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Sample records for advanced space solar

  1. Comparative values of advanced space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifer, L. W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

  2. Advanced Electric Propulsion for Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    The sun tower concept of collecting solar energy in space and beaming it down for commercial use will require very affordable in-space as well as earth-to-orbit transportation. Advanced electric propulsion using a 200 kW power and propulsion system added to the sun tower nodes can provide a factor of two reduction in the required number of launch vehicles when compared to in-space cryogenic chemical systems. In addition, the total time required to launch and deliver the complete sun tower system is of the same order of magnitude using high power electric propulsion or cryogenic chemical propulsion: around one year. Advanced electric propulsion can also be used to minimize the stationkeeping propulsion system mass for this unique space platform. 50 to 100 kW class Hall, ion, magnetoplasmadynamic, and pulsed inductive thrusters are compared. High power Hall thruster technology provides the best mix of launches saved and shortest ground to Geosynchronous Earth Orbital Environment (GEO) delivery time of all the systems, including chemical. More detailed studies comparing launch vehicle costs, transfer operations costs, and propulsion system costs and complexities must be made to down-select a technology. The concept of adding electric propulsion to the sun tower nodes was compared to a concept using re-useable electric propulsion tugs for Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) to GEO transfer. While the tug concept would reduce the total number of required propulsion systems, more launchers and notably longer LEO to GEO and complete sun tower ground to GEO times would be required. The tugs would also need more complex, longer life propulsion systems and the ability to dock with sun tower nodes.

  3. An advanced concentrator for solar dynamic power systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beninga, Kelly; Davenport, Roger

    1989-01-01

    Solar concentrators based on rigidized stretched-membrane technology, which have been shown to be a possible alternative to rigid segmented concentrators for solar dynamic power applications in space, are discussed. Membrane concentrators offer an advantage in weight, efficiency of structure use, deployability, and cost. Predeployment packaging and subsequent deployment of a prototype membrane concentrator has been demonstrated. Attractive membrane fabrication techniques have been identified and demonstrated. The concept is described, and materials selection and membrane fabrication are examined.

  4. Advanced Thin Film Solar Arrays for Space: The Terrestrial Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne; Flood, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    As in the case for single crystal solar cells, the first serious thin film solar cells were developed for space applications with the promise of better power to weight ratios and lower cost. Future science, military, and commercial space missions are incredibly diverse. Military and commercial missions encompass both hundreds of kilowatt arrays to tens of watt arrays in various earth orbits. While science missions also have small to very large power needs there are additional unique requirements to provide power for near sun missions and planetary exploration including orbiters, landers, and rovers both to the inner planets and the outer planets with a major emphasis in the near term on Mars. High power missions are particularly attractive for thin film utilization. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the Moon or Mars, space based lasers or radar, or large Earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or potentially beaming power to the Earth itself. This paper will discuss the current state of the art of thin film solar cells and the synergy with terrestrial thin film photovoltaic evolution. It will also address some of the technology development issues required to make thin film photovoltaics a viable choice for future space power systems.

  5. Development of advanced silicon solar cells for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillington, David R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the development of large area high efficiency wrapthrough solar cells for Space Station Freedom. The goal of this contract was the development and fabrication of 8 x 8 cm coplanar back contact solar cells with a minimum output of 1.039 watts/cell. The first task in this program was a modeling study to determine the optimum configuration of the cell and to study the effects of surface passivation, substrate resistivity, and back surface field on the BOL and EOL performance. In addition, the optical stack, including the cell cover, AR coatings, and Kapton blanket, was modeled to optimize 'on orbit' operation. The second phase was a manufacturing development phase to develop high volume manufacturing processes for the reliable production of low recombination velocity boron back surface fields, techniques to produce smooth, low leakage wrapthrough holes, passivation, photoresist application methods, and metallization schemes. The final portion of this program was a pilot production phase. Seven hundred solar cells were delivered in this phase. At the end of the program, cells with average efficiencies over 13 percent were being produced with power output in excess of 1.139 watts/cell, thus substantially exceeding the program goal.

  6. Advanced Space Robotics and Solar Electric Propulsion: Enabling Technologies for Future Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.; Tadros, A.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining answers to questions posed by planetary scientists over the next several decades will require the ability to travel further while exploring and gathering data in more remote locations of our solar system. Timely investments need to be made in developing and demonstrating solar electric propulsion and advanced space robotics technologies.

  7. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis was conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  8. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis were conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  9. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  10. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A.; Bailey, S.G.; Flood, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuInSe2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  11. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuIn Se2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuIn Se2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  12. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  13. Advanced solar dynamic space power systems perspectives, requirements and technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Savino, J. M.; Lacy, D. E.; Migra, R. P.; Juhasz, A. J.; Coles, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Projected NASA, Civil, Commercial, and Military missions will require space power systems of increased versatility and power levels. The Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) Power systems offer the potential for efficient, lightweight, survivable, relatively compact, long-lived space power systems applicable to a wide range of power levels (3 to 300 kWe), and a wide variety of orbits. The successful development of these systems could satisfy the power needs for a wide variety of these projected missions. Thus, the NASA Lewis Research Center has embarked upon an aggressive ASD reserach project under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (DAST). The project is being implemented through a combination of in-house and contracted efforts. Key elements of this project are missions analysis to determine the power systems requirements, systems analysis to identify the most attractive ASD power systems to meet these requirements, and to guide the technology development efforts, and technology development of key components.

  14. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  15. Recent results from advanced research on space solar cells at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA program in space photovoltaic research and development encompasses a wide range of emerging options for future space power systems, and includes both cell and array technology development. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of achieving 300 W/kg for planar arrays, and 300 W/sq m for concentrator arrays. InP and GaAs planar and concentrator cell technologies are under investigation for their potential high efficiency and good radiation resistance. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program is a near term effort aimed at demonstrating 130 W/kg beginning of life specific power using thin (62 pm) silicon cells. It is intended to be technology transparent to future high efficiency cells and provides the baseline for development of the 300 W/kg array.

  16. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  17. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  18. Solar concentrators for advanced solar-dynamic power systems in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Richard

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study performed by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, HDOS, (formerly Perkin-Elmer) to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight (2 kg/sq M), self supporting, and highly reflective sub-scale concentrating mirror panel suitable for use in space. The HDOS panel design utilizes Corning's 'micro sheet' glass as the top layer of a composite honeycomb sandwich. This approach, whose manufacturability was previously demonstrated under an earlier NASA contract, provides a smooth (specular) reflective surface without the weight of a conventional glass panel. The primary result of this study is a point design and it's performance assessment.

  19. Solar concentrators for advanced solar-dynamic power systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study performed by Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, HDOS, (formerly Perkin-Elmer) to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight (2 kg/sq M), self supporting, and highly reflective sub-scale concentrating mirror panel suitable for use in space. The HDOS panel design utilizes Corning's 'micro sheet' glass as the top layer of a composite honeycomb sandwich. This approach, whose manufacturability was previously demonstrated under an earlier NASA contract, provides a smooth (specular) reflective surface without the weight of a conventional glass panel. The primary result of this study is a point design and it's performance assessment.

  20. Structural evaluation of concepts for a solar energy concentrator for Space Station advanced development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, Winfred S.; Rhodes, Marvin D.

    1994-01-01

    Solar dynamic power systems have a higher thermodynamic efficiency than conventional photovoltaic systems; therefore they are attractive for long-term space missions with high electrical power demands. In an investigation conducted in support of a preliminary concept for Space Station Freedom, an approach for a solar dynamic power system was developed and a number of the components for the solar concentrator were fabricated for experimental evaluation. The concentrator consists of hexagonal panels comprised of triangular reflective facets which are supported by a truss. Structural analyses of the solar concentrator and the support truss were conducted using finite-element models. A number of potential component failure scenarios were postulated and the resulting structural performance was assessed. The solar concentrator and support truss were found to be adequate to meet a 1.0-Hz structural dynamics design requirement in pristine condition. However, for some of the simulated component failure conditions, the fundamental frequency dropped below the 1.0-Hz design requirement. As a result, two alternative concepts were developed and assessed. One concept incorporated a tetrahedral ring truss support for the hexagonal panels: the second incorporated a full tetrahedral truss support for the panels. The results indicate that significant improvements in stiffness can be obtained by attaching the panels to a tetrahedral truss, and that this concentrator and support truss will meet the 1.0-Hz design requirement with any of the simulated failure conditions.

  1. Preface: Advances in solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-12-01

    The idea for this special issue of Advances in Space Research (ASR) was formulated during the 14th European Solar Physics Meeting (ESPM-14) that took place in Dublin, Ireland in September 2014. Since ASR does not publish conference proceedings, it was decided to extend a general call to the international solar-physics community for manuscripts pertinent to the following thematic areas: New and upcoming heliospheric observational and data assimilation facilities.

  2. Recent advancements in monolithic AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, K. R.; Chung, B.-C.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Ristow, M. Ladle; Virshup, G. F.; Werthen, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    High efficiency, two terminal, multijunction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells were reproducibly made with areas of 0.5 sq cm. The multiple layers in the cells were grown by Organo Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) on GaAs substrates in the n-p configuration. The upper AlGaAs cell has a bandgap of 1.93 eV and is connected in series to the lower GaAs cell (1.4 eV) via a metal interconnect deposited during post-growth processing. A prismatic coverglass is installed on top of the cell to reduce obscuration caused by the gridlines. The best 0.5 sq cm cell has a two terminal efficiency of 23.0 pct. at 1 sun, air mass zero (AM0) and 25 C. To date, over 300 of these cells were grown and processed for a manufacturing demonstration. Yield and efficiency data for this demonstration are presented. As a first step toward the goal of a 30 pct. efficient cell, a mechanical stack of the 0.5 sq cm cells described above, and InGaAsP (0.95 eV) solar cells was made. The best two terminal measurement to date yields an efficiency of 25.2 pct. AM0. This is the highest reported efficiency of any two terminal, 1 sun space solar cell.

  3. Advanced controls for stability assessment of solar dynamics space power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.

    1995-08-01

    In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust control scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different control options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/control scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.

  4. Advanced controls for stability assessment of solar dynamics space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust control scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different control options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/control scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.

  5. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris advanced design project in support of solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett; Chinnock, Paul; Kutz, Bjoern

    This paper is regarding a project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines has allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  6. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris advanced design project in support of solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett; Chinnock, Paul; Kutz, Bjoern

    1992-01-01

    This paper is regarding a project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines has allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  7. Space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the scope of the NASA space solar cell research and development program. Silicon cells, gallium arsenide cells, indium phosphide cells, and superlattice solar cells are addressed, indicating the state of the art of each type in outer space and their advantages and drawbacks for use in outer space. Contrasts between efficiency in space and on earth are pointed out.

  8. Advanced space transportation technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of propulsion technologies for space transportation are discussed in the literature. It is clear from the literature review that a single propulsion technology cannot satisfy the many mission needs in space. Many of the technologies tested, proposed, or in experimental stages relate to: chemical and nuclear fuel; radiative and corpuscular external energy source; tethers; cannons; and electromagnetic acceleration. The scope and limitation of these technologies is well tabulated in the literature. Prior experience has shown that an extensive amount of fuel needs to be carried along for the return mission. This requirement puts additional constraints on the lift off rocket technology and limits the payload capacity. Consider the possibility of refueling in space. If the return fuel supply is guaranteed, it will not only be possible to lift off more payload but also to provide security and safety of the mission. Exploration to deep space where solar sails and thermal effects fade would also be possible. Refueling would also facilitate travel on the planet of exploration. This aspect of space transportation prompts the present investigation. The particle emissions from the Sun's corona will be collected under three different conditions: in space closer to the Sun, in the Van Allen Belts; and on the Moon. It is proposed to convert the particle state into gaseous, liquid, or solid state and store it for refueling space vehicles. These facilities may be called space pump stations and the fuel collected as space fuel. Preliminary estimates of fuel collection at all three sites will be made. Future work will continue towards advancing the art of collection rate and design schemes for pumping stations.

  9. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  10. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  11. Solar physics in the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A concise and brief review is given of the solar physics' domain, and how its study has been affected by NASA Space programs which have enabled space based observations. The observations have greatly increased the knowledge of solar physics by proving some theories and challenging others. Many questions remain unanswered. To exploit coming opportunities like the Space Station, solar physics must continue its advances in instrument development, observational techniques, and basic theory. Even with the Advance Solar Observatory, other space based observation will still be required for the sure to be ensuing questions.

  12. Advanced solar dynamic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, James

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

  13. Space solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toliver, C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were done on the feasibility of placing a solar power station called POwersat, in space. A general description of the engineering features are given as well as a brief discussion of the economic considerations.

  14. Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

  15. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  16. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  17. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic arrays beyond the next generation is discussed with attention given to the potentials of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells. Of particular importance is the efficiency (the fraction of incident solar energy converted to electricity) and specific power (power to weight ratio). It is found that the radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1-MeV electrons.

  18. Advanced MHD Algorithm for Solar and Space Science: lst Year Semi Annual Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnack, Dalton D.; Lionello, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    We report progress for the development of MH4D for the first and second quarters of FY2004, December 29, 2002 - June 6, 2003. The present version of MH4D can now solve the full viscous and resistive MHD equations using either an explicit or a semi-implicit time advancement algorithm. In this report we describe progress in the following areas. During the two last quarters we have presented poster at the EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly in Nice, France, April 6-11, 2003, and a poster at the 2003 International Sherwood Theory Conference in Corpus Christi, Texas, April 28-30 2003. In the area of code development, we have implemented the MHD equations and the semi-implicit algorithm. The new features have been tested.

  19. Distributed Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of safely collecting solar power at geostationary orbit and delivering it to earth. A strategy which could harness a small fraction of the millions of gigawatts of sunlight passing near earth could adequately supply the power needs of earth and those of space exploration far into the future. Light collected and enhanced both spatially and temporally in space and beamed to earth provides probably the only practical means of safe and efficient delivery of this space solar power to earth. In particular, we analyzed the feasibility of delivering power to sites on earth at a comparable intensity, after conversion to a usable form, to existing power needs. Two major obstacles in the delivery of space solar power to earth are safety and the development of a source suitable for space. We focused our approach on: (1) identifying system requirements and designing a strategy satisfying current eye and skin safety requirements; and (2) identifying a concept for a potential space-based source for producing the enhanced light.

