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Written for the nuclear propulsion project of the Space Exploration Initiative, ELM evaluates the various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition. In the past, these correlations were found in different reactor analysis codes, but now comparisons are possible within one program. The logic of ELM is based on the one-dimensional conservation of energy in combination with Newton's Law of Cooling to determine the bulk flow temperature and the wall temperature across a control volume. Since the control volume is an incremental length of tube, the corresponding pressure drop is determined by application of the Law of Conservation of Momentum. The size, speed, and accuracy of ELM make it a simple tool for use in fuel element parametric studies. ELM is a machine independent program written in FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled on an IBM PC compatible running MS-DOS using Lahey FORTRAN 77, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, and a Sun4 series computer running SunOS UNIX. ELM requires 565K of RAM under SunOS 4.1, 360K of RAM under VMS 5.4, and 406K of RAM under MS-DOS. Because this program is machine independent, no executable is provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ELM is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. ELM was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  11. A Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor with Cylindrical Thermoelectric Converter Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Vaidyanathan, Sam

    2006-01-20

    A nuclear space power system that consists of a solid metal nuclear reactor core with heat pipes carrying energy to a cylindrical thermoelectric converter surrounding each of the heat pipes with a heat pipe radiator surrounding the thermoelectric converter is the most simple and reliable space power system. This means no single point of failure since each heat pipe and cylindrical converter is a separate power system and if one fails it will not affect the others. The heat pipe array in the solid core is designed so that if an isolated heat pipe or even two adjacent heat pipes fail, the remaining heat pipes will still transport the core heat without undue overheating of the uranium nitride fuel. The primary emphasis in this paper is on simplicity, reliability and fabricability of such a space nuclear power source. The core and heat pipes are made of Niobium 1% Zirconium alloy (Nb1Zr), with rhenium lined fuel tubes, bonded together by hot isostatic pressure (HIPing) and with sodium as the heat pipe working fluid, can be operated up to 1250K. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is made by depositing the constituents of the converter around a Nb1%Zr tube and encasing it in a Nb 1% Zr alloy tube and HIPing the structure to get final bonding and to produce residual compressive stresses in all brittle materials in the converter. A radiator heat pipe filled with potassium that operates at 850K is bonded to the outside of the cylindrical converter for cooling. The solid core heat pipe and cylindrical converter are mated by welding during the final assembly. A solid core reactor with 150 heat pipes with a 0.650-inch (1.65 cm) ID and a 30-inch (76.2 cm) length with an output of 8 Watts per square inch as demonstrated by the SP100 PD2 cell tests will produce about 80 KW of electrical power. An advanced solid core reactor made with molybdenum 47% rhenium alloy, with lithium heat pipes and the PD2 theoretical output of 11 watts per square inch or advanced higher

  12. A Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor with Cylindrical Thermoelectric Converter Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Vaidyanathan, Sam

    2006-01-01

    A nuclear space power system that consists of a solid metal nuclear reactor core with heat pipes carrying energy to a cylindrical thermoelectric converter surrounding each of the heat pipes with a heat pipe radiator surrounding the thermoelectric converter is the most simple and reliable space power system. This means no single point of failure since each heat pipe and cylindrical converter is a separate power system and if one fails it will not affect the others. The heat pipe array in the solid core is designed so that if an isolated heat pipe or even two adjacent heat pipes fail, the remaining heat pipes will still transport the core heat without undue overheating of the uranium nitride fuel. The primary emphasis in this paper is on simplicity, reliability and fabricability of such a space nuclear power source. The core and heat pipes are made of Niobium 1% Zirconium alloy (Nb1Zr), with rhenium lined fuel tubes, bonded together by hot isostatic pressure, (HIPing) and with sodium as the heat pipe working fluid, can be operated up to 1250K. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is made by depositing the constituents of the converter around a Nb1%Zr tube and encasing it in a Nb 1% Zr alloy tube and HIPing the structure to get final bonding and to produce residual compressive stresses in all brittle materials in the converter. A radiator heat pipe filled with potassium that operates at 850K is bonded to the outside of the cylindrical converter for cooling. The solid core heat pipe and cylindrical converter are mated by welding during the final assembly. A solid core reactor with 150 heat pipes with a 0.650-inch (1.65 cm) ID and a 30-inch (76.2 cm) length with an output of 8 Watts per square inch as demonstrated by the SP100 PD2 cell tests will produce about 80 KW of electrical power. An advanced solid core reactor made with molybdenum 47% rhenium alloy, with lithium heat pipes and the PD2 theoretical output of 11 watts per square inch or advanced higher

  13. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  14. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  15. A laminar solid core photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willig, R. L.

    2005-11-01

    A one-dimensional model is presented to explain the physics of solid core photonic crystal fibers. The model provides a clear way to demonstrate many of the interesting characteristics of these fibers: variation of cladding index with wavelength, endlessly single-mode operation, short wavelength index limit, long wavelength index limit, and variation of these properties with the air/silica fraction. The effective index is calculated for a laminar cladding consisting of periodic layers of alternating high and low index dielectrics. The waveguide model consists of the same periodic layers surrounding a high-index core through which most of the light propagates. The light is confined by total internal reflection. The model is shown to be an accurate analogue for a more complicated two-dimensional finned dielectric waveguide.

  16. Velocity-Controlled Magnetic Bearings with Solid Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. Ming; Walton, James

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for designing velocity-controlled magnetic bearings with laminated cores has been extended to those with solid cores. The eddy-current effect of the solid cores is modeled as an opposing magnetomotive force. The bearing control dynamics is formulated in a dimensionless fashion which can be readily reviewed on a root-locus plot for stability. This facilitates the controller design and tuning process for solid core magnetic bearings using no displacement sensors.

  17. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program`s goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station.

  18. Recent Advances in Nuclear Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine. PMID:27540423

  19. Advances in Nuclear Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Brent

    2006-03-01

    Homeland security requires low-cost, large-area detectors for locating and identifying weapons-usable nuclear materials and monitors for radiological isotopes that are more robust than current systems. Recent advances in electronics materials and nanotechnology, specifically organic semiconductors and inorganic quantum dots, offer potential improvements. We provide an overview of the physical processes involved in radiation detection using these new materials in the design of new device structures. Examples include recent efforts on quantum dots, as well as more traditional radiation-detecting materials such as CdZnTe and high-pressure xenon. Detector improvements demand not only new materials but also enhanced data-analysis tools that reduce false alarms and thus increase the quality of decisions. Additional computing power on hand-held platforms should enable the application of advanced algorithms to radiation-detection problems in the field, reducing the need to transmit data and thus delay analysis.

  20. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  1. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  2. Nuclear propulsion technology advanced fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Walter A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced fuels technology are presented. Topics covered include: nuclear thermal propulsion reactor and fuel requirements; propulsion efficiency and temperature; uranium fuel compounds; melting point experiments; fabrication techniques; and sintered microspheres.

  3. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  4. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  5. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  6. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  7. Nuclear material investigations by advanced analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Kuri, G.; Martin, M.; Froideval, A.; Cammelli, S.; Orlov, A.; Bertsch, J.; Pouchon, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize nuclear materials at the Paul Scherrer Institute during the last decade. The analysed materials ranged from reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, Zircaloy claddings to fuel samples. The processes studied included copper cluster build up in RPV steels, corrosion, mechanical and irradiation damage behaviour of PWR and BWR cladding materials as well as fuel defect development. The used advanced techniques included muon spin resonance spectroscopy for zirconium alloy defect characterization while fuel element materials were analysed by techniques derived from neutron and X-ray scattering and absorption spectroscopy.

  8. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkinen, M.; Mäkelä, K.; Vuorela, T.; Palovuori, K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  9. Comet Riders--Nuclear nomads to the stars

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr. ); Buden, D. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the potential role of an evolutionary family of advanced space nuclear power systems (solid core reactor, gas core reactor, and thermonulcear fusion systems) in the detailed exploration of Solar System comets and in the use of interstellar comes to support migratory journeys to the stars by both human beings and their smart robot systems. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  11. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  12. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  13. Proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pierpoint, Lara; Kazimi, Mujid; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2007-07-01

    A methodology for evaluating the proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycles is presented. The methodology, based on multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is intended as a computerized assessment for fuel cycles at their earliest stages of development (i.e. when detailed facility design information is not available). Preliminary results suggest that the methodology may be useful in identifying sources of proliferation vulnerability within different fuel cycles. Of the fuel cycles and segments studied, the fabrication step of the Once- Through fuel cycle and the reprocessing step of the MOX fuel cycle present the greatest vulnerability. The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel cycle with conversion ratio 0.0 appears to be the overall safest fuel cycle from a proliferation protection standpoint. (authors)

  14. Advancing Underground Nuclear Astrophysics with CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The advancement of experimental nuclear astrophysics techniques and the requirement of astrophysical network models for further nuclear data over greater energy ranges, has led to the requirement for the better understanding of nuclear reactions in stellar burning regimes. For those reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, the energy range of astrophysical interest is always problematic to probe. As reaction measurements approach the burning window of interest, the rapid drop off in cross-section hampers laboratory investigation. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13 C(α,n)16 O and 22 Ne(α,n)25 Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, SD. With thanks to funding provided by South Dakota Science and Technology Authority and the NSF under Grant Number PHY-1419765.

  15. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T; Klueh, Ronald L; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  16. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  17. Recent advances in understanding nuclear size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Richik N; Chen, Pan; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-04-25

    Size and shape are important aspects of nuclear structure. While normal cells maintain nuclear size within a defined range, altered nuclear size and shape are associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown if altered nuclear morphology contributes to pathology, and answering this question requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size and shape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nuclear morphology, focusing on nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell cycle, and potential links between nuclear size and size regulation of other organelles. We then discuss the functional significance of nuclear morphology in the context of early embryonic development. Looking toward the future, we review new experimental approaches that promise to provide new insights into mechanisms of nuclear size control, in particular microfluidic-based technologies, and discuss how altered nuclear morphology might impact chromatin organization and physiology of diseased cells. PMID:26963026

  18. Applications of Long Period Gratings in Solid Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmey, Boris T.; Luan, Feng; Lazaro, Jose M.; Fu, Libin; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Yeom, Dong-Il; Coen, Stephane; Wang, Aimin; Knight, Jonathan C.

    2008-10-01

    Solid core photonic bandgap fibres are photonic crystal fibres with a solid core surrounded by high index inclusions. The guidance properties of these fibers are very sensitive to the refractive index of the inclusions, making them widely tunable and making them very promising for sensing applications. Combining these fibers with long period gratings unleashes their full potential, enabling narrow band notch filters tunable over hundreds of nm, refractive index sensors with sensitivity comparable to that of surface plasmon resonance sensors, but also the extraction of the full band diagrams of these bandgap fibres.

  19. Advanced safeguards for the nuclear renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael C; Menlove, Howard O

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy provides not only the benefit of carbon-neutral electricity, but also the potential for proliferation concern as well. Nuclear safeguards implemented at the state level (domestic) and at the international level by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are essential for ensuring that nuclear materials are not misused and are thereby a critical component of the increased usage of nuclear energy. In the same way that the 1950's Atoms for Peace initiative provided the foundation for a robust research and development program in nuclear safeguards, the expansion of nuclear energy that is underway today provides the impetus to enter a new era of technical development in the safeguards community. In this paper, we will review the history of nuclear safeguards research and development as well future directions.

  20. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, S. D.

    2014-04-15

    The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  1. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  2. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-04-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

  3. Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Piepsz, A

    1995-04-01

    This review is devoted to some controversial topics in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine. In most cases, drug sedation can be avoided and the nuclear medicine procedure can be successfully achieved simply by taking the emotional life of the child into account. Factors such as past negative experiences (painful procedures, hospitalizations), unfamiliar environment (frightening examination room), physical aggressions related to the nuclear medicine procedure (intravenous injections, cystography), and the feeling of loss of parents' protection all contribute to the child's anxiety. People in charge of pediatric procedures should be adequately trained to be aware of these factors and to create the best environmental conditions to avoid unnecessarily frightening the child. Methods for measuring renal clearance in children are numerous. It is my aim to review the different methods proposed in the literature, including the nonradioisotopic methods, the reference radioisotopic methods, the various simplified algorithms using blood samples, and the gamma-camera methods. Gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy is a well-established procedure for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. However, despite the numerous advantages of this technique, it has not gained wide acceptance in the field of pediatric gastroenterology. This review focuses mainly on the comparison between scintigraphy and pH metry. Finally, the applications of 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylenamine brain single photon emission computer tomography in the field of pediatric neurology are still under development; this part of the review is an attempt to summarize the real contribution of this technique. PMID:7597419

  4. Exploratory study of several advanced nuclear-MHD power plant systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    In order for efficient multimegawatt closed cycle nuclear-MHD systems to become practical, long-life gas cooled reactors with exit temperatures of about 2500 K or higher must be developed. Four types of nuclear reactors which have the potential of achieving this goal are the NERVA-type solid core reactor, the colloid core (rotating fluidized bed) reactor, the 'light bulb' gas core reactor, and the 'coaxial flow' gas core reactor. Research programs aimed at developing these reactors have progressed rapidly in recent years so that prototype power reactors could be operating by 1980. Three types of power plant systems which use these reactors have been analyzed to determine the operating characteristics, critical parameters and performance of these power plants. Overall thermal efficiencies as high as 80% are projected, using an MHD turbine-compressor cycle with steam bottoming, and slightly lower efficiencies are projected for an MHD motor-compressor cycle.

  5. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. PMID:27400217

  6. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  7. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  9. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  10. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  12. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  13. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Advances and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the state-of-the-art in areas important to monitoring, current challenges, specific efforts that illustrate approaches addressing shortcomings in capabilities, and additional approaches that might be helpful. The exponential increase in the number of events that must be screened as magnitude thresholds decrease presents one of the greatest challenges. Ongoing efforts to exploit repeat seismic events using waveform correlation, subspace methods, and empirical matched field processing holds as much "game-changing" promise as anything being done, and further efforts to develop and apply such methods efficiently are critical. Greater accuracy of travel time, signal loss, and full waveform predictions are still needed to better locate and discriminate seismic events. Important developments include methods to model velocities using multiple types of data; to model attenuation with better separation of source, path, and site effects; and to model focusing and defocusing of surface waves. Current efforts to model higher frequency full waveforms are likely to improve source characterization while more effective estimation of attenuation from ambient noise holds promise for filling in gaps. Censoring in attenuation modeling is a critical problem to address. Quantifying uncertainty of discriminants is key to their operational use. Efforts to do so for moment tensor (MT) inversion are particularly important, and fundamental progress on the statistics of MT distributions is the most important advance needed in the near term in this area. Source physics is seeing great progress through theoretical, experimental, and simulation studies. The biggest need is to accurately predict the effects of source conditions on seismic generation. Uniqueness is the challenge here. Progress will depend on studies that probe what distinguishes mechanisms, rather than whether one of many possible mechanisms is consistent with some set of observations.

  14. Optical properties of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nonlinear absorbers.

    PubMed

    Butler, James J; Bowcock, Alec S; Sueoka, Stacey R; Montgomery, Steven R; Flom, Steven R; Friebele, E Joseph; Wright, Barbara M; Peele, John R; Pong, Richard G S; Shirk, James S; Hu, Jonathan; Menyuk, Curtis R; Taunay, T F

    2013-09-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the transmission of solid-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) filled with nonlinear absorbers shows a sharp change in the threshold for optical limiting and in leakage loss as the refractive index of the material in the holes approaches that of the glass matrix. Theoretical calculations of the mode profiles and leakage loss of the PCF are in agreement with experimental results and indicate that the change in limiting response is due to the interaction of the evanescent field of the guided mode with the nonlinear absorbers in the holes. PMID:24103943

  15. Relevance of advanced nuclear fusion research: Breakthroughs and obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    An in depth understanding of the collective modes that can be excited in a wide range of high-energy plasmas is necessary to advance nuclear fusion research in parallel with other fields that include space and astrophysics in particular. Important achievements are shown to have resulted from implementing programs based on this reality, maintaining a tight connection with different areas of investigations. This involves the undertaking of a plurality of experimental approaches aimed at understanding the physics of fusion burning plasmas. At present, the most advanced among these is the Ignitor experiment involving international cooperation, that is designed to investigate burning plasma regimes near ignition for the first time.

  16. Numerical analysis for a solid-core photonic crystal fiber with tunable zero dispersion wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos-García, A.; Sukoivanov, Igor A.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Guryev, Igor; Shulika, Oleksiy V.; Hernandez-García, J. C.; Ramos-Ortiz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Here we propose a simple design for a solid-core photonic crystal fiber made of silica by keeping the golden ratio (1.618) between pitch and air hole diameter Λ /d in a subset of six rings of air-holes with hexagonal arrangement. In the case when we have a pitch equal to one micron (Λ =1 μm), we need air-holes diameters d=0.618 μm in order to obtain the golden ratio parameter (Λ/d=1.618), and achieve two zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) points at 725 nm and 1055 nm; this gives us the possibility to use this fiber in supercontinuum generation using a laser emission close to that points. We analyzed a series of fibers using this relation and show the possibilities of tunable ZDW in a wide range of wavelengths from 725 nm to 2000 nm with low losses and small effective area. In agreement with the ZDW point needed, the geometry of the structure can be modified to the point of having only three rings of air holes that surround the solid core with low losses and good confinement mode. The design proposed here is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) with perfectly matched layers (PML), including the material dispersion directly into the model applying the Sellmeier's equation.

  17. (Advanced materials, robotics, and advanced computers for use in nuclear power plants)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1989-11-17

    The aim of the IAEA Technical Committee Workshop was to provide an opportunity to exchange information on the status of advances in technologies such as improved materials, robotics, and advanced computers already used or expected to be used in the design of nuclear power plants, and to review possible applications of advanced technologies in future reactor designs. Papers were given in these areas by Belgium, France, Mexico, Canada, Russia, India, and the United States. Notably absent from this meeting were Japan, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Scandinavian countries -- all of whom are working in the areas of interest to this meeting. Most of the workshop discussion, however, was focused on advanced controls (including human-machine interface and software development and testing) and electronic descriptions of power plants. Verification and validation of design was also a topic of considerable discussion. The traveler was surprised at the progress made in 3-D electronic images of nuclear power plants and automatic updating of these images to reflect as-built conditions. Canadian plants and one Mexican plant have used photogrammetry to update electronic drawings automatically. The Canadians also have started attaching other electronic data bases to the electronic drawings. These data bases include parts information and maintenance work. The traveler observed that the Advanced Controls Program is better balanced and more forward looking than other nuclear controls R D activities described. The French participants made this observation in the meeting and expressed interest in collaborative work in this area.

  18. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  19. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  20. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  1. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  2. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.P. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications.

  3. Current sensing using circularly birefringent twisted solid-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Beravat, R; Wong, G K L; Xi, X M; Frosz, M H; St J Russell, P

    2016-04-01

    Continuously twisted solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) exhibits pure circular birefringence (optical activity), making it ideal for current sensors based on the Faraday effect. By numerical analysis, we identify the PCF geometry for which the circular birefringence (which scales linearly with twist rate) is a maximum. For silica-air PCF, this occurs at a shape parameter (diameter-to-spacing ratio of the hollow channels) of 0.37 and a scale parameter (spacing-to-wavelength) of 1.51. This result is confirmed experimentally by testing a range of different structures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of twisted PCF as a current sensor, a length of fiber is placed on the axis of a 7.6 cm long solenoid, and the Faraday rotation is measured at different values of dc current. The system is then used to chart the wavelength dependence of the Verdet constant. PMID:27192315

  4. Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2013-09-01

    A polymer/liquid crystal-based fiber Bragg grating (PLC-FBG) is fabricated with visible two-beam holography by photo-induced modulation of a prepolymer/liquid crystal solution infiltrated into the hollow channels of a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process and effects related to the photonic bandgap guidance into the infiltrated PCF, and characterization of the PLC-FBG, are discussed. Experimental data presented here demonstrate that the liquid crystal inclusions of the PLC-FBG lead to high thermal and bending sensitivities. The microscopic behavior of the polymer/liquid crystal phase separation inside the PCF capillaries is examined using scanning electron microscopy, and is discussed further. PMID:23988927

  5. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vanita; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm2), high nonlinearity (36.34 W-1km-1) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  6. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-02-06

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as {approx} 16 We/kg and {approx} 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is {approx} 640 m2 and {approx} 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is {approx} 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is {approx} 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems.

  7. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-02-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ˜ 16 We/kg and ˜ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ˜ 640 m2 and ˜ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ˜ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ˜ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems.

  8. Advanced Space Nuclear Reactors from Fiction to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    The advanced nuclear power sources are used in a large variety of science fiction movies and novels, but their practical development is, still, in its early conceptual stages, some of the ideas being confirmed by collateral experiments. The novel reactor concept uses the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity, has electronic control of reactivity, being surrounded by a transmutation blanket and very thin shielding being small and light that at its very limit may be suitable to power an autonomously flying car. It also provides an improved fuel cycle producing minimal negative impact to environment. The key elements started to lose the fiction attributes, becoming viable actual concepts and goals for the developments to come, and on the possibility to achieve these objectives started to become more real because the theory shows that using the novel nano-technologies this novel reactor might be achievable in less than a century.

  9. Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator for advanced nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator, which aims to utilize for advanced nuclear engineering education, is being introduced to Nagoya Univ.. The simulator consists of the 'macroscopic' physics simulator and the 'microscopic' physics simulator. The former performs real time simulation of a whole nuclear power plant. The latter is responsible to more detail numerical simulations based on the sophisticated and precise numerical models, while taking into account the plant conditions obtained in the macroscopic physics simulator. Steady-state and kinetics core analyses, fuel mechanical analysis, fluid dynamics analysis, and sub-channel analysis can be carried out in the microscopic physics simulator. Simulation calculations are carried out through dedicated graphical user interface and the simulation results, i.e., spatial and temporal behaviors of major plant parameters are graphically shown. The simulator will provide a bridge between the 'theories' studied with textbooks and the 'physical behaviors' of actual nuclear power plants. (authors)

  10. A VISION of Advanced Nuclear System Cost Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Taylor; David E. Shropshire; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2008-08-01

    VISION (VerifIable fuel cycle SImulatiON) is the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s and Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Program’s nuclear fuel cycle systems code designed to simulate the US commercial reactor fleet. The code is a dynamic stock and flow model that tracks the mass of materials at the isotopic level through the entire nuclear fuel cycle. As VISION is run, it calculates the decay of 70 isotopes including uranium, plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products. VISION.ECON is a sub-model of VISION that was developed to estimate fuel cycle and reactor costs. The sub-model uses the mass flows generated by VISION for each of the fuel cycle functions (referred to as modules) and calculates the annual cost based on cost distributions provided by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report1. Costs are aggregated for each fuel cycle module, and the modules are aggregated into front end, back end, recycling, reactor, and total fuel cycle costs. The software also has the capability to perform system sensitivity analysis. This capability may be used to analyze the impacts on costs due to system uncertainty effects. This paper will provide a preliminary evaluation of the cost uncertainty affects attributable to 1) key reactor and fuel cycle system parameters and 2) scheduling variations. The evaluation will focus on the uncertainty on the total cost of electricity and fuel cycle costs. First, a single light water reactor (LWR) using mixed oxide fuel is examined to ascertain the effects of simple parameter changes. Three system parameters; burnup, capacity factor and reactor power are varied from nominal cost values and the affect on the total cost of electricity is measured. These simple parameter changes are measured in more complex scenarios 2-tier systems including LWRs with mixed fuel and fast recycling reactors using transuranic fuel. Other system parameters are evaluated and results will be presented in the paper. Secondly, the uncertainty due to

  11. Indicator system for advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  12. Advances in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background Drug discovery is a complex and unpredictable endeavor with a high failure rate. Current trends in the pharmaceutical industry have exasperated these challenges and are contributing to the dramatic decline in productivity observed over the last decade. The industrialization of science by forcing the drug discovery process to adhere to assembly-line protocols is imposing unnecessary restrictions, such as short project time-lines. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance are responding to these self-imposed limitations and are providing opportunities to increase the success rate of drug discovery. Objective/Method A review of recent advancements in NMR technology that have the potential of significantly impacting and benefiting the drug discovery process will be presented. These include fast NMR data collection protocols and high-throughput protein structure determination, rapid protein-ligand co-structure determination, lead discovery using fragment-based NMR affinity screens, NMR metabolomics to monitor in vivo efficacy and toxicity for lead compounds, and the identification of new therapeutic targets through the functional annotation of proteins by FAST-NMR. Conclusion NMR is a critical component of the drug discovery process, where the versatility of the technique enables it to continually expand and evolve its role. NMR is expected to maintain this growth over the next decade with advancements in automation, speed of structure calculation, in-cell imaging techniques, and the expansion of NMR amenable targets. PMID:20333269

  13. NUCLEAR DATA RESOURCES FOR ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    PRITYCHENKO, B.

    2006-06-05

    The mission of the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) includes collection, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear physics data for basic nuclear research and applied nuclear technologies. In 2004, to answer the needs of nuclear data users, NNDC completed a project to modernize storage and management of its databases and began offering new nuclear data Web services. Examples of nuclear reaction, nuclear structure and decay database applications along with a number of nuclear science codes are also presented.