  20. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  1. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  2. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knasel, Don; Ehresman, Derik

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project has successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a full scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator for space station applications. A Truss Hexagonal Panel reflector was selected as a viable solar concentrator concept to be used for space station applications. This concentrator utilizes a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. The detailed design of the concentrator, which included structural, thermal and optical analysis, identified the feasibility of the design and specific technologies that were required to fabricate it. The needed surface accuracy of the reflectors surface was found to be very tight, within 5 mrad RMS slope error, and results in very close tolerances for fabrication. To meet the design requirements, a modular structure composed of hexagonal panels was used. The panels, made up of graphite epoxy box beams provided the strength, stiffness and dimensional stability needed. All initial project requirements were met or exceeded by hardware demonstration. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort within the project, which included developing the vapor deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  3. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Solar dynamic power generation has been selected by NASA to provide power for the space station. Solar dynamic concentrator technology has been demonstrated for terrestrial applications but has not been developed for space applications. The object of the Solar Concentrator Advanced Development program is to develop the technology of solar concentrators which would be used on the space station. The first task of this program was to develop conceptual concentrator designs and perform trade-off studies and to develop a materials data base and perform material selection. Three unique concentrator concepts; Truss Hex, Spline Radial Panel and Domed Fresnel, were developed and evaluated against weighted trade criteria. The Truss Hex concept was recommended for the space station. Materials data base development demonstrated that several material systems are capable of withstanding extended periods of atomic oxygen exposure without undesirable performance degradation. Descriptions of the conceptual designs and materials test data are included.

  4. High Voltage Space Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Hillard, G. B.; Vayner, B. V.; Galofaro, J. T.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tests performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and elsewhere have shown promise in the design and construction of high voltage (300-1000 V) solar arrays for space applications. Preliminary results and implications for solar array design will be discussed, with application to direct-drive electric propulsion and space solar power.

  5. A Solar Dynamic Power Option for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the potential performance and related technology requirements of Solar Dynamic power systems for a Space Solar Power satellite. Space Solar Power is a concept where solar energy is collected in orbit and beamed to Earth receiving stations to supplement terrestrial electric power service. Solar Dynamic systems offer the benefits of high solar-to-electric efficiency, long life with minimal performance degradation, and high power scalability. System analyses indicate that with moderate component development, SD systems can exhibit excellent mass and deployed area characteristics. Using the analyses as a guide, a technology roadmap was -enerated which identifies the component advances necessary to make SD power generation a competitive option for the SSP mission.

  6. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  7. Advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.; Hethcoat, J. P.; Page, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Projected growth in space transportation capabilities beyond the initial Space Shuttle is discussed in terms of earth-to-low-orbit launch vehicles as well as transportation beyond low orbit (orbit transfer vehicles). Growth versions of the Shuttle and heavy-lift derivatives of the Shuttle are shown conceptually. More advanced launch vehicle concepts are also shown, based on rocket propulsion or combinations of rocket and air-breathing propulsion. Orbit transfer vehicle concepts for personnel transport and for cargo transport are discussed, including chemical rocket as well as electric propulsion. Finally, target levels of capability and efficiencies for later time periods are discussed and compared with the prospective vehicle concepts mentioned earlier.

  8. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, D. A.; Nakamura, T.; Sadler, P.; Cuello, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  9. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support.

    PubMed

    Jack, D A; Nakamura, T; Sadler, P; Cuello, J L

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  10. Concept for Space Technology Advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeremiah J.

    2005-02-01

    The space industry is based on an antiquated concept of disposable rockets, earth construction, and non-repairable satellites. Current space vehicle concepts hearken from a time of Cold War animosity and expeditiousness. Space systems are put together in small, single-purpose chunks that are launched with mighty, single-use rockets. Spacecraft need to change to a more versatile, capable, reusable, and mission efficient design. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that President Bush put forward in his space initiative on Jan. 14, 2004 is a small first step. But like all first steps, the risk of eventual failure is great without a complementary set of steps, a reliable handhold, and a goal, which are outlined in this paper. The system for space access and development needs to be overhauled to allow for the access to space to complement the building in space, which promotes the production of goods in space, which enhances the exploitation of space resources… and the list goes on. Without supplemental and complementary infrastructure, all political, scientific, and idealistic endeavors to explore and exploit the near solar system will result in quagmires of failures and indecision. Renewed focus on fundamentals, integration, total-system consideration, and solid engineering can avoid catastrophe. Mission success, simple solutions, mission efficiency, and proper testing all seem to have been lost in the chase for the nickels and dimes. These items will increase capabilities available from a system or combination of systems. New propulsion options and materials will enable vehicles previously unachievable. Future spacecraft should exploit modular designs for repeatability and reduced cost. Space construction should use these modular systems on major components built in orbit. All vehicles should apply smart designs and monitoring systems for increased reliability and system awareness. Crew safety systems must use this awareness in alerting the crew, aiding collision

  11. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  12. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  13. Study of the Solar Cycle from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of and benefits to be derived from a program of solar cycle research are discussed with emphasis on the role space observations will play in this venture. The strategy to be employed in the coming decade is considered as well as crucial missions, experiments, and the theoretical advances required.

  14. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  15. Advanced photovoltaic solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program, started in mid-1987, is currently in progress to fabricate prototype wing hardware that will lead to wing integration and testing in 1989. The design configuration and key details are reviewed. A status of prototype hardware fabricated to date is provided. Results from key component-level tests are discussed. Revised estimates of array-level performance as a function of solar cell device technology for geosynchronous missions are given.

  16. Space solar cell research - Problems and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1986-01-01

    The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was immediately recognized in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell, despite its infancy, was quickly pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved because of a variety of factors, ranging from improvements in silicon single crystal material, to better device designs, to a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. This paper will give a brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications, and will discuss some of the current reseach directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling the effects of radiation damage in space solar cells.

  17. Space solar cell research: Problems and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was apparent in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell was pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved through improvements in silicon single crystal material, better device designs, and a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. A brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications is given, and some of the current research directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling radiation damage in space solar cells is discussed.

  18. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  19. Advanced Solar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    Low thermal efficiencies in solar receivers are discussed in terms of system design. It is recommended that careful attention be given to the overall thermal systems design, especially to conductive losses about the window and areas of relatively thin insulation. If the cavity design is carefully managed to insure a small, minimally reradiating aperture, the goal of a very high efficiency cavity receiver is a realistic one.

  20. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  1. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  2. Solar Eclipse from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    While flying at about 240 statute miles above Earth, NASA Astronaut Don Pettit captured the rare solar eclipse as the moon casted its dark shadow across the planet below as it lined up between Eart...

  3. Advanced solar concentrator: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design of a point-focusing solar concentrator, consisting of a steerable space frame structure supporting a paraboloidal mirror glass reflector, is described. A mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment is presented. A conceptual evaluation of a modified concentrator design is included. The detailed design of one of the lightweight, structurally efficient reflective elements comprising the paraboloidal reflective surface is given.

  4. Solar concentrator advanced development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D.; Ehresman, Derik T.

    1987-01-01

    A solar dynamic concentrator design developed for use with a solar-thermodynamic power generation module intended for the Space Station is considered. The truss hexagonal panel reflector uses a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. Preliminary structural, thermal, and optical analysis results are discussed. Accuracy of the surface reflectors should be within 5 mrad rms slope error, resulting in the need for close fabrication tolerances. Significant fabrication issues to be addressed include the facet reflective and protective coating processes and the surface specularity requirements.

  5. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  6. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  7. Solar Power in Space?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    report, a document intended to be visionary and covering the same period of time. (See author’s correction at end of article .) The difference between...goals—such as human travel to the moon, Mars, or an asteroid , which only obliquely contrib- ute to national security space—a national SBSP program...The Future of Space Exploration,” video of speech, http:// www.bu.edu/pardee/space-abdul-kalam/. 33. See various articles and videos by Dr. Kalam

  8. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-08-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes," associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ˜2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  9. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  10. Advanced materials for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Slemp, W. S.; Long, E. R., Jr.; Sykes, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal thrust of the LSST program is to develop the materials technology required for confident design of large space systems such as antennas and platforms. Areas of research in the FY-79 program include evaluation of polysulfones, measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of low expansion composite laminates, thermal cycling effects, and cable technology. The development of new long thermal control coatings and adhesives for use in space is discussed. The determination of radiation damage mechanisms of resin matrix composites and the formulation of new polymer matrices that are inherently more stable in the space environment are examined.

  11. Space Station Power System Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Baraona, C. R.; Valgora, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Space Station Advanced Development Program are related to the development of a set of design options and/or new capabilities to support Space Station development and operation, taking into account also a quantification of the performance and risk of key state-of-the-art technologies, and a reduction of the cost and schedule risk in Space Station development. Attention is given to the photovoltaic power system, a solar dynamic system, and aspects of power management and distribution. A major issue will be the selection of the power generation system. In view of the advantages of the solar dynamic system, it is attempted to resolve issues associated with this system.

  12. Advances in Solar Power Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, S. E.; Kosovic, B.; Drobot, S.

    2014-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research and partners are building a blended SunCast Solar Power Forecasting system. This system includes several short-range nowcasting models and improves upon longer range numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as part of the "Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting." The nowcasting models being built include statistical learning models that include cloud regime prediction, multiple sky imager-based advection models, satellite image-based advection models, and rapid update NWP models with cloud assimilation. The team has also integrated new modules into the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to better predict clouds, aerosols, and irradiance. The modules include a new shallow convection scheme; upgraded physics parameterizations of clouds; new radiative transfer modules that specify GHI, DNI, and DIF prediction; better satellite assimilation methods; and new aerosol estimation methods. These new physical models are incorporated into WRF-Solar, which is then integrated with publically available NWP models via the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system as well as the Nowcast Blender to provide seamless forecasts at partner utility and balancing authority commercial solar farms. The improvements will be described and results to date discussed.

  13. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  14. Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area

  15. Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area.

  16. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenn, Rainer

    2006-12-01

    The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  17. Advances in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varsi, Giulio

    1989-01-01

    The problem of the remote control of space operations is addressed by identifying the key technical challenge: the management of contact forces and the principal performance parameters. Three principal classes of devices for remote operation are identified: anthropomorphic exoskeletons, computer aided teleoperators, and supervised telerobots. Their fields of application are described, and areas in which progress has reached the level of system or subsystem laboratory demonstrations are indicated. Key test results, indicating performance at a level useful for design tradeoffs, are reported.

  18. Plasma chamber testing of advanced photovoltaic solar array coupons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1994-05-01

    The solar array module plasma interactions experiment is a space shuttle experiment designed to investigate and quantify the high voltage plasma interactions. One of the objectives of the experiment is to test the performance of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). The material properties of array blanket are also studied as electric insulators for APSA arrays in high voltage conditions. Three twelve cell prototype coupons of silicon cells were constructed and tested in a space simulation chamber.

  19. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  20. Space Solar Power Demonstrations: Challenges and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The prospects of using electrical power beamed from space are coming closer to reality with the continued pursuit and improvements in the supporting space solar research and technology. Space Solar Power (SSP) has been explored off and on for approximately three decades as a viable alternative and clean energy source. Results produced through the more recent Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program involving extensive participation by industry, universities, and government has provided a sound technical basis for believing that technology can be improved to the extent that SSP systems can be built, economically feasible, and successfully deployed in space. Considerable advancements have been made in conceptual designs and supporting technologies including solar power generation, wireless power transmission, power management distribution, thermal management and materials, and the integrated systems engineering assessments. Basic technologies have progressed to the point were the next logical step is to formulate and conduct sophisticated demonstrations involving prototype hardware as final proof of concepts and identify high end technology readiness levels in preparation for full scale SSP systems designs. In addition to continued technical development issues, environmental and safety issues must be addressed and appropriate actions taken to reassure the public and prepare them for the future use of this alternative renewable energy resource. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related R&D investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (terrestrial markets, science, commercial development of space, and other government missions).

  1. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 6: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, BSR, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 50 micron advanced OAST solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical parametric data are presented on BSF, BSR, textured 10 ohm cm, 50 micron advanced OAST cells in graphical and tabular form as functions of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and 1 MeV electron fluence.

  2. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  3. Solar concentrator advanced development program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knasel, D.; Ehresman, D.

    1989-10-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project has successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a full scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator for space station applications. A Truss Hexagonal Panel reflector was selected as a viable solar concentrator concept to be used for space station applications. This concentrator utilizes a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. The detailed design of the concentrator, which included structural, thermal and optical analysis, identified the feasibility of the design and specific technologies that were required to fabricate it. The needed surface accuracy of the reflectors surface was found to be very tight, within 5 mrad RMS slope error, and results in very close tolerances for fabrication. To meet the design requirements, a modular structure composed of hexagonal panels was used. The panels, made up of graphite epoxy box beams provided the strength, stiffness and dimensional stability needed. All initial project requirements were met or exceeded by hardware demonstration. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort within the project, which included developing the vapor deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  4. Solar dynamic power for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. S.; Diamant, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a computer code which provides a significant advance in the systems analysis capabilities of solar dynamic power modules. While the code can be used to advantage in the preliminary analysis of terrestrial solar dynamic modules its real value lies in the adaptions which make it particularly useful for the conceptualization of optimized power modules for space applications. In particular, as illustrated in the paper, the code can be used to establish optimum values of concentrator diameter, concentrator surface roughness, concentrator rim angle and receiver aperture corresponding to the main heat cycle options - Organic Rankine and Brayton - and for certain receiver design options. The code can also be used to establish system sizing margins to account for the loss of reflectivity in orbit or the seasonal variation of insolation. By the simulation of the interactions among the major components of a solar dynamic module and through simplified formulations of the major thermal-optic-thermodynamic interactions the code adds a powerful, efficient and economic analytical tool to the repertory of techniques available for the design of advanced space power systems.

  5. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  6. Solar Power Satellite Development: Advances in Modularity and Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power satellites require innovative concepts in order to achieve economically and technically feasible designs. The mass and volume constraints of current and planned launch vehicles necessitate highly efficient structural systems be developed. In addition, modularity and in-space deployment will be enabling design attributes. This paper reviews the current challenges of launching and building very large space systems. A building block approach is proposed in order to achieve near-term solar power satellite risk reduction while promoting the necessary long-term technology advances. Promising mechanical systems technologies anticipated in the coming decades including modularity, material systems, structural concepts, and in-space operations are described

  7. Advanced Space-Based Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-17

    Research Laboratory 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave., SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 AFRL -RV...Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0010 TR-2014-0010 ADVANCED SPACE-BASED DETECTORS David Cardimona 17 Jul 2014 Final Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

  8. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  9. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  10. In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Robotic Exploration of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Rae Ann; Frame, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing the next generation of space propulsion technologies for robotic, deep-space exploration. Recent technological advancements and demonstrations of key, high-payoff propulsion technologies have been achieved and will be described. Technologies under development and test include aerocapture, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, and advanced chemical propulsion.

  11. Advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr.; Healy, T. J.; Long, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE Summer Study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: (1) An intelligent earth-sensing information system, (2) an autonomous space exploration system, (3) an automated space manufacturing facility, and (4) a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by century's end.

  12. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O'brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  13. Solar Physics in the Space Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmer, Phil D.; And Others

    This amply illustrated booklet provides a physical description of the sun as well as present and future tasks for solar physics study. The first chapter, an introduction, describes the history of solar study, solar study in space, and the relevance of solar study. The second chapter describes the five heliographic domains including the interior,…

  14. Commercialization of solar space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  15. Space solar cell technology development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The developmental history of photovoltaics is examined as a basis for predicting further advances to the year 2000. Transistor technology was the precursor of solar cell development. Terrestrial cells were modified for space through changes in geometry and size, as well as the use of Ag-Ti contacts and manufacture of a p-type base. The violet cell was produced for Comsat, and involved shallow junctions, new contacts, and an enhanced antireflection coating for better radiation tolerance. The driving force was the desire by private companies to reduce cost and weight for commercial satellite power supplies. Liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) GaAs cells are the latest advancement, having a 4 sq cm area and increased efficiency. GaAs cells are expected to be flight ready in the 1980s. Testing is still necessary to verify production techniques and the resistance to electron and photon damage. Research will continue in CVD cell technology, new panel technology, and ultrathin Si cells.