  14. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar Bhardwaj, Vanita Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-28

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm{sup 2}), high nonlinearity (36.34 W{sup −1}km{sup −1}) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  15. Sealing capacity in vitro of thermoplasticized gutta-percha with a solid core endodontic filling technique.

    PubMed

    Valli, K S; Rafeek, R N; Walker, R T

    1998-04-01

    This study assessed the sealing capacity of two endodontic gutta-percha filling techniques. Thirty-four single-rooted fully developed teeth were endodontically accessed, instrumented and randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 12) and two control groups (n = 5). In Group A, root canals were obturated using a solid core thermoplastic technique (Densfil), in Group B and Group C (negative control) canals were obturated with laterally condensed gutta-percha, and in Group D (positive control) canals were left unobturated. AH-26 was used as the sealer. Two days later, the teeth were conventionally prepared for testing apical and coronal leakage, immersed in india ink for 5 days and subsequently cleared. The linear coronal and apical extent of dye penetration was measured under a light dissecting microscope. The mean apical leakage for Group A was 1.39 mm, and for Group B 2.76 mm, whereas the mean coronal leakage for Group A was 2.87 mm, and for Group B 4.03 mm. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). PMID:9558517

  16. Detailed theoretical investigation of bending properties in solid-core photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Murao, Tadashi; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, detailed properties of bent solid-core photonic bandgap fibers (SC-PBGFs) are investigated. We propose an approximate equivalent straight waveguide (ESW) formulation for photonic bandgap (PBG) edges, which is convenient to see qualitatively which radiation (centripetal or centrifugal radiation) mainly occurs and the impact of bend losses for an operating wavelength. In particular, we show that cladding modes induced by bending cause several complete or incomplete leaky mode couplings with the core mode and the resultant loss peaks. Moreover, we show that the field distributions of the cladding modes are characterized by three distinct types for blue-edge, mid-gap, and red-edge wavelengths in the PBG, which is explained by considering the cladding Bloch states or resonant conditions without bending. Next, we investigate the structural dependence of the bend losses. In particular, we demonstrate the bend-loss dependence on the number of the cladding rings. Finally, by investigating the impacts of the order of PBG and the core structure on the bend losses, we discuss a tight-bending structure. PMID:19399140

  17. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration. PMID:22317419

  18. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  19. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with a relatively low intensity (3  ×  1016 W cm-2) allowed the enhancing of the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the ‘ultraclean’ proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as a target. A combination of the specific target composition and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed the enhancing of the yield of alpha particles up to 109 per steradian. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long-laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  20. IMPULSE---an advanced, high performance nuclear thermal propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, L.J.; Disney, R.K.; Mangus, J.D. ); Gunn, S.A.; Zweig, H.R. )

    1993-01-10

    IMPULSE is an advanced nuclear propulsion engine for future space missions based on a novel conical fuel. Fuel assemblies are formed by stacking a series of truncated (U, Zr)C cones with non-fueled lips. Hydrogen flows radially inward between the cones to a central plenum connected to a high performance bell nozzle. The reference IMPULSE engine rated at 75,000 lb thrust and 1800 MWt weighs 1360 kg and is 3.65 meters in height and 81 cm in diameter. Specific impulse is estimated to be 1000 for a 15 minute life at full power. If longer life times are required, the operating temperature can be reduced with a concomitant decrease in specific impulse. Advantages of this concept include: well defined coolant paths without outlet flow restrictions; redundant orificing; very low thermal gradients and hence, thermal stresses, across the fuel elements; and reduced thermal stresses because of the truncated conical shape of the fuel elements.

  1. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  2. Solid core dipoles and switching power supplies: Lower cost light sources?

    SciTech Connect

    Benesch, Jay; Philip, Sarin

    2015-05-05

    As a result of improvements in power semiconductors, moderate frequency switching supplies can now provide the hundreds of amps typically required by accelerators with zero-to-peak noise in the kHz region ~ 0.06% in current or voltage mode. Modeling was undertaken using a finite electromagnetic program to determine if eddy currents induced in the solid steel of CEBAF magnets and small supplemental additions would bring the error fields down to the 5ppm level needed for beam quality. The expected maximum field of the magnet under consideration is 0.85 T and the DC current required to produce that field is used in the calculations. An additional 0.1% current ripple is added to the DC current at discrete frequencies 360 Hz, 720 Hz or 7200 Hz. Over the region of the pole within 0.5% of the central integrated BdL the resulting AC field changes can be reduced to less than 1% of the 0.1% input ripple for all frequencies, and a sixth of that at 7200 Hz. Doubling the current, providing 1.5 T central field, yielded the same fractional reduction in ripple at the beam for the cases checked. A small dipole was measured at 60, 120, 360 and 720 Hz in two conditions and the results compared to the larger model for the latter two frequencies with surprisingly good agreement. Thus, for light sources with aluminum vacuum vessels and full energy linac injection, the combination of solid core dipoles and switching power supplies may result in significant cost savings.

  3. Solid-Core, Gas-Cooled Reactor for Space and Surface Power

    SciTech Connect

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-20

    The solid-core, gas-cooled, Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) reactor is developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures. The Mo-14%Re reactor core is loaded with uranium nitride fuel in enclosed cavities, cooled by He-30%Xe, and sized to provide 550 kWth for seven years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector disassembles upon impact on water or soil. In addition to decreasing the reactor and shadow shield mass, Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials added to the reactor core ensure that it remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident. With a 0.1 mm thick boron carbide coating on the outside surface of the core block and 0.25 mm thick iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks, the reflector outer diameter is 43.5 cm and the combined reactor and shadow shield mass is 935.1 kg. With 12.5 atom% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide intersititial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating, the S and 4 reactor has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, and a total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 atom% europium-151 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter europium-151 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick europium-151 sesquioxide coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respect0011ive.

  4. NUCLEAR DATA NEEDS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS. A NEA NUCLEAR SCIENCE COMMITTEE INITIATIVE.

    SciTech Connect

    SALVATORES,J.M.; ALIBERTI, G.; PALMIOTTI, G.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; HERMANN, M.; TALOU, P.; KAWANO, T.; LEAL, L.; KONING, A.; KODELI, I.

    2007-04-22

    The Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee has established an International Subgroup to perform an activity in order to develop a systematic approach to define data needs for Gen-IV and, in general, for advanced reactor systems. A methodology, based on sensitivity analysis has been agreed and representative core configurations for Sodium, Gas and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (SFR, GFR, LFR) have been defined as well as a high burn-up VHTR and a high burn-up PWR. In the case of SFRs, both a TRU burner (called in fact SFR) and a core configuration with homogeneous recycling of not separated TRU (called EFR) have been considered.

  5. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  6. 187Re - 187Os Nuclear Geochronometry: Advancing Precambrian Chronostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2015-04-01

    ). This age is virtually the same as the previously reported isochrone age of 2501.1 ± 8.2 Ma [6]. However, as can be derived from the nucleogeochronometric TPI calculations, accuracy and precision of the initial 187Os/188Osratio are now significantly improved in comparison with the conventional isochrone approach. Since a TPI age can be calculated for a single drill core sample taken from the stratigraphic column, it may be concluded that 187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry is a powerful tool to significantly advance especially (but not only) Archean and Proterozoic chronostratigraphy even on a small scale. [1] Burbidge et al. (1957), Revs. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 - 650. [2] Cameron (1957), CRL-41, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario. [3] Hoyle et al. (1960) ApJ 132, 565 - 590. [4] Roller (2014), GSA Abstr. 46, 6, 323. [5] Roller (1997), PhD Thesis, RKP N+T, Munich. [6] Anbar et al. (2007), Science 317, 1903 - 1906. [7] Ludwig (2012), Isoplot/Ex. 3.75, Special Publication Nr. 5, BGC, Berkeley.

  7. Recent advances in nuclear physics through on-line isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David Gareth

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear physics is advancing rapidly at the precision frontier, where measurements of nuclear observables are challenging state-of-the-art nuclear models. A major contribution is associated with the increasing availability of accelerated beams of radioactive ions produced using the isotope separation on-line technique. These advances have come hand in hand with significant progress in the development of high-efficiency detector systems and improved target technologies which are invaluable in exploiting these beams to their full advantage. This article reviews some of the recent highlights in the field of nuclear structure profiting from these technological advances.

  8. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  9. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  12. An Advanced Tokamak Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2010-11-01

    A Fusion Development Facility (FDF) is a candidate for FNSF-AT. It is a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that uses AT physics to provide the neutron fluence required for fusion nuclear science development. FDF is conceived as a double-null plasma with high elongation and triangularity, predicted to allow good confinement of high plasma pressure. Steady-state is achieved with high bootstrap current and radio frequency current drive. Neutral beam injection and 3D non-resonant magnetic field can provide edge plasma rotation for stabilization of MHD and access to Quiescent H-mode. The estimated power exhaust is somewhat lower than that of ITER because of higher core radiation and stronger tilting of the divertor plates. FDF is capable of further developing all elements of AT physics, qualifying them for an advanced performance DEMO. The latest concept has accounted for realistic neutron shielding and divertor implementation. Self-consistent evolution of the transport profiles and equilibrium will quantify the stability and confinement required to meet the FNS mission.

  13. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  14. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.; Argonne National Lab., IL; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  16. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  17. BN-800 advanced nuclear power plant with fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkin, A.N.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Sobolev, V.A.; Shestakov, G.V.; Bagdasarov, Yu.E.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Matveyev, V.I.; Poplavsky, V.M.

    1993-12-31

    Bn-800 reactor plant with fast reactor and sodium coolant in the primary and secondary circuits is designed for operation as part of the power units in the Yuzhno-Uralskaya nuclear power plant scheduled to be constructed in Chelyabinsk region and as part unit 4 in the Beloyarskaya nuclear power plant. Reactor operations are described.

  18. Recent advances in maize nuclear proteomic studies reveal histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e., Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion), or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover). However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins. PMID:23248634

  19. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, "Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems"

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, James B; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    This article is reproduced from excerpts from the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, U.S. Department of Energy, October 2006, www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/ANES_rpt.pdf.

  20. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin of the shipment and the 7-day... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  1. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  2. Advanced charged particle beam ignited nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-06-01

    It is shown that the mass of the driver for nuclear microexplosion—Orion type—pulse propulsion can be substantially reduced with a special fusion-fast fission configuration, which permits to replace an inefficient laser beam driver with a much more efficient and less massive relativistic electron beam (or light ion beam) driver. The driver mass can be further reduced, and the propulsion efficiency increased, by surrounding the nuclear microexplosion assembly with a shell of conventional hydrogen-rich explosive, helping to ignite the nuclear reaction and dissipating the otherwise lost kinetic neutron energy in the shell which becomes part of the propellant.

  3. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  4. Advances in NASA research on nuclear-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    NASA has been primarily interested in nuclear-pumped lasers using the He-3 or U-235F6 reaction for lasant excitation. With He-3 excitation, a large volume, multiple-path He-3-Ar nuclear laser has produced an output of 1 kilowatt. Power deposition was shown to be homogeneous over this volume. The CO laser has been pumped for the first time using the He-3 reaction, producing approximately 200 Watts. Using a boron-10 coating to excite N2, nuclear lasing has been achieved in CO2 in a transfer laser configuration. Nuclear lasing of Ar-Xe has been demonstrated using fission fragment excitation from U-235F6. Research on the gas core reactor has resulted in a steady state operational power of 30 kilowatts with flowing U-235F6 in an argon vortex.

  5. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  6. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  7. Solid0Core Heat-Pipe Nuclear Batterly Type Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehud Greenspan

    2008-09-30

    This project was devoted to a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP).

  8. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  9. Polarization study on solid core photonic crystal fibers partially sedimented with polyethylene micro-spheres and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Chimal, R. Janette; Mata-Chávez, Ruth I.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Vargas-Rodríguez, E.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2010-10-01

    We present an experimental study of light polarization on solid core microstructured optical fibers type (Large Mode Area) LMA-16, LMA-20 and LMA-25. These fibers were partially filled with one micron diameter polyethylene spheres or carbon nanotubes diluted in distilled H2O by capillarity. Polarization characterization was realized on these Photonic Crystal fibers with air filled holes and partially particle filled holes using a He-Ne 633nm central wavelength laser at 10mW. The achieved results were compared using graphical data of every test collected at different exposition dates where the fiber was exposed to particle sedimentation. Results depicted that short time sedimentation of these particles does not change the light polarization leaving from the fiber except for the phase of the beam. On the other hand, longer time particle exposition visibly changes the light phase measured at the end of the photonic crystal fiber with repeatable results.

  10. On the role of the porous shell of the solid core of the earth in the anomalous heat and mass flow to the mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A.

    2013-03-15

    The model of the pressure-induced first-order phase transition of a metal melt to the metallicglass state considers a thermodynamically nonequilibrium porous near-surface shell of the solid core of the Earth, which contacts cyclonic vortices in the liquid core. Anomalous flows of heat and light-material mass to the mantle from the solid core at these contact points are calculated. These anomalous flows are shown to be comparable with the observed ones under the assumption of a rapid increase in the melt viscosity at pressures of 1-10 Mbar, which is characteristic of a solid core. In this case, the porous layer permeability may be very low.

  11. Advances in NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peecook, Keith M.; Stone, James R.

    1993-01-01

    The status of the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project for space exploration and the future plans for NTP technology are discussed. Current activities in the framework of the NTP project deal with nonnuclear material tests; instrumentation, controls, and health management; turbopumps; nozzles and nozzle extension; and an exhaust plume.

  12. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  13. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  14. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Patrick G.; Isenberg, Lon

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000-kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Statements of need are presented from DoD, DOE, and NASA. Safety issues are identified, and if they are properly addressed they should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the DoD, DOE, NASA, and the civilian community. These applications include both low- and high-altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low- and high-power lunar and planetary base power systems, broadband global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television.

  15. Advanced Elastic/Inelastic Nuclear Data Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Frank; Chowdhury, Partha; Greife, Uwe; Fisher Hicks, Sally; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Rahn Vanhoy, Jeffrey; Hill, Tony; Kawano, Toshihiko; Slaughter, David

    2015-06-08

    The optical model is used to analyze the elastic and inelastic scattering of nucleons, deuterons, hellions, tritons, and alpha particles by the nuclei. Since this paper covers primarily neutron-nucleus scattering, the focus will be limited to only that interaction. For the sake of this model, the nucleus is described as a blob of nuclear matter with properties based upon its number of nucleons. This infers that a single potential can describe the interaction of particles with different energies with different nuclei.

  16. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    SciTech Connect

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  17. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  18. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II

    1993-05-01

    Several advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Advanced Light Water Reactors. One measure of the attractiveness of a new concept is its cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electrical generation. This report provides a common starting point, whereby the cost estimates for the various power plants to be considered are developed with common assumptions and ground rules. Comparisons can then be made on a consistent basis. This is the second update of these cost estimate guidelines. Changes have been made to make the guidelines more current (January 1, 1992) and in response to suggestions made as a result of the use of the previous report. The principal changes are that the reference site has been changed from a generic Northeast (Middletown) site to a more central site (EPRI`s East/West Central site) and that reference bulk commodity prices and labor productivity rates have been added. This report is designed to provide a framework for the preparation and reporting of costs. The cost estimates will consist of the overnight construction cost, the total plant capital cost, the operation and maintenance costs, the fuel costs, decommissioning costs and the power production or busbar generation cost.

  19. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  20. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  1. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  2. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  3. Advanced hybrid nuclear propulsion Mars mission performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Noffsinger, K.E.; Segna, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  4. Role of nuclear cardiology in advancing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Abidov, Aiden; Hachamovitch, Rory; Berman, Daniel S

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac surgeons are commonly faced with issues regarding the balance between the potential risk and the potential benefit of a surgical procedure. Nuclear cardiology procedures [myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and positron emission tomography (PET)] provide the surgeon with objective information that augments standard clinical and angiographic assessments with respect to diagnosis, prognosis, and potential benefit from intervention. Development of the technology and methodology of gated MPS acquisition and interpretation allows assessment of the extent and severity of hypoperfused but viable myocardium, as well as global LVEF and LV volume measurements, diastolic function, and LV geometry. With PET, myocardial metabolism and blood flow reserve can also be measured. This chapter provides insight into the current evidence regarding settings in which nuclear cardiology procedures are helpful to the surgeon in assessment of patients having or being considered for cardiac surgery in the setting of coronary artery disease (CAD). Overall, a risk-benefit approach to MPS results is proposed, with principal focus on identifying patients at risk for major cardiac events who may benefit from a surgical procedure. PMID:15619195

  5. Design of radiation resistant metallic multilayers for advanced nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Gill, Simerjeet E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Stanic, Vesna; DiMasi, Elaine; Kisslinger, Kim; Ecker, Lynne; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Misra, Amit; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2014-06-16

    Helium implantation from transmutation reactions is a major cause of embrittlement and dimensional instability of structural components in nuclear energy systems. Development of novel materials with improved radiation resistance, which is of the utmost importance for progress in nuclear energy, requires guidelines to arrive at favorable parameters more efficiently. Here, we present a methodology that can be used for the design of radiation tolerant materials. We used synchrotron X-ray reflectivity to nondestructively study radiation effects at buried interfaces and measure swelling induced by He implantation in Cu/Nb multilayers. The results, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show a direct correlation between reduced swelling in nanoscale multilayers and increased interface area per unit volume, consistent with helium storage in Cu/Nb interfaces in forms that minimize dimensional changes. In addition, for Cu/Nb layers, a linear relationship is demonstrated between the measured depth-dependent swelling and implanted He density from simulations, making the reflectivity technique a powerful tool for heuristic material design.

  6. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  7. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  8. Interatomic potentials for mixed oxide and advanced nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwary, Pratyush; Walle, Axel van de; Jeon, Byoungseon; Groenbech-Jensen, Niels

    2011-03-01

    We extend our recently developed interatomic potentials for UO{sub 2} to the fuel system (U,Pu,Np)O{sub 2}. We do so by fitting against an extensive database of ab initio results as well as to experimental measurements. The applicability of these interactions to a variety of mixed environments beyond the fitting domain is also assessed. The employed formalism makes these potentials applicable across all interatomic distances without the need for any ambiguous splining to the well-established short-range Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark universal pair potential. We therefore expect these to be reliable potentials for carrying out damage simulations (and molecular dynamics simulations in general) in nuclear fuels of varying compositions for all relevant atomic collision energies.

  9. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance nuclear fuel cycles research and development programs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.M.; Marra, J.E.; Wilmarth, W.R.; McGuire, P.W.; Wheeler, V.B.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets (including H Canyon - a nuclear chemical separation plant) to solve issues regarding advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies, nuclear materials processing, packaging, storage and disposition. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into SRS facilities but also in other facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research has been established in SRS.

  10. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs...

  11. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin of the shipment and the 7-day... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  12. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs...

  13. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Stoitsov, Mario; Nam, Hai Ah; Nazarewicz, Witold; Bulgac, Aurel; Hagen, Gaute; Kortelainen, E. M.; Pei, Junchen; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S.

    2011-01-01

    The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper illustrates significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integration of the theoretical approaches, advanced numerical algorithms, and leadership class computational resources.

  14. Application of PSA to review and define technical specifications for advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Reinhart, F.M.; Wohl, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the design certification process, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAS) are performed at the design stage for each advanced nuclear power plant. Among other usages, these PSAs are important inputs in defining the Technical Specifications (TSs) for these plants. Knowledge gained from their use in improving the TSs for operating nuclear power plants is providing methods and insights for using PSAs at this early stage. Evaluating the safety or the risk significance of the TSs to be defined for an advanced plant encompasses diverse aspects: (a) determining the basic limiting condition for operation (LCO); (b) structuring conditions associated with the LCO; (c) defining completion times (equivalent to allowed outage times in the TS for conventional plants); and, (d) prescribing required actions to be taken within the specified completion times. In this paper, we consider the use of PSA in defining the TSs for an advanced nuclear plant, namely General Electric`s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). Similar approaches are being taken for ABB-CE`s System 80+ and Westinghouse`s AP-600. We discuss the general features of an advanced reactor`s TS, how PSA is being used in reviewing the TSs, and we give an example where the TS submittal was reviewed using a PSA-based analysis to arrive at the requirements for the plant.

  15. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, W.J.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Ford, W.; Tisinger, R.M.; Meyer, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-06-04

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over {approx}2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters.

  17. 10 CFR 73.73 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of export shipments of special nuclear material of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of export shipments of special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 73.73 Section 73.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.73 Requirement for advance notice...

  18. Study on size effect of the silica nanospheres with solid core and mesoporous shell on cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Peruzynska, M; Cendrowski, K; Barylak, M; Roginska, D; Tarnowski, M; Tkacz, M; Kurzawski, M; Machalinski, B; Mijowska, E; Drozdzik, M

    2015-12-01

    The properties of mesoporous silica nanoparticles including large surface area, large pore volume, easy surface functionalization and control of structure and pore size has made them promising drug carriers. In this study, the effect of different diameters (50 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm and 140 nm) of silica nanospheres with a solid core and mesoporous shell (mSiO2/SiO2) on cellular internalization in mouse fibroblast cells (L929) was evaluated. The physical properties of the nanostructures were characterized with various methods, such as transmission electron microscopy with x-ray dispersion spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta potential. In order to define the cellular uptake, the nanostructures were labelled with fluorescent dye Alexa647, and imaging and quantitative methods were applied: laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and thermogravimetry. Our results indicate that cellular uptake of the studied nanospheres is size-dependent, and nanospheres of 90 nm in diameter showed the most efficient cell internalization. Thus, particle size is an important parameter that determines cellular uptake of nanoparticles and should be considered in designing drug delivery carriers. PMID:26586672

  19. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  20. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  1. Human response to nuclear and advanced technology weapons effects. Final report, January-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to help the system survivability analyst estimate hardness requirements for systems exposed to nuclear weapons and advanced technology weapons (ATWs). The system survivability analyst is often asked to make quick, order-of-magnitude estimates on the hardness requirements for existing or proposed systems based upon human responses to the effects of nuclear weapons and ATWs. The intent of this report is to identity the general range of human survivability to nuclear weapons and ATWs and to provide simple example calcuiations and scenarios that can give the reader rough estimates of the effects of these weapons. While high-powered microwave (HPM) and laser weapons are considered in this report, the main emphasis is on nuclear weapons and their ionizing radiation effects.

  2. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material, special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance, or irradiated reactor fuel. 73.72 Section 73.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

  3. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from countries that are not party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  4. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from countries that are not party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS...

  5. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from countries that are not party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS...

  6. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  7. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-10-01

    The Nuclear Energy Computational Fluid Dynamics Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-CAMS) system is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Utah State University (USU), and other interested parties with the objective of developing and implementing a comprehensive and readily accessible data and information management system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) verification and validation (V&V) in support of nuclear energy systems design and safety analysis. The two key objectives of the NE-CAMS effort are to identify, collect, assess, store and maintain high resolution and high quality experimental data and related expert knowledge (metadata) for use in CFD V&V assessments specific to the nuclear energy field and to establish a working relationship with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a CFD V&V database, including benchmark cases, that addresses and supports the associated NRC regulations and policies on the use of CFD analysis. In particular, the NE-CAMS system will support the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program, which aims to develop and deploy advanced modeling and simulation methods and computational tools for reliable numerical simulation of nuclear reactor systems for design and safety analysis. Primary NE-CAMS Elements There are four primary elements of the NE-CAMS knowledge base designed to support computer modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy arena as listed below. Element 1. The database will contain experimental data that can be used for CFD validation that is relevant to nuclear reactor and plant processes, particularly those important to the nuclear industry and the NRC. Element 2. Qualification standards for data evaluation and classification will be incorporated and applied such that validation data sets will result in well

  8. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  9. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.

  10. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.« less

  11. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  12. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear

  13. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations to Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programs - 12579

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Griffin, J.C.; Murray, A.M.; Wilmarth, W.R.

    2012-07-01

    The international leadership in nuclear technology development and deployment long held by the United States has eroded due to the lack of clear national strategies for advanced reactor fuel cycle concepts and for nuclear materials management, as well as to the recent policy decision that halts work on the nuclear fuel repository at Yucca Mountain. Although no national consensus on strategy has yet been reached, a number of recent high-profile reviews and workshops have clearly highlighted a national need for robust research, development and deployment (RD and D) programs in key areas of nuclear technology, especially nuclear separations science and engineering. Collectively, these reviews and workshops provide a picture of the nuclear separations mission needs for three major program offices: Department of Energy Office of-Environmental Management), DOE Office of Nuclear Energy), and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). While the individual program needs differ significantly in detail and timing, they share common needs in two critical areas of RD and D: - The need for access to and use of multi-purpose engineering-scale demonstration test facilities that can support testing with radioactive material, and - The need for collaborative research enterprises that encompass government research organizations (i.e., national laboratories), commercial industry and the academic community. Such collaborative enterprises effectively integrate theory and modeling with the actual experimental work at all scales, as well as strengthen the technical foundation for research in critical areas. The arguments for engineering-scale collaborative research facilities are compelling. Processing history has shown that test programs and demonstrations conducted with actual nuclear materials are essential to program success. It is widely recognized, however, that such facilities are expensive to build and maintain; creating an imposing, if not prohibitive, financial burden

  14. Incorporation of a risk analysis approach for the nuclear fuel cycle advanced transparency framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko; Kitabata, Takuya; Vugrin, Eric D.; Vugrin, Kay White; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2007-05-01

    Proliferation resistance features that reduce the likelihood of diversion of nuclear materials from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. A framework that monitors process information continuously can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation by measuring and reducing diversion risk, thus ensuring the legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation makes this possible by generating instantaneous system state data that can be used to track and measure the status of the process and material at any given time. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are working in cooperation to develop an advanced transparency framework capable of assessing diversion risk in support of overall plant transparency. The ''diversion risk'' quantifies the probability and consequence of a host nation diverting nuclear materials from a civilian fuel cycle facility. This document introduces the details of the diversion risk quantification approach to be demonstrated in the fuel handling training model of the MONJU Fast Reactor.

  15. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion - Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-06

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature {approx} 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  16. Perspective on Advances in Resonance-Region Nuclear Modeling and Opportunities for Future Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Michael E; Larson, Nancy M; Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high-fidelity radiation-transport modeling capabilities, coupled with the need to analyze complex nuclear systems, has served to emphasize the importance of high-precision cross section data, including the associated covariance information. Due to the complex nature of resonance-region interactions, cross section data cannot be calculated directly from theory; rather, high-precision resonance-region cross section measurements must be made at facilities such as the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). To extract accurate cross section data from these measurements, detailed nuclear modeling of the measured data is performed to parameterize the cross section behavior in the resonance range. The objective of this paper is to highlight recent advances in resonance-region nuclear modeling with particular emphasis on the covariance analysis capabilities. Opportunities for future research are identified in an effort to stimulate further advances in the state of the art nuclear modeling capabilities.

  17. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bog; Delventhal, Rex; Frye, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest within the aerospace community to develop space based nuclear power conversion technologies especially for exploring the outer planets of our solar system where the solar energy density is very low. To investigate these technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC).The investigation performed included BPCS (Brayton Power Conversion System) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to be capable of operation in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments surrounding Jupiter. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future missions with a sound technology plan for technology readiness level (TRL) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature approx. 100 C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues and related development tasks identified. Analyses and evaluations of six different HRS (heat rejection system) designs and three primary power management and distribution (PMAD) configurations will be discussed in the paper.

  18. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion — Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-01

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature ˜ 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  19. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  20. Heavy Liquid Metal Corrosion of Structural Materials in Advanced Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, M.; Woloshun, K.; Rubio, F.; Maloy, S. A.; Hosemann, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interest in advanced nuclear concepts using liquid metal coolant has increased in the past few years. Liquid metal coolants have been proposed for the next generation of small-sized nuclear reactors, which offer exceptional safety and reliability, sustainability, nonproliferation, and economic competitiveness. Heavy liquid metal coolants are investigated for advanced fast reactors that operate at high temperatures, reaching high efficiencies. Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolants are also proposed as coolants and targets of accelerator driven systems. High temperature, corrosive environment, high fast neutron flux, high fluence, and radiation damage, among other physical phenomena, challenge the integrity of materials in these advanced systems. Excellent compatibility with the liquid coolant is recognized as a key factor in the selection of structural materials for advanced concepts. In this article, we review materials requirements for heavy metal cooled systems with emphasis on lead and LBE materials corrosion properties. We describe experimental corrosion tests currently ongoing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Development of Lead Alloy Technical Applications (DELTA) loop. DELTA is a facility designed to study the long-term corrosive effects of LBE on structural materials under relevant conditions of chemistry, flow, and temperature. The research studies will provide data of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms in selected steel exposed to high velocity (above 2 m/s) in flowing LBE at 500°C. Fundamental research studies will help support conceptual design efforts and further the development of heavy liquid metals technology.

  1. FY2001 Final Report Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Design in the Future Nuclear Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.; Choi, J.-S.; DiSabatino, A.; Wirth, B.

    2001-09-30

    This study is to research the maturity of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding technology and to explore the suitability of existing technology for addressing the emerging requirements for Generation IV reactors and emerging thermal/fast spectrum reactors, while simultaneously addressing nuclear waste management, and proliferation resistance concerns.

  2. Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and

  3. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  4. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  5. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    NE-KAMS knowledge base will assist computational analysts, physics model developers, experimentalists, nuclear reactor designers, and federal regulators by: (1) Establishing accepted standards, requirements and best practices for V&V and UQ of computational models and simulations, (2) Establishing accepted standards and procedures for qualifying and classifying experimental and numerical benchmark data, (3) Providing readily accessible databases for nuclear energy related experimental and numerical benchmark data that can be used in V&V assessments and computational methods development, (4) Providing a searchable knowledge base of information, documents and data on V&V and UQ, and (5) Providing web-enabled applications, tools and utilities for V&V and UQ activities, data assessment and processing, and information and data searches. From its inception, NE-KAMS will directly support nuclear energy research, development and demonstration programs within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS), the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), the Small Modular Reactors (SMR), and the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) programs. These programs all involve computational modeling and simulation (M&S) of nuclear reactor systems, components and processes, and it is envisioned that NE-KAMS will help to coordinate and facilitate collaboration and sharing of resources and expertise for V&V and UQ across these programs. In addition, from the outset, NE-KAMS will support the use of computational M&S in the nuclear industry by developing guidelines and recommended practices aimed at quantifying the uncertainty and assessing the applicability of existing analysis models and methods. The NE-KAMS effort will initially focus on supporting the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermal hydraulics (T/H) analysis for M&S of nuclear

  6. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Yang, Ying; Sridharan, K.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  7. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  8. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of import... significance, or irradiated reactor fuel shall assure that during transport outside the United States...

  9. 10 CFR 73.73 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of export shipments of special nuclear material of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of export shipments of special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 73.73 Section 73.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports §...

  10. The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Enabling Computational Technologies FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L F; Garaizar, F X; Henson, V E; Pope, G

    2009-10-12

    In this document we report on the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) effort. In particular, we provide the context for ECT In the broader NEAMS program and describe the three pillars of the ECT effort, namely, (1) tools and libraries, (2) software quality assurance, and (3) computational facility (computers, storage, etc) needs. We report on our FY09 deliverables to determine the needs of the integrated performance and safety codes (IPSCs) in these three areas and lay out the general plan for software quality assurance to meet the requirements of DOE and the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). We conclude with a brief description of our interactions with the Idaho National Laboratory computer center to determine what is needed to expand their role as a NEAMS user facility.

  11. UNEDF: Advanced Scientific Computing Collaboration Transforms the Low-Energy Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, H.; Stoitsov, M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Bulgac, A.; Hagen, G.; Kortelainen, M.; Maris, P.; Pei, J. C.; Roche, K. J.; Schunck, N.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.

    2012-12-20

    The demands of cutting-edge science are driving the need for larger and faster computing resources. With the rapidly growing scale of computing systems and the prospect of technologically disruptive architectures to meet these needs, scientists face the challenge of effectively using complex computational resources to advance scientific discovery. Multi-disciplinary collaborating networks of researchers with diverse scientific backgrounds are needed to address these complex challenges. The UNEDF SciDAC collaboration of nuclear theorists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists is developing a comprehensive description of nuclei and their reactions that delivers maximum predictive power with quantified uncertainties. This paper describes UNEDF and identifies attributes that classify it as a successful computational collaboration. Finally, we illustrate significant milestones accomplished by UNEDF through integrative solutions using the most reliable theoretical approaches, most advanced algorithms, and leadership-class computational resources.

  12. An Advanced Reverse Osmosis Technology For Application in Nuclear Desalination Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.; Ackert, J.A.

    2002-07-01

    The lack of adequate supplies of clean, safe water is a growing global problem that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people do not have access to adequate supplies of safe water, and that as a result nearly 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases. Included in this total is an estimated 2.2 million child deaths annually. As the world's need for additional sources of fresh water continues to grow, seawater and brackish water desalination are providing an increasingly important contribution to the solution of this problem. Because desalination is an energy intensive process, nuclear desalination provides an economically attractive and environmentally sound alternative to the burning of fossil fuels for desalination. Nevertheless, the enormity of the problem dictates that additional steps must be taken to improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the cost of water production in order to reduce the financial and environmental burden to communities in need. An advanced reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology has been developed that emphasizes a nontraditional approach to system design and operation, and makes use of a sophisticated design optimization process that can lead to highly optimized design configurations and operating regimes. The technology can be coupled with a nuclear generating station (NGS) to provide an integrated facility for the co-generation of both water and electricity. Waste heat from the NGS allows the use of 'preheated' feedwater into the RO system, improving the efficiency of the RO process and reducing the cost of water production. Because waste heat, rather than process heat, is used the desalination system can be readily coupled to any existing or advanced reactor technology with little or no impact on reactor design and operation and without introducing additional reactor safety

  13. Self-compression to 24 MW peak power in a fused silica solid-core fiber using a high-repetition rate thulium-based fiber laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Martin; Gaida, Christian; Stutzki, Fabian; Hädrich, Steffen; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Complementing ultrafast thulium-doped fiber-laser systems with a subsequent nonlinear pulse compression stage can enable unique laser parameters at around 2 μm operation wavelength. Significant pulse shortening and peak power enhancement have been accomplished using a fused silica solid-core fiber. In this fiber a pulse peak power of 24 MW was achieved without catastrophic damage due to self-focusing. As compared to operation in the well-explored 1 μm wavelength region, increasing the emission wavelength to 2 μm has a twofold advantage for nonlinear compression in fused-silica solid-core fibers. This is because, on the one hand the self-focusing limit scales quadratically with the wavelength. On the other hand the dispersion properties of fused silica allow for self-compression of ultrashort pulses beyond 1.3 μm wavelength, which leads to strong spectral broadening from very compact setups without the need for external compression. Using this technique we have generated 1.1 μJpulses with 24 fs FWHM pulse duration (<4 optical cycles), 24 MW peak power and 24.6 W of average power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power obtained from any nonlinear compression experiment around 2 μm wavelength and the first demonstration of peak powers beyond 20 MW within a fused-silica solid-core fiber. This result emphasizes that thulium-doped fiber-based chirped-pulse amplification systems may outperform their ytterbiumdoped counterparts in terms of peak power due to the fourfold increase of the critical power of self-focusing.

  14. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    assets will continue to accomplish DOE's critical nuclear material missions (e.g., processing in H-Canyon and plutonium storage in K-Area). Thus, the demonstration can be accomplished by leveraging the incremental cost of performing demonstrations without needing to cover the full operational cost of the facility. Current Center activities have been focused on integrating advanced safeguards monitoring technologies demonstrations into the SRS H-Canyon and advanced location technologies demonstrations into K-Area Materials Storage. These demonstrations are providing valuable information to researchers and customers as well as providing the Center with an improved protocol for demonstration management that can be exercised across the entire SRS (as well as to offsite venues) so that future demonstrations can be done more efficiently and provide an opportunity to utilize these unique assets for multiple purposes involving national laboratories, academia, and commercial entities. Key among the envisioned future demonstrations is the use of H-Canyon to demonstrate new nuclear materials separations technologies critical for advancing the mission needs DOE-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to advance the research for next generation fuel cycle technologies. The concept is to install processing equipment on frames. The frames are then positioned into an H-Canyon cell and testing in a relevant radiological environment involving prototypic radioactive materials can be performed.

  15. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  16. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  17. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  18. Advances in Nuclear Cardiac Instrumentation with a View Towards Reduced Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Damini; Duvall, W. Lane; Henzlova, Milena J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear cardiology instrumentation have enabled myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with improved image quality and fast scan times. These developments also can be exploited to reduce the effective radiation dose to the patient. In this review, we discuss these technologies including new single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, as well as novel reconstruction software with regard to their potential for the reduction of the patient radiation dose. New advances in nuclear cardiology instrumentation will allow routine rest/stress MPI imaging with low radiation doses (< 5 mSv) and fast imaging times, even by the software-only solutions. It is possible to further reduce the MPI radiation dose to less than 2 to 3 mSv range with standard acquisition times. PET perfusion imaging also can be performed with very low doses especially by the three-dimensional scanners allowing hybrid PET/computed tomographic angiography (CTA) imaging with low overall dose. In addition, stress-only protocols can be utilized to further reduce the radiation dose and the overall test time. PMID:22327929

  19. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    SciTech Connect

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  20. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  1. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  2. Efficient and short-range light coupling to index-matched liquid-filled hole in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Rodrigo M; Spadoti, Danilo H; de Matos, Christiano J S; Menezes, Leonardo de S; Franco, Marcos A R

    2011-11-21

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a section of one of the holes next to the solid core filled with an index-matched liquid is studied. Liquid filling alters the core geometry, which locally comprises the original silica core, the liquid channel and the silica around it. It is demonstrated that when light reaches the filled section, it periodically and efficiently couples to the liquid, via the excitation of a number of modes of the composite core, with coupling lengths ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. The resulting modal-interference-modulated spectrum shows temperature sensitivity as high as 5.35 nm/°C. The proposed waveguide geometry presents itself as an interesting way to pump and/or to probe liquid media within the fiber, combining advantages usually found separately in liquid-filled hollow-core PCFs (high light-liquid overlap) and in solid-core PCFs (low insertion losses). Therefore, pumping and luminescence guiding with a PCF filled with a Rhodamine solution is also demonstrated. PMID:22109496

  3. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  4. Advanced Nuclear Measurements - Sensitivity Analysis Emerging Safeguards, Problems and Proliferation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1999-07-15

    During the past year this component of the Advanced Nuclear Measurements LDRD-DR has focused on emerging safeguards problems and proliferation risk by investigating problems in two domains. The first is related to the analysis, quantification, and characterization of existing inventories of fissile materials, in particular, the minor actinides (MA) formed in the commercial fuel cycle. Understanding material forms and quantities helps identify and define future measurement problems, instrument requirements, and assists in prioritizing safeguards technology development. The second problem (dissertation research) has focused on the development of a theoretical foundation for sensor array anomaly detection. Remote and unattended monitoring or verification of safeguards activities is becoming a necessity due to domestic and international budgetary constraints. However, the ability to assess the trustworthiness of a sensor array has not been investigated. This research is developing an anomaly detection methodology to assess the sensor array.

  5. The nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors and advanced pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-11-01

    A nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is being studied. The principal idea of this strategy is that the discharged plutonium from light water reactors (LWRs) provides the inventories of the FBRs and the high-converter APWRs, whereby the LWRs are installed according to the derivative of a logistical S curve. Special emphasis is given to the dynamics of reaching an asymptotic symbiosis between FBRs and APWRs. The main conclusion is that if a symbiotic APWR-FBR family with an asymptotic total power level in the terawatt range is to exist in about half a century from now, we need a large number of FBRs already in an early phase.

  6. Performance Capability of Single-Cavity Vortex Gaseous Nuclear Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, Robert G.

    1963-01-01

    An analysis was made to determine the maximum powerplant thrust-to-weight ratio possible with a single-cavity vortex gaseous reactor in which all the hydrogen propellant must diffuse through a fuel-rich region. An assumed radial temperature profile was used to represent conduction, convection, and radiation heat-transfer effects. The effect of hydrogen property changes due to dissociation and ionization was taken into account in a hydrodynamic computer program. It is shown that, even for extremely optimistic assumptions of reactor criticality and operating conditions, such a system is limited to reactor thrust-to-weight ratios of about 1.2 x 10(exp -3) for laminar flow. For turbulent flow, the maximum thrust-to-weight ratio is less than 10(exp -3). These low thrusts result from the fact that the hydrogen flow rate is limited by the diffusion process. The performance of a gas-core system with a specific impulse of 3000 seconds and a powerplant thrust-to-weight ratio of 10(exp -2) is shown to be equivalent to that of a 1000-second advanced solid-core system. It is therefore concluded that a single-cavity vortex gaseous reactor in which all the hydrogen must diffuse through the nuclear fuel is a low-thrust device and offers no improvement over a solid-core nuclear-rocket engine. To achieve higher thrust, additional hydrogen flow must be introduced in such a manner that it will by-pass the nuclear fuel. Obviously, such flow must be heated by thermal radiation. An illustrative model of a single-cavity vortex system employing supplementary flow of hydrogen through the core region is briefly examined. Such a system appears capable of thrust-to-weight ratios of approximately 1 to 10. For a high-impulse engine, this capability would be a considerable improvement over solid-core performance. Limits imposed by thermal radiation heat transfer to cavity walls are acknowledged but not evaluated. Alternate vortex concepts that employ many parallel vortices to achieve higher

  7. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team indicates

  8. Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Baltisberger, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC MODELING OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUELS - FINAL LDRD-ER REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P

    2011-11-28

    This project enhanced our theoretical capabilities geared towards establishing the basic science of a high-throughput protocol for the development of advanced nuclear fuel that should couple modern computational materials modeling and simulation tools, fabrication and characterization capabilities, and targeted high throughput performance testing experiments. The successful conclusion of this ER project allowed us to upgrade state-of-the-art modeling codes, and apply these modeling tools to ab initio energetics and thermodynamic assessments of phase diagrams of various mixtures of actinide alloys, propose a tool for optimizing composition of complex alloys for specific properties, predict diffusion behavior in diffusion couples made of actinide and transition metals, include one new equation in the LLNL phase-field AMPE code, and predict microstructure evolution during alloy coring. In FY11, despite limited funding, the team also initiated an experimental activity, with collaboration from Texas A&M University by preparing samples of nuclear fuels in bulk forms and for diffusion couple studies and metallic matrices, and performing preliminary characterization.

  10. Advanced digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants: Risk- sensitivities to environmental stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant`s risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I&C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF). We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I&C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment`s reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I&C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located.

  11. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events. PMID:25868677

  12. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  13. 100 Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2 µm: transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Kavanagh, N; Li, Z; Zhao, J; Ye, N; Chen, Y; Wheeler, N V; Wooler, J P; Hayes, J R; Sandoghchi, S R; Poletti, F; Petrovich, M N; Alam, S U; Phelan, R; O'Carroll, J; Kelly, B; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Richardson, D J; Corbett, B; Garcia Gunning, F C

    2015-02-23

    We show for the first time 100 Gbit/s total capacity at 2 µm waveband, using 4 × 9.3 Gbit/s 4-ASK Fast-OFDM direct modulation and 4 × 15.7 Gbit/s NRZ-OOK external modulation, spanning a 36.3 nm wide wavelength range. WDM transmission was successfully demonstrated over 1.15 km of low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) and over 1 km of solid core fiber (SCF). We conclude that the OSNR penalty associated with the SCF is minimal, while a ~1-2 dB penalty was observed after the HC-PBGF probably due to mode coupling to higher-order modes. PMID:25836529

  14. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Safeguards and Separations Reprocessing Plant Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alex; Billings, Jay Jay; de Almeida, Valmor F

    2011-08-01

    This report details the progress made in the development of the Reprocessing Plant Toolkit (RPTk) for the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. RPTk is an ongoing development effort intended to provide users with an extensible, integrated, and scalable software framework for the modeling and simulation of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants by enabling the insertion and coupling of user-developed physicochemical modules of variable fidelity. The NEAMS Safeguards and Separations IPSC (SafeSeps) and the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) supporting program element have partnered to release an initial version of the RPTk with a focus on software usability and utility. RPTk implements a data flow architecture that is the source of the system's extensibility and scalability. Data flows through physicochemical modules sequentially, with each module importing data, evolving it, and exporting the updated data to the next downstream module. This is accomplished through various architectural abstractions designed to give RPTk true plug-and-play capabilities. A simple application of this architecture, as well as RPTk data flow and evolution, is demonstrated in Section 6 with an application consisting of two coupled physicochemical modules. The remaining sections describe this ongoing work in full, from system vision and design inception to full implementation. Section 3 describes the relevant software development processes used by the RPTk development team. These processes allow the team to manage system complexity and ensure stakeholder satisfaction. This section also details the work done on the RPTk ``black box'' and ``white box'' models, with a special focus on the separation of concerns between the RPTk user interface and application runtime. Section 4 and 5 discuss that application runtime component in more detail, and describe the dependencies, behavior, and rigorous testing of its constituent components.

  17. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Williams, Brian; Mc Clure, Patrick; Nelson, Ralph A

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  18. Work Domain Analysis and Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2001-02-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will differ in important respects from the older generation. Differences in new plants will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. Examples of these advances include distribution of load-following demand among multiple units, different product streams (steam, process heat, or electricity), increased use of passive safety systems, high levels of automation with humans in supervisory roles, integration of computerized procedures for control room and field work, and remote surveillance and on-line monitoring. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. There is still much uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design on operations and human tasks, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. This uncertainty will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. Designers need to be able to identify and evaluate specific human factors challenges related to non

  19. Collector temperature effects on the performance of advanced thermionic converters and nuclear electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, R. S.; Mcvey, J.; Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.

    1980-01-01

    The specific weight of a thermionic nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system depends on the collector temperature because of changes in power density, efficiency and the temperature of heat rejection. Increasing the collector temperature above the value for maximum converter performance decreases both the efficiency and the power density of the converters, but the specific weight of the total system is decreased because of the reduction in radiator weight due to the increased heat rejection temperature. The effect of collector temperature on the performance of thermionic converters was investigated. The behavior of conventional ignited mode converters as well as advanced converters with lower collector work functions; the specific mass of an 'uninsulated' NEP system design was then evaluated as a function of collector temperature. The uninsulated design uses the electrical resistance of the heat pipes between the converters and the reactor to provide electrical insolation, eliminating the need for ceramic insulators at emitter temperature and providing other design advantages. The results indicate that an optimum collector temperature, which minimizes system weight, exists at a temperature above the optimum temperature for converter performance.

  20. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes: From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. Ohio University concentrates its efforts on the first part of the mission. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. For this reason we first embarked in introducing a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type.

  1. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  2. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes. From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, Filomena

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the Topical Collaboration on the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes (TORUS) was to develop new methods to advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes—particularly the (d,p) reaction in which a deuteron, composed of a proton and a neutron, transfers its neutron to an unstable nucleus. After benchmarking the state-of-the-art theories, the TORUS collaboration found that there were no exact methods to study (d,p) reactions involving heavy targets; the difficulty arising from the long-range nature of the well known, yet subtle, Coulomb force. To overcome this challenge, the TORUS collaboration developed a new theory where the complexity of treating the long-range Coulomb interaction is shifted to the calculation of so-called form-factors. An efficient implementation for the computation of these form factors was a major achievement of the TORUS collaboration. All the new machinery developed are essential ingredients to analyse (d,p) reactions involving heavy nuclei relevant for astrophysics, energy production, and stockpile stewardship.

  3. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-10-01

    The instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and Tiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I&C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I&C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I&C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I&C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292. which recognizes that advanced I&C systems for the nuclear industry are ``being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.``

  4. Closing the US Fuel Cycle: Siting Considerations for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Facilities - Siting the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, A.; Boger, J.; Perry, J.

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), launched in February, 2006, proposes to introduce used nuclear fuel recycling in the United States (U.S.) with improved proliferation-resistance and a more effective waste management approach. This program is evaluating ways to close the fuel cycle in a manner that introduces the most advanced technologies of today and builds on recent breakthroughs in U.S. national laboratories while drawing on international and industry partnerships. Central to moving this advanced fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to commercial implementation is the development and siting of three proposed GNEP facilities: the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). These three projects are envisioned to introduce used fuel separations, advanced fuel fabrication, and fast reactor technology in a manner that efficiently recycles material, produces the most energy out of the existing inventory of used fuel, and improves our ability to manage nuclear waste. The CFTC and ABR are sited under GNEP but will depend on industry involvement and will not be covered by this paper. This paper will cover considerations for siting the AFCF. The AFCF will provide the U.S. with the capabilities required to evaluate technologies that separate used fuel into reusable material and waste in a proliferation-resistant manner. The separations technology demonstration capability is coupled with a remote transmutation fuel fabrication demonstration capability in an integrated manner that demonstrates advanced safeguard technologies. In conclusion: As a flexible, multi-purpose demonstration facility, the AFCF will provide the U.S. with a powerful and unique capability to quickly bring innovative nuclear fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to the commercial market with high confidence. The siting of AFCF capabilities at one or more of the six DOE laboratories being evaluated

  5. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    drawings and documentation (iii) Lack of compatibility with modern computers, software, data transfer networks, digital protocols and electrical code standards, (iv) Non-compliance with current and future mandatory standards and regulations for nuclear facilities (v) Design focused on measurement and control points that may be specific to the facility process (vi) Lack of utilization of recent technological advances where better performing, less complex and more cost-effective options are now available. Key radiometric measurement drivers and control points for future recycling facilities have been determined and a review of the adequacy of existing instrumentation has been performed. Areas where recent technology improvements may be more effectively deployed and future technology development may be appropriate are identified. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimum combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.