  16. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  17. Solar Energy Monitor In Space (SEMIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements made at high altitudes from aircraft have resulted in the establishment of standard values of the solar constant and extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance. These standard values and other solar spectral curves are described. The problem of possible variations of the solar constant and solar spectrum and their influence on the earth-atmosphere system and weather related phenomena is examined. It is shown that the solar energy input parameters should be determined with considerably greater accuracy and precision than has been possible. An instrument package designed as a compact, low weight solar energy monitor in space (SEMIS) is described.

  18. Advancements in Solar Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, Lino; Antonelli, Vito

    2013-03-01

    We review the results of solar neutrino physics, with particular attention to the data obtained and the analyses performed in the last decades, which were determinant to solve the solar neutrino problem (SNP), proving that neutrinos are massive and oscillating particles and contributing to refine the solar models. We also discuss the perspectives of the presently running experiments in this sector and of the ones planned for the near future and the impact they can have on elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

  19. Recent Advances in Solar Sail Propulsion at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy M.; Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing solar sail propulsion for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Solar sail propulsion will provide longer on-station operation, increased scientific payload mass fraction, and access to previously inaccessible orbits for multiple potential science missions. Two different 20-meter solar sail systems were produced and successfully completed functional vacuum testing last year in NASA Glenn's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. These sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. This sail designs are robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment, and are scalable to much larger solar sails-perhaps as much as 150 meters on a side. In addition, computation modeling and analytical simulations have been performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes (>150 meters) required for first generation solar sails missions. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials are also nearly complete. This paper will summarize recent technology advancements in solar sails and their successful ambient and vacuum testing.

  20. Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The main task for this project was the development of a prototype for the Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio (SSAER). The SSAER is an updated version of the Space to Space EMU Radio (SSER), which is the current radio used by EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) for communication between suits and with the ISS. The SSER was developed in 1999, and it was desired to update the design used in the system. Importantly, besides replacing out-of-production parts it was necessary to decrease the size of the radio due to increased volume constraints with the updated Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.5, which will be attached on future space suits. In particular, it was desired to fabricate a PCB for the front-end of the prototype SSAER system. Once this board was manufactured and all parts assembled, it could then be tested for quality of operation as well as compliancy with the SSER required specifications. Upon arrival, a small outline of the target system was provided, and it was my responsibility to take that outline to a finished, testable board. This board would include several stages, including frequency mixing, amplification, modulation, demodulation, and handled both the transmit and receive lines of the radio. I developed a new design based on the old SSER system and the outline provided to me, and found parts to fit the tasks in my design. It was also important to consider the specifications of the SSER, which included the system noise figure, gain, and power consumption. Further, all parts needed to be impedance matched, and spurious signals needed to be avoided. In order to fulfill these two requirements, it was necessary to perform some calculations using a Smith Chart and excel analysis. Once all parts were selected, I drew the schematics for the system in Altium Designer. This included developing schematic symbols, as well as layout. Once the schematic was finished, it was then necessary to lay the parts out onto a PCB using Altium. Similar to the schematic

  1. Advanced photovoltaic solar array - Design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Stella, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an ultralightweight flexible blanket, flatpack, foldout solar array design that can provide 3- to 4-fold improvement on specific power performance of current rigid panel arrays and a factor of two improvement over a first-generation flexible blanket array developed as a forerunner to the Space Station Freedom array. To date a prototype wing has been built with a projected specific power performance of about 138 W/kg at beginning-of-life (BOL) and 93 W/kg end-of-life (EOL) at 12 kW (BOL) for a 10-year geosynchronous (GEO) mission. The prototype wing hardware has been subjected to a series of system-level tests to demonstrate design feasibility. The design of the array is summarized. The major trade studies that led to the selection of the baseline design are discussed. Key system-level and component-level testing are described. Array-level performance projections are presented as a function of existing and advanced solar array component technology for various mission applications.

  2. Flexibility in space solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khemthong, Scott; Iles, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The wide range of cells that must be available from present-day production lines for space solar cells are described. After over thirty years of space-cell use, there is very little standardization in solar cell design. It is not generally recognized what a wide range of designs must remain available on cell production lines. This range of designs is surveyed.

  3. Solar Magnetic Drivers of Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    and Sheeley), the Air Force Phillips Lab (Space Effects Division - Webb and Kahler ), the NOAA Space Environment Center (Rapid Prototyping Center...Solar Physics, eds. K. S. Balasubramaniam, J. Harvey, D. Rabin , ASP Conf. Ser. 140, 155-160. Harvey, J. and Worden, J. 1998, “Calibrating Solar Polar

  4. In-Space Transportation for Geo Space Solar Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation from Earth is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that a two-stage rocket launch vehicle with autonomous solar-electric transfer can provide the transportation at prices close to the goal of $800/kg

  5. Solar cell experiments for space: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoheisel, R.; Messenger, S. R.; Lumb, M. P.; Gonzalez, M.; Bailey, C. G.; Scheiman, D. A.; Maximenko, S.; Jenkins, P. P.; Walters, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    Since the early beginnings of the space age in the 1950s, solar cells have been considered as the primary choice for long term electrical power generation of satellites and space systems. This is mainly due to their high power/mass ratio and the good scalability of solar modules according to the power requirements of a space mission. During the last decades, detailed solar cell material studies including the non-trivial interaction with high-energy space particles have led to continuous and significant improvements in device efficiency. This allowed the powering of advanced space systems like the International Space Station, rovers on the Martian surface as well as satellites which have helped to understand the universe and our planet. It is noteworthy that in addition to their success in space, these photovoltaic technologies have also broken ground for the application of photovoltaic systems in terrestrial systems. This paper discusses the development of space solar cells, gives insight into related experiments like the analysis of the interaction with space particles and provides an overview on challenges and requirements for future space missions.

  6. The Implementation of Advanced Solar Array Technology in Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.; White, Steve; Douglas, Mark; Spence, Brian; Jones, P. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Advanced solar array technology is expected to be critical in achieving the mission goals on many future NASA space flight programs. Current PV cell development programs offer significant potential and performance improvements. However, in order to achieve the performance improvements promised by these devices, new solar array structures must be designed and developed to accommodate these new PV cell technologies. This paper will address the use of advanced solar array technology in future NASA space missions and specifically look at how newer solar cell technologies impact solar array designs and overall power system performance.

  7. Fresnel Concentrators for Space Solar Power and Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Rodney; Parks, Robert W.; Craig, Harry B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large deployable Fresnel concentrators are applicable to solar thermal propulsion and multiple space solar power generation concepts. These concentrators can be used with thermophotovoltaic, solar thermionic, and solar dynamic conversion systems. Thin polyimide Fresnel lenses and reflectors can provide tailored flux distribution and concentration ratios matched to receiver requirements. Thin, preformed polyimide film structure components assembled into support structures for Fresnel concentrators provide the capability to produce large inflation-deployed concentrator assemblies. The polyimide film is resistant to the space environment and allows large lightweight assemblies to be fabricated that can be compactly stowed for launch. This work addressed design and fabrication of lightweight polyimide film Fresnel concentrators, alternate materials evaluation, and data management functions for space solar power concepts, architectures, and supporting technology development.

  8. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  9. Space Station Freedom solar array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom solar array program is required to provide a 75-kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-yr design point. The design of flexible-substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years is discussed. The tradeoff study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  10. Advances in Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Chuantian; Bolink, Henk J.; Han, Hongwei; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite‐based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non‐PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large‐scale fabrication, reducing fabrication cost, enhancing the power conversion efficiency and thus broadening potential future applications. This review summarizes typical structures of perovskite solar cells and comments on novel device structures. The applications of perovskite solar cells are discussed. PMID:27812475

  11. Advances in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chuantian; Bolink, Henk J; Han, Hongwei; Huang, Jinsong; Cahen, David; Ding, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite-based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non-PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large-scale fabrication, reducing fabrication cost, enhancing the power conversion efficiency and thus broadening potential future applications. This review summarizes typical structures of perovskite solar cells and comments on novel device structures. The applications of perovskite solar cells are discussed.

  12. The solar power satellite concept - A space program perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will reduce the cost of transportation to space from thousands of dollars per pound to hundreds of dollars per pound. Studies of future systems indicate that these costs may be further reduced to tens of dollars per pound by using large space freighters, which would be required to build solar power satellites. It is pointed out that the Space Shuttle will provide a versatile tool in the 1980's to support the exploration of the solar power satellite concept as well as other space programs of the future. Three apparently different applications, related to materials processing in space, advanced satellite communications, and solar power satellites, have a number of common requirements. These include the need for large solar power arrays in space and/or the need to construct large systems in space. Consequently, a space program which includes development of the techniques for large power supplies and structural systems provides the basis for selecting and implementing any or all of these promising applications.

  13. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  14. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  15. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  16. Emerging US Space Launch, Trends and Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the state of the art of emerging US space launch and spacecraft. Reviews the NASA budget ascontext, while providing example scenarios. Connects what has been learned in space systems commercial partnershipsto a potential path for consideration by the space solar power community.

  17. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Solar Array Program is required to provide a 75 kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low Earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-year design point. Lockheed Missles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) is providing the flexible substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years. Trade studies and development testing, important for evolving any design to maturity, are presently underway at LMSC on the flexible solar array. The trade study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  18. A program for advancing the technology of space concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naujokas, Gerald J.; Savino, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, the NASA Lewis Research Center formed a project, the Advanced Solar Dynamics Power Systems Project, for the purpose of advancing the technology of Solar Dynamic Power Systems for space applications beyond 2000. Since then, technology development activities have been initiated for the major components and subsystems such as the concentrator, heat receiver and engine, and radiator. Described here is a program for developing long lived (10 years or more), lighter weight, and more reflective space solar concentrators than is presently possible. The program is progressing along two parallel paths: one is concentrator concept development and the other is the resolution of those critical technology issues that will lead to durable, highly specular, and lightweight reflector elements. Outlined are the specific objectives, long term goals, approach, planned accomplishments for the future, and the present status of the various program elements.

  19. Advanced planar array development for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Advanced Planar Array Development for the Space Station contract are presented. The original objectives of the contract were: (1) to develop a process for manufacturing superstrate assemblies, (2) to demonstrate superstrate technology through fabrication and test, (3) to develop and analyze a preliminary solar array wing design, and (4) to fabricate a wing segment based on wing design. The primary tasks completed were designing test modules, fabricating, and testing them. LMSC performed three tasks which included thermal cycle testing for 2000 thermal cycles, thermal balance testing at the Boeing Environmental Test Lab in Kent, Washington, and acceptance testing a 15 ft x 50 in panel segment for 100 thermal cycles. The surperstrate modules performed well during both thermal cycle testing and thermal balance testing. The successful completion of these tests demonstrate the technical feasibility of a solar array power system utilizing superstrate technology. This final report describes the major elements of this contract including the manufacturing process used to fabricate modules, the tests performed, and the results and conclusions of the tests.

  20. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  1. Alternative Architecture for Commercial Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discuss the space solar power (SSP) concept. It takes us step by step through the process: the use of sunlight and solar cells to create power, the conversion of the sunlight into electricity, the conversion of electricity to microwaves, and finally the from microwaves back to electricity by the Rectennas on Earth.

  2. Space Solar Power Management and Distribution (PMAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Thomas H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, SSP PMAD (Space Solar Power Management and Distribution). The topics include: 1) Architecture; 2) Backside Thermal View; 3) Solar Array Interface; 4) Transformer design and risks; 5) Twelve phase rectifier; 6) Antenna (80V) Converters; 7) Distribution Cables; 8) Weight Analysis; and 9) PMAD Summary.

  3. In-Space Transportation for GEO Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donnahue, Benjamin B.; Henley, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes results of study tasks to evaluate design options for in-space transportation of geostationary Space Solar Power Satellites. Referring to the end-to-end architecture studies performed in 1988, this current activity focuses on transportation of Sun Tower satellite segments from an initial low Earth orbit altitude to a final position in geostationary orbit (GEO; i.e., 35,786 km altitude, circular, equatorial orbit). This report encompasses study activity for In-Space Transportation of GEO Space Solar Power (SSP) Satellites including: 1) assessment of requirements, 2) design of system concepts, 3) comparison of alternative system options, and 4) assessment of potential derivatives.

  4. Space Power Architectures for NASA Missions: The Applicability and Benefits of Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The relative importance of electrical power systems as compared with other spacecraft bus systems is examined. The quantified benefits of advanced space power architectures for NASA Earth Science, Space Science, and Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions is then presented. Advanced space power technologies highlighted include high specific power solar arrays, regenerative fuel cells, Stirling radioisotope power sources, flywheel energy storage and attitude control, lithium ion polymer energy storage and advanced power management and distribution.

  5. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G; Williams, T; Wendelin, T

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development program at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  6. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Williams, Tom; Wendelin, Tim

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development at the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  7. Using the MIL-STD-1553B to link up all subsystems of Solar Space Telesocpe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaochang

    1999-12-01

    From the 1980's, the use of MIL-STD-1553B in satellite programs has greatly increased. As an advanced satellite with numerous subsystems, Solar Space Telescope (SST) chooses this standard to meet its need for telemetry. This paper introduces some parts of MIL-STD-1553B that can be used in Solar Space Telescope.

  8. Solar Magnetic Drivers of Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    Solar Physics Branch (Code 7660, Wang and Sheeley), the Air Force Phillips Lab (Space Effects Division, Kahler and Webb), NOAA Space Environment...eds. K. Balasubramaniam, J. Harvey, D. Rabin , ASP Conf. Ser. (San Francisco: ASP), in press. Y. M. Wang, N. R. Sheeley, Jr., K. P. Dere, R. T. Duffin

  9. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2014-01-01

    On-orbit measurements of new photovoltaic (PV) technologies for space power are an essential step in the development and qualification of advanced solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center will fly and measure several solar cells attached to NASA Goddards Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM), expected to be launched in 2014. Industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for evaluation of performance and environmental durability. The experiment is completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction and four-junction cells will be tested.