  7. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimummore » combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.« less

  8. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  9. Opening the Solar System: An Advanced Nuclear Spacecraft for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, R. O.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is limited by our technology, not our imagination. We dream of a time when we can freely travel among the planets and truly become a spacefaring people. However, the current state of our technology limits our options for architecting missions to other planets. Instead of sailing the seas of space in the way that we cruise the seas of Earth, our limited propulsion technology requires us to depart Earth on a giant cluster of gas tanks and return in a lifeboat. This inefficient approach to exploration is evident in many of today's leading mission plans for human flights to Mars, asteroids, and other destinations. The cost and complexity of this approach to mission architecting makes it extremely difficult to realize our dreams of exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This does not need to be the case. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been investigating the feasibility of a new take on nuclear propulsion with the performance to enable a paradigm shift in human space exploration. During the fall of 2013, engineers at MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office developed a spacecraft concept (pictured below) around this new propulsion technology and redefined the human Mars mission to show its full potential. This spacecraft, which can be launched with a fleet of soon-to-be available SLS launch vehicles, is fueled primarily with hydrogen, and is fully reusable with no staging required. The reusable nature of this design enables a host of alternative mission architectures that more closely resemble an ocean voyage than our current piecemeal approach to exploration.

  10. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  11. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-12-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the

  12. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - integrated multi-scale multi-physics hierarchical modeling and simulation framework Part III: cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Tome, Carlos N; Caro, J A; Lebensohn, R A; Unal, Cetin; Arsenlis, A; Marian, J; Pasamehmetoglu, K

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Reactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems to develop predictive tools is critical. Not only are fabrication and performance models needed to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. In this paper we review the current status of the advanced modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor cladding, with emphasis on what is available and what is to be developed in each scale of the project, how we propose to pass information from one scale to the next, and what experimental information is required for benchmarking and advancing the modeling at each scale level.

  13. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2104, Revision 0... (800) 397-4209, (301) 415-4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The draft NUREG is...

  14. New Advances in the Trojan Horse Method as an Indirect Approach to Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartà, R.

    2013-05-01

    With the introduction of the Trojan Horse Method, nuclear cross sections between charged particles at astrophysical energies can now be measured. Here the basic features of the method are recalled together with recent results relevant for Nuclear Astrophysics. New applications in connection with plasma physics and industrial energy production are discussed.

  15. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  16. Nuclear rockets: High-performance propulsion for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.W.

    1994-05-01

    A new impetus to manned Mars exploration was introduced by President Bush in his Space Exploration Initiative. This has led, in turn, to a renewed interest in high-thrust nuclear thermal rocket propulsion (NTP). The purpose of this report is to give a brief tutorial introduction to NTP and provide a basic understanding of some of the technical issues in the realization of an operational NTP engine. Fundamental physical principles are outlined from which a variety of qualitative advantages of NTP over chemical propulsion systems derive, and quantitative performance comparisons are presented for illustrative Mars missions. Key technologies are described for a representative solid-core heat-exchanger class of engine, based on the extensive development work in the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs (1955 to 1973). The most driving technology, fuel development, is discussed in some detail for these systems. Essential highlights are presented for the 19 full-scale reactor and engine tests performed in these programs. On the basis of these tests, the practicality of graphite-based nuclear rocket engines was established. Finally, several higher-performance advanced concepts are discussed. These have received considerable attention, but have not, as yet, developed enough credibility to receive large-scale development.

  17. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, Peter

    2006-02-15

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism — nuclear terrorism — has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks — or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port — suddenly becomes possible.

  18. Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

  19. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-25

    The results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  20. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-25

    Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

  1. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    The results of work performed from July 1, 1979 through September 30, 1979 on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  2. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  3. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  4. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D.; Delcul, Guillermo D.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Johnson, Jared A.; Spencer, Barry B.

    2014-06-10

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  5. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

    2013-11-05

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  6. THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR VARIOUS PROLIFERATION AND THEFT SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Collins, Brian A.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Wallace, R. K.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2012-08-29

    We must anticipate that the day is approaching when details of nuclear weapons design and fabrication will become common knowledge. On that day we must be particularly certain that all special nuclear materials (SNM) are adequately accounted for and protected and that we have a clear understanding of the utility of nuclear materials to potential adversaries. To this end, this paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing SNM and alternate nuclear materials associated with the plutonium-uranium reduction extraction (Purex), uranium extraction (UREX), coextraction (COEX), thorium extraction (THOREX), and PYROX (an electrochemical refining method) reprocessing schemes. This paper provides a set of figures of merit for evaluating material attractiveness that covers a broad range of proliferant state and subnational group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this paper is that all fissile material must be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and must be provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by subnational groups; no 'silver bullet' fuel cycle has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. The work reported herein has been performed at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for, the nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security is discussed.

  7. FOREWORD: International Summer School for Advanced Studies 'Dynamics of open nuclear systems' (PREDEAL12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2013-02-01

    This proceedings volume contains the invited lectures and contributions presented at the International Summer School on Nuclear Physics held at Trei Brazi, a summer resort of the Bioterra University, near the city of Predeal, Romania, on 9-20 July 2012. The long tradition of International Summer Schools on Nuclear Physics in Romania dates as far back as 1964, with the event being scheduled every two years. During this period of almost 50 years, many outstanding nuclear scientists have lectured on various topics related to nuclear physics and particle physics. This year we celebrate the 80th birthday of Aureliu Sandulescu, one of the founders of the Romanian school of theoretical nuclear physics. He was Serban Titeica's PhD student, one of Werner Heisenberg's PhD students, and he organized the first edition of this event. Aureliu Sandulescu's major contributions to the field of theoretical nuclear physics are related in particular to the prediction of cluster radioactivity, the physics of open quantum systems and the innovative technique of detecting superheavy nuclei using the double magic projectile 48Ca (Calcium), nowadays a widely used method at the JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt laboratories. The title of the event, 'Dynamics of Open Nuclear Systems', is in recognition of Aureliu Sandulescu's great personality. The lectures were attended by Romanian and foreign Master and PhD students and young researchers in nuclear physics. About 25 reputable professors and researchers in nuclear physics delivered lectures during this period. According to a well-established tradition, an interval of two hours was allotted for each lecture (including discussions). Therefore we kept a balance between the school and conference format. Two lectures were held during the morning and afternoon sessions. After lecture sessions, three or four oral contributions were given by young scientists. This was a good opportunity for them to present the results of their research in front of

  8. High accuracy modeling for advanced nuclear reactor core designs using Monte Carlo based coupled calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espel, Federico Puente

    The main objective of this PhD research is to develop a high accuracy modeling tool using a Monte Carlo based coupled system. The presented research comprises the development of models to include the thermal-hydraulic feedback to the Monte Carlo method and speed-up mechanisms to accelerate the Monte Carlo criticality calculation. Presently, deterministic codes based on the diffusion approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation, coupled with channel-based (or sub-channel based) thermal-hydraulic codes, carry out the three-dimensional (3-D) reactor core calculations of the Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These deterministic codes utilize nuclear homogenized data (normally over large spatial zones, consisting of fuel assembly or parts of fuel assembly, and in the best case, over small spatial zones, consisting of pin cell), which is functionalized in terms of thermal-hydraulic feedback parameters (in the form of off-line pre-generated cross-section libraries). High accuracy modeling is required for advanced nuclear reactor core designs that present increased geometry complexity and material heterogeneity. Such high-fidelity methods take advantage of the recent progress in computation technology and coupled neutron transport solutions with thermal-hydraulic feedback models on pin or even on sub-pin level (in terms of spatial scale). The continuous energy Monte Carlo method is well suited for solving such core environments with the detailed representation of the complicated 3-D problem. The major advantages of the Monte Carlo method over the deterministic methods are the continuous energy treatment and the exact 3-D geometry modeling. However, the Monte Carlo method involves vast computational time. The interest in Monte Carlo methods has increased thanks to the improvements of the capabilities of high performance computers. Coupled Monte-Carlo calculations can serve as reference solutions for verifying high-fidelity coupled deterministic neutron transport methods

  9. FOREWORD: International Summer School for Advanced Studies 'Dynamics of open nuclear systems' (PREDEAL12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2013-02-01

    This proceedings volume contains the invited lectures and contributions presented at the International Summer School on Nuclear Physics held at Trei Brazi, a summer resort of the Bioterra University, near the city of Predeal, Romania, on 9-20 July 2012. The long tradition of International Summer Schools on Nuclear Physics in Romania dates as far back as 1964, with the event being scheduled every two years. During this period of almost 50 years, many outstanding nuclear scientists have lectured on various topics related to nuclear physics and particle physics. This year we celebrate the 80th birthday of Aureliu Sandulescu, one of the founders of the Romanian school of theoretical nuclear physics. He was Serban Titeica's PhD student, one of Werner Heisenberg's PhD students, and he organized the first edition of this event. Aureliu Sandulescu's major contributions to the field of theoretical nuclear physics are related in particular to the prediction of cluster radioactivity, the physics of open quantum systems and the innovative technique of detecting superheavy nuclei using the double magic projectile 48Ca (Calcium), nowadays a widely used method at the JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt laboratories. The title of the event, 'Dynamics of Open Nuclear Systems', is in recognition of Aureliu Sandulescu's great personality. The lectures were attended by Romanian and foreign Master and PhD students and young researchers in nuclear physics. About 25 reputable professors and researchers in nuclear physics delivered lectures during this period. According to a well-established tradition, an interval of two hours was allotted for each lecture (including discussions). Therefore we kept a balance between the school and conference format. Two lectures were held during the morning and afternoon sessions. After lecture sessions, three or four oral contributions were given by young scientists. This was a good opportunity for them to present the results of their research in front of

  10. Expression of Nuclear Transcription Factor Kappa B in Locally Advanced Human Cervical Cancer Treated With Definitive Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Amit K.; Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann H.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Kunnumakkara, Ajai B.; Broadus, Russell R.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), a transcriptional factor that has been shown to be constitutively active in cervical cancer, is part of an important pathway leading to treatment resistance in many tumor types. The purpose of our study was to determine whether expression of NF-{kappa}B in pretreatment specimens and specimens taken shortly after treatment initiation correlated with outcome in cervical cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were enrolled in a study in which cervical biopsy specimens were obtained before radiation therapy and 48 h after treatment initiation. Matched biopsy specimens from 16 of these patients were available and evaluated for the nuclear expression of NF-{kappa}B protein by immunohistochemical staining. Results: After a median follow-up of 43 months, there were 9 total treatment failures. Nuclear staining for NF-{kappa}B was positive in 3 of 16 pretreatment biopsy specimens (19%) and 5 of 16 postradiation biopsy specimens (31%). Pretreatment expression of NF-{kappa}B nuclear staining correlated with increased rates of local-regional failure (100% vs. 23%, p = 0.01), distant failure (100% vs. 38%, p = 0.055), disease-specific mortality (100% vs. 31%, p = 0.03), and overall mortality (100% vs. 38%, p = 0.055). Conclusions: Our data suggest that pretreatment nuclear expression of NF-{kappa}B may be associated with a poor outcome for cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiation. Although these data require validation in a larger group of patients, the results support the continued study of the relationship between NF-{kappa}B and outcome in patients treated for carcinoma of the cervix.

  11. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Technological, economic, and policy aspects of supplying energy to newly industrializing and developing countries using ship-deployed nuclear energy systems are described. The approach analyzed comprises nuclear installations of up to gigawatt scale deployed within currently mass-produced large ship hulls which are capable of flexibly supplying energy for electricity, water desalination and district heating-&-cooling with low latencies and minimized shoreside capital expenditures. Nuclear energy is uniquely suited for mobile deployment due to its combination of extraordinary energy density and high power density, which enable enormous supplies of energy to be deployed at extremely low marginal costs. Nuclear installations on ships also confer technological advantages by essentially eliminating risk from earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods; taking advantage of assured access to an effectively unlimited amount of cooling water, and involving minimal onshore preparations and commitments. Instances of floating nuclear power stations that have been proposed in the past, some of which are currently being pursued, have generally been based on conventional LWR technology, moreover without flexibility or completeness of power output options. We consider nuclear technology options for their applicability to the unique opportunities and challenges of a marine environment, with special attention given to low-pressure, high thermal margin systems with continuous and assured afterheat dissipation into the ambient seawater. Such systems appear promising for offering an exceptionally high degree of safety while using a maximally simple set of components. We furthermore consider systems tailored to Developing World contexts, which satisfy societal requirements beyond electrification, e.g., flexible sourcing of potable water and HVAC services, servicing time-varying user requirements, and compatibility with the full spectrum of local renewable energy supplies, specifically including

  12. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  13. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  14. 75 FR 38151 - Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... 6, 1982 (47 FR 596 and 47 FR 600), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the.... Godwin, Director, Arizona Radiation Same. Regulatory Agency, 4814 South 40th Street, Phoenix, AZ 85040..., Radiation Control Section, Arkansas Same. Department of Health, 4815 West Markham Street, Mail Slot...

  15. FURTHER ASSESSMENTS OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FROM A SAFEGUARDS PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C. G.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Wallace, R. K.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2008-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extension to an earlier study [ ] that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the PUREX, UREX+, and COEX reprocessing schemes. This study focuses on the materials associated with the UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study also examines what is required to render plutonium as “unattractive.” Furthermore, combining the results of this study with those from the earlier study permits a comparison of the uranium and thorium based fuel cycles on the basis of the attractiveness of the SNM associated with each fuel cycle. Both studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of “attractiveness levels” that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [ ]. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  16. Final Report: Advanced Methods for Accessing and Disseminating Nuclear Data, August 13, 1996 - March 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Craig A.

    1999-03-15

    Scientific Digital Visions, Inc. developed methods of accessing and dissemination nuclear data contained within the databases of the National Data Center (NNDC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory supporting a long standing and important DOE Program to provide scientists access to NNDC Databases. The NNDC participated as a partner in this effort.

  17. Advances in nuclear data and all-particle transport for radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Chadwick, M.B.; Chandler, W.P.; Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1994-05-01

    Fast neutrons have been used to treat over 15,000 cancer patients worldwide and proton therapy is rapidly emerging as a treatment of choice for tumors around critical anatomical structures. Neutron therapy requires evaluated data to {approximately}70 MeV while proton therapy requires data to {approximately}250 MeV. Collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the medical physics community has revealed limitations in nuclear cross section evaluations and radiation transport capabilities that have prevented neutron and proton radiation therapy centers from using Monte Carlo calculations to accurately predict dose in patients. These evaluations require energy- and angle-dependent cross sections for secondary neutrons, charged-particles and recoil nuclei. We are expanding the LLNL nuclear databases to higher energies for biologically important elements and have developed a three-dimensional, all-particle Monte Carlo radiation transport code that uses computer-assisted-tomography (CT) images as the input mesh. This code, called PEREGRINE calculates dose distributions in the human body and can be used as a tool to determine the dependence of dose on details of the evaluated nuclear data. In this paper, we will review the status of the nuclear data required for neutron and proton therapy, describe the capabilities of the PEREGRINE package, and show the effects of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distribution.

  18. The Attractiveness of Materials in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Various Proliferation and Theft Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C. G.; Wallace, R. K.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies1,2 that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no “silver bullet” has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities.3 The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy facilities needed to advance nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, John F

    2011-01-01

    This talk is based upon a November 2008 report by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC). The report has two parts, a policy section and a technology section. Here extensive material from the Technical Subcommittee section of the NEAC report is used. PMID:21399417

  20. The attractiveness of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles for various proliferation and theft scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, Charles G; Wallace, Richard K; Ireland, John R; Johnson, M W; Hase, Kevin R; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B; Sleaford, Brad A; Bradley, Keith S; Collins, Brian W; Smith, Brian W; Prichard, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 35746 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Shipments of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... B packaging; (2) the licensed material is being transported within or across the boundary of the... 10 CFR 73.37--``Physical Protection of Byproduct Material'' (March 19, 2013; 78 FR 16922). The... licensees will be required to provide advance notifications for certain shipments of radioactive material...

  2. Development of Cesium and Strontium Separation and Immobilization Technologies in Support of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Terry A. Todd; Julie L. Tripp

    2006-02-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD/PEG) process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for the extraction of Cs and polyethylene glycol for the synergistic extraction of Sr in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99%. The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) for the extraction of Sr and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) for the extraction of Cs. Laboratory test results of the FPEX process, using simulated feed solution spiked with radiotracers, indicate good Cs and Sr extraction and stripping performance. A preliminary solvent extraction flowsheet for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel with the FPEX process has been developed, and testing of the flowsheet with simulated spent nuclear fuel solutions is planned in the near future. Steam reforming is currently being developed for stabilization of the Cs/Sr product stream because it can produce a solid waste form while retaining the Cs and Sr in the solid, destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous solutions, and convert the Cs and Sr into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals. A bench-scale steam reforming pilot plant has been operated with several potential feed compositions and steam reformed product has been generated and analyzed.

  3. IMPACT OF ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE ON NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; H. Hiruta

    2011-06-01

    A target accuracy assessment study using both a fine and a broad energy structure has shown that less stringent nuclear data accuracy requirements are needed for the latter energy structure. However, even though a reduction is observed, still the requirements will be very difficult to be met unless integral experiments are also used to reduce nuclear data uncertainties. Target accuracy assessment is the inverse problem of the uncertainty evaluation. To establish priorities and target accuracies on data uncertainty reduction, a formal approach can be adopted by defining target accuracy on design parameters and finding out required accuracy on data in order to meet them. In fact, the unknown uncertainty data requirements can be obtained by solving a minimization problem where the sensitivity coefficients in conjunction with the constraints on the integral parameters provide the needed quantities for finding the solutions.

  4. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T.

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  5. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  6. OSMOSE an experimental program for improving neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.; Aliberti, G.; Zhong, Z.; Graczyk, D.; Loussi, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Commissariat a l Energie Atomique

    2007-10-18

    This report describes the technical results of tasks and activities conducted in FY07 to support the DOE-CEA collaboration on the OSMOSE program. The activities are divided into five high-level tasks: reactor modeling and pre-experiment analysis, sample fabrication and analysis, reactor experiments, data treatment and analysis, and assessment for relevance to high priority advanced reactor programs (such as GNEP and Gen-IV).

  7. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  8. Securing special nuclear material: Recent advances in neutron detection and their role in nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, R. C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear nonproliferation objectives, such as safeguarding material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional missions. Large multinational programs targeting interdiction and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. In parallel with these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development has been directed toward the creation of next-generation assets. Neutron-detection technology plays a prominent role because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique fission signatures neutrons possess. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of H3e, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nuclear nonproliferation.

  9. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; Veronica Rutledge; Candido Pereira; Jackie Copple; Kurt Frey; John Krebs; Laura Maggos; Kevin Nichols; Kent Wardle; Pratap Sadasivan; Valmor DeAlmieda; David Depaoli

    2011-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets and integrated

  10. Use of Friction Stir Welding and Friction Stir Processing for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Joining Applications

    SciTech Connect

    J. I. Cole; J. F. Jue

    2006-06-01

    Application of the latest developments in materials technology may greatly aid in the successful pursuit of next generation reactor and transmutation technologies. One such area where significant progress is needed is joining of advanced fuels and materials. Rotary friction welding, also referred to as friction stir welding (FSW), has shown great promise as a method for joining traditionally difficult to join materials such as aluminum alloys. This relatively new technology, first developed in 1991, has more recently been applied to higher melting temperature alloys such as steels, nickel-based and titanium alloys. An overview of the FSW technology is provided and two specific nuclear fuels and materials applications where the technique may be used to overcome limitations of conventional joining technologies are highlighted.

  11. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  12. Nuclear Structure Measurements of Fermium-254 and Advances in Target Production Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothe, Oliver Ralf

    The Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) has been upgraded with a new gas control system. It allows for accurate control of hydrogen and helium gas mixtures. This greatly increases the capabilities of the separator by reducing background signals in the focal plane detector for asymmetric nuclear reactions. It has also been shown that gas mixtures can be used to focus the desired reaction products into a smaller area, thereby increasing the experimental efficiency. A new electrodeposition cell has been developed to produce metal oxide targets for experiments at the BGS. The new cell has been characterized and was used to produce americium targets for the production of element 115 in the reaction 243Am(48Ca.3n) 288115. Additionally, a new method of producing targets for nuclear reactions was explored. A procedure for producing targets via Polymer Assisted Deposition (PAD) was developed and targets produced via this method were tested using the nuclear reaction 208Pb(40Ar.4 n)244Fm to determine their in-beam performance. It was determined that the silicon nitride backings used in this procedure are not feasible due to their crystal structures, and alternative backing materials have been tested and proposed. A previously unknown level in 254Fm has been identified at 985.7 keV utilizing a newly developed low background coincident apparatus. 254m was produced in the reaction 208Pb(48Ca. n)254No. Reaction products were guided to the two-clover low background detector setup via a recoil transfer chamber. The new level has been assigned a spin of 2- and has tentatively been identified as the octupole vibration in 254Fm. Transporting evaporation residues to a two-clover, low background detector setup can effectively be used to perform gamma-spectroscopy measurements of nuclei that are not accessible by current common methodologies. This technique provides an excellent addition to previously available tools such as in-beam spectroscopy and gamma-ray tracking arrays.

  13. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  14. Recent Advances in Nuclear Reaction Theories for Weakly Bound Nuclei: Reexamining the Problem of Inclusive Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, Antonio M.; Lei, Jin

    2016-05-01

    The problem of the calculation of inclusive breakup cross sections in nuclear reactions is reexamined. For that purpose, the theory proposed by Ichimura et al. (Phys Rev C 32:431, 1985) is revisited, both in its prior and post representations. We briefly outline the connection of this theory with that proposed by Udagawa and Tamura (Phys Rev C 24:1348, 1981) and apply both theories to the inclusive breakup of ^6Li on ^{209}Bi at near-barrier energies, comparing also with available data. The relative importance of elastic versus non-elastic breakup, as a function of the incident energy and of the projectile separation energy, is also investigated.

  15. Parametric Evaluation of Large-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Using Different Advanced Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring

    2009-09-01

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the sweep gas loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycles producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered.

  16. Advancing Inverse Sensitivity/Uncertainty Methods for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbanas, G.; Williams, M. L.; Leal, L. C.; Dunn, M. E.; Khuwaileh, B. A.; Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2015-01-01

    The inverse sensitivity/uncertainty quantification (IS/UQ) method has recently been implemented in the Inverse Sensitivity/UnceRtainty Estimator (INSURE) module of the AMPX cross section processing system [M.E. Dunn and N.M. Greene, "AMPX-2000: A Cross-Section Processing System for Generating Nuclear Data for Criticality Safety Applications," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 86, 118-119 (2002)]. The IS/UQ method aims to quantify and prioritize the cross section measurements along with uncertainties needed to yield a given nuclear application(s) target response uncertainty, and doing this at a minimum cost. Since in some cases the extant uncertainties of the differential cross section data are already near the limits of the present-day state-of-the-art measurements, requiring significantly smaller uncertainties may be unrealistic. Therefore, we have incorporated integral benchmark experiments (IBEs) data into the IS/UQ method using the generalized linear least-squares method, and have implemented it in the INSURE module. We show how the IS/UQ method could be applied to systematic and statistical uncertainties in a self-consistent way and how it could be used to optimize uncertainties of IBEs and differential cross section data simultaneously. We itemize contributions to the cost of differential data measurements needed to define a realistic cost function.

  17. MARKOV Model Application to Proliferation Risk Reduction of an Advanced Nuclear System

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-07-13

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) emphasizes proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) as a main goal for future nuclear energy systems. The GIF PR&PP Working Group has developed a methodology for the evaluation of these systems. As an application of the methodology, Markov model has been developed for the evaluation of proliferation resistance and is demonstrated for a hypothetical Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. This paper presents the case of diversion by the facility owner/operator to obtain material that could be used in a nuclear weapon. The Markov model is applied to evaluate material diversion strategies. The following features of the Markov model are presented here: (1) An effective detection rate has been introduced to account for the implementation of multiple safeguards approaches at a given strategic point; (2) Technical failure to divert material is modeled as intrinsic barriers related to the design of the facility or the properties of the material in the facility; and (3) Concealment to defeat or degrade the performance of safeguards is recognized in the Markov model. Three proliferation risk measures are calculated directly by the Markov model: the detection probability, technical failure probability, and proliferation time. The material type is indicated by an index that is based on the quality of material diverted. Sensitivity cases have been done to demonstrate the effects of different modeling features on the measures of proliferation resistance.

  18. Advancing Inverse Sensitivity/Uncertainty Methods for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arbanas, G.; Williams, M.L.; Leal, L.C.; Dunn, M.E.; Khuwaileh, B.A.; Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2015-01-15

    The inverse sensitivity/uncertainty quantification (IS/UQ) method has recently been implemented in the Inverse Sensitivity/UnceRtainty Estimator (INSURE) module of the AMPX cross section processing system [M.E. Dunn and N.M. Greene, “AMPX-2000: A Cross-Section Processing System for Generating Nuclear Data for Criticality Safety Applications,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 86, 118–119 (2002)]. The IS/UQ method aims to quantify and prioritize the cross section measurements along with uncertainties needed to yield a given nuclear application(s) target response uncertainty, and doing this at a minimum cost. Since in some cases the extant uncertainties of the differential cross section data are already near the limits of the present-day state-of-the-art measurements, requiring significantly smaller uncertainties may be unrealistic. Therefore, we have incorporated integral benchmark experiments (IBEs) data into the IS/UQ method using the generalized linear least-squares method, and have implemented it in the INSURE module. We show how the IS/UQ method could be applied to systematic and statistical uncertainties in a self-consistent way and how it could be used to optimize uncertainties of IBEs and differential cross section data simultaneously. We itemize contributions to the cost of differential data measurements needed to define a realistic cost function.

  19. Advanced sample environments for in situ neutron diffraction studies of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Helmut Matthias

    Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts, such as the supercritical-water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR), are actively researched internationally. Operating conditions above the critical point of water (374°C, 22.1 MPa) and fuel core temperature that potentially exceed 1850°C put a high demand on the surrounding materials. For their safe application, it is essential to characterize and understand the material properties on an atomic scale such as crystal structure and grain orientation (texture) changes as a function of temperature and stress. This permits the refinement of models predicting the macroscopic behavior of the material. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool in characterizing such crystallographic properties due to their deep penetration depth into condensed matter. This leads to the ability to study bulk material properties, as opposed to surface effects, and allows for complex sample environments to study e.g. the individual contributions of thermo-mechanical processing steps during manufacturing, operating or accident scenarios. I present three sample environments for in situ neutron diffraction studies that provide such crystallographic information and have been successfully commissioned and integrated into the user program of the High Pressure -- Preferred Orientation (HIPPO) diffractometer at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) user facility. I adapted a sample changer for reliable and fast automated texture measurements of multiple specimens. I built a creep furnace combining a 2700 N load frame with a resistive vanadium furnace, capable of temperatures up to 1000°C, and manipulated by a pair of synchronized rotation stages. This combination allows following deformation and temperature dependent texture and strain evolutions in situ. Utilizing the presented sample changer and creep furnace we studied pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5wt%Nb currently employed in CANDURTM nuclear reactors and proposed for future SCWRs, acting as the primary

  20. Nuclear propulsion in the United States.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The achievements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program over the past 15 years are reviewed. It is shown that the effort in basic and applied research and technological development resulted in a state of technology of nuclear rocket engines based on solid core reactors, which is suitable for the development of a space propulsion system. Current efforts aimed at achieving specific impulses on the order of 975 sec (3400 K) are noted. The characteristics of SNRE (Small Nuclear Rocket Engine), the ALPHA, BETA, and GAMMA engines are discussed. Attention is given to the design and principles of operation of the Rotating Fluidized Dust Bed Reactor.

  1. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.; Sanderson, P.; Reising, D.V.

    1993-05-21

    With recent theoretical and empirical research in basic and applied psychology, human factors, and engineering, it is now sufficient to define an integrated approach to the deign of advanced displays for present and future nuclear power plants. Traditionally, the conventional displays have shown operators the individual variables on gauges, meters, strip charts, etc. This design approach requires the operators to mentally integrate the separately displayed variables and determine the implications for the plant state. This traditional approach has been known as the single-sensor-single-indicator display design and it places an intolerable amount of mental workload on operators during transients and abnormal conditions. This report discusses a new alternative approach which is the use of direct perception interfaces. Direct perception a interfaces display the underlying physical and system constraints of the situation in a directly perceptual way, such that the viewer need not reason about what is seen to identify system states, but can identify the state of the system perceptually. It is expected that displays which show the dynamics of fundamental physical laws should better support operator decisions and diagnoses of plant states. The purpose of this research project is to develop a suite of direct perception displays for PWR nuclear power plant operations.

  2. A heartrending burden of gynaecological cancers in advance stage at nuclear institute of medicine and radiotherapy Jamshoro Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaque, Sanober; Laghari, Naeem Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Pakistan gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of women’s morbidity and mortality posing huge financial burden on families, communities and state. Due to lack of national cancer registry exact facts and figures are unknown therefore this study was planned to find out prevalence, age, site and stage of presentation of gynaecological cancers at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 at NIMRA Jamshoro. All cases of genital tract cancers were evaluated, required data was entered on predesigned performa and results were analyzed manually. Results: Out of 2401 total registered cancer cases, 231 (9.6%) patients were suffering from gynaecological cancer making it third most common cancer. Ovary was commonest site followed by cervix and uterus. More than 60% cases presented in advanced stage, mostly during 4th and 5th decade of life. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer was among top three cancers at one of the busiest public sector cancer institute in Sindh province and significant number presented in advance stage making treatment difficult and expensive. There is urgent need for development and implementation of an effective health policy regarding cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27022358

  3. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  4. Design of an advanced TLD-based fixed nuclear accident dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Mei, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    A new system has been designed for use as a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter based upon the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system used for personnel dosimetry at US Department of Energy facilities managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The system is made up of a small phantom consisting of two main parts measuring 20 x 20 x 5 cm and made from polymethylmethacrylate. A neutron-sensitive TLD card is placed in the center between the two pieces. Also, TLD cards in standard holders are mounted on the front and back of the phantom. A derivation is made of a linear combination of the responses from the TLD elements which results in calculation of the neutron fluence, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. By using the right linear combinations, a crude spectrum can be estimated, which allows further calculation of the average fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion factor. The response of the system was tested and found to be applicable for the evaluation of typical nuclear accident spectra, although considerable improvement can be made by the addition of a sulfur pellet. The system was also tested for angular dependence. In order to move the development of this system from the proof-of-principle to full application, the calculation of the TLD resonse curves must be improved, additional measurements must be made, and the system must be tested in a simulated accident neutron field. The advantages of the new fixed dosimeter system are its simplicity, easy maintenance, and lower operational cost. The system uses standard TLD cards that are already in place throughout Energy Systems facilities. The TLD process personnel are famliiar with evaluating doses from TLDs and can provide information necessary to ensure timely and accurate assessment of exposures that may result from riticality accidents. Most of the quality control requirements are part of the existing personnel dosimetry system.

  5. Chemical structures of swine-manure chars produced under different carbonization conditions investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of swine manure chars, hydrothermally-produced hydrochar and slow-pyrolysis pyrochar, and their raw swine manure solid were characterized using advanced 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared with the parent raw swine manure, both hydrochars and pyrochar di...

  6. Processing of solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for advanced space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Travis Warren

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and space nuclear power are two enabling technologies for the manned exploration of space and the development of research outposts in space and on other planets such as Mars. Advanced carbide nuclear fuels have been proposed for application in space nuclear power and propulsion systems. This study examined the processing technologies and optimal parameters necessary to fabricate samples of single phase, solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides. In particular, the pseudo-ternary carbide, UC-ZrC-NbC, system was examined with uranium metal mole fractions of 5% and 10% and corresponding uranium densities of 0.8 to 1.8 gU/cc. Efforts were directed to those methods that could produce simple geometry fuel elements or wafers such as those used to fabricate a Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel element and reactor core. Methods of cold uniaxial pressing, sintering by induction heating, and hot pressing by self-resistance heating were investigated. Solid solution, high density (low porosity) samples greater than 95% TD were processed by cold pressing at 150 MPa and sintering above 2600 K for times longer than 90 min. Some impurity oxide phases were noted in some samples attributed to residual gases in the furnace during processing. Also, some samples noted secondary phases of carbon and UC2 due to some hyperstoichiometric powder mixtures having carbon-to-metal ratios greater than one. In all, 33 mixed carbide samples were processed and analyzed with half bearing uranium as ternary carbides of UC-ZrC-NbC. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and density measurements were used to characterize samples. Samples were processed from powders of the refractory mono-carbides and UC/UC 2 or from powders of uranium hydride (UH3), graphite, and refractory metal carbides to produce hypostoichiometric mixed carbides. Samples processed from the constituent carbide powders and sintered at temperatures above the melting point of UC

  7. Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any

  8. Advanced Sample Environments for in situ Neutron Diffraction Studies of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reiche, Helmut M.

    2012-07-19

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) the author successfully developed and commissioned three sample environments and applied them to study scientific problems of nuclear materials; (2) sample changer - reliable, unattended operation, Reiche and Vogel, 2010; (3) creep furnace - 1000 C, 2.7 kN, texture, Reiche et al., 2012; (4) Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes - deconvolute the contributions of heating, phase transformation, deformation at temperature in the {beta}-field, and phase transformation during cooling; (5) our data informs currently developed mechanical models predicting texture evolution during phase transformation and high temperature deformation (MST-8, LANL); (6) high-temperature furnace - >2200 C, texture, paper in progress; (7) UC - Bowman's NaCl-type structure correct for cubic UC{sub 2}, recent reactor safetly calculations by Chevalier and Fischer (2001) and independent work by Freyss (2010) incorrect, as fluorite structure is assumed; and (8) UC - order-disorder transition starting at 1800 C discovered which will improve current models, as these do not predict this transition (e.g. Basak, 2007), or confirm the prediction (Wen et al., 2012, T-1, LANL).

  9. Advances in defining a closed Brayton conversion system for future ARIANE 5 space nuclear power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1987-01-01

    The present European ARIANE space program will expand into the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle from 1995. It is assumed that important associated missions would require the generation of 200 kWe or more in space during several years at the very beginning of the next century. For this reason, in 1983, the French C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) have initiated preliminary studies of a space nuclear power system. The currently selected conversion system is a closed Brayton cycle. Reasons for this choice are given: high efficiency of a dynamic system; monophasic, inert working fluid; extensive turbomachinery experience, etc. A key aspect of the project is the adaptation to heat rejection conditions, namely to the radiator geometry which depends upon the dimensions of the ARIANE 5 spacecraft. In addition to usual concepts already studied for space applications, another cycle arrangement is being investigated which could offer satisfactory compromises among many considerations, increase the efficiency of the system, and make it more attractive as far as the specific mass (kg/lWe), the specific radiator area (m/sup 2//kWe), and various technological aspects are concerned. Comparative details are presented.

  10. TiN-based coatings on fuel cladding tubes for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ickchan Kim; Fauzia Khatkhatay; Liang Jiao; Greg Swadener; James Cole; Jian Gan; Haiyan Wang

    2012-10-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films are coated on HT-9 and MA957 fuel cladding tubes and bars to explore their mechanical strength, thermal stability, diffusion barrier properties, and thermal conductivity properties. The ultimate goal is to implement TiN as an effective diffusion barrier to prevent the inter-diffusion between the nuclear fuel and the cladding material, and thus lead to a longer life time of the cladding tubes. Mechanical tests including hardness and scratch tests for the samples before and after thermal cycle tests show that the films have a high hardness of 28 GPa and excellent adhesion properties despite the thermal treatment. Thermal conductivity measurements demonstrate that the thin TiN films have very minimal impact on the overall thermal conductivity of the MA957 and HT9 substrates, i.e., the thermal conductivity of the uncoated HT-9 and MA957 substrates was 26.25 and 28.44 W m-1K-1 , and that of the coated ones was 26.21 and 28.38 W m-1K-1, respectively. A preliminary Ce diffusion test on the couple of Ce/TiN/HT-9 suggests that TiN has excellent material compatibility and good diffusion barrier properties.

  11. Advancing Inverse Sensitivity/Uncertainty Methods for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arbanas, Goran; Williams, Mark L; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E; Khuwaileh, Bassam A.; Wang, C; Abdel-Khalik, Hany

    2015-01-01

    The inverse sensitivity/uncertainty quantification (IS/UQ) method has recently been implemented in the Inverse Sensitivity/UnceRtainty Estimiator (INSURE) module of the AMPX system [1]. The IS/UQ method aims to quantify and prioritize the cross section measurements along with uncertainties needed to yield a given nuclear application(s) target response uncertainty, and doing this at a minimum cost. Since in some cases the extant uncertainties of the differential cross section data are already near the limits of the present-day state-of-the-art measurements, requiring significantly smaller uncertainties may be unrealistic. Therefore we have incorporated integral benchmark experiments (IBEs) data into the IS/UQ method using the generalized linear least-squares method, and have implemented it in the INSURE module. We show how the IS/UQ method could be applied to systematic and statistical uncertainties in a self-consistent way. We show how the IS/UQ method could be used to optimize uncertainties of IBEs and differential cross section data simultaneously.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomics and liver diseases: Recent advances and future clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Amathieu, Roland; Triba, Mohamed Nawfal; Goossens, Corentine; Bouchemal, Nadia; Nahon, Pierre; Savarin, Philippe; Le Moyec, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is defined as the quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification. It is an “omics” technique that is situated downstream of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Metabolomics is recognized as a promising technique in the field of systems biology for the evaluation of global metabolic changes. During the last decade, metabolomics approaches have become widely used in the study of liver diseases for the detection of early biomarkers and altered metabolic pathways. It is a powerful technique to improve our pathophysiological knowledge of various liver diseases. It can be a useful tool to help clinicians in the diagnostic process especially to distinguish malignant and non-malignant liver disease as well as to determine the etiology or severity of the liver disease. It can also assess therapeutic response or predict drug induced liver injury. Nevertheless, the usefulness of metabolomics is often not understood by clinicians, especially the concept of metabolomics profiling or fingerprinting. In the present work, after a concise description of the different techniques and processes used in metabolomics, we will review the main research on this subject by focusing specifically on in vitro proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based metabolomics approaches in human studies. We will first consider the clinical point of view enlighten physicians on this new approach and emphasis its future use in clinical “routine”. PMID:26755887

  13. First-principles Modelling of Radiation Defects in Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Gryaznov, D.; Grimes, R. W.; Parfitt, D.; Zhukovskii, Yuri F.; Mastrikov, Yuri A.; Van Uffelen, Paul; Rondinella, Vincenzo V.; Konings, RJ M.

    2008-06-01

    We present and discuss the results of the first-principles calculations of Frenkel defects and O impurities in uranium mononitride (UN) perspective for fast reactor nuclear fuels. Special attention is paid to the calculation of defect migration energies. We demonstrate that the interstitialcy mechanism (with the formation of a N–N dumbbell along the [111] axis) is energetically more favorable than the direct [100] hops. As a result, for the interstitial N ions we predict a diffusion mechanism similar to that known in isostructural fcc materials with a different chemical nature (KCl, MgO). The calculated effective N charge considerably depends on the ion position and environment (a host lattice site, interstitial or saddle point) which strongly limits the applicability of classical defect modelling based on formal invariant charges. Lastly, the calculated migration energy for the interstitial impurity O ions is quite low (2.84 eV), which indicates their high mobility and ability for reactions with other defects.

  14. Precise Nuclear Data Measurements Possible with the NIFFTE fissionTPC for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towell, Rusty; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) Collaboration has applied the proven technology of Time Projection Chambers (TPC) to the task of precisely measuring fission cross sections. With the NIFFTE fission TPC, precise measurements have been made during the last year at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center from both U-235 and Pu-239 targets. The exquisite tracking capabilities of this device allow the full reconstruction of charged particles produced by neutron beam induced fissions from a thin central target. The wealth of information gained from this approach will allow systematics to be controlled at the level of 1%. The fissionTPC performance will be presented. These results are critical to the development of advanced uranium-fueled reactors. However, there are clear advantages to developing thorium-fueled reactors such as Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors over uranium-fueled reactors. These advantages include improved reactor safety, minimizing radioactive waste, improved reactor efficiency, and enhanced proliferation resistance. The potential for using the fissionTPC to measure needed cross sections important to the development of thorium-fueled reactors will also be discussed.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  16. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, George S.; Long, Kristy Marie; Reilly, Sean D.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Runde, Wolfgang H.

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  17. Mechanical Performance of Ferritic Martensitic Steels for High Dose Applications in Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderoglu, Osman; Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered for core applications and pressure vessels in Generation IV reactors as well as first walls and blankets for fusion reactors. There are significant scientific data on testing and industrial experience in making this class of alloys worldwide. This experience makes F/M steels an attractive candidate. In this article, tensile behavior, fracture toughness and impact property, and creep behavior of the F/M steels under neutron irradiations to high doses with a focus on high Cr content (8 to 12) are reviewed. Tensile properties are very sensitive to irradiation temperature. Increase in yield and tensile strength (hardening) is accompanied with a loss of ductility and starts at very low doses under irradiation. The degradation of mechanical properties is most pronounced at <0.3 T M ( T M is melting temperature) and up to 10 dpa (displacement per atom). Ferritic/martensitic steels exhibit a high fracture toughness after irradiation at all temperatures even below 673 K (400 °C), except when tested at room temperature after irradiations below 673 K (400 °C), which shows a significant reduction in fracture toughness. Creep studies showed that for the range of expected stresses in a reactor environment, the stress exponent is expected to be approximately one and the steady state creep rate in the absence of swelling is usually better than austenitic stainless steels both in terms of the creep rate and the temperature sensitivity of creep. In short, F/M steels show excellent promise for high dose applications in nuclear reactors.

  18. The JRC-ITU approach to the safety of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Fanghaenel, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Somers, J.; Konings, R.; Erdmann, N.; Uffelen, P. van; Glatz, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    The JRC-ITU safety studies of advanced fuels and cycles adopt two main axes. First the full exploitation of still available and highly relevant knowledge and samples from past fuel preparation and irradiation campaigns (complementing the limited number of ongoing programmes). Secondly, the shift of focus from simple property measurement towards the understanding of basic mechanisms determining property evolution and behaviour of fuel compounds during normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The final objective of the second axis is the determination of predictive tools applicable to systems and conditions different from those from which they were derived. State of the art experimental facilities, extensive networks of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations worldwide, and a developing programme for training and education are essential in this approach. This strategy has been implemented through various programs and projects. The SUPERFACT programme constitutes the main body of existing knowledge on the behavior in-pile of MOX fuel containing minor actinides. It encompassed all steps of a closed fuel cycle. Another international project investigating the safety of a closed cycle is METAPHIX. In this case a U-Pu19-Zr10 metal alloy containing Np, Am and Cm constitutes the fuel. 9 test pins have been prepared and irradiated. In addition to the PIE (Post Irradiation Examination), pyrometallurgical separation of the irradiated fuel has been performed, to demonstrate all the steps of a multiple recycling closed cycle and characterize their safety relevant aspects. Basic studies like thermodynamic fuel properties, fuel-cladding-coolant interactions have also been carried out at JRC-ITU.

  19. Advanced neutron irradiation system using Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Si Young

    A heavily filtered fast neutron irradiation system (FNIS) was developed for a variety of applications, including the study of long-term health effects of fast neutrons by evaluating the biological mechanisms of damage in cultured cells and living animals such as rats or mice. This irradiation system includes an exposure cave made with a lead-bismuth alloy, a cave positioning system, a gamma and neutron monitoring system, a sample transfer system, and interchangeable filters. This system was installed in the irradiation cell of the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). By increasing the thickness of the lead-bismuth alloy, the neutron spectra were shifted into lower energies by the scattering interactions of fast neutrons with the alloy. It is possible, therefore, by changing the alloy thickness, to produce distinctly different dose weighted neutron spectra inside the exposure cave of the FNIS. The calculated neutron spectra showed close agreement with the results of activation foil measurements, unfolded by SAND-II close to the cell window. However, there was a considerable less agreement for locations far away from the cell window. Even though the magnitude of values such as neutron flux and tissue kerma rates in air differed, the weighted average neutron energies showed close agreement between the MCNP and SAND-II since the normalized neutron spectra were in a good agreement each other. A paired ion chamber system was constructed, one with a tissue equivalent plastic (A-150) and propane gas for total dose monitoring, and another with graphite and argon for photon dose monitoring. Using the pair of detectors, the neutron to gamma ratio can be inferred. With the 20 cm-thick FNIS, the absorbed dose rates of neutrons measured with the paired ion chamber method and calculated with the SAND-II results were 13.7 +/- 0.02 Gy/min and 15.5 Gy/min, respectively. The absorbed dose rate of photons and the gamma contribution to total dose were 6.7 x 10

  20. Axisymmetric whole pin life modelling of advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    Thermo-mechanical contributions to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) in advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) are modelled in the ABAQUS finite element (FE) code. User supplied sub-routines permit the modelling of the non-linear behaviour of AGR fuel through life. Through utilisation of ABAQUS's well-developed pre- and post-processing ability, the behaviour of the axially constrained steel clad fuel was modelled. The 2D axisymmetric model includes thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel with time and condition dependent material properties. Pellet cladding gap dynamics and thermal behaviour are also modelled. The model treats heat up as a fully coupled temperature-displacement study. Dwell time and direct power cycling was applied to model the impact of online refuelling, a key feature of the AGR. The model includes the visco-plastic behaviour of the fuel under the stress and irradiation conditions within an AGR core and a non-linear heat transfer model. A multiscale fission gas release model is applied to compute pin pressure; this model is coupled to the PCI gap model through an explicit fission gas inventory code. Whole pin, whole life, models are able to show the impact of the fuel on all segments of cladding including weld end caps and cladding pellet locking mechanisms (unique to AGR fuel). The development of this model in a commercial FE package shows that the development of a potentially verified and future-proof fuel performance code can be created and used. The usability of a FE based fuel performance code would be an enhancement over past codes. Pre- and post-processors have lowered the entry barrier for the development of a fuel performance model to permit the ability to model complicated systems. Typical runtimes for a 5 year axisymmetric model takes less than one hour on a single core workstation. The current model has implemented: Non-linear fuel thermal behaviour, including a complex description of heat flow in the fuel. Coupled with a variety of

  1. Gas core nuclear thermal rocket engine research and development in the former USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koehlinger, M.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Motloch, C.G.; Gurfink, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    Beginning in 1957 and continuing into the mid 1970s, the USSR conducted an extensive investigation into the use of both solid and gas core nuclear thermal rocket engines for space missions. During this time the scientific and engineering. problems associated with the development of a solid core engine were resolved. At the same time research was undertaken on a gas core engine, and some of the basic engineering problems associated with the concept were investigated. At the conclusion of the program, the basic principles of the solid core concept were established. However, a prototype solid core engine was not built because no established mission required such an engine. For the gas core concept, some of the basic physical processes involved were studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, no simple method of conducting proof-of-principle tests in a neutron flux was devised. This report focuses primarily on the development of the. gas core concept in the former USSR. A variety of gas core engine system parameters and designs are presented, along with a summary discussion of the basic physical principles and limitations involved in their design. The parallel development of the solid core concept is briefly described to provide an overall perspective of the magnitude of the nuclear thermal propulsion program and a technical comparison with the gas core concept.

  2. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction ofmore » a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.« less

  4. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-05

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.

  5. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, J Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C; Petrik, Igor D; Miner, Kyle D; Hu, Michael Y; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent two-electron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV-vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent (57)Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. The outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs. PMID:26274098

  6. AIDA: A 16-channel amplifier ASIC to read out the advanced implantation detector array for experiments in nuclear decay spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, D.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Lazarus, I. H.; Page, R. D.; Thomas, S.

    2011-07-01

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detector channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)

  7. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  8. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Version 2.0: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman

    1993-01-01

    This Program User's Guide discusses the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design features and capabilities modeled in the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS): Version 2.0 program (referred to as NESS throughout the remainder of this document), as well as its operation. NESS was upgraded to include many new modeling capabilities not available in the original version delivered to NASA LeRC in Dec. 1991, NESS's new features include the following: (1) an improved input format; (2) an advanced solid-core NERVA-type reactor system model (ENABLER 2); (3) a bleed-cycle engine system option; (4) an axial-turbopump design option; (5) an automated pump-out turbopump assembly sizing option; (6) an off-design gas generator engine cycle design option; (7) updated hydrogen properties; (8) an improved output format; and (9) personal computer operation capability. Sample design cases are presented in the user's guide that demonstrate many of the new features associated with this upgraded version of NESS, as well as design modeling features associated with the original version of NESS.