  10. Solar Sources of Severe Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Shibasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Severe space weather is characterized by intense particle radiation from the Sun and severe geomagnetic storm caused by magnetized solar plasma arriving at Earth. Intense particle radiation is almost always caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) traveling from the Sun at super-Alfvenic speeds leading to fast-mode MHD shocks and particle acceleration by the shocks. When a CME arrives at Earth, it can interact with Earth's magnetopause resulting in solar plasma entry into the magnetosphere and a geomagnetic storm depending on the magnetic structure of the CME. Particle radiation starts affecting geospace as soon as the CMEs leave the Sun and the geospace may be immersed in the radiation for several days. On the other hand, the geomagnetic storm happens only upon arrival of the CME at Earth. The requirements for the production of particles and magnetic storms by CMEs are different in a number of respects: solar source location, CME magnetic structure, conditions in the ambient solar wind, and shock-driving ability of CMEs. Occasionally, intense geomagnetic storms are caused by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that form in the interplanetary space when the fast solar wind from coronal holes overtakes the slow wind from the quiet regions. CIRs also accelerate particles, but when they reach several AU from the Sun, so their impact on Earth's space environment is not significant. In addition to these plasma effects, solar flares that accompany CMEs also produce excess ionization in the ionosphere causing sudden ionospheric disturbances. This paper highlights these space weather effects using space weather events observed by space and ground based instruments during of solar cycles 23 and 24.

  11. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  12. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  13. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; Oneill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  14. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  15. New directions for space solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-07-01

    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  16. Automated Solar Feature Detection for Space Weather Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Suárez, David; Higgins, Paul A.; Bloomfield, D. Shaun; McAteer, R. T. James; Krista, Larisza D.; Byrne, Jason P.; Gallagher, Peter. T.

    2011-03-01

    The solar surface and atmosphere are highly dynamic plasma environments, which evolve over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Large-scale eruptions, such as coronal mass ejections, can be accelerated to millions of kilometres per hour in a matter of minutes, making their automated detection and characterisation challenging. Additionally, there are numerous faint solar features, such as coronal holes and coronal dimmings, which are important for space weather monitoring and forecasting, but their low intensity and sometimes transient nature makes them problematic to detect using traditional image processing techniques. These difficulties are compounded by advances in ground- and space- based instrumentation, which have increased the volume of data that solar physicists are confronted with on a minute-by-minute basis; NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory for example is returning many thousands of images per hour (~1.5 TB/day). This chapter reviews recent advances in the application of images processing techniques to the automated detection of active regions, coronal holes, filaments, CMEs, and coronal dimmings for the purposes of space weather monitoring and prediction.

  17. Direct solar heating for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Early investigations have shown that a large percentage of the power generated on the Space Station will be needed in the form of high-temperature thermal energy. The most efficient method of satisfying this requirement is through direct utilization of available solar energy. A system concept for the direct use of solar energy on the Space Station, including its benefits to customers, technologists, and designers of the station, is described. After a brief discussion of energy requirements and some possible applications, results of selective tradeoff studies are discussed, showing area reduction benefits and some possible configurations for the practical use of direct solar heating. Following this is a description of system elements and required technologies. Finally, an assessment of available contributive technologies is presented, and a Space Shuttle Orbiter flight experiment is proposed.

  18. Thin film, concentrator and multijunction space solar cells: Status and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent, rapid advances in a variety of solar cell technologies offer the potential for significantly enhancing, or enabling entirely new, mission capabilities. Thin film solar cells are of particular interest in that regard. A review is provided of the status of those thin film cell technologies of interest for space applications, and the issues to be resolved before mission planners can consider them. A short summary is also given of recent developments in concentrator and multijunction space solar cell and array technology.

  19. Thin film, concentrator, and multijunction space solar cells: Status and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent, rapid advances in a variety of solar cell technologies offer the potential for significantly enhancing, or enabling entirely new, mission capabilities. Thin film solar cells are of particular interest. A review is provided of the status of those thin film cell technologies of interest for space applications, and the issues to be resolved before mission planners can consider them. A short summary of recent developments in concentrator and multijunction space solar cell and array technology is given.

  20. Status of advanced propulsion for space based orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Scheer, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    A new Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) propulsion system will be required to meet the needs of space missions beyond the mid-1990's. As envisioned, the advanced OTV will be used in conjunction with Earth-to-orbit vehicles, Space Station, and Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. The OTV will transfer men, large space structures, and conventional payloads between low Earth and higher energy orbits. Space probes carried by the OTV will continue the exploration of the solar system. When lunar bases are established, the OTV will be their transportation link to Earth. NASA is currently funding the development of technology for advanced propulsion concepts for future Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Progress in key areas during 1986 is presented.

  1. Status of advanced propulsion for space based orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Larry P.; Scheer, Dean D.

    1986-01-01

    A new Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) propulsion system will be required to meet the needs of space missions beyond the mid-1990's. As envisioned, the advanced OTV will be used in conjunction with earth-to-orbit vehicles, Space Station, and Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. The OTV will transfer men, large space structures, and conventional payloads between low earth and higher energy orbits. Space probes carried by the OTV will continue the exploration of the solar system. When lunar bases are established, the OTV will be their transportation link to earth. NASA is currently funding the development of technology for advanced propulsion concepts for future Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Progress in key areas during 1986 is presented.

  2. Power Management for Space Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Space power systems include the power source, storage, and management subsystems. In current crewed spacecraft, solar cells are the power source, batteries provide storage, and the crew performs any required load scheduling. For future crewed planetary surface systems using Advanced Life Support, we assume that plants will be grown to produce much of the crew's food and that nuclear power will be employed. Battery storage is much more costly than nuclear power capacity and so is not likely to be used. We investigate the scheduling of power demands by the crew or automatic control, to reduce the peak power load and the required generating capacity. The peak to average power ratio is a good measure of power use efficiency. We can easily schedule power demands to reduce the peak power from its maximum, but simple scheduling approaches may not find the lowest possible peak to average power ratio. An initial power scheduling example was simple enough for a human to solve, but a more complex example with many intermittent load demands required automatic scheduling. Excess power is a free resource and can be used even for minor benefits.

  3. The Advancement of Humans in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of humans into space and potentially beyond started slow but has greatly increased in speed over the past 2 generations. NASA has been at the forefront of this development and coontinues to lead the way into space exploration. This presentation provides a brief historical overview of NASA's space exploration efforts and touches on the abilityof each new generation to greatly expand our presence in space.

  4. Advanced Solar Cell Testing and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Curtis, Henry; Piszczor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The topic for this workshop stems from an ongoing effort by the photovoltaic community and U.S. government to address issues and recent problems associated with solar cells and arrays experienced by a number of different space systems. In April 2003, a workshop session was held at the Aerospace Space Power Workshop to discuss an effort by the Air Force to update and standardize solar cell and array qualification test procedures in an effort to ameliorate some of these problems. The organizers of that workshop session thought it was important to continue these discussions and present this information to the entire photovoltaic community. Thus, it was decided to include this topic as a workshop at the following SPRAT conference.

  5. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  6. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  7. Large area space solar cell assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Nowlan, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a large area space solar cell assembly is presented. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are (1) use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and (2) integration of coverglass application and call fabrication.

  8. NASA's Advanced Solar Sail Propulsion System for Low-Cost Deep Space Exploration and Science Missions that Use High Performance Rollable Composite Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Juan M.; Rose, Geoffrey K.; Younger, Casey J.; Dean, Gregory D.; Warren, Jerry E.; Stohlman, Olive R.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2017-01-01

    Several low-cost solar sail technology demonstrator missions are under development in the United States. However, the mass saving derived benefits that composites can offer to such a mass critical spacecraft architecture have not been realized yet. This is due to the lack of suitable composite booms that can fit inside CubeSat platforms and ultimately be readily scalable to much larger sizes, where they can fully optimize their use. With this aim, a new effort focused at developing scalable rollable composite booms for solar sails and other deployable structures has begun. Seven meter booms used to deploy a 90 m2 class solar sail that can fit inside a 6U CubeSat have already been developed. The NASA road map to low-cost solar sail capability demonstration envisioned, consists of increasing the size of these composite booms to enable sailcrafts with a reflective area of up to 2000 m2 housed aboard small satellite platforms. This paper presents a solar sail system initially conceived to serve as a risk reduction alternative to Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout's baseline design but that has recently been slightly redesigned and proposed for follow-on missions. The features of the booms and various deployment mechanisms for the booms and sail, as well as ground support equipment used during testing, are introduced. The results of structural analyses predict the performance of the system under microgravity conditions. Finally, the results of the functional and environmental testing campaign carried out are shown.

  9. Space platform advanced technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G.

    1981-01-01

    Current and past space platform and power module studies were utilized to point the way to areas of development for mechanical devices that will be required for the ultimate implementation of a platform erected and serviced by the Shuttle/Orbiter. The study was performed in accordance with a study plan which included: a review of space platform technology; orbiter berthing system requirements; berthing latch interface requirements, design, and model fabrication; berthing umbilical interface requirements and design; adaptive end effector design and model fabrication; and adaptive end effector requirements.

  10. Advanced Technologies and Satellite Services for Enhancing Space Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Rieger, Philipp; Suess, Helmut; Neff, Thomas; Duerr, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Space-based systems are becoming part of our infrastructure and our dependency on space-based services has grown. Therefore, the assured availability and operational readiness of space-based services is essential, undoubtedly. However, satellites are subject to a variety of damaging effects and potential threats. These are mostly caused by an increasingly crowded region of outer space, by space weather including solar events and, unfortunately, even attacks on space systems which are no longer sience fiction as impressively demonstrated in 2007 with the Chinese anti-satellite test and the intercept of USA-193 in 2008. Today, German armed forces use several space services primarily for reconnaissance, communications and navigation. As a matter of fact, Germany`s sovereignty and national security depend on the availability of multiple space services. This led the Federal Ministry of Defence to set up a dedicated military Space Situational Awareness Centre at Kalkar/Uedem, Germany, as a significant contribution to a national preventive security. This paper provides information on a range of technical issues related to space assets that are important for anyone involved in the debate over space security and gives a brief survey of the German SSA program. The paper deals with a subset of feasible man-made threats and its fatal effects on space assets. Furthermore, the preliminary conceptual design of an onboard sensor suitable for the instant detection of the previously described types of threats is presented. Finally, advanced technologies for the near real-time transfer of data are highlighted.

  11. Advanced Imaging for Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA interferometric missions will realize high-resolution with less mass and volume compared to filled-apertures thus saving in cost over comparable filled-aperture systems. However, interferometeric aperture systems give reduced sensitivity requiring longer integration times to achieve a desired signal-to-noise ratio but is likely the only cost effective path forward for high-resolution space imaging.

  12. Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, A.

    Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

  13. Advanced space program studies. Overall executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    NASA and DoD requirements and planning data were used in multidiscipline advanced planning investigations of space operations and associated elements (including man), identification of potential low cost approaches, vehicle design, cost synthesis techniques, technology forecasting and opportunities for DoD technology transfer, and the development near-, mid-, and far-term space initiatives and development plans with emphasis on domestic and military commonality. An overview of objectives and results are presented for the following studies: advanced space planning and conceptual analysis, shuttle users, technology assessment and new opportunities, standardization and program practice, integrated STS operations planning, solid spinning upper stage, and integrated planning support functions.

  14. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc

    2013-05-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

  15. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission

    PubMed Central

    Damé, Luc; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Marchand, Marion; Irbah, Abdenour; Quémerais, Éric; Bekki, Slimane; Foujols, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Cessateur, Gaël; Shapiro, Alexander; Schmutz, Werner; Kuzin, Sergey; Slemzin, Vladimir; Urnov, Alexander; Bogachev, Sergey; Merayo, José; Brauer, Peter; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Paschalis, Antonis; Mahrous, Ayman; Khaled, Safinaz; Ghitas, Ahmed; Marzouk, Besheir; Zaki, Amal; Hady, Ahmed A.; Kariyappa, Rangaiah

    2013-01-01

    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017–2018. PMID:25685424

  16. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  17. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-12-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the second of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. This volume includes the appendices of selected data sets, drawings, and procedures. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the

  18. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the first of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the work done from January 1989 through December 1991.

  19. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the second of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. This volume includes the appendices of selected data sets, drawings, and procedures. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the

  20. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-12-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the first of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the work done from January 1989 through December 1991.

  1. Advanced Photodetectors for Space Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The detector in a space lidar plays a key role in the instrument characteristics and performance, especially in direct detection lidar. The sensitivity of the detector is usually the limiting factor when determining the laser power and the receiver aperture size, which in turn determines the instrument complexity and cost. The availability of a suitable detector is often a deciding factor in the choice of lidar wavelengths. A direct detection lidar can achieve the highest receiver performance, or the quantum limit, when its detector can detect signals at the single photon

  2. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  3. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Michele L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, Azure D.; Bobela, David; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2016-05-31

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a 'thermal valve,' which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  4. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  5. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  6. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  7. Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Photolvoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program is discussed. The objective of the program is to demonstrate a producible array system by the end of this decade with a beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power of 130 W/kg at 10 kW as an intermediate milestone toward the ultimate goal of 300 W/kg at 25 kW by the year 2000. The near-term goal represents a significant improvement over existing rigid panel flight arrays (25 to 45 W/kg) and the first-generation flexible blanket NASA/OAST SAFE I array of the early 1980s, which was projected to provide about 60 W/kg BOL. The prototype wing hardware is in the last stages of fabrication and integration. The current status of the program is reported. The array configuration and key design details are shown. Projections are shown for future performance enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced structural components and solar cells.

  8. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  9. Sandwich module testing for space solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Paul

    Solar power satellites have been envisioned as a means to provide electricity for terrestrial use. The approach entails collection of solar energy in space and its wireless transmission to the earth. This potentially gives the benefit of provision of baseload power while avoiding the losses due to the day/night cycle and tropospheric effects that are associated with terrestrial solar power. Proponents have contended that the implementation of such systems could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake their development. Among recent implementations commonly proposed for SSP, the Modular Symmetrical Concentrator and other modular concepts have received considerable attention. Each employs an array of modules for performing conversion of concentrated sunlight into microwaves or laser beams for transmission to earth. The research described herein details efforts in the development and testing of photovoltaic arrays, power electronics, microwave conversion electronics, and antennas for 2.45 GHz microwave-based “ sandwich” module prototypes. Prototypes were designed, fabricated, and subjected to the challenging conditions inherent in the space environment, including the solar concentration levels in which an array of modules might be required to operate.

  10. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  11. Solar Terrestrial Observatory Space Station Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    In response to a need to develop and document requirements of the Solar Terrestrial Observatory at an early time, a mini-workshop was organized and held on June 6, 1985. The participants at this workshop set as their goal the preliminary definition of the following areas: (1) instrument descriptions; (2) placement of instrumentation on the IOC Space Station; (3) servicing and repair assessment; and (4) operational scenarios. This report provides a synopsis of the results of that workshop.

  12. Large area space solar cell assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    Results of the development of a 34.3 sq cm space solar cell and integral glass cover are presented. Average AM(0) cell efficiency is 14 percent. The cell design includes a high performance back surface reflector yielding a thermal alpha of approximately 0.66. A novel process is described which integrates cell fabrication and encapsulation thereby achieving a reduction of encapsulation cost. Test results indicate the potential of this new technology.