  9. Advanced Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies of Iron-Sulfur Proteins: Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM)

    PubMed Central

    Cutsail, George E.; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of Nature’s widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. PMID:25686535

  10. Repression of the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner by steatotic drugs and in advanced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Benet, Marta; Guzmán, Carla; Pisonero-Vaquero, Sandra; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Donato, M Teresa; Castell, José Vicente; Jover, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    The small heterodimer partner (SHP) (NR0B2) is an atypical nuclear receptor that lacks a DNA-binding domain. It interacts with and inhibits many transcription factors, affecting key metabolic processes, including bile acid, cholesterol, fatty acid, and drug metabolism. Our aim was to determine the influence of steatotic drugs and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on SHP expression and investigate the potential mechanisms. SHP was found to be repressed by steatotic drugs (valproate, doxycycline, tetracycline, and cyclosporin A) in cultured hepatic cells and the livers of different animal models of NAFLD: iatrogenic (tetracycline-treated rats), genetic (glycine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice), and nutritional (mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet). Among the different transcription factors investigated, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) showed the strongest dominant-repressive effect on SHP expression in HepG2 and human hepatocytes. Reporter assays revealed that the inhibitory effect of C/EBPα and steatotic drugs colocalize between -340 and -509 base pair of the SHP promoter, and mutation of a predicted C/EBPα response element at -473 base pair abolished SHP repression by both C/EBPα and drugs. Moreover, inhibition of major stress signaling pathways demonstrated that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 pathway activates, while the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway represses SHP in a C/EBP-dependent manner. We conclude that SHP is downregulated by several steatotic drugs and in advanced NAFLD. These conditions can activate signals that target C/EBPα and consequently repress SHP, thus favoring the progression and severity of NAFLD. PMID:25576488

  11. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  12. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...); (ii) A physical description of the shipment (the isotopes, enrichment, quantity, etc.); (iii) A... shipments of nuclear material from countries that are not party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  13. A Compilation of Boiling Water Reactor Operational Experience for the United Kingdom's Office for Nuclear Regulation's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Generic Design Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Liao, Huafei

    2014-12-01

    United States nuclear power plant Licensee Event Reports (LERs), submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under law as required by 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73 were evaluated for reliance to the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive – Office for Nuclear Regulation’s (ONR) general design assessment of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) design. An NRC compendium of LERs, compiled by Idaho National Laboratory over the time period January 1, 2000 through March 31, 2014, were sorted by BWR safety system and sorted into two categories: those events leading to a SCRAM, and those events which constituted a safety system failure. The LERs were then evaluated as to the relevance of the operational experience to the ABWR design.

  14. A three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition in graphite components of advanced gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.O.; Robinson, A.T.; Allen, D.A.; Picton, D.J.; Thornton, D.A.; Shaw, S.E.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition (or nuclear heating) throughout the graphite cores of the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors. Advances in the development of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCBEND have enabled the efficient production of detailed fully three-dimensional models that utilise three-dimensional source distributions obtained from Core Follow data supplied by the reactor physics code PANTHER. The calculational approach can be simplified to reduce both the requisite number of intensive radiation transport calculations, as well as the quantity of data output. These simplifications have been qualified by comparison with explicit calculations and they have been shown not to introduce significant systematic uncertainties. Simple calculational approaches are described that allow users of the data to address the effects on neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition predictions of the feedback resulting from the mutual dependencies of graphite weight loss and nuclear energy deposition. (authors)

  15. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Sacit M; Howard, Rob L; Liu, Cheng; Mueller, Don; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Peterson, Steven K; Scaglione, John M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  16. Concurrent nuclear ERG and MYC protein overexpression defines a subset of locally advanced prostate cancer: potential opportunities for synergistic targeted therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Udager, Aaron M.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Shi, Yang; Hicks, Jessica L.; Cao, Xuhong; Siddiqui, Javed; Jiang, Hui; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recurrent ERG gene fusions, the most common genetic alterations in prostate cancer, drive overexpression of the nuclear transcription factor ERG and are early clonal events in prostate cancer progression. The nuclear transcription factor MYC is also frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer and may play a role in tumor initiation and/or progression. The relationship between nuclear ERG and MYC protein overexpression in prostate cancer, as well as the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of ERG-positive/MYC high tumors, is not well understood. METHODS Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ERG and MYC was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs), and nuclear staining was scored semi-quantitatively (IHC product score range = 0–300). Correlation between nuclear ERG and MYC protein expression and association with clinicopathologic parameters and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy was assessed. RESULTS 29.1% of all tumor nodules showed concurrent nuclear ERG and MYC protein overexpression (i.e., ERG-positive/MYC high), including 35.0% of secondary nodules. Overall, there was weak positive correlation between ERG and MYC expression across all tumor nodules (rpb = 0.149, P = 0.045), although this correlation was strongest in secondary nodules (rpb = 0.520, P = 0.019). In radical prostatectomy specimens, ERG-positive/MYC high tumors were positively associated with the presence of extraprostatic extension (EPE), relative to all other ERG/MYC expression subgroups, however, there was no significant association between concurrent nuclear ERG and MYC protein overexpression and time to biochemical recurrence. CONCLUSIONS Concurrent nuclear ERG and MYC protein overexpression is common in prostate cancer and defines a subset of locally advanced tumors. Recent data indicates that BET bromodomain proteins regulate ERG gene fusion and MYC gene expression in prostate cancer, suggesting

  17. The potential predictive role of nuclear NHERF1 expression in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine first line chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Anita; Caldarola, Lucia; Dell'Endice, Stefania; Scarpi, Emanuela; Saragoni, Luca; Monti, Manlio; Santini, Daniele; Brunetti, Oronzo; Simone, Giovanni; Silvestris, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resistance in advanced gastric cancer (GC) might be related to function of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins. The adaptor protein NHERF1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor) is an important player in cancer progression for a number of solid malignancies, even if its role to develop drug resistance remains uncertain. Herein, we aimed to analyze the potential association between NHERF1 expression and P-gp, sorcin and HIF-1α MDR-related proteins in advanced GC patients treated with epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX) chemotherapy regimen, and its relation to response. Total number of 28 untreated patients were included into the study. Expression and subcellular localization of all proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor samples. We did not found significant association between NHERF1 expression and the MDR-related proteins. A trend was observed between positive cytoplasmic NHERF1 (cNHERF1) expression and negative nuclear HIF-1α (nHIF-1α) expression (68.8% versus 31.3% respectively, P = 0.054). However, cytoplasmic P-gp (cP-gp) expression was positively correlated with both cHIF-1α and sorcin expression (P = 0.011; P = 0.002, respectively). Interestingly, nuclear NHERF1 (nNHERF1) staining was statistically associated with clinical response. In detail, 66.7% of patients with high nNHERF1 expression had a disease control rate, while 84.6% of subjects with negative nuclear expression of the protein showed progressive disease (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant correlation between nNHERF1 and clinical response (OR 0.06, P = 0.019). These results suggest that nuclear NHERF1 could be related to resistance to the EOX regimen in advanced GC patients, identifying this marker as a possible independent predictive factor. PMID:26126066

  18. The potential predictive role of nuclear NHERF1 expression in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine first line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Anita; Caldarola, Lucia; Dell'Endice, Stefania; Scarpi, Emanuela; Saragoni, Luca; Monti, Manlio; Santini, Daniele; Brunetti, Oronzo; Simone, Giovanni; Silvestris, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resistance in advanced gastric cancer (GC) might be related to function of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins. The adaptor protein NHERF1 (Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor) is an important player in cancer progression for a number of solid malignancies, even if its role to develop drug resistance remains uncertain. Herein, we aimed to analyze the potential association between NHERF1 expression and P-gp, sorcin and HIF-1α MDR-related proteins in advanced GC patients treated with epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX) chemotherapy regimen, and its relation to response. Total number of 28 untreated patients were included into the study. Expression and subcellular localization of all proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor samples. We did not found significant association between NHERF1 expression and the MDR-related proteins. A trend was observed between positive cytoplasmic NHERF1 (cNHERF1) expression and negative nuclear HIF-1α (nHIF-1α) expression (68.8% versus 31.3% respectively, P = 0.054). However, cytoplasmic P-gp (cP-gp) expression was positively correlated with both cHIF-1α and sorcin expression (P = 0.011; P = 0.002, respectively). Interestingly, nuclear NHERF1 (nNHERF1) staining was statistically associated with clinical response. In detail, 66.7% of patients with high nNHERF1 expression had a disease control rate, while 84.6% of subjects with negative nuclear expression of the protein showed progressive disease (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant correlation between nNHERF1 and clinical response (OR 0.06, P = 0.019). These results suggest that nuclear NHERF1 could be related to resistance to the EOX regimen in advanced GC patients, identifying this marker as a possible independent predictive factor. PMID:26126066

  19. How operational Advanced-DInSAR Analysis can improve knowledge on natural and anthropogenic deformations for Nuclear Power Plant areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Bignami, Christian; Roeder, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The application of Advanced Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (A-DINSAR) techniques has strongly emerged in the last two decades and became an important part in georelated fields. State-of-the-art A-DInSAR methods, such as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) or the Small BASeline (SBAS) approach have demonstrated their usefulness in monitoring urban areas and single buildings, up to critical infrastructures. Combined with additional data from GPS networks or levelling, it could prove its large potential for an operational, cost-effective mapping of surface deformations. Given a reasonable amount of images, changes in surface deformation can be detected down to 1 mm/y. Compared to point-wise field measurements it offers a spatially consistent mapping approach from local to regional scales. In this review we want to provide a synopsis how A-DInSAR can be utilized in the framework of Nuclear Power Plant safety. Indeed, A-DInSAR is able to provide a detailed spatial analysis of slow movements occurring at NPP structures directly, as well as within the surrounding areas of the NPPs. Different phenomena of surface motion can be subject of such a monitoring. Natural causes, like active tectonics and terrain instability of slope which lead to landslides, as well as human-induced subsidence phenomena due to heavy construction or water pumping can be detected. We start by presenting techniques to determine the feasibility of the analysis for a given area and show its limitations. Then we propose a short insight into state-of-the-art studies where landslides, interseismic and human-induced deformation of the surface were mapped by A-DInSAR, to point out the relevance of a consequent analysis over an area of a NPP. Furthermore we present results of case studies from international projects (TERRAFIRMA) as well as preliminary results from the Krsko NPP in Slovenia. Finally, we provide a outlook into present and future trends concerning the use of freely

  20. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D.

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  1. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  2. Interagency Advanced Power Group, Joint Electrical and Nuclear Working Group, meeting minutes, November 16--17, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Reports on soldier power R&D review, N-MCT power electronic building blocks, silicon carbide power semiconductor work, and ground based radar were made to the Power Conditioning Panel. An introduction to high temperature electronics needs, research and development was made to the High Temperature Electronics Subcommittee. The Pulse Power Panel received reports on the navy ETC gun, and army pulse power. The Superconductivity Panel received reports on high-tc superconducting wires, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and superconducting applications. The Nuclear Working Group received presentations on the Topaz nuclear power program, and space nuclear work in the Department of Energy.

  3. Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

  4. Advanced paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies of iron-sulfur proteins: Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM).

    PubMed

    Cutsail, George E; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    The advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, provide unique insights into the structure, coordination chemistry, and biochemical mechanism of nature's widely distributed iron-sulfur cluster (FeS) proteins. This review describes the ENDOR and ESEEM techniques and then provides a series of case studies on their application to a wide variety of FeS proteins including ferredoxins, nitrogenase, and radical SAM enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases. PMID:25686535

  5. Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) Code Verification and Validation Data Standards and Requirements: Fluid Dynamics Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Weirs; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    V&V and UQ are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of M&S and, hence, to establish confidence in M&S. Though other industries are establishing standards and requirements for the performance of V&V and UQ, at present, the nuclear industry has not established such standards or requirements. However, the nuclear industry is beginning to recognize that such standards are needed and that the resources needed to support V&V and UQ will be very significant. In fact, no single organization has sufficient resources or expertise required to organize, conduct and maintain a comprehensive V&V and UQ program. What is needed is a systematic and standardized approach to establish and provide V&V and UQ resources at a national or even international level, with a consortium of partners from government, academia and industry. Specifically, what is needed is a structured and cost-effective knowledge base that collects, evaluates and stores verification and validation data, and shows how it can be used to perform V&V and UQ, leveraging collaboration and sharing of resources to support existing engineering and licensing procedures as well as science-based V&V and UQ processes. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Utah State University and others with the objective of establishing a comprehensive and web-accessible knowledge base to provide V&V and UQ resources for M&S for nuclear reactor design, analysis and licensing. The knowledge base will serve as an important resource for technical exchange and collaboration that will enable credible and reliable computational models and simulations for application to nuclear power. NE-KAMS will serve as a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, academia, the national laboratories, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and

  6. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T. )

    1993-01-20

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown.

  7. Benchmarking of thermal hydraulic loop models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES), phase-I: Isothermal steady state forced convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Batta, A.; Casamassima, V.; Cheng, X.; Choi, Yong Joon; Hwang, Il Soon; Lim, Jun; Meloni, P.; Nitti, F. S.; Dedul, V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Komlev, O.; Jaeger, W.; Sedov, A.; Kim, Ji Hak; Puspitarini, D.

    2011-08-01

    As highly promising coolant for new generation nuclear reactors, liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic has been extensively worldwide investigated. With high expectation about this advanced coolant, a multi-national systematic study on LBE was proposed in 2007, which covers benchmarking of thermal hydraulic prediction models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES). This international collaboration has been organized by OECD/NEA, and nine organizations - ENEA, ERSE, GIDROPRESS, IAEA, IPPE, KIT/IKET, KIT/INR, NUTRECK, and RRC KI - contribute their efforts to LACANES benchmarking. To produce experimental data for LACANES benchmarking, thermal-hydraulic tests were conducted by using a 12-m tall LBE integral test facility, named as Heavy Eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of Operability and Safety of PEACER (HELIOS) which has been constructed in 2005 at the Seoul National University in the Republic of Korea. LACANES benchmark campaigns consist of a forced convection (phase-I) and a natural circulation (phase-II). In the forced convection case, the predictions of pressure losses based on handbook correlations and that obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics code simulation were compared with the measured data for various components of the HELIOS test facility. Based on comparative analyses of the predictions and the measured data, recommendations for the prediction methods of a pressure loss in LACANES were obtained. In this paper, results for the forced convection case (phase-I) of LACANES benchmarking are described.

  8. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., or irradiated reactor fuel. 73.72 Section 73.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... strategic significance, or irradiated reactor fuel. (a) A licensee, other than one specified in paragraph (b... strategic significance, or irradiated reactor fuel required to be protected in accordance with §...

  9. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., or irradiated reactor fuel. 73.72 Section 73.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... strategic significance, or irradiated reactor fuel. (a) A licensee, other than one specified in paragraph (b... strategic significance, or irradiated reactor fuel required to be protected in accordance with §...

  10. Structure studies of nuclear systems close to the doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn using advanced {beta}{sup -}spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mach, H.; Fogelberg, B.; Jacobsson, L.; Lindroth, A.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Taylor, R. B. E.; Blomqvist, J.; Isakov, V. I.; Mezilev, K. A.

    1998-12-21

    A brief description of the OSIRIS fission product mass separator and an outline of the current program of research in the domain of nuclear structure at the doubly magic {sup 132}Sn region are given. The most recent results on the study of the single particle states in {sup 133}Sb are briefly summarized.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LOOP FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER FACILITY FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR REACTOR THERMAL HYDRAULIC AND HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-09-01

    A new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility for advanced nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Molten salts have been identified as excellent candidate heat transport fluids for primary or secondary coolant loops, supporting advanced high temperature and small modular reactors (SMRs). Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed. A preliminary design configuration will be presented, with the required characteristics of the various components. The loop will utilize advanced high-temperature compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) operating at prototypic intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) conditions. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750°C), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa) at a temperature of ~450°C. Experiment design challenges include identification of suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. Corrosion and high temperature creep behavior are major considerations. The facility will include a thermal energy storage capability designed to support scaled process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will also provide important data for code ve

  12. 10 CFR 73.72 - Requirement for advance notice of shipment of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.72 Requirement for advance notice of... telephone number(s) of the shipper, receiver, and carrier(s); (ii) A physical description of the shipment...) For a shipment of irradiated fuel, the physical form, quantity, type of reactor, and...

  13. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    SciTech Connect

    BLanc, Katya Le; Powers, David; Joe, Jeffrey; Spielman, Zachary; Rice, Brandon; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  14. Concepts for Near-Earth Asteroid Deflection using Spacecraft with Advanced Nuclear and Solar Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Izzo, D.; de Negueruela, C.; Summerer, L.; Ayre, M.; Vasile, M.

    The near-Earth object population, composed mostly of asteroids rather than comets, poses an impact hazard to Earth. Space technology is reaching a sufficient level of capability and maturity where the deflection of an Earth impactor may be possible within the next decades. The paper focuses on assessing the maximum deflection capability (minimum response time) that could be achieved with a rendezvous/landed spacecraft, using electric propulsion and nuclear/solar power technologies likely to be available in the near-term, within the constraints of a single heavy launch into low Earth orbit. Preliminary design concepts are presented for large, high-power nuclear and solar electric spacecraft, based on a trade-off analysis of power/ propulsion technology options and an optimisation of the complete mission design to the minimise the total response time for a representative impactor/deflection scenario. High specific impulse gridded-ion engines show significantly improved mission performance over Hall effect thrusters due to the high delta-V requirements for Earth spiral out, rendezvous, spin axis re-orientation and deflection. Amorphous silicon thin film solar arrays perform substantially better than conventional high cell efficiency alternatives. It was found that solar electric spacecraft could achieve lower total response times for the deflection than a nuclear electric spacecraft of the same initial mass, if the asteroid perihelion is much lower than the Earth. The comparison is expected to be much closer if the asteroid perihelion is near the Earth. Both systems were found to provide effective deflection capabilities for small/moderate-size impactors.

  15. Advanced Pipe Replacement Procedure for a Defective CRDM Housing Nozzle Enables Continued Normal Operation of a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Geoff; Becker, Andrew

    2006-07-01

    During the 2003 outage at the Ringhals Nuclear Plant in Sweden, a leak was found in the vicinity of a Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) housing nozzle at Unit 1. Based on the ALARA principle for radioactive contamination, a unique repair process was developed. The repair system includes utilization of custom, remotely controlled GTAW-robots, a CNC cutting and finishing machine, snake-arm robots and NDE equipment. The success of the repair solution was based on performing the machining and welding operations from the inside of the SCRAM pipe through the CRDM housing since accessibility from the outside was extremely limited. Before the actual pipe replacement procedure was performed, comprehensive training programs were conducted. Training was followed by certification of equipment, staff and procedures during qualification tests in a full scale mock-up of the housing nozzle. Due to the ingenuity of the overall repair solution and training programs, the actual pipe replacement procedure was completed in less than half the anticipated time. As a result of the successful pipe replacement, the nuclear power plant was returned to normal operation. (authors)

  16. Advanced Non-Destructive Assessment Technology to Determine the Aging of Silicon Containing Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, T. W.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; King, J. C.; Fletcher, J.; Gerstenberger, L.; Lawrence, S.; Martin, A.; Mejia, C.; Meyer, M. K.; Kennedy, R.; Hu, L.; Kohse, G.; Terry, J.

    2011-06-01

    To create an in-situ, real-time method of monitoring neutron damage within a nuclear reactor core, irradiated silicon carbide samples are examined to correlate measurable variations in the material properties with neutron fluence levels experienced by the silicon carbide (SiC) during the irradiation process. The reaction by which phosphorus doping via thermal neutrons occurs in the silicon carbide samples is known to increase electron carrier density. A number of techniques are used to probe the properties of the SiC, including ultrasonic and Hall coefficient measurements, as well as high frequency impedance analysis. Gamma spectroscopy is also used to examine residual radioactivity resulting from irradiation activation of elements in the samples. Hall coefficient measurements produce the expected trend of increasing carrier concentration with higher fluence levels, while high frequency impedance analysis shows an increase in sample impedance with increasing fluence.

  17. Final LDRD report : nanoscale mechanisms in advanced aging of materials during storage of spent %22high burnup%22 nuclear fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  18. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Advanced Fuel Cycles and their Irradiated Fuel - a Comparison between Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez, C. J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J. S.

    2014-04-01

    The uncertainties on the isotopic composition throughout the burnup due to the nuclear data uncertainties are analysed. The different sources of uncertainties: decay data, fission yield and cross sections; are propagated individually, and their effect assessed. Two applications are studied: EFIT (an ADS-like reactor) and ESFR (Sodium Fast Reactor). The impact of the uncertainties on cross sections provided by the EAF-2010, SCALE6.1 and COMMARA-2.0 libraries are compared. These Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) studies have been carried out with a Monte Carlo sampling approach implemented in the depletion/activation code ACAB. Such implementation has been improved to overcome depletion/activation problems with variations of the neutron spectrum.

  19. Targeted multiplex next-generation sequencing: advances in techniques of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequencing for population genomics.

    PubMed

    Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L; Frey, Amy; Leslie, Matthew S; Dutton, Peter H; Archer, Frederick I; Morin, Phillip A

    2013-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective tool in population genomic analyses of nonmodel organisms, allowing simultaneous resequencing of many regions of multi-genomic DNA from multiplexed samples. Here, we detail our synthesis of protocols for targeted resequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci by generating indexed genomic libraries for multiplexing up to 100 individuals in a single sequencing pool, and then enriching the pooled library using custom DNA capture arrays. Our use of DNA sequence from one species to capture and enrich the sequencing libraries of another species (i.e. cross-species DNA capture) indicates that efficient enrichment occurs when sequences are up to about 12% divergent, allowing us to take advantage of genomic information in one species to sequence orthologous regions in related species. In addition to a complete mitochondrial genome on each array, we have included between 43 and 118 nuclear loci for low-coverage sequencing of between 18 kb and 87 kb of DNA sequence per individual for single nucleotide polymorphisms discovery from 50 to 100 individuals in a single sequencing lane. Using this method, we have generated a total of over 500 whole mitochondrial genomes from seven cetacean species and green sea turtles. The greater variation detected in mitogenomes relative to short mtDNA sequences is helping to resolve genetic structure ranging from geographic to species-level differences. These NGS and analysis techniques have allowed for simultaneous population genomic studies of mtDNA and nDNA with greater genomic coverage and phylogeographic resolution than has previously been possible in marine mammals and turtles. PMID:23351075

  20. Multiphysics Thrust Chamber Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. A two-pronged approach is employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of heat transfer on thrust performance. Preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

  1. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-12

    Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, 950 and 1050/sup 0/C. Initiation of controlled purity helium creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the results of 1000-hour exposures at 750 and 850/sup 0/C on several experimental alloys are discussed.

  2. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-14

    Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described; this includes: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850 and 950/sup 0/C. The initiation of air creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the status of the data management system is described.

  3. Use of Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in the Design of Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Experiments for Advanced Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, B.T.; Anderson, W.J.; Harms, G.A.

    2005-08-15

    Framatome ANP, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the University of Florida are cooperating on the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project 2001-0124 to design, assemble, execute, analyze, and document a series of critical experiments to validate reactor physics and criticality safety codes for the analysis of commercial power reactor fuels consisting of UO{sub 2} with {sup 235}U enrichments {>=}5 wt%. The experiments will be conducted at the SNL Pulsed Reactor Facility.Framatome ANP and SNL produced two series of conceptual experiment designs based on typical parameters, such as fuel-to-moderator ratios, that meet the programmatic requirements of this project within the given restraints on available materials and facilities. ORNL used the Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) to assess, from a detailed physics-based perspective, the similarity of the experiment designs to the commercial systems they are intended to validate. Based on the results of the TSUNAMI analysis, one series of experiments was found to be preferable to the other and will provide significant new data for the validation of reactor physics and criticality safety codes.

  4. CFD Simulations of a Flow Mixing and Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    In, Wang-Kee; Chun, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Hwan; Oh, Dong-Seok

    2007-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to investigate a flow-mixing and heat-transfer enhancement caused by a mixing-vane spacer in a LWR fuel assembly which is a rod bundle. This paper presents the CFD simulations of a flow mixing and heat transfer in a fully heated 5x5 array of a rod bundle with a split-vane and hybrid-vane spacer. The CFD prediction at a low Reynolds number of 42,000 showed a reasonably good agreement of the initial heat transfer enhancement with the measured one for a partially heated experiment using a similar spacer structure. The CFD simulation also predicted the decay rate of a normalized Nusselt number downstream of the split-vane spacer which agrees fairly well with those of the experiment and the correlation. The CFD calculations for the split vane and hybrid vane at the LWR operating conditions(Re = 500,000) predicted hot fuel spots in a streaky structure downstream of the spacer, which occurs due to the secondary flow occurring in an opposite direction near the fuel rod. However, the split-vane and hybrid-vane spacers are predicted to significantly enhance the overall heat transfer of a LWR nuclear fuel assembly. (authors)

  5. The Dynomak: An advanced spheromak reactor system with imposed-dynamo current drive and next-generation nuclear power technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G.; Morgan, K. D.; Nelson, B. A.

    2013-10-01

    A high-beta spheromak reactor system has been designed with an overnight capital cost that is competitive with conventional power sources. This reactor system utilizes recently discovered imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) and a molten salt blanket system for first wall cooling, neutron moderation and tritium breeding. Currently available materials and ITER developed cryogenic pumping systems were implemented in this design on the basis of technological feasibility. A tritium breeding ratio of greater than 1.1 has been calculated using a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) neutron transport simulation. High-temperature superconducting tapes (YBCO) were used for the equilibrium coil set, substantially reducing the recirculating power fraction when compared to previous spheromak reactor studies. Using zirconium hydride for neutron shielding, a limiting equilibrium coil lifetime of at least thirty full-power years has been achieved. The primary FLiBe loop was coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle due to attractive economics and high thermal efficiencies. With these advancements, an electrical output of 1000 MW from a thermal output of 2486 MW was achieved, yielding an overall plant efficiency of approximately 40%. A paper concerning the Dynomak reactor design is currently being reviewed for publication.

  6. Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance lanthanide probe analyses of short-range conformational interrelations controlling ribonucleic acid structures.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Inagaki, F; Miyazawa, T

    1981-05-12

    An advanced method was developed for lanthanide-probe analyses of the conformations of flexible biomolecules such as nucleotides. The new method is to determine structure parameters (such as internal-rotation angles) and population parameters for local conformational equilibria of flexible sites, together with standard deviations of these parameters. As the prominent advantage of this method, the interrelations among local conformations of flexible sites may be quantitatively elucidated from the experimental data of lanthanide-induced shifts and relaxations and vicinal coupling constants. As a structural unit of ribonucleic acids, the molecular conformations and conformational equilibria of uridine 3'-monophosphate in aqueous solution were analyzed. The stable local conformers about the C3'-O3' bond are the G+ (phi' = 281 +/- 11 degrees) and G- (phi' = 211 +/- 8 degrees) forms. The internal rotation about the C3'-O3' bond and the ribose-ring puckering are interrelated; 97 +/- 5% of the C3'-endo ribose ring is associated with the G- form while 70 +/- 22% o the C2'-endo ribose ring is associated with the G+ form. An interdependency also exists between the internal rotation about the C4'-C5' bond and the ribose-ring puckering. These short-range conformational interrelations are probably important in controlling the dynamic aspects of ribonucleic acid structures. PMID:6166319

  7. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.

    1997-08-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of {open_quotes}direct perception{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted.

  8. Nuclear thermal propulsion test facility requirements and development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John; Clark, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) subpanel of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Test Facilities Panel evaluated facility requirements and strategies for nuclear thermal propulsion systems development. High pressure, solid core concepts were considered as the baseline for the evaluation, with low pressure concepts an alternative. The work of the NTP subpanel revealed that a wealth of facilities already exists to support NTP development, and that only a few new facilities must be constructed. Some modifications to existing facilities will be required. Present funding emphasis should be on long-lead-time items for the major new ground test facility complex and on facilities supporting nuclear fuel development, hot hydrogen flow test facilities, and low power critical facilities.

  9. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  10. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    in borosilicate glass. Because the heat load of the glass was much less than the PWR and BWR assemblies, the glass waste form was able to be co-disposed with the open cycle waste, by interspersing glass waste packages among the spent fuel assembly waste packages. In addition, the Yucca Mountain repository was designed to include some research reactor spent fuel and naval reactor spent fuel, within the envelope that was set using the commercial reactor assemblies as the design basis waste form. This milestone report supports Sandia National Laboratory milestone M2FT-12SN0814052, and is intended to be a chapter in that milestone report. The independent technical review of this LLNL milestone was performed at LLNL and is documented in the electronic Information Management (IM) system at LLNL. The objective of this work is to investigate what aspects of quantifying, characterizing, and representing the uncertainty associated with the engineered barrier are affected by implementing different advanced nuclear fuel cycles (e.g., partitioning and transmutation scenarios) together with corresponding designs and thermal constraints.

  11. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  12. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect

    Djokic, Denia; Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R.

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  13. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Did glacial advances during the Pleistocene influence differently the demographic histories of benthic and pelagic Antarctic shelf fishes? – Inferences from intraspecific mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence diversity

    PubMed Central

    Janko, Karel; Lecointre, Guillaume; DeVries, Arthur; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; Marshall, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background Circum-Antarctic waters harbour a rare example of a marine species flock – the Notothenioid fish, most species of which are restricted to the continental shelf. It remains an open question as to how they survived Pleistocene climatic fluctuations characterised by repeated advances of continental glaciers as far as the shelf break that probably resulted in a loss of habitat for benthic organisms. Pelagic ecosystems, on the other hand, might have flourished during glacial maxima due to the northward expansion of Antarctic polar waters. In order to better understand the role of ecological traits in Quaternary climatic fluctuations, we performed demographic analyses of populations of four fish species from the tribe Trematominae, including both fully benthic and pelagic species using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and an intron from the nuclear S7 gene. Results Nuclear and cytoplasmic markers showed differences in the rate and time of population expansions as well as the likely population structure. Neutrality tests suggest that such discordance comes from different coalescence dynamics of each marker, rather than from selective pressure. Demographic analyses based on intraspecific DNA diversity suggest a recent population expansion in both benthic species, dated by the cyt b locus to the last glacial cycle, whereas the population structure of pelagic feeders either did not deviate from a constant-size model or indicated that the onset of the major population expansion of these species by far predated those of the benthic species. Similar patterns were apparent even when comparing previously published data on other Southern Ocean organisms, but we observed considerable heterogeneity within both groups with regard to the onset of major demographic events and rates. Conclusion Our data suggest benthic and pelagic species reacted differently to the Pleistocene ice-sheet expansions that probably significantly reduced the suitable habitat for benthic

  16. Role of Osteoprotegerin and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand in Bone Loss Related to Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ugay, Ludmila; Kochetkova, Evgenia; Nevzorova, Vera; Maistrovskaia, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent clinical and biological researches have increasingly delineated the biomolecular pathways of bone metabolism regulation in COPD. We extended this work by examining the specific association and potential contribution of the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in advanced COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of serum OPG, RANKL, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) with bone turnover in men with very severe COPD. Methods: Pulmonary function, T-score at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum OPG, RANKL, soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-I and II (sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II), osteocalcin (OC), and β-CrossLaps (βCL) levels were measured in 45 men with very severe stage COPD and 36 male non-COPD volunteers. COPD patients and healthy controls were compared using an independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. The Pearson coefficient was used to assess the relationships between variables. Results: OPG and OC were lower in male COPD patients than in control subjects whereas RANKL, serum βCL, TNF-α, and its receptors were higher. OPG directly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted (r = 0.46, P < 0.005), OC (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), LS (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and FN T-score (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). In contrast, serum RANKL inversely associated with LS and FN T-score (r = −0.62, P < 0.001 and r = −0.48, P < 0.001) but directly correlated with βCL (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). In addition, OPG was inversely correlated with RANKL (r = −0.39, P < 0.01), TNF-α (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and sTNFR-I (r = −0.40, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum OPG and RANKL levels are inversely associated with bone loss in men with advanced stage COPD. PMID:27411457

  17. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  18. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  19. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert; McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  1. A survey of Existing V&V, UQ and M&S Data and Knowledge Bases in Support of the Nuclear Energy - Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung Lee; Rich Johnson, Ph.D.; Kimberlyn C. Moussesau

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear Energy - Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Utah State University and others. The objective of this consortium is to establish a comprehensive knowledge base to provide Verification and Validation (V&V) and Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and other resources for advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) in nuclear reactor design and analysis. NE-KAMS will become a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, the national laboratories, the U.S. NRC and the public to help ensure the safe operation of existing and future nuclear reactors. A survey and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of existing V&V and M&S databases, including the Department of Energy and commercial databases, has been performed to ensure that the NE-KAMS effort will not be duplicating existing resources and capabilities and to assess the scope of the effort required to develop and implement NE-KAMS. The survey and evaluation have indeed highlighted the unique set of value-added functionality and services that NE-KAMS will provide to its users. Additionally, the survey has helped develop a better understanding of the architecture and functionality of these data and knowledge bases that can be used to leverage the development of NE-KAMS.

  2. Multiphysics Thermal-Fluid Analysis of a Non-Nuclear Tester for Hot-Hydrogen Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to analyze the thermal field of a non-nuclear tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, radiative and conjugate heat transfers.

  3. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  4. Laminar flow instability in nuclear rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.L. )

    1993-01-20

    Laminar flow instability (LFI) is a rarely encountered phenomenon, occurring in gaseous heated channels with high exit-to-inlet temperature ratios and a laminar Reynolds Number at the channel exit, as may be experienced in a nuclear rocket. Analytical techniques were developed and programmed for parametric evaluation that had been previously validated by comparison with available experimental data. The four types of transients associated with LFI are described in terms of the governing equations. Parametric evaluations of solid core prismatic and particle bed fuel configurations were made to determine their sensitivities to LFI from temperature ratio, flow rate, orificing, transition Reynolds Number, pressure level, presence of an exit sonic nozzle, power density and heat flux shape. The flow rate at the point of neutral stability and the growth rate of the excursive transient are calculated. The full power design point and the cooldown phases of operation were both evaluated.

  5. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  6. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  7. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  9. Effective medium theory expressions for the effective diffusion in chromatographic beds filled with porous, non-porous and porous-shell particles and cylinders. Part II: Numerical verification and quantitative effect of solid core on expected B-term band broadening.

    PubMed

    Deridder, Sander; Desmet, Gert

    2011-01-01

    The results of a numerical simulation study of the diffusion and retention in fully porous spheres and cylinders are compared with some of the high order accuracy analytical solutions for the effective diffusion coefficient that have been derived from the effective medium theory (EMT) theory in part I of the present study. A variety of different ordered (spheres and cylinders) and disordered (cylinders) packings arrangements has been considered. The agreement between simulations and theory was always excellent, lying within the (very tight) accuracy limits of the simulations over the full range of retention factor and diffusion constant values that is practically relevant for most LC applications. Subsequently filling up the spheres and cylinders with a central solid core, while keeping the same packing geometry and the same mobile phase (same thermodynamic retention equilibrium), it was found that the core induces an additional obstruction which reduces the effective intra-particle diffusion coefficient exactly with a factor γ(part)=2/(2+ρ³) for spherical particles and γ(part)=1/(1+ρ²) for cylinders (ρ is the ratio of the core to the particle diameter, ρ=d(core)/d(part)). These expressions hold independently of the packing geometry, the value of the diffusion coefficients and the equilibrium constant or the size of the core. The expressions also imply that, if considering equal mobile phase conditions, the presence of the solid core will never reduce the particle contribution to the B-term band broadening with more than 33% (50% in case of cylindrical pillars). PMID:21122871

  10. A fission fragment reactor concept for nuclear space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo-Anttila, A. J.; Parma, E. J.; Wright, S. A.; Vernon, M. E.; Pickard, P. S.

    1991-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) has proposed a new nuclear thermal propulsion concept that uses fission fragments to directly heat the propellant up to 1000 K or higher above the material temperatures. The concept offers significant advantages over traditional solid core nuclear rocket concepts because of higher propellant exit temperatures while at the same time providing for more reliable operation due to lower structure temperatures and lower power densities. The concept can be operated in either steady state or pulsed modes. The engine consists of tubular modules, each with its own pressure boundary and rocket nozzle. The steady state mode requires a large engine with a reflector for criticality, provides high thrust and high ISP. The pulse mode utilizes a driver reactor for criticality and can be considerably smaller with lower but scaleable thrust. The pulse mode does require an external heat radiator for reactor cooling, which limits its duty cycle.

  11. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  12. Evaluation of the Use of Synroc to Solidify the Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Tripp; Vince Maio

    2006-03-01

    This report is a literature evaluation on the Synroc process for determining the potential for application to solidification of the Cs/Sr strip product from advanced aqueous fuel separations activities.

  13. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2013-05-28

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  16. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  17. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-03-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  18. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  19. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  20. Vehicle configuration options using nuclear propulsion for Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, W.J. Jr. )

    1993-01-20

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides an attractive means of providing the propulsive force needed to accomplish a wide array of space missions. With its factor of two or more advantage in Isp over chemical engines, nuclear propulsion provides the opportunity to accomplish space missions which are impractical by other means. This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle bed reactor (PBR) type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine used to conduct the present study because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study baselines a particle bed reactor engine with an engine thrust-to-weight ratio ([similar to]11.5) and a specific impulse of [similar to]950 s. It is shown that a PBR engine of this type will offer distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA type nuclear engines.

  1. Nuclear gas core propulsion research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the nuclear gas core propulsion research program are presented. The objectives of this research are to develop models and experiments, systems, and fuel elements for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion rockets. The fuel elements under investigation are suitable for gas/vapor and multiphase fuel reactors. Topics covered include advanced nuclear propulsion studies, nuclear vapor thermal rocket (NVTR) studies, and ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuels and materials studies.

  2. Nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Written and verbal testimony presented before the House Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development is documented. Current research efforts related to space nuclear power are discussed including the SP-100 Space Reactor Program, development of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and the Advanced Nuclear Systems Program. Funding, research and test facilities, specific space mission requirements, and the comparison of solar and nuclear power systems are addressed. Witnesses included representatives from DOD, NASA, DOE, universities, and private industry.

  3. The need for a characteristics-based approach to radioactive waste classification as informed by advanced nuclear fuel cycles using the fuel-cycle integration and tradeoffs (FIT) model

    SciTech Connect

    Djokic, D.; Piet, S.; Pincock, L.; Soelberg, N.

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. Because heat generation is generally the most important factor limiting geological repository areal loading, this analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. Waste streams generated in different fuel cycles and their possible classification based on the current U.S. framework and international standards are discussed. It is shown that the effects of separating waste streams are neglected under a source-based radioactive waste classification system. (authors)

  4. Experimental investigations on decay heat removal in advanced nuclear reactors using single heater rod test facility: Air alone in the annular gap

    SciTech Connect

    Bopche, Santosh B.; Sridharan, Arunkumar

    2010-11-15

    During a loss of coolant accident in nuclear reactors, radiation heat transfer accounts for a significant amount of the total heat transfer in the fuel bundle. In case of heavy water moderator nuclear reactors, the decay heat of a fuel bundle enclosed in the pressure tube and outer concentric calandria tube can be transferred to the moderator. Radiation heat transfer plays a significant role in removal of decay heat from the fuel rods to the moderator, which is available outside the calandria tube. A single heater rod test facility is designed and fabricated as a part of preliminary investigations. The objective is to anticipate the capability of moderator to remove decay heat, from the reactor core, generated after shut down. The present paper focuses mainly on the role of moderator in removal of decay heat, for situation with air alone in the annular gap of pressure tube and calandria tube. It is seen that the naturally aspirated air is capable of removing the heat generated in the system compared to the standstill air or stagnant water situations. It is also seen that the flowing moderator is capable of removing a greater fraction of heat generated by the heater rod compared to a stagnant pool of boiling moderator. (author)

  5. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  6. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  7. Nucleosynthesis and its implications on nuclear and particle physics; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (Fifth Moriond Astrophysics Meeting), Les Arcs, France, March 17-23, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouze, J.; Mathieu, N.

    The chemical composition of the universe is discussed in detail as a function of evolutionary and nucleosynthetic processes and astrophysical and laboratory observations. Consideration is given to recent theoretical work on primordial nucleosynthesis and the events occurring at atomic levels in explosive objects such as supernovae, WR stars and pancake stars. Attempts to understand s-process nucleosynthetic species production and production rates on the bases of observational data, theoretical models and laboratory studies are reported. The relative values of various nucleocosmochronometric isotopic pairs for assessing the age of the Galaxy are assessed, noting the role of WR stars in the production of short-lived isotopes such as Al-26. Various nuclear physics problems which are relevant to nucleosynthesis and cosmology are discussed and current attempts to detect neutrinos and monopoles are described.

  8. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  9. A fission fragment reactor concept for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo-Anttila, Ahti J.; Parma, Edward J.; Pickard, Paul S.; Wright, Steven A.; Vernon, Milton E.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative requires the development of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric technologies for space propulsion for future Luna and Mars missions. Sandia National Laboratories has proposed a new nuclear thermal propulsion concept that uses fission fragments to directly heat the propellant up to 1000 K or higher above the material temperatures. The concept offers significant advantages over traditional solid-core nuclear rocket concepts because of higher propellent exit temperatures, while at the same time providing for more reliable operation due to lower structure temperatures and lower power densities. The reactor can be operated in either a steady-state or pulsed mode. The steady-state mode provides a high thrust and relatively high specific impulse, as compared to other nuclear thermal concepts. The pulsed mode requires an auxillary radiator for cooling, but has the possibility of achieving very high specific impulses and thrust scaleable to the radiator size. The propellant temperatures are limited only by thermal radiation and transient heat conduction back to the substrate walls.

  10. Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

  11. 10 CFR 75.43 - Circumstances requiring advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Circumstances requiring advance notification. 75.43 Section 75.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Advanced Notification and Expenses § 75.43 Circumstances requiring advance notification. (a) Each applicant, licensee,...

  12. Development of an Efficient CFD Model for Nuclear Thermal Thrust Chamber Assembly Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi; Ross, Doug; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational methodology to predict both detailed thermo-fluid environments and global characteristics of the internal ballistics for a hypothetical solid-core nuclear thermal thrust chamber assembly (NTTCA). Several numerical and multi-physics thermo-fluid models, such as real fluid, chemically reacting, turbulence, conjugate heat transfer, porosity, and power generation, were incorporated into an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics solver as the underlying computational methodology. The numerical simulations of detailed thermo-fluid environment of a single flow element provide a mechanism to estimate the thermal stress and possible occurrence of the mid-section corrosion of the solid core. In addition, the numerical results of the detailed simulation were employed to fine tune the porosity model mimic the pressure drop and thermal load of the coolant flow through a single flow element. The use of the tuned porosity model enables an efficient simulation of the entire NTTCA system, and evaluating its performance during the design cycle.

  13. Analysis of Material Sample Heated by Impinging Hot Hydrogen Jet in a Non-Nuclear Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron

    2006-01-01

    A computational conjugate heat transfer methodology was developed and anchored with data obtained from a hot-hydrogen jet heated, non-nuclear materials tester, as a first step towards developing an efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective and thermal radiative, and conjugate heat transfers. Predicted hot hydrogen jet and material surface temperatures were compared with those of measurement. Predicted solid temperatures were compared with those obtained with a standard heat transfer code. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.

  14. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) Potently Induce Autophagy through Activation of RAF Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB).

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeharika; Manna, Sunil K

    2016-01-15

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE) accumulate in diabetic patients and aging people because of high amounts of three- or four-carbon sugars derived from glucose, thereby causing multiple consequences, including inflammation, apoptosis, obesity, and age-related disorders. It is important to understand the mechanism of AGE-mediated signaling leading to the activation of autophagy (self-eating) that might result in obesity. We detected AGE as one of the potent inducers of autophagy compared with doxorubicin and TNF. AGE-mediated autophagy is inhibited by suppression of PI3K and potentiated by the autophagosome maturation blocker bafilomycin. It increases autophagy in different cell types, and that correlates with the expression of its receptor, receptor for AGE. LC3B, the marker for autophagosomes, is shown to increase upon AGE stimulation. AGE-mediated autophagy is partially suppressed by inhibitor of NF-κB, PKC, or ERK alone and significantly in combination. AGE increases sterol regulatory element binding protein activity, which leads to an increase in lipogenesis. Although AGE-mediated lipogenesis is affected by autophagy inhibitors, AGE-mediated autophagy is not influenced by lipogenesis inhibitors, suggesting that the turnover of lipid droplets overcomes the autophagic clearance. For the first time, we provide data showing that AGE induces several cell signaling cascades, like NF-κB, PKC, ERK, and MAPK, that are involved in autophagy and simultaneously help with the accumulation of lipid droplets that are not cleared effectively by autophagy, therefore causing obesity. PMID:26586913

  15. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  16. Nuclear envelope: positioning nuclei and organizing synapses

    PubMed Central

    Razafsky, David; Hodzic, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear envelope plays an essential role in nuclear positioning within cells and tissues. This review highlights advances in understanding the mechanisms of nuclear positioning during skeletal muscle and central nervous system development. New findings, particularly about Atype lamins and Nesprin1, may link nuclear envelope integrity to synaptic integrity. Thus synaptic defects, rather than nuclear mispositioning, may underlie human pathologies associated with mutations of nuclear envelope proteins. PMID:26079712

  17. Evaluating of scale-up methodologies of gas-solid spouted beds for coating TRISO nuclear fuel particles using advanced measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Neven Y.

    The work focuses on implementing for the first time advanced non-invasive measurement techniques to evaluate the scale-up methodology of gas-solid spouted beds for hydrodynamics similarity that has been reported in the literature based on matching dimensionless groups and the new mechanistic scale up methodology that has been developed in our laboratory based on matching the radial profile of gas holdup since the gas dynamics dictate the hydrodynamics of the gas-solid spouted beds. These techniques are gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) to measure the cross-sectional distribution of the phases' holdups and their radial profiles along the bed height and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) to measure in three-dimension (3D) solids velocity and their turbulent parameters. The measured local parameters and the analysis of the results obtained in this work validate our new methodology of scale up of gas-solid spouted beds by comparing for the similarity the phases' holdups and the dimensionless solids velocities and their turbulent parameters that are non-dimensionalized using the minimum spouting superficial gas velocity. However, the scale-up methodology of gas-solid spouted beds that is based on matching dimensionless groups has not been validated for hydrodynamics similarity with respect to the local parameters such as phases' holdups and dimensionless solids velocities and their turbulent parameters. Unfortunately, this method was validated in the literature by only measuring the global parameters. Thus, this work confirms that validation of the scale-up methods of gas-solid spouted beds for hydrodynamics similarity should reside on measuring and analyzing the local hydrodynamics parameters.

  18. Nucleon exchange in damped nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J.

    1986-04-01

    Starting from the general context of one-body nuclear dynamics, the nucleon-exchange mechanism in damped nuclear reactions is discussed. Some of its characteristic effects on various dinuclear observables are highlighted and a few recent advances are described.

  19. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  20. Advanced integrated safeguards at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Bambas, K.J.; Barnes, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    The development and initial performance testing of an advanced integrated safeguards system at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) is described. The program concentrates on the integration and coordination of physical security and nuclear materials control and accounting at a single location. Hardware and software for this phase have been installed and are currently being evaluated. The AGNS/DOE program is now in its third year of development at the BNFP.

  1. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  3. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  4. Nuclear Neighborhoods and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Bodnar, Megan S.; Spector, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The eukaryotic nucleus is a highly compartmentalized and dynamic environment. Chromosome territories are arranged non-randomly within the nucleus and numerous studies have indicated that a gene’s position in the nucleus can impact its transcriptional activity. Here, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the influence of specific nuclear neighborhoods on gene expression or repression. Nuclear neighborhoods associated with transcriptional repression include the inner nuclear membrane/nuclear lamina and peri-nucleolar chromatin, whereas neighborhoods surrounding the nuclear pore complex, PML nuclear bodies, and nuclear speckles seem to be transcriptionally permissive. While nuclear position appears to play an important role in gene expression, it is likely to be only one piece of a flexible puzzle that incorporates numerous parameters. We are still at a very early, yet exciting stage in our journey toward deciphering the mechanism(s) that govern the permissiveness of gene expression/repression within different nuclear neighborhoods. PMID:19339170

  5. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  6. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  7. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  9. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  10. The nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Herken, G.

    1992-03-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based.

  11. The Colombian nuclear scenario: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    In Colombia, the absence of nuclear-oriented policies based on technical knowledge, the closing of the Nuclear Affairs Institute (1956-1998), the association of the word "nuclear" with weapons, plus the country's last six decades of internal conflict and narcotraffic have discourage the technical, social and environmental nuclear advance. However, there are technical, social and economic national challenges that could be faced by the present nuclear technical capacities.

  12. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  14. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-10-25

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Single Flow Element in a Nuclear Thermal Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi; Ross, Doug; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational methodology to predict both detailed and global thermo-fluid environments of a single now element in a hypothetical solid-core nuclear thermal thrust chamber assembly, Several numerical and multi-physics thermo-fluid models, such as chemical reactions, turbulence, conjugate heat transfer, porosity, and power generation, were incorporated into an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics solver. The numerical simulations of a single now element provide a detailed thermo-fluid environment for thermal stress estimation and insight for possible occurrence of mid-section corrosion. In addition, detailed conjugate heat transfer simulations were employed to develop the porosity models for efficient pressure drop and thermal load calculations.

  16. Advanced Nuclear Technology Development Act of 2016

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latta, Robert E. [R-OH-5

    2016-04-18

    09/13/2016 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. An Advanced Undergraduate Nuclear Lifetime experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollefson, A. A.; Prior, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment for measuring the lifetime of the 60-keV state in 237-Np which is populated in the alpha decay of 241-Am. The technique used is the delayed coincidence method using a time-to-pulse-height converter. (Author/GA)

  18. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  19. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  20. Nuclear Power in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  1. Nuclear cardiograph and scintigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive advances in the technology of detectors, data analysis systems, and tracers used have resulted in greatly expanded applications of radioisotopes to the assessment of cardiac function and disease. The development of nuclear cardiology has proceeded along four lines: (1) radionuclide angiography, (2) myocardial perfusion imaging, (3) intracoronary microsphere imaging, and (4) regional myocardial blood flow determination using inert gases.

  2. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  3. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  4. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  5. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  6. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  9. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  10. Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Dave; Kaiser, Krista; Martin, Lonnie; Hanson, Don; Harms, Gary; Quirk, Tom

    2014-11-28

    The Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories’ Technical Area Five (TA-V) is the leader in advancing nuclear technologies through applied radiation science and unique nuclear environments. This video describes the organization’s capabilities, facilities, and culture.