  13. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  14. Conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    An initial conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems is provided, utilizing a space station to provide a dedicated test facility. The advanced power systems considered included Brayton, Stirling, and liquid metal Rankine systems operating in the temperature range of 1040 to 1400 K. The critical technologies for advanced systems were identified by reviewing the current state of the art of solar dynamic power systems. The experimental requirements were determined by planning a system test of a 20 kWe solar dynamic power system on the space station test facility. These requirements were documented via the Mission Requirements Working Group (MRWG) and Technology Development Advocacy Group (TDAG) forms. Various concepts or considerations of advanced concepts are discussed. A preliminary evolutionary plan for this technology development mission was prepared.

  15. Advanced space program studies, overall executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Multidisciplined advanced planning studies were conducted that involve space operations and the associated system elements, identification of potential low cost system techniques, vehicle design, cost synthesis techniques, DoD technology forecasting, and the development of near and far term space initiatives with emphasis on domestic and military use commonality. Specific areas studied include: (1) manned systems utilization; (2) STS users; (3) vehicle cost/performance; (4) space vehicle applications to future national needs; (5) STS spin stabilized upper stage; and (6) technology assessment and forecast.

  16. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  17. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The development of parametric cost estimating methods for advanced space systems in the conceptual design phase is discussed. The process of identifying variables which drive cost and the relationship between weight and cost are discussed. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested using a historical data base of research and development projects.

  18. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Barr, J.; Dalrymple, N.; Fraser, M.; Hubbard, R.; Wagner, J.; Warner, M.

    2006-06-01

    Telescope enclosure design is based on an increasingly standard set of criteria. Enclosures must provide failsafe protection in a harsh environment for an irreplaceable piece of equipment; must allow effective air flushing to minimize local seeing while still attenuating wind-induced vibration of the telescope; must reliably operate so that the dome is never the reason for observatory down time; must provide access to utilities, lifting devices and support facilities; and they must be affordable within the overall project budget. The enclosure for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has to satisfy all these challenging requirements plus one more. To eliminate so-called external dome seeing, the exterior surfaces of the enclosure must be maintained at or just below ambient air temperature while being subjected to the full solar loading of an observing day. Further complicating the design of the ATST enclosure and support facilities are the environmental sensitivities and high construction costs at the selected site - the summit of Haleakala on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Previous development work has determined an appropriate enclosure shape to minimize solar exposure while allowing effective interior flushing, and has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the exterior skin temperature with an active cooling system. This paper presents the evolution of the design since site selection and how the enclosure and associated thermal systems have been tailored to the particular climatic and terrain conditions of the site. Also discussed are load-reduction strategies that have been identified through thermal modeling, CFD modeling, and other analyses to refine and economize the thermal control systems.

  19. Advances in Structures for Large Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    2004-01-01

    The development of structural systems for scientific remote sensing and space exploration has been underway for four decades. The seminal work from 1960 to 1980 provided the basis for many of the design principles of modern space systems. From 1980- 2000 advances in active materials and structures and the maturing of composites technology led to high precision active systems such those used in the Space Interferometry Mission. Recently, thin-film membrane or gossamer structures are being investigated for use in large area space systems because of their low mass and high packaging efficiency. Various classes of Large Space Systems (LSS) are defined in order to describe the goals and system challenges in structures and materials technologies. With an appreciation of both past and current technology developments, future technology challenges are used to develop a list of technology investments that can have significant impacts on LSS development.

  20. Optical Amplifier Based Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to design a safe optical power beaming system for use in space. Research was focused on identification of strategies and structures that would enable achievement near diffraction limited optical beam quality, highly efficient electrical to optical conversion, and high average power in combination in a single system. Efforts centered on producing high efficiency, low mass of the overall system, low operating temperature, precision pointing and tracking capability, compatibility with useful satellite orbits, component and system reliability, and long component and system life in space. A system based on increasing the power handled by each individual module to an optimum and the number of modules in the complete structure was planned. We were concerned with identifying the most economical and rapid path to commercially viable safe space solar power.

  1. Space solar cells: High efficiency and radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    The progress and status of efforts to increase the end-of-life efficiency of solar cells for space use is assessed. High efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance and radiation damage and 30 percent devices are discussed.

  2. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  3. Space Station Solar Array Joint Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Allmon, Curtis; Reznik, Carter; McFatter, Justin; Davis, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    In Oct 2007 the International Space Station (ISS) crew noticed a vibrating camera in the vicinity of Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). It had less than 5 months of run time when the anomaly was observed. This approximately 3.2 meter diameter bearing joint supports solar arrays that power the station critical to its operation. The crew performed an EVA to identify what was causing the vibration. It was discovered that one of the 3 bearing tracks of this unconventional bearing had significant spalling damage. This paper discusses the SARJ's unique bearing design and the vulnerability in its design leading to the observed anomaly. The design of a SARJ vacuum test rig is also described along with the results of a life test that validated the proposed repair should extend the life of the SARJ a minimum of 18 years on-orbit.

  4. Interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions for different solar activities interacting with spacecraft and astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions by using data from several satellites such as Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in particular GOES 9, GOES 11, GOES 12, GOES 13, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) to determine proton flux in different solar wind conditions. The data from above satellites were used to determine space weather conditions in which the goals are to evaluate proton fluxes for four periods of solar cycle activity: a solar cycle 23/24 minimum (2008), close to a solar cycle 22/23 minimum (1997), with intermediate activity (2011) and for about maximum activity for the cycle 23 (2003), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 2003 and 2008 (Max vs. Min), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 1997 and 2008 (Min vs. Min), to compare soft X-ray flux from SOHO with proton 1-10 MeV flux from GOES 9 for strong flare in 1997. To conclude the above evaluations are being used to determine the interaction between the space weather conditions and the following consequences of these conditions important for astronautics and everyday human activity: 1- Satellite and Spacecraft charging, 2-Dangerous conditions for onboard electronics and astronauts during strong solar flare events, and 3- Total Electron Content (TEC), Global Positioning System (GPS), and radio communication problems related to solar activity.

  5. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  6. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  7. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  8. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  9. Space solar power for powering a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.; Kellum, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a Space Solar Power (SSP) system capable of powering the climbers of an SE. The initial SE will use laser power beaming from floating platforms near the SE platform. This study outlines an SSP system, based near the SE at geosynchronous altitude (GEO), which powers the climbers traversing the elevator. Such a system would reduce the SE system's dependence on fuel supply from land for its power beaming facilities. Moreover, since deploying SSP systems is anticipated to be a major use for SE's, SSP's could represent an elegant solution to the problem of SE energy consumption. SSP systems for sending usable power to Earth have been designed for well over 30 years. Technologies pertinent to SSP systems are continually evolving. This slightly different application carries the added requirements of aiming the beamed power at a moving target and sending the power in a form the climbers can use. Systems considered include beaming power to the climbers directly from a traditional SSP and reflecting sunlight onto the climbers. One of our designs includes a very new technology, optical rectennas. Mars SEs are conceived as having space-based power systems. Therefore, it is important to consider the problems that will be encountered in these types of applications.

  10. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  11. Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vincent; Wong, Albert; Kim, Kilyoo; Dhir, Vijay

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than unity. Such nozzle and the MHD power generator replace the turbogenerator of a high temperature Rankine turboelectric cycle concept. As a result, the power generation system contains no movable parts. This provides high reliability, which is a very important factor in space application.

  12. Advanced electrostatic ion thruster for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.; Macpherson, D.; Gelon, W.; Kami, S.; Poeschel, R. L.; Ward, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The suitability of the baseline 30 cm thruster for future space missions was examined. Preliminary design concepts for several advanced thrusters were developed to assess the potential practical difficulties of a new design. Useful methodologies were produced for assessing both planetary and earth orbit missions. Payload performance as a function of propulsion system technology level and cost sensitivity to propulsion system technology level are among the topics assessed. A 50 cm diameter thruster designed to operate with a beam voltage of about 2400 V is suggested to satisfy most of the requirements of future space missions.

  13. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Even at reduced rates of growth, the demand for electric power is expected to more than triple between now and 1995, and to triple again over the period 1995-2020. Without the development of new power sources and advanced transmission technologies, it may not be possible to supply electric energy at prices that are conductive to generalized economic welfare. Solar power is renewable and its conversion and transmission from space may be advantageous. The goal of this study is to assess the economic merit of space-based photovoltaic systems for power generation and a power relay satellite for power transmission. In this study, satellite solar power generation and transmission systems, as represented by current configurations of the Satellite Solar Station (SSPS) and the Power Relay Satellite (PRS), are compared with current and future terrestrial power generation and transmission systems to determine their technical and economic suitability for meeting power demands in the period of 1990 and beyond while meeting ever-increasing environmental and social constraints.

  14. Solar Eruptions, CMEs and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale magnetized plasma structures ejected from the Sun and propagate far into the interplanetary medium. CMEs represent energy output from the Sun in the form of magnetized plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. The plasma clouds can drive shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the interplanetary space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. The plasma clouds also arrive at Earth in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The magnetic storms result in a number of effects including induced currents that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines. This lecture presents an overview of the origin, propagation, and geospace consequences of solar storms.

  15. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,

    2012-01-01

    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, L.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the value that the solar panels will be set on the orbit from the economic standpoint and consider the necessity of the Space Solar Power System (SSPS). In order to these evaluations, we compare the SSPS with the photovoltaic power system on the ground (PVPSG). Firstly, we examined the generation cost of the PVPSG. When the PVPSG do not have some storage system and can not supply the electricity for the base-load power, the cost of generating power calculated is about 8.1 yen/kWh in the minimum cost cases, the cost of the equipments around the solar cell is the predictive values. The SSPS is expensive slightly than it of the PVPSG in this future scenario. Secondary, we suppose the case that the PVPSG have to have some storage system in order that the PVPSG need to send the electricity stably. The pumped hydropower, the lead battery and the fuel cell are assumed as the storages in this paper. In these cases, the costs of generating power become expensive over 30 yen/kWh. It is possible that the SSPS is not expensive than it with some cost reductions about the transportation cost to the earth orbit.

  17. Construction of Gallium Arsenide Solar Concentrator for Space Use.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    configurations. Both of these configurations are effective. 4. Solar Eclipse The solar eclipse has the quickest and the most pronounced effect on the output of the...SCA in the space environment. The majority of spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO) will experience a solar eclipse . When the spacecraft goes into the... Solar eclipses also have an effect on the operating temperature of the solar cell. The lowest operating temperature of the ce/lis reached when the SCA

  18. Optimization and performance of Space Station Freedom solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khemthong, S.; Hansen, N.; Bower, M.

    1991-01-01

    High efficiency, large area and low cost solar cells are the drivers for Space Station solar array designs. The manufacturing throughput, process complexity, yield of the cells, and array manufacturing technique determine the economics of the solar array design. The cell efficiency optimization of large area (8 x 8 m), dielectric wrapthrough contact solar cells are described. The results of the optimization are reported and the solar cell performance of limited production runs is reported.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  20. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  1. Generation of a Solar Wind Ensemble for Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, E.; Morley, S.; Steinberg, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Knowing the upstream solar wind conditions is essential in forecasting the variations in the geomangetic field and the status of the Earth's ionosphere. Most data-driven simulations or data-assimilation codes, used for space weather forecasting, are based on the solar wind measurements at 1 AU, or more specifically at the first Lagrangian orbit (L1), such as observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). However, L1 measurements may not represent the solar wind conditions just outside the magnetosphere. As a result, time-series measurements from L1 by themselves are not adequate to run simulations to derive probabilistic forecasts of the magnetosphere and ionosphere. To obtain confidence levels and uncertainty estimates, a solar wind ensemble data set is desirable. Therefore we used three years of measurements atACE advected using the flat delay method to the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP8) spacecraft location. Then, we compared both measurements to establish Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) functions for IMP8 measurements based on ACE measurements. In addition, we used a 4-categorization scheme to sort the incoming solar wind into ejecta, coronal-hole-origin, sector-reversal-regions, and streamer-belt-origin categories at both ACE and IMP8. We established the KDE functions for each category and compared with the uncategorized KDE functions. The location of the IMP8 spacecraft allows us to use these KDE functions to generate ensemble of solar wind data close to Earth's magnetopause. The ensemble can then be used to forecast the state of the geomagnetic field and the ionosphere.

  2. The Deep Space Network Advanced Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    2010-01-01

    The deep space network (DSN)--with its three complexes in Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia--provides the resources to track and communicate with planetary and deep space missions. Each complex consists of an array of capabilities for tracking probes almost anywhere in the solar system. A number of innovative hardware, software and procedural tools are used for day-to-day operations at DSN complexes as well as at the network control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Systems and technologies employed by the network include large-aperture antennas (34-m and 70-m), cryogenically cooled receivers, high-power transmitters, stable frequency and timing distribution assemblies, modulation and coding schemes, spacecraft transponders, radiometric tracking techniques, etc. The DSN operates at multiple frequencies, including the 2-GHz band, the 7/8-GHz band, and the 32/34-GHz band.

  3. Space Environmental Testing of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Anglin, Emily J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Scheiman, David A.; Castro, Stephenie L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells has lead NASA to investigate the potential of these devices for space power generation, Reported here is the first space environment characterization of these type of photovoltaic devices. Cells containing liquid electrolytes were exposed to simulated low-earth orbit conditions and their performance evaluated. All cells were characterized under simulated air mass zero (AMO) illumination. Complete cells were exposed to pressures less than 1 x 10(exp -7) torr for over a month, with no sign of sealant failure or electrolyte leakage. Cells from Solaronix SA were rapid thermal cycled under simulated low-earth orbit conditions. The cells were cycled 100 times from -80 C to 80 C, which is equivalent to 6 days in orbit. The best cell had a 4.6% loss in efficiency as a result of the thermal cycling,

  4. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  5. ADVANCED THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEMICONDUCTING FILMS), (* SOLAR CELLS , GALLIUM ARSENIDES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, SUBSTRATES, MASS SPECTROSCOPY, CAPACITANCE, PREPARATION, PROCESSING, LABORATORY FURNACES, IMPURITIES, STABILITY, OXIDES.

  6. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Fikes, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP). combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the moon. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term. we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth. Power Relay Satellites are also considered as a potential near- to mid-term means to transmit power from Earth to Space and back to distant receiving sites on Earth. This paper briefly considers microwave and laser beaming for an initial Power Relay Satellite system, and concludes that anticipated advancements in laser technology make laser-based concepts more attractive than microwave-based concepts. Social and economic considerations are briefly discussed, and a conceptual description for a laser-based system is offered for illustrative purposes. Continuing technological advances are needed if laser-based systems are to become practical and efficient or near- and far-term applications.

  7. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  8. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  9. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  10. Hinode ``a new solar observatory in space''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuneta, S.; Harra, L. K.; Masuda, S.

    2009-05-01

    Since its launch in September 2006, the Japan-US-UK solar physics satellite, Hinode, has continued its observation of the sun, sending back solar images of unprecedented clarity every day. Hinode is equipped with three telescopes, a visible light telescope, an X-ray telescope, and an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer. The Hinode optical telescope has a large primary mirror measuring 50 centimeters in diameter and is the world's largest space telescope for observing the sun and its vector magnetic fields. The impact of Hinode as an optical telescope on solar physics is comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope on optical astronomy. While the optical telescope observes the sun's surface, the Hinode X-ray telescope captures images of the corona and the high-temperature flares that range between several million and several tens of millions of degrees. The telescope has captured coronal structures that are clearer than ever. The Hinode EUV imaging spectrometer possesses approximately ten times the sensitivity and four times the resolution of a similar instrument on the SOHO satellite. The source of energy for the sun is in the nuclear fusion reaction that takes place at its core. Here temperature drops closer to the surface, where the temperature measures about 6,000 degrees. Mysteriously, the temperature starts rising again above the surface, and the temperature of the corona is exceptionally high, several millions of degrees. It is as if water were boiling fiercely in a kettle placed on a stove with no fire, inconceivable as it may sound. The phenomenon is referred to as the coronal heating problem, and it is one of the major astronomical mysteries. The Hinode observatory was designed to solve this mystery. It is expected that Hinode would also provide clues to unraveling why strong magnetic fields are formed and how solar flares are triggered. An overview on the initial results from Hinode is presented. Dynamic video pictures captured by Hinode can be

  11. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  12. Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C

  13. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Rogers, F.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  14. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M. S.; Klaus, K.; Rogers, F.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  15. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  16. Origins Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.In the Solar System, OST will provide km/sec resolution on lines from planet, moons and comets. OST will measure molecular abundances and isotope ratios in planets and comets. OST will be able to do continuum surveys for faint moving sources such as Kuiper Belt Objects, enabling a census of smaller objects in the Kuiper Belt. If the putative Planet IX is massive enough to be self-luminous, then OST will be able to detect it out to thousands of AU from the Sun.

  17. Electroluminescence Imaging Of Space Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, C. G.

    2011-10-01

    Space solar power is one of the few applications where large area III-V devices are used. Therefore there is great potential for a spatially resolved technique in the inspection, failure investigation and characterization of these devices. Mechanical defects can be identified by electroluminescence imaging unambiguously. The impact of a cell crack on the current distribution in the cell is modeled and the electroluminescence signature of a cell crack is derived. Another qualitative application is failure investigation of cells that suffer degradation, for example in environmental testing. Series resistance problems can be visualized and the location of an environmental attack can be pinpointed on a μm length scale. Finally under the appropriate simplifications, even a quantitative cell characterization can be attempted. Maps of the open circuit voltage and the current at the operating voltage identify shunts quantitatively.

  18. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.

    2000-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations.

  19. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Quimby, D.; Nelson, L.; Christiansen, W.; Neice, S.; Cassady, P.; Pindroh, A.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the lasant. Efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20 percent are projected for these indirect optically pumped lasers.

  20. SOSPAC- SOLAR SPACE POWER ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Solar Space Power Analysis Code, SOSPAC, was developed to examine the solar thermal and photovoltaic power generation options available for a satellite or spacecraft in low earth orbit. SOSPAC is a preliminary systems analysis tool and enables the engineer to compare the areas, weights, and costs of several candidate electric and thermal power systems. The configurations studied include photovoltaic arrays and parabolic dish systems to produce electricity only, and in various combinations to provide both thermal and electric power. SOSPAC has been used for comparison and parametric studies of proposed power systems for the NASA Space Station. The initial requirements are projected to be about 40 kW of electrical power, and a similar amount of thermal power with temperatures above 1000 degrees Centigrade. For objects in low earth orbit, the aerodynamic drag caused by suitably large photovoltaic arrays is very substantial. Smaller parabolic dishes can provide thermal energy at a collection efficiency of about 80%, but at increased cost. SOSPAC allows an analysis of cost and performance factors of five hybrid power generating systems. Input includes electrical and thermal power requirements, sun and shade durations for the satellite, and unit weight and cost for subsystems and components. Performance equations of the five configurations are derived, and the output tabulates total weights of the power plant assemblies, area of the arrays, efficiencies, and costs. SOSPAC is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 60K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1985.

  1. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  2. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  3. [Solar cosmic radiation and the radiation hazard of space flight].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, L I

    1983-01-01

    Present-day data on the spectrum of solar radiation in the source and near the Earth are discussed as applied to the radiation safety of crewmembers and electronics onboard manned and unmanned spacecraft. It is shown that the slope of the solar radiation spectrum changes (flattens) in the low energy range. Quantitative information about absolute solar radiation fluxes near the Earth is summarized in relation to the most significant flares of 1956--1978. The time-related evolution of the solar radiation spectrum in the interplanetary space is described in quantitative terms (as illustrated by the solar flare of 28 September 1961). It is indicated that the nonmonotonic energy dependence of the transport path of solar radiation in the interplanetary space should be taken into consideration. It is demonstrated that the diffusion model of propagation can be verified using solar radiation measurements in space flights.

  4. ADVANCED THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEMICONDUCTING FILMS), (* SOLAR CELLS , MANUFACTURING, GALLIUM ALLOYS, ARSENIC ALLOYS, PLATINUM, OXIDES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM, METAL FILMS, COPPER, HYDROGEN, GERMANIUM ALLOYS, TIN ALLOYS, ZINC, CRYSTAL GROWTH.

  5. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  6. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  7. Microgravity fluid management requirements of advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    The advanced solar dynamic system (ASDS) program is aimed at developing the technology for highly efficient, lightweight space power systems. The approach is to evaluate Stirling, Brayton and liquid metal Rankine power conversion systems (PCS) over the temperature range of 1025 to 1400K, identify the critical technologies and develop these technologies. Microgravity fluid management technology is required in several areas of this program, namely, thermal energy storage (TES), heat pipe applications and liquid metal, two phase flow Rankine systems. Utilization of the heat of fusion of phase change materials offers potential for smaller, lighter TES systems. The candidate TES materials exhibit large volume change with the phase change. The heat pipe is an energy dense heat transfer device. A high temperature application may transfer heat from the solar receiver to the PCS working fluid and/or TES. A low temperature application may transfer waste heat from the PCS to the radiator. The liquid metal Rankine PCS requires management of the boiling/condensing process typical of two phase flow systems.

  8. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  9. Advances in Solar Radiometry and Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Radiometry and Metrology task at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during the NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison in October 2003. The task has calibrated 10 spectral and more than 180 broadband radiometers for solar measurements. Other accomplishments include characterization of pyranometer thermal offset errors with laboratory and spectral modeling tools; developing a simple scheme to correct pyranometer data for known responsivity variations; and measuring detailed spectral distributions of the NREL High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (HIPSS) as a function of lamp voltage and time. The optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations. Optical metrology functions have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.

  10. MSFC's Advanced Space Propulsion Formulation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Robinson, Joel W.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    In NASA s Fiscal Year 2012, a small project was undertaken to provide additional substance, depth, and activity knowledge to the technology areas identified in the In-Space Propulsion Systems Roadmap, Technology Area 02 (TA-02), as created under the auspices of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This roadmap was divided into four basic groups: (1) Chemical Propulsion, (2) Non-chemical Propulsion, (3) Advanced (TRL<3) Propulsion Technologies, and (4) Supporting Technologies. The first two were grouped according to the governing physics. The third group captured technologies and physic concepts that are at a lower TRL level. The fourth group identified pertinent technical areas that are strongly coupled with these related areas which could allow significant improvements in performance. There were a total of 45 technologies identified in TA-02, and 25 of these were studied in this formulation task. The goal of this task was to provide OCT with a knowledge-base for decisionmaking on advanced space propulsion technologies and not waste money by unintentionally repeating past projects or funding the technologies with minor impacts. This formulation task developed the next level of detail for technologies described and provides context to OCT where investments should be made. The presentation will begin with the list of technologies from TA-02, how they were prioritized for this study, and details on what additional data was captured for the technologies studied. Following this, some samples of the documentation will be provided, followed by plans on how the data will be made accessible.

  11. Advanced research in solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  12. Advanced crystallization techniques of 'solar grade' silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, M.; Calligarich, C.; Rava, P.; Sardi, L.; Alessandri, M.; Redaelli, F.; Pizzini, S.

    Microstructural, electrical and photo-voltaic characteristics of polycrystal line silicon solar cells fabricated with silicon ingots containing 5, 100 and 500 ppmw iron are reported and discussed. All silicon ingots were grown by the directional solidification technique in graphite or special quartz molds and doped intentionally with iron, in order to evaluate the potentiality of the D.S. technique when employed with solar silicon feedstocks. Results indicate that structural breakdown limits the amount of the ingot which is usable for solar cells fabrication, but also that efficiencies in excess of 10 percent are obtained using the 'good' region of the ingot.

  13. Solar Energetic Particles and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.

    2001-01-01

    The solar energetic particles (SEPs) of consequence to space weather are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the large events, these great shocks fill half of the heliosphere. SEP intensity profiles change appearance with longitude. Events with significant intensities of greater than ten MeV protons occur at an average rate of approx. 13 per year near solar maximum and several events with high intensities of > 100 McV protons occur each decade. As particles stream out along magnetic field lines from a shock near the Sun, they generate waves that scatter subsequent particles. At high intensities, wave growth throttles the flow below the 'streaming limit.' However, if the shock maintains its strength, particle intensities can rise above this limit to a peak when the shock itself passes over the observer creating a 'delayed' radiation hazard, even for protons with energies up to approx. one GeV. The streaming limit makes us blind to the intensities at the oncoming shock, however, heavier elements such as He, O, and Fe probe the shape of the wave spectrum, and variation in abundances of these elements allow us to evade the limit and probe conditions at the shock, with the aid of detailed modeling. At high energies, spectra steepen to form a spectral 'knee'. The location of the proton spectral knee can vary from approx. ten MeV to approx. one GeV, depending on shock conditions, greatly affecting the radiation hazard. Hard spectra are a serious threat to astronauts, placing challenging requirements for shielding, especially on long-duration missions to the moon or Mars.

  14. Solar extreme ultraviolet sensor and advanced langmuir probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    For more than two decades, the staff of the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) has collaborated with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the design and implementation of Langmuir probes (LP). This program of probe development under the direction of Larry Brace of GSFC has evolved methodically with innovations to: improve measurement precision, increase the speed of measurement, and reduce the weight, size, power consumption and data rate of the instrument. Under contract NAG5-419 these improvements were implemented and are what characterize the Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). Using data from the Langmuir Probe on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Brace and Walter Hoegy of GSFC demonstrated a novel method of monitoring the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. This led to the idea of developing a sensor similar to a Langmuir probe specifically designed to measure solar EUV (SEUV) that uses a similar electronics package. Under this contract, a combined instrument package of the ALP and SEUV sensor was to be designed, constructed, and laboratory tested. Finally the instrument was to be flight tested as part of sounding rocket experiment to acquire the necessary data to validate this method for possible use in future earth and planetary aeronomy missions. The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the electronics hardware and software for this instrument, since the actual sensors were suppied by GSFC. Due to budget constraints, only a flight model was constructed. These electronics were tested and calibrated in the laboratory, and then the instrument was integrated into the rocket payload at Wallops Flight Facility where it underwent environmental testing. After instrument recalibration at SPRL, the payload was reintegrated and launched from the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks Alaska. The payload was successfully recovered and after refurbishment underwent further testing and developing to improve its performance for future use.

  15. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  16. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  17. Launch Vehicle Assessment for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed study at Georgia Tech examined various launch vehicle options for deploying a future constellation of Space Solar Power satellites of the Suntower configuration. One of the motivations of the study was to determine whether the aggressive $400/kg launch price goal established for SSP package delivery would result in an attractive economic scenario for a future RLV developer. That is, would the potential revenue and traffic to be derived from a large scale SSP project be enough of an economic "carrot" to attract an RLV company into developing a new, low cost launch vehicle to address this market. Preliminary results presented in the attached charts show that there is enough economic reward for RLV developers, specifically in the case of the latest large GEO-based Suntower constellations (over 15,500 MT per year delivery for 30 years). For that SSP model, internal rates of return for the 30 year economic scenario exceed 22%. However, up-front government assistance to the RLV developer in terms of ground facilities, operations technologies, guaranteed low-interest rate loans, and partial offsets of some vehicle development expenses is necessary to achieve these positive results. This white paper is meant to serve as a companion to the data supplied in the accompanying charts. It's purpose is to provide more detail on the vehicles and design processes used, to highlight key decisions and issues, and to emphasize key results from each phase of the Georgia Tech study.

  18. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    With a mission to initiate and conduct advanced propulsion research in partnership with industry, and a goal to strengthen U.S. national capability in propulsion technology, the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is the only NASA Center for Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) which focuses on propulsion and associated technologies. Meetings with industrial partners and NASA Headquarters personnel provided an assessment of the constraints placed on, and opportunities afforded commercialization projects. Proprietary information, data rights, and patent rights were some of the areas where well defined information is crucial to project success and follow-on efforts. There were five initial CASP projects. At the end of the first year there are six active, two of which are approaching the ground test phase in their development. Progress in the current six projects has met all milestones and is detailed. Working closely with the industrial counterparts it was found that the endeavors in expert systems development, computational fluid dynamics, fluid management in microgravity, and electric propulsion were well received. One project with the Saturn Corporation which dealt with expert systems application in the assembly process, was placed on hold pending further direction from Saturn. The Contamination Measurment and Analysis project was not implemented since CASP was unable to identify an industrial participant. Additional propulsion and related projects were investigated during the year. A subcontract was let to a small business, MicroCraft, Inc., to study rocket engine certification standards. The study produced valuable results; however, based on a number of factors it was decided not to pursue this project further.

  19. The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) Space Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    SoloHI for Solar Orbiter [84] and WISPR for Solar Probe Plus [85]) that are scheduled for launch near the end of the decade. In addition, other more...Halain, J- P., and Lamy, P. L., “The Solar and Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI) Instrument for the Solar Orbiter Mission,” Proc. SPIE, 8862, Sep 2013...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2014-0197 TR-2014-0197 THE SOLAR MASS EJECTION IMAGER (SMEI) SPACE EXPERIMENT Richard R. Radick 30 January 2015

  20. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  1. Brayton cycle solarized advanced gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of a Brayton Engine/Generator Set for solar thermal to electrical power conversion, authorized under DOE/NASA Contract DEN3-181. The objective was to design, fabricate, assemble, and test a small, hybrid, 20-kW Brayton-engine-powered generator set. The latter, called a power conversion assembly (PCA), is designed to operate with solar energy obtained from a parobolic dish concentrator, 11 meters in diameter, or with fossil energy supplied by burning fuels in a combustor, or by a combination of both (hybrid model). The CPA consists of the Brayton cycle engine, a solar collector, a belt-driven 20-kW generator, and the necessary control systems for automatic operation in solar-only, fuel-only, and hybrid modes to supply electrical power to a utility grid. The original configuration of the generator set used the GTEC Model GTP36-51 gas turbine engine for the PCA prime mover. However, subsequent development of the GTEC Model AGT101 led to its selection as the powersource for the PCA. Performance characteristics of the latter, thermally coupled to a solar collector for operation in the solar mode, are presented. The PCA was successfully demonstrated in the fuel-only mode at the GTEC Phoenix, Arizona, facilities prior to its shipment to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for installation and testing on a test bed concentractor (parabolic dish). Considerations relative to Brayton-engine development using the all-ceramic AGT101 when it becomes available, which would satisfy the DOE heat engine efficiency goal of 35 to 41 percent, are also discussed in the report.