  11. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) program are presented. The objective of the research is to develop advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology based on the particle bed reactor concept. A strong philosophical commitment exists in the industry/national laboratory team to emphasize testing in development activities. Nuclear testing currently underway to support development of SNTP technology is addressed.

  12. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  13. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  14. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  15. Advanced cement solidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kuribayashi, H.; Todo, F.

    1993-12-31

    In order to easily and economically store and transport radioactive waste generated at nuclear power stations, it is essential to reduce the waste volume to the maximum extent. It is also necessary to transform the waste into a stable form for final disposal which will maintain its chemical and physical stability over a long period of time. For this purpose, the Advanced Cement Solidification Process (AC-process) was developed. The AC-process, which utilizes portland cement, can be applied to several kinds of waste such as boric acid waste, laboratory drain waste, incineration ash and spent ion exchange resin. In this paper, the key point of the AC-process, the pretreatment concept for each waste, is described. The AC-process has been adopted for two Japanese PWR stations: the Genkai Nuclear Power Station (Kyushu Electric Power Co.) and the Ikata Nuclear Power Station (Shikoku Electric Power Co.). Construction work has almost finished and commissioning tests are under way at both power stations.

  16. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  17. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  18. 10 CFR 75.43 - Circumstances requiring advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Circumstances requiring advance notification. 75.43 Section 75.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL... China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, are non-nuclear-weapon states. Treaty on...

  19. 10 CFR 75.43 - Circumstances requiring advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Circumstances requiring advance notification. 75.43 Section 75.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL... China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, are non-nuclear-weapon states. Treaty on...

  20. 10 CFR 75.43 - Circumstances requiring advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Circumstances requiring advance notification. 75.43 Section 75.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL... China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, are non-nuclear-weapon states. Treaty on...

  1. 10 CFR 75.43 - Circumstances requiring advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Circumstances requiring advance notification. 75.43 Section 75.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL... China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom, are non-nuclear-weapon states. Treaty on...

  2. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  3. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  4. Space Nuclear Propulsion Systems and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of the operation of a nuclear rocket engine are reviewed along with a summary of the early history. In addition, the technology status in the nuclear rocket program for development of the flight-rated NERVA engine is described, and applications for this 75,000-pound thrust engine and the results of nuclear stage studies are presented. Advanced research and supporting technology activities in the nuclear rocket program are also summarized.

  5. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  6. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Quantification: Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    2015-01-15

    An historical overview is provided of the mathematical foundations of uncertainty quantification and the roles played in the more recent past by nuclear data uncertainties in nuclear data evaluations and nuclear applications. Significant advances that have established the mathematical framework for contemporary nuclear data evaluation methods, as well as the use of uncertainty information in nuclear data evaluation and nuclear applications, are described. This is followed by a brief examination of the current status concerning nuclear data evaluation methodology, covariance data generation, and the application of evaluated nuclear data uncertainties in contemporary nuclear technology. A few possible areas for future investigation of this subject are also suggested.

  7. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

  8. Affordable Development of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. The foundation provided by development and utilization of a NCPS could enable development of extremely high performance systems. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  9. Prospects for the development of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, B.A.; Kupitz, J.; Cleveland, J.

    1992-12-31

    Energy supply is an important prerequisite for further socio-economic development, especially in developing countries where the per capita energy use is only a very small fraction of that in industrialized countries. Nuclear energy is an essentially unlimited energy resource with the potential to provide this energy in the form of electricity, district heat and process heat under environmentally acceptable conditions. However, this potential will be realized only if nuclear power plants can meet the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide a tremendous amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience forms a sound basis for further improvements. Nuclear programmes in many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability and improved safety in order to overcome the current concerns of nuclear power. Advanced reactors now being developed could help to meet the demand for new plants in developed and developing countries, not only for electricity generation, but also for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The IAEA, as the only global international governmental organization dealing with nuclear power, promotes international information exchange and international co-operation between all countries with their own advanced nuclear power programmes and offers assistance to countries with an interest in exploratory or research programmes.

  10. Advanced reactor safety program. Stakeholder interaction and feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, Ronaldo H.; Smith, Curtis L.

    2014-08-01

    In the Spring of 2013, we began discussions with our industry stakeholders on how to upgrade our safety analysis capabilities. The focus of these improvements would primarily be on advanced safety analysis capabilities that could help the nuclear industry analyze, understand, and better predict complex safety problems. The current environment in the DOE complex is such that recent successes in high performance computer modeling could lead the nuclear industry to benefit from these advances, as long as an effort to translate these advances into realistic applications is made. Upgrading the nuclear industry modeling analysis capabilities is a significant effort that would require substantial participation and coordination from all industry segments: research, engineering, vendors, and operations. We focus here on interactions with industry stakeholders to develop sound advanced safety analysis applications propositions that could have a positive impact on industry long term operation, hence advancing the state of nuclear safety.

  11. Design of a Resistively Heated Thermal Hydraulic Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Reactor Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Wang, Ten-See; Anghaie, Samim

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary design study is presented for a non-nuclear test facility which uses ohmic heating to replicate the thermal hydraulic characteristics of solid core nuclear reactor fuel element passages. The basis for this testing capability is a recently commissioned nuclear thermal rocket environments simulator, which uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce high-temperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects. Initially, the baseline test fixture for this non-nuclear environments simulator was configured for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of small cylindrical material specimens as a low cost means of evaluating material compatibility. It became evident, however, that additional functionality enhancements were needed to permit a critical examination of thermal hydraulic effects in fuel element passages. Thus, a design configuration was conceived whereby a short tubular material specimen, representing a fuel element passage segment, is surrounded by a backside resistive tungsten heater element and mounted within a self-contained module that inserts directly into the baseline test fixture assembly. With this configuration, it becomes possible to create an inward directed radial thermal gradient within the tubular material specimen such that the wall-to-gas heat flux characteristics of a typical fuel element passage are effectively simulated. The results of a preliminary engineering study for this innovative concept are fully summarized, including high-fidelity multi-physics thermal hydraulic simulations and detailed design features.

  12. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  13. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  14. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    health. To aid the overall advanced energy industry, EWI developed and launched an Ohio chapter of the non-profit Advanced Energy Economy. In this venture, Ohio joins with six other states including Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont to help promote technologies that deliver energy that is affordable, abundant and secure. In a more specific arena, EWI's advanced energy group collaborated with the EWI-run Nuclear Fabrication Consortium to promote the nuclear supply chain. Through this project EWI has helped bring the supply chain up to date for the upcoming period of construction, and assisted them in understanding the demands for the next generation of facilities now being designed. In a more targeted manner, EWI worked with 115 individual advanced energy companies that are attempting to bring new technology to market. First, these interactions helped EWI develop an awareness of issues common to companies in different advanced energy sectors. By identifying and addressing common issues, EWI helps companies bring technology to market sooner and at a lower cost. These visits also helped EWI develop a picture of industry capability. This helped EWI provide companies with contacts that can supply commercial solutions to their new product development challenges. By providing assistance in developing supply chain partnerships, EWI helped companies bring their technology to market faster and at a lower cost than they might have been able to do by themselves. Finally, at the most granular level EWI performed dedicated research and development on new manufacturing processes for advanced energy. During discussions with companies participating in advanced energy markets, several technology issues that cut across market segments were identified. To address some of these issues, three crosscutting technology development projects were initiated and completed with Center support. This included reversible welds for batteries

  15. A Review of Nuclear Computational Information

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2010-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEADB) work together to acquire sets of computer codes, nuclear data, and integral experiments relevant to shielding and dosimetry applications for fission, fusion, and accelerator applications. To keep up with advances in computing technology, international researchers continue to develop nuclear software. Collection centers like RSICC and NEADB serve the community and play a role in advancing nuclear science and technology research.

  16. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  17. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  18. Nuclear Energy's Renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear energy is about to enter its renaissance. After almost 30 years of new plant construction dormancy, utilities are seriously preparing for ordering new plants in the next two years. This resurgence in interest is based on improved plant performance, new Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing processes, significant incentives introduced by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to encourage new orders, and new technologies that are competitive, simpler to operate and safer. These new evolutionary light water reactors will pave the way to more advanced high temperature gas reactors such as the pebble bed or prismatic reactors that will provide improved efficiency and safety leading to more process heat applications in oil extraction or hydrogen production. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) also authorized by the Energy Policy act will provide the fundamental technical basis for the future of these technologies. Progress continues on the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste disposal site enabling this expansion. When coupled with the long term strategy of waste minimization through reprocessing and actinide destruction as proposed in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, the future of nuclear energy as part of this nation's energy mix appears to be assured.

  19. Nuclear and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Yates, S.W.

    1988-06-15

    In this, their second fundamental review under the present authorship and title, they have chosen to continue their emphasis on topics representing the use of nuclear properties for chemical analysis. Excluded are topics in the areas of health physics, nuclear spectroscopy (unless directly related to analysis), nuclear engineering, fusion, radioactive waste disposal, fallout, and nuclear and particle physics. Other topics such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), plasma desorption mass spectrometry, radioimmunoassay, Moessbauer spectroscopy, nuclear dating methods, and radiotracer applications are treated briefly here, since they are adequately covered in other current reviews in this or other major journals. Only a brief mention is made of well logging, since many of the advances in this field do not currently appear in the open literature. As in their previous review, they finish with short comments on some interesting developments in nuclear and radiochemistry that are not strictly analytical in nature. This review is based largely on a computerized keyword search of Chemical Abstracts (CA) for the period from mid-November 1985 through December 31, 1987.

  20. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  1. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  2. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  3. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  4. ABB Combustion Engineering nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The activities of ABB Combustion Engineering in the design and construction of nuclear systems and components are briefly reviewed. ABB Construction Engineering continues to improve the design and design process for nuclear generating stations. Potential improvements are evaluated to meet new requirements both of the public and the regulator, so that the designs meet the highest standards worldwide. Advancements necessary to meet market needs and to ensure the highest level of performance in the future will be made.

  5. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  6. Safe, Affordable, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Doughty, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  7. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  8. Plant maintenance and advanced reactors issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-09-15

    The focus of the September-October issue is on plant maintenance and advanced reactors. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Technologies of national importance, by Tsutomu Ohkubo, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan; Modeling and simulation advances brighten future nuclear power, by Hussein Khalil, Argonne National Laboratory, Energy and desalination projects, by Ratan Kumar Sinha, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India; A plant with simplified design, by John Higgins, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; A forward thinking design, by Ray Ganthner, AREVA; A passively safe design, by Ed Cummins, Westinghouse Electric Company; A market-ready design, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada; Generation IV Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, by Jacques Bouchard, French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, France, and Ralph Bennett, Idaho National Laboratory; Innovative reactor designs, a report by IAEA, Vienna, Austria; Guidance for new vendors, by John Nakoski, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Road map for future energy, by John Cleveland, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria; and, Vermont's largest source of electricity, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovation article is titled Intelligent monitoring technology, by Chris Demars, Exelon Nuclear.

  9. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  10. 78 FR 46621 - Status of the Office of New Reactors' Implementation of Electronic Distribution of Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Reactor Correspondence AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Implementation of electronic distribution of advanced reactor correspondence; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... the Division of Operating Reactor Licensing (DORL) in October 2008. All four regions are...

  11. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  13. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  14. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  15. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  16. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  17. IAEA reorganizes nuclear information services

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.

    2012-08-15

    As part of an overall restructuring of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Nuclear Energy, the agency has established the Nuclear Information Section (NIS). The restructuring, recently announced by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, also includes the creation of a separate Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) Section, as demand for assistance in this area is growing among member countries. According to the NIS Web site, 'This restructuring and the creation of the NIS provides an opportunity for further enhancing existing information products and services and introducing new ones-all with an eye towards advancing higher organizational efficiency and effectiveness.'

  18. Enhancing professionalism at GPU Nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Late in 1988, GPU Nuclear embarked on a major program aimed at enhancing professionalism at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island nuclear generating stations. The program was also to include its corporate headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. The overall program was to take several directions, including on-site degree programs, a sabbatical leave-type program for personnel to finish college degrees, advanced technical training for licensed staff, career progression for senior reactor operators, and expanded teamwork and leadership training for control room crew. The largest portion of this initiative was the development and delivery of professionalism training to the nearly 2,000 people at both nuclear generating sites.

  19. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  20. Plant maintenance and advanced reactors, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-09-15

    The focus of the September-October issue is on plant maintenance and advanced reactors. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A new day for energy in America; Committed to success more than ever, by Andy White, GE--Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Competitive technology for decades, by Steve Tritch, Westinghouse Electric Company; Pioneers of positive community relationship, by Exelon Nuclear; A robust design for 60-years, by Ray Ganthner, Areva; Aiming at no evacuation plants, by Kumiaki Moriya, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd.; and, Desalination and hydrogen economy, by Dr. I. Khamis, International Atomic Energy Agency. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Reactor vessel closure head project, by Jeff LeClair, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant; and Submersible remote-operated vehicle, by Michael S. Rose, Entergy's Fitzpatrick Nuclear Station.

  1. Helping nuclear power help us

    SciTech Connect

    Schecker, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    After a prolonged absence, the word 'nuclear' has returned to the lexicon of sustainable domestic energy resources. Due in no small part to its demonstrated reliability, nuclear power is poised to playa greater role in the nation's energy future, producing clean, carbon-neutral electricity and contributing even more to our energy security. To nuclear scientists, the resurgence presents an opportunity to inject new technologies into the industry to maximize the benefits that nuclear energy can provide. 'By developing new options for waste management and exploiting new materials to make key technological advances, we can significantly impact the use of nuclear energy in our future energy mix,' says Chris Stanek, a materials scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stanek approaches the big technology challenges by thinking way small, all the way down to the atoms. He and his colleagues are using cutting edge atomic-scale simulations to address a difficult aspect of nuclear waste -- predicting its behavior far into the future. Their research is part of a broader, coordinated effort on the part of the Laboratory to use its considerable experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities to explore advanced materials central to not only waste issues, but to nuclear fuels as well.

  2. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  3. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  4. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  5. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  6. INSIGHTS INTO THE ROLE OF THE OPERATOR IN ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    PERSENSKY, J.; LEWIS, P.; O'HARA, J.

    2005-11-13

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PERSONNEL PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN THE PRODUCTIVE, EFFICIENT, AND SAFE GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER, WHETHER FOR CONVENTIONAL LIGHT WATER REACTORS OR NEW ADVANCED REACTORS. IT IS WIDELY RECOGNIZED THAT HUMAN ACTIONS THAT DEPART FROM OR FAIL TO ACHIEVE WHAT SHOULD BE DONE CAN BE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTORS TO THE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. ADVANCED REACTORS ARE EXPECTED TO PRESENT A CONCEPT OF OPERATI...

  7. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  8. Center For Advanced Energy Studies Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, Harold

    2011-01-01

    A collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and the University of Idaho. Conducts research in nuclear energy, advanced materials, carbon management, bioenergy, energy policy, modeling and simulation, and energy efficiency. Educates next generation of energy workforce. Visit us at www.caesenergy.org.

  9. Center For Advanced Energy Studies Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Blackman, Harold

    2013-05-28

    A collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and the University of Idaho. Conducts research in nuclear energy, advanced materials, carbon management, bioenergy, energy policy, modeling and simulation, and energy efficiency. Educates next generation of energy workforce. Visit us at www.caesenergy.org.

  10. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  11. NUCLEAR SCIENCE, AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SULCOSKI, JOHN W.

    THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE DESCRIBES A TWELFTH-GRADE INTERDISCIPLINARY, INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR SCIENCE COURSE. IT IS BELIEVED TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN ADVANCED COURSE THAT IS TIMELY, CHALLENGING, AND APPROPRIATE AS A SEQUENTIAL ADDITION TO THE BIOLOGY-CHEMISTRY-PHYSICS SEQUENCE. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION COVERS SUCH MATTERS AS (1) RADIOISOTOPE WORK AREAS,…

  12. SP-100 Advanced Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project.

  13. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  15. Nuclear APC.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Kristi L

    2009-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is thought to be an initiating step in the progression of the vast majority ofcolorectal cancers. Attempts to understand APC function have revealed more than a dozen binding partners as well as several subcellular localizations including at cell-cell junctions, associated with microtubules at the leading edge of migrating cells, at the apical membrane, in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The present chapter focuses on APC localization and functions in the nucleus. APC contains two classical nuclear localization signals, with a third domain that can enhance nuclear import. Along with two sets of nuclear export signals, the nuclear localization signals enable the large APC protein to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear APC can oppose beta-catenin-mediated transcription. This down-regulation of nuclear beta-catenin activity by APC most likely involves nuclear sequestration of beta-catenin from the transcription complex as well as interaction of APC with transcription corepressor CtBP. Additional nuclear binding partners for APC include transcription factor activator protein AP-2alpha, nuclear export factor Crm1, protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL and perhaps DNA itself. Interaction of APC with polymerase beta and PCNA, suggests a role for APC in DNA repair. The observation that increases in the cytoplasmic distribution of APC correlate with colon cancer progression suggests that disruption of these nuclear functions of APC plays an important role in cancer progression. APC prevalence in the cytoplasm of quiescent cells points to a potential function for nuclear APC in control of cell proliferation. Clear definition of APC's nuclear function(s) will expand the possibilities for early colorectal cancer diagnostics and therapeutics targeted to APC. PMID:19928349

  16. Investigation to advance prediction techniques of the low-speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.; Strash, D.; Nathman, J.; Dvorak, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program, VSAERO, has been applied to a number of V/STOL configurations with a view to advancing prediction techniques for the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics. The program couples a low-order panel method with surface streamline calculation and integral boundary layer procedures. The panel method--which uses piecewise constant source and doublet panels-includes an iterative procedure for wake shape and models boundary layer displacement effect using the source transpiration technique. Certain improvements to a basic vortex tube jet model were installed in the code prior to evaluation. Very promising results were obtained for surface pressures near a jet issuing at 90 deg from a flat plate. A solid core model was used in the initial part of the jet with a simple entrainment model. Preliminary representation of the downstream separation zone significantly improve the correlation. The program accurately predicted the pressure distribution inside the inlet on the Grumman 698-411 design at a range of flight conditions. Furthermore, coupled viscous/potential flow calculations gave very close correlation with experimentally determined operational boundaries dictated by the onset of separation inside the inlet. Experimentally observed degradation of these operational boundaries between nacelle-alone tests and tests on the full configuration were also indicated by the calculation. Application of the program to the General Dynamics STOL fighter design were equally encouraging. Very close agreement was observed between experiment and calculation for the effects of power on pressure distribution, lift and lift curve slope.

  17. Improved methodology for temperature predictions in advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, R.G.; Chang, G.S.

    1995-10-01

    Advanced nuclear reactors maximize power and/or flux levels for increased performance levels. One of the challenges is accurate prediction of temperatures in the structural components and experiments. An improved methodology utilizing the computer codes MCNP and ABAQUS has been demonstrated in instrumented experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor. The analytical predictions have shown excellent agreement with the measured results.

  18. Advanced Production Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; KJELDGAARD,EDWIN A.; WRIGHT,STEPHEN TROY; TURNQUIST,MARK A.; NOZICK,LINDA K.; LIST,GEORGE F.

    2000-12-01

    >This report describes the innovative modeling approach developed as a result of a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The overall goal of this project was to provide an effective suite of solvers for advanced production planning at facilities in the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). We focused our development activities on problems related to operations at the DOE's Pantex Plant. These types of scheduling problems appear in many contexts other than Pantex--both within the NWC (e.g., Neutron Generators) and in other commercial manufacturing settings. We successfully developed an innovative and effective solution strategy for these types of problems. We have tested this approach on actual data from Pantex, and from Org. 14000 (Neutron Generator production). This report focuses on the mathematical representation of the modeling approach and presents three representative studies using Pantex data. Results associated with the Neutron Generator facility will be published in a subsequent SAND report. The approach to task-based scheduling described here represents a significant addition to the literature for large-scale, realistic scheduling problems in a variety of production settings.

  19. Recent advances in SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    1998-08-28

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a medical imaging modality that combines conventional nuclear medicine imaging technique and methods of computed tomography (CT). From images that represent the biodistribution of the injected radiopharmaceutical in the patient, SPECT provides functional information that is unique. The first SPECT system was developed in the sixties. However, early progress of SPECT was hampered by the lack of adequate image reconstruction methods. The development of x-ray CT and image reconstruction methods in the seventies spurred a renewed interest in SPECT. In 1981, the first commercial SPECT system based on a single rotating camera was available for clinical use. Today, most modern SPECT systems consist of multiple cameras that rotate around the patients. They have better spatial resolution and higher detection efficiency as compared to the earlier single camera systems. Recently, a new generation of dual camera systems allowing for coincidence imaging of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals has emerged in the commercial market. Additionally, new quantitative image reconstruction methods are under development. They compensate for image degrading factors including attenuation, collimator-detector blurring and scatter. Also, they result in SPECT images with improved image quality and more accurately represent the three-dimensional radioactivity distribution in the patient. Such advances in radiopharmaceuticals, instrumentation, image reconstruction, compensation methods, and clinical applications have fueled a steady growth of SPECT as an important diagnostic tool in patient management.

  20. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  1. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  2. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  3. Restructuring nuclear regulations.

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear regulations are a subset of social regulations (laws to control activities that may negatively impact the environment, health, and safety) that concern control of ionizing radiation from radiation-producing equipment and from radioactive materials. The impressive safety record among nuclear technologies is due, in no small part, to the work of radiation safety professionals and to a protection system that has kept pace with the rapid technologic advancements in electric power generation, engineering, and medicine. The price of success, however, has led to a regulatory organization and philosophy characterized by complexity, confusion, public fear, and increasing economic costs. Over the past 20 years, regulatory costs in the nuclear sector have increased more than 250% in constant 1995 U.S. dollars. Costs of regulatory compliance can be reduced sharply, particularly when health and environmental benefits of risk reduction are questionable. Three key regulatory areas should be closely examined and modified to improve regulatory effectiveness and efficiency: a) radiation protection should be changed from a risk-based to dose-based system; b) the U.S. government should adopt the modern metric system (International System of Units), and radiation quantities and units should be simplified to facilitate international communication and public understanding; and c) a single, independent office is needed to coordinate nuclear regulations established by U.S. federal agencies and departments. PMID:12515683

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  5. The Rationale/Benefits of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion for NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  6. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E.; Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G.; Pletcher, R.H.; Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P.; Jackson, J.D.; Kunugi, T.; Satake, S.-i.

    2002-12-31

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications.

  7. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  8. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, R. W.

    2004-02-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  9. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  10. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  11. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  12. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-10-01

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior.

  13. The NASA/DOE space nuclear propulsion project plan—FY 1991 status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA and the DOE have initiated critical technology development for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. This paper summarizes the activities of the interagency project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991, and summarizes the project plan. The project plan includes evolutionary technology development for both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. The NEP development expands upon the SP-100 technology, being developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power, as a foundation from which to develop more powerful, lighter systems for interplanetary probes, lunar and Mars cargo vehicles, and lunar and Mars human-piloted vehicles. Similarly, the NTP technology development plan expands upon the substantial NERVA data base developed in the 1960s and early 1970s for solid core thermal reactors, by improving nuclear fules to permit higher operating temperatures (with appropriate safety and reliability margins), and ultimately, to upgrade the system to liquid or gaseous core concepts. Thus, a logical, step-wise program is planned that will have systems ready for initial unmanned flight by about 2008, will include robotic lunar missions to gain operational experience prior to manned flight, and will then proceed to a manned lunar mission that will simulate a full-up Mars mission. Mars robotic missions are planned to begin in about 2011-2012, with the first manned Mars mission in about 2014. System upgrades are expected to evolve that will result in shorter trips times, improved payload capabilities, or enhanced safety and reliability.

  14. Many-Body Interactions and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Dean, David Jarvis; Hagen, Gaute; Kvaal, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents several challenges to nuclear many-body theory and our understanding of the stability of nuclear matter. In order to achieve this, we present five different cases, starting with an idealized toy model. These cases expose problems that need to be understood in order to match recent advances in nuclear theory with current experimental programs in low-energy nuclear physics. In particular, we focus on our current understanding, or lack thereof, of many-body forces, and how they evolve as functions of the number of particles. We provide examples of discrepancies between theory and experiment and outline some selected perspectives for future research directions.

  15. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  16. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation

  17. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  18. Hydrogen: Adding Value and Flexibility to the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Bhatt, V.; Friley, P.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2004-10-04

    The objective of this study was to assess potential synergies between the hydrogen economy and nuclear energy options. Specifically: to provide a market analysis of advanced nuclear energy options for hydrogen production in growing hydrogen demand; to conduct an impact evaluation of nuclear-based hydrogen production on the economics of the energy system, environmental emissions, and energy supply security; and to identify competing technologies & challenges to nuclear options.

  19. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  20. Nuclear forces

    SciTech Connect

    Machleidt, R.

    2013-06-10

    These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.