  2. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  3. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-09-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  4. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  5. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  6. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  7. Progress to Develop an Advanced Solar-Selective Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2008-03-01

    The progress to develop a durable advanced solar-selective coating will be described. Experimental work has focused on modeling high-temperature, solar-selective coatings; depositing the individual layers and modeled coatings; measuring the optical, thermal, morphology, and compositional properties and using the data to validate the modeled and deposited properties; re-optimizing the coating; and testing the coating performance and durability.

  8. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  9. Cost study of solar cell space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Historical costs for solar cell space power systems were evaluated. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization reduce costs.

  10. Accessing Solar Irradiance Data via LISIRD, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Wilson, A.; Snow, M. A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Woods, T. N.; Traver, T.; Woodraska, D.

    2015-12-01

    The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter, LISIRD, http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird, allows the science community and the public to explore and access solar irradiance and related data sets using convenient, interactive or scriptable, standards-based interfaces. LISIRD's interactive plotting allows users to investigate and download irradiance data sets from a variety of sources, including space missions, ground observatories, and modeling efforts. LISIRD's programmatic interfaces allow software-level data retrievals and facilitate automation. This presentation will describe the current state of LISIRD, provide details of the data sets it serves, outline data access methods, identify key technologies in-use, and address other related aspects of serving spectral and other time series data. We continue to improve LISIRD by integrating new data sets, and also by advancing its data management and presentation capabilities to meet evolving best practices and community needs. LISIRD is hosted and operated by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, which has been a leader in Atmospheric and Heliophysics science for over 60 years. LASP makes a variety of space-based measurements of solar irradiance, which provide crucial input for research and modeling in solar-terrestrial interactions, space physics, planetary, atmospheric, and climate sciences. These data sets consist of fundamental measurements, composite data sets, solar indices, space weather products, and models. Current data sets available through LISIRD originate from the SORCE, SDO (EVE), UARS (SOLSTICE), TIMED (SEE), and SME space missions, as well as several other space and ground-based projects. LISIRD leverages several technologies to provide flexible and standards-based access to the data holdings available through LISIRD. This includes internet-accessible interfaces that permit data access in a variety of formats, data subsetting, as well as program-level access from data analysis

  11. Ensemble downscaling in coupled solar wind-magnetosphere modeling for space weather forecasting.

    PubMed

    Owens, M J; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; McGregor, S L; Savani, N P; Xiong, M

    2014-06-01

    Advanced forecasting of space weather requires simulation of the whole Sun-to-Earth system, which necessitates driving magnetospheric models with the outputs from solar wind models. This presents a fundamental difficulty, as the magnetosphere is sensitive to both large-scale solar wind structures, which can be captured by solar wind models, and small-scale solar wind "noise," which is far below typical solar wind model resolution and results primarily from stochastic processes. Following similar approaches in terrestrial climate modeling, we propose statistical "downscaling" of solar wind model results prior to their use as input to a magnetospheric model. As magnetospheric response can be highly nonlinear, this is preferable to downscaling the results of magnetospheric modeling. To demonstrate the benefit of this approach, we first approximate solar wind model output by smoothing solar wind observations with an 8 h filter, then add small-scale structure back in through the addition of random noise with the observed spectral characteristics. Here we use a very simple parameterization of noise based upon the observed probability distribution functions of solar wind parameters, but more sophisticated methods will be developed in the future. An ensemble of results from the simple downscaling scheme are tested using a model-independent method and shown to add value to the magnetospheric forecast, both improving the best estimate and quantifying the uncertainty. We suggest a number of features desirable in an operational solar wind downscaling scheme.

  12. Concept development for a space solar power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysoev, V. K.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Feldman, L. I.; Arapov, E. A.; Luzyanin, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a concept for the development of a space solar power station, starting from the manufacture of a photoemissive panel to the creation of a prototype of an industrial power plant. Balloon systems play a special role both in the testing of the power plant and in the operation of prototypes of solar power stations.

  13. Space Moves: Adding Movement to Solar System Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer; Heidorn, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Earth and space science figure prominently in the National Science Education Standards for levels 5-8 (NRC 1996). The Earth in the Solar System standard focuses on students' ability to understand (1) the composition of the solar system (Earth, Moon, Sun, planets with their moons, and smaller objects like asteroids and comets) and (2) that…

  14. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  15. Evaluation of space station solar array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The research concerning lightweight solar array assemblies since 1970 is reported. A bibliography of abstracts of documents used for reference during this period is included along with an evaluation of available solar array technology. A list of recommended technology programs is presented.

  16. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  17. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  18. Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2009-11-17

    Perhaps the largest challenge for our global society is to find ways to replace the slowly but inevitably vanishing fossil fuel supplies by renewable resources and, at the same time, avoid negative effects from the current energy system on climate, environment, and health. The quality of human life to a large degree depends upon the availability of clean energy sources. The worldwide power consumption is expected to double in the next 3 decades because of the increase in world population and the rising demand of energy in the developing countries. This implies enhanced depletion of fossil fuel reserves, leading to further aggravation of the environmental pollution. As a consequence of dwindling resources, a huge power supply gap of 14 terawatts is expected to open up by year 2050 equaling today's entire consumption, thus threatening to create a planetary emergency of gigantic dimensions. Solar energy is expected to play a crucial role as a future energy source. The sun provides about 120,000 terawatts to the earth's surface, which amounts to 6000 times the present rate of the world's energy consumption. However, capturing solar energy and converting it to electricity or chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, at low cost and using abundantly available raw materials remains a huge challenge. Chemistry is expected to make pivotal contributions to identify environmentally friendly solutions to this energy problem. One area of great promise is that of solar converters generally referred to as "organic photovoltaic cells" (OPV) that employ organic constituents for light harvesting or charge carrier transport. While this field is still in its infancy, it is receiving enormous research attention, with the number of publications growing exponentially over the past decade. The advantage of this new generation of solar cells is that they can be produced at low cost, i.e., potentially less than 1 U.S. $/peak watt. Some but not all OPV embodiments can avoid the expensive and energy

  19. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  20. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  1. The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2011-06-01

    We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

  2. Advances In Understanding Solar And Stellar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.

    2016-07-01

    Flares result from the sudden reconnection and relaxation of magnetic fields in the coronae of stellar atmospheres. The highly dynamic atmospheric response produces radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum, from the radio to X-rays, on a range of timescales, from seconds to days. New high resolution data of solar flares have revealed the intrinsic spatial properties of the flaring chromosphere, which is thought to be where the majority of the flare energy is released as radiation in the optical and near-UV continua and emission lines. New data of stellar flares have revealed the detailed properties of the broadband (white-light) continuum emission, which provides straightforward constraints for models of the transformation of stored magnetic energy in the corona into thermal energy of the lower atmosphere. In this talk, we discuss the physical processes that produce several important spectral phenomena in the near-ultraviolet and optical as revealed from new radiative-hydrodynamic models of flares on the Sun and low mass stars. We present recent progress with high-flux nonthermal electron beams in reproducing the observed optical continuum color temperature of T 10,000 K and the Balmer jump properties in the near-ultraviolet. These beams produce dense, heated chromospheric condensations, which can explain the shape and strength of the continuum emission in M dwarf flares and the red-wing asymmetries in the chromospheric emission lines in recent observations of solar flares from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. Current theoretical challenges and future modeling directions will be discussed, as well as observational synergies between solar and stellar flares.

  3. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  4. Simulated space environment tests on cadmium sulfide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, D. R.; Oman, H.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (Cu2s - CdS) solar cells were tested under simulated space environmental conditions. Some cells were thermally cycled with illumination from a Xenon-arc solar simulator. A cycle was one hour of illumination followed immediately with one-half hour of darkness. In the light, the cells reached an equilibrium temperature of 60 C (333 K) and in the dark the cell temperature dropped to -120 C (153 K). Other cells were constantly illuminated with a Xenon-arc solar simulator. The equilibrium temperature of these cells was 55 C (328 K). The black vacuum chamber walls were cooled with liquid nitrogen to simulate a space heat sink. Chamber pressure was maintained at 0.000001 torr or less. Almost all of the solar cells tested degraded in power when exposed to a simulated space environment of either thermal cycling or constant illumination. The cells tested the longest were exposed to 10.050 thermal cycles.

  5. Recently Deployed Solar Arrays on International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This video still depicts the recently deployed starboard and port solar arrays towering over the International Space Station (ISS). The video was recorded on STS-97's 65th orbit. Delivery, assembly, and activation of the solar arrays was the main mission objective of STS-97. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics, and will provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  6. Amorphous silicon thin films: The ultimate lightweight space solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vendura, G. J., Jr.; Kruer, M. A.; Schurig, H. H.; Bianchi, M. A.; Roth, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reported with respect to the development of thin film amorphous (alpha-Si) terrestrial solar cells for space applications. Such devices promise to result in very lightweight, low cost, flexible arrays with superior end of life (EOL) performance. Each alpha-Si cell consists of a tandem arrangement of three very thin p-i-n junctions vapor deposited between film electrodes. The thickness of this entire stack is approximately 2.0 microns, resulting in a device of negligible weight, but one that must be mechanically supported for handling and fabrication into arrays. The stack is therefore presently deposited onto a large area (12 by 13 in), rigid, glass superstrate, 40 mil thick, and preliminary space qualification testing of modules so configured is underway. At the same time, a more advanced version is under development in which the thin film stack is transferred from the glass onto a thin (2.0 mil) polymer substrate to create large arrays that are truly flexible and significantly lighter than either the glassed alpha-Si version or present conventional crystalline technologies. In this paper the key processes for such effective transfer are described. In addition, both glassed (rigid) and unglassed (flexible) alpha-Si cells are studied when integrated with various advanced structures to form lightweight systems. EOL predictions are generated for the case of a 1000 W array in a standard, 10 year geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. Specific powers (W/kg), power densities (W/sq m) and total array costs ($/sq ft) are compared.

  7. Amorphous silicon thin films: The ultimate lightweight space solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Vendura, G.J. Jr.; Kruer, M.A.; Schurig, H.H.; Bianchi, M.A.; Roth, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Progress is reported with respect to the development of thin film amorphous (alpha-Si) terrestrial solar cells for space applications. Such devices promise to result in very lightweight, low cost, flexible arrays with superior end of life (EOL) performance. Each alpha-Si cell consists of a tandem arrangement of three very thin p-i-n junctions vapor deposited between film electrodes. The thickness of this entire stack is approximately 2.0 microns, resulting in a device of negligible weight, but one that must be mechanically supported for handling and fabrication into arrays. The stack is therefore presently deposited onto a large area (12 by 13 in), rigid, glass superstrate, 40 mil thick, and preliminary space qualification testing of modules so configured is underway. At the same time, a more advanced version is under development in which the thin film stack is transferred from the glass onto a thin (2.0 mil) polymer substrate to create large arrays that are truly flexible and significantly lighter than either the glassed alpha-Si version or present conventional crystalline technologies. In this paper the key processes for such effective transfer are described. In addition, both glassed (rigid) and unglassed (flexible) alpha-Si cells are studied when integrated with various advanced structures to form lightweight systems. EOL predictions are generated for the case of a 1000 W array in a standard, 10 year geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. Specific powers (W/kg), power densities (W/sq m) and total array costs ($/sq ft) are compared.

  8. Optical measurements pertaining to Space Station solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holly, S.; Springer, T.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station solar dynamic power system is a hybrid of solar photovoltaic and solar dynamic systems, the latter of which uses a parabolic reflector to collect solar energy. This paper describes analytical results of an off-axis solar illumination on the intensity distribution in arbitrary target planes perpendicular to the axis of a parabolic reflector. Such computational capability would make it possible to predict optical intensity distributions resulting from off-axis angles of incident radiation on such target planes. To validate the computer code, experimental optical measurements were performed on the multifaceted paraboloidal collecor at the Solar Dynamic Test Facility at Rockedyne's Santa Susana Field Laboratory. The experimental data compared reasonably well with the calculated values.

  9. Advanced materials manufacturing for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mierlo, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The US has a robust technical roadmap to get to a 1/W total installed cost with several potential winners in the race. We dominate in the new technology arena and there is a good chance that tomorrow's winning technology will be from the current crop of contenders. One potential breakthrough is Direct Wafer^TM a new manufacturing technique to make silicon wafers at a fraction of the traditional cost. Current wafer manufacturing is a multi-step, energy- and capital-intensive process that wastes half of the valuable silicon feedstock. 1366's Direct Wafer technology forms a standard, 156mm multi-crystalline wafer directly from molten silicon in a semi-continuous, efficient, high-throughput process that eliminates silicon waste. Direct Wafer^TM cuts the amount of consumables by a factor of four and requires only half the capital per GigaWatt production capacity thus enabling solar to compete successfully with coal generated electricity.

  10. Silicon space solar cells: progression and radiation-resistance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the solar cell technology based on silicon for applications in space is presented. First, the space environment and its effects on the basis of satellite orbits, such as geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO), are described. The space solar cell technology based on silicon-based materials, including thin-film silicon solar cells, for use in space was appraised. The evolution of the design for silicon solar cell for use in space, such as a backsurface field (BSF), selective doping, and both-side passivation, etc., is illustrated. This paper also describes the nature of radiation-induced defects and the models proposed for understanding the output power degradation in silicon space solar cells. The phenomenon of an anomalous increase in the short-circuit current ( I sc) in the fluence irradiation range from 2 × 1016 cm-2 to 5 × 1016 cm-2 is also described explicitly from the view point of the various presented models.

  11. Space Shuttle Upgrades Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three Auxiliary Power Units (APU) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter each provide 145 hp shaft power to a hydraulic pump which outputs 3000 psi hydraulic fluid to 41 hydraulic actuators. A hydrazine fuel powered APU utilized throughout the Shuttle program has undergone many improvements, but concerns remain with flight safety, operational cost, critical failure modes, and hydrazine related hazards. The advanced hydraulic power system (AHPS), also known as the electric APU, is being evaluated as an upgrade to replace the hydrazine APU. The AHPS replaces the high-speed turbine and hydrazine fuel supply system with a battery power supply and electric motor/pump that converts 300 volt electrical power to 3000 psi hydraulic power. AHPS upgrade benefits include elimination of toxic hydrazine propellant to improve flight safety, reduction in hazardous ground processing operations, and improved reliability. Development of this upgrade provides many interesting challenges and includes development of four hardware elements that comprise the AHPS system: Battery - The battery provides a high voltage supply of power using lithium ion cells. This is a large battery that must provide 28 kilowatt hours of energy over 99 minutes of operation at 300 volts with a peak power of 130 kilowatts for three seconds. High Voltage Power Distribution and Control (PD&C) - The PD&C distributes electric power from the battery to the EHDU. This 300 volt system includes wiring and components necessary to distribute power and provide fault current protection. Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit (EHDU) - The EHDU converts electric input power to hydraulic output power. The EHDU must provide over 90 kilowatts of stable, output hydraulic power at 3000 psi with high efficiency and rapid response time. Cooling System - The cooling system provides thermal control of the Orbiter hydraulic fluid and EHDU electronic components. Symposium presentation will provide an overview of the AHPS upgrade, descriptions of the four

  12. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  13. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  14. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    ULA) and Space Exploration Technologies Corporation ( SpaceX ), five launch vehicles capable of sending large payloads to both LEO and GEO were selected...within the right order of magnitude. The NSSO examined the launch vehicle market as it existed in 2007, before the emergence of SpaceX and the Falcon 9...introduction of SpaceX and the Falcon 9 Heavy into the market. It does not appear as though SpaceX has made enough of a cost savings to turn this endeavor

  15. Space Qualification Test of a-Silicon Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Lawton, R. A.; Manion, S. J.; Okuno, J. O.; Ruiz, R. P.; Vu, D. T.; Vu, D. T.; Kayali, S. A.; Jeffrey, F. R.

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements of solar cell modules for space applications are generally described in MIL-S-83576 for the specific needs of the USAF. However, the specifications of solar cells intended for use on space terrestrial applications are not well defined. Therefore, this qualifications test effort was concentrated on critical areas specific to the microseismometer probe which is intended to be included in the Mars microprobe programs. Parameters that were evaluated included performance dependence on: illuminating angles, terrestrial temperatures, lifetime, as well as impact landing conditions. Our qualification efforts were limited to these most critical areas of concern. Most of the tested solar cell modules have met the requirements of the program except the impact tests. Surprisingly, one of the two single PIN 2 x 1 amorphous solar cell modules continued to function even after the 80000G impact tests. The output power parameters, Pout, FF, Isc and Voc, of the single PIN amorphous solar cell module were found to be 3.14 mW, 0.40, 9.98 mA and 0.78 V, respectively. These parameters are good enough to consider the solar module as a possible power source for the microprobe seismometer. Some recommendations were made to improve the usefulness of the amorphous silicon solar cell modules in space terrestrial applications, based on the results obtained from the intensive short term lab test effort.

  16. Geoengineering Vision-Application for Space Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastlund, B. J.; Jenkins, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    The continued extreme use of fossil fuels to meet world energy needs is putting the Earth at risk for significant climate change. In an uncontrolled experiment, the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is apparently affecting the Earth's climate. The global climate is warming and severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes are getting worse. Alternatives to fossil fuels may reduce the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Space Solar Power, from orbiting satellites, provides an option for clean, renewable energy that will reduce the pressure on the Earth's environmental system. Uncertainty in the cost of commercial power from space has been the principal issue inhibiting investment support by the power companies. Geoengineering is defined as the use of technology to interact with the global environment. A Solar Power Satellite represents a capability for considering geoengineering concepts. The Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite (TSPS) is a concept for interacting with thunderstorms to prevent formation of tornadoes. Before weather modification can be safely attempted, the fine structure of thunderstorms must be computer simulated and related to tornadogenesis. TSPS benefits are saving lives and reducing property. These benefits are not as sensitive to the system economics as the commercial solar power satellite and can be used to justify government investment in space solar power. The TSPS can develop and demonstrate the technology and operations critical to understanding the cost of space solar power. Consequently, there is no direct competition with fossil fuel based power supplies until SSP technology and operations have been demonstrated.

  17. Solar dynamic power system development for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The development of a solar dynamic electric power generation system as part of the Space Station Freedom Program is documented. The solar dynamic power system includes a solar concentrator, which collects sunlight; a receiver, which accepts and stores the concentrated solar energy and transfers this energy to a gas; a Brayton turbine, alternator, and compressor unit, which generates electric power; and a radiator, which rejects waste heat. Solar dynamic systems have greater efficiency and lower maintenance costs than photovoltaic systems and are being considered for future growth of Space Station Freedom. Solar dynamic development managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1986 to Feb. 1991 is covered. It summarizes technology and hardware development, describes 'lessons learned', and, through an extensive bibliography, serves as a source list of documents that provide details of the design and analytic results achieved. It was prepared by the staff of the Solar Dynamic Power System Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The report includes results from the prime contractor as well as from in-house efforts, university grants, and other contracts. Also included are the writers' opinions on the best way to proceed technically and programmatically with solar dynamic efforts in the future, on the basis of their experiences in this program.

  18. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  19. Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Nehls, Mary; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted ot a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar, Teonex, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were characterized

  20. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  1. Advanced Power Sources for Space Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    baseload operation of the space platform, including communication, station-keeping, and surveillance systems. A typical household consumes energy at the...RESEARCH CENTER, CLEVELAND, OHIO June 25,1987 NASA space power need» and programs SDI space power architecture studies SDI nonnuclear baseload

  2. Space Weather and the Ground-Level Solar Proton Events of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    2012-10-01

    Solar proton events can adversely affect space and ground-based systems. Ground-level events are a subset of solar proton events that have a harder spectrum than average solar proton events and are detectable on Earth's surface by cosmic radiation ionization chambers, muon detectors, and neutron monitors. This paper summarizes the space weather effects associated with ground-level solar proton events during the 23rd solar cycle. These effects include communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations. The major effect of ground-level events that affect manned spacecraft operations is increased radiation exposure. The primary effect on commercial aircraft operations is the loss of high frequency communication and, at extreme polar latitudes, an increase in the radiation exposure above that experienced from the background galactic cosmic radiation. Calculations of the maximum potential aircraft polar route exposure for each ground-level event of the 23rd solar cycle are presented. The space weather effects in October and November 2003 are highlighted together with on-going efforts to utilize cosmic ray neutron monitors to predict high energy solar proton events, thus providing an alert so that system operators can possibly make adjustments to vulnerable spacecraft operations and polar aircraft routes.

  3. Predicting Inner Heliospheric Solar Wind Conditions in Advance of Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Cohen, O.; Salem, C. S.; Halekas, J. S.; Larson, D. E.; Maruca, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    In advance of the upcoming inner heliospheric missions (Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus) it is vital to have an accurate prediction of the range of solar wind conditions that occur between 9.5Rs and 0.7AU. These conditions will place constraints on instrument design and the operational modes that are used. In this paper, we discuss and compare different methods of predicting the solar wind bulk plasma parameters. One method uses observed 1AU conditions observed with the Wind spacecraft combined with scaling laws derived from Helios observations. We extend this simple model by using a more realistic solar wind velocity profile in addition to the Wind and Helios observations. Another method uses 3D MHD simulations from which solar wind conditions along a spacecraft trajectory can be extracted. We discuss some implications of these models in the design of the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons investigation, a suite of solar wind instruments being designed to fly on Solar Probe Plus.

  4. Chapter 1: Recent Advances in Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.

    2008-10-01

    For millennia, the Sun (and the universe) has been viewed in the visual light. As the bestower of light and life, the ancients made God out of the Sun. With the Babylonians, or with the multiple origins with the Chinese, Egyptians and Indians, quoting the Rig Veda:"All that exists was born from Sūrya, the God of gods.", we have come a long way to understanding the Sun. In the early seventeenth century, however, Galileo showed that the Sun was not an immaculate object. Thus began our scientific interests in our nearest stellar neighbour, the Sun (cf., Figure 1.1.), with its sunspots and the related solar activity. The observations of the Sun and their interpretations are of universal importance for at least two reasons: First, the Sun is the source of energy for the entire planetary system and all aspects of our life have direct impact on what happens on the Sun; and second, the Sun's proximity makes it unique among the billions of stars in the sky of which we can resolve its surface features and study physical processes at work...

  5. Ensemble downscaling in coupled solar wind-magnetosphere modeling for space weather forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Owens, M J; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; McGregor, S L; Savani, N P; Xiong, M

    2014-01-01

    Advanced forecasting of space weather requires simulation of the whole Sun-to-Earth system, which necessitates driving magnetospheric models with the outputs from solar wind models. This presents a fundamental difficulty, as the magnetosphere is sensitive to both large-scale solar wind structures, which can be captured by solar wind models, and small-scale solar wind “noise,” which is far below typical solar wind model resolution and results primarily from stochastic processes. Following similar approaches in terrestrial climate modeling, we propose statistical “downscaling” of solar wind model results prior to their use as input to a magnetospheric model. As magnetospheric response can be highly nonlinear, this is preferable to downscaling the results of magnetospheric modeling. To demonstrate the benefit of this approach, we first approximate solar wind model output by smoothing solar wind observations with an 8 h filter, then add small-scale structure back in through the addition of random noise with the observed spectral characteristics. Here we use a very simple parameterization of noise based upon the observed probability distribution functions of solar wind parameters, but more sophisticated methods will be developed in the future. An ensemble of results from the simple downscaling scheme are tested using a model-independent method and shown to add value to the magnetospheric forecast, both improving the best estimate and quantifying the uncertainty. We suggest a number of features desirable in an operational solar wind downscaling scheme. Key Points Solar wind models must be downscaled in order to drive magnetospheric models Ensemble downscaling is more effective than deterministic downscaling The magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to small-scale solar wind fluctuations PMID:26213518

  6. Research on solar energy utilization in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Ogiwara, Sachio; Eguchi, Kunihisa

    The solar concentrator should be used for many engineering missions, and will be mounted on a pointing mechanism nominated as a common utility facility on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The concentrator has an off-set reflector of 2.5 m in diameter, consisting of spherical surface mirror segments which are arranged to approximate a parabolic surface. The use of spherical mirrors can largely reduce the manufacturing cost of the reflector as compared with fabrication of concentration performance because of spherical aberration. One of the most important interfaces between the concentrator and its user apparatus is the concentrated energy flux distribution. An analysis on the distribution is made for the reflector of a 2.5 m focal length by assuming ideal spherical surface segments. The maximum energy flux and the size of the solar image at the focal plane depend on the number and size of the used segments. The analysis shows that the reflector segmented with mirrors of 50 cm in diameter yields a solar image of about 8 cm in diameter and the maximum concentration of 7,000 for a reflectivity of 0.9. Use of 30 cm diameter segments improves the solar concentration performance by about 20%, although the number of mirrors increases from 31 to 85.

  7. Space Experiments to Advance Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2010-05-01

    High power microwave sources are now available and usable, with modification, or beamed energy propulsion experiments in space. As output windows and vacuum seals are not needed space is a natural environment for high power vacuum tubes. Application to space therefore improves reliability and performance but complicates testing and qualification. Low power communications satellite devices (TWT, etc) have already been through the adapt-to-space design cycle and this history is a useful pathway for high power devices such as gyrotrons. In this paper, space experiments are described for low earth orbit (LEO) and lunar environment. These experiments are precursors to space application for beamed energy propulsion using high power microwaves. Power generation and storage using cryogenic systems are important elements of BEP systems and also have an important role as part of BEP experiments in the space environment.

  8. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  9. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  10. Space Station Freedom solar array containment box mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark E.; Haugen, Bert; Anderson, Grant

    1994-05-01

    Space Station Freedom will feature six large solar arrays, called solar array wings, built by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company under contract to Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division. Solar cells are mounted on flexible substrate panels which are hinged together to form a 'blanket.' Each wing is comprised of two blankets supported by a central mast, producing approximately 32 kW of power at beginning-of-life. During launch, the blankets are fan-folded and compressed to 1.5 percent of their deployed length into containment boxes. This paper describes the main containment box mechanisms designed to protect, deploy, and retract the solar array blankets: the latch, blanket restraint, tension, and guidewire mechanisms.

  11. Space Station Freedom solar array containment box mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark E.; Haugen, Bert; Anderson, Grant

    1994-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will feature six large solar arrays, called solar array wings, built by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company under contract to Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division. Solar cells are mounted on flexible substrate panels which are hinged together to form a 'blanket.' Each wing is comprised of two blankets supported by a central mast, producing approximately 32 kW of power at beginning-of-life. During launch, the blankets are fan-folded and compressed to 1.5 percent of their deployed length into containment boxes. This paper describes the main containment box mechanisms designed to protect, deploy, and retract the solar array blankets: the latch, blanket restraint, tension, and guidewire mechanisms.

  12. Illumination from space with orbiting solar-reflector spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canady, J. E., Jr.; Allen, J. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using orbiting mirrors to reflect sunlight to Earth for several illumination applications is studied. A constellation of sixteen 1 km solar reflector spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit can illuminate a region 333 km in diameter to 8 lux, which is brighter than most existing expressway lighting systems. This constellation can serve one region all night long or can provide illumination during mornings and evenings to five regions across the United States. Preliminary cost estimates indicate such an endeavor is economically feasible. The studies also explain how two solar reflectors can illuminate the in-orbit nighttime operations of Space Shuttle. An unfurlable, 1 km diameter solar reflector spacecraft design concept was derived. This spacecraft can be packaged in the Space, Shuttle, transported to low Earth orbit, unfurled, and solar sailed to operational orbits up to geosynchronous. The necessary technical studies and improvements in technology are described, and potential environmental concerns are discussed.

  13. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  14. Ion implanted junctions for silicon space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Sanfacon, M. M.; Wolfson, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of ion implantation to emitter and back surface field formation in silicon space solar cells. Experiments based on 2 ohm-cm boron-doped silicon are presented. It is shown that the implantation process is particularly compatible with formation of a high-quality back surface reflector. Large area solar cells with AM0 efficiency greater than 14 percent are reported.

  15. Space Station Freedom Solar Array tension mechanism development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allmon, Curtis; Haugen, Bert

    1994-01-01

    A tension mechanism is used to apply a tension force to the Space Station Freedom Solar Array Blanket. This tension is necessary to meet the deployed frequency requirement of the array as well as maintain the flatness of the flexible substrate solar cell blanket. The mechanism underwent a series of design iterations before arriving at the final design. This paper discusses the design and testing of the mechanism.

  16. Severe Space Weather Events: Global Geospace Responses to Powerful Solar Wind Drivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.

    2009-12-01

    Recent international space science programs have made a concerted effort to study activity on the Sun, the propagation of energy bursts from the Sun to near-Earth space, energy coupling into the magnetosphere, and its redistribution and deposition in the upper and middle atmosphere. Extreme solar, geomagnetic and solar wind conditions can be observed by a large international array of satellites and ground-based sensors. We discuss the types of space weather-related problems that have been identified in recent times and consider examples of space weather-induced spacecraft (and ground-based) anomalies and failures that affect both civilian and military systems. Special attention will be given to delineating the specific kinds of geospace responses that occur for different transient solar wind drivers. In this context, we discuss near-term plans to consolidate and integrate understanding as an important component of the community effort to propose technical and operational solutions to space weather problems. I will focus on new scientific advancement that is needed for successful space weather programs and will describe actions that can help assure a good future integrated space weather program.

  17. Characterization of production GaAs solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical performance of GaAs solar cells was characterized as a function of irradiation with protons and electrons with the underlying goal of producing solar cells suitable for use in space. Proton energies used varied between 50 keV and 10 MeV, and damage coefficients were derived for liquid phase epitaxy GaAs solar cells. Electron energies varied between 0.7 and 2.4 MeV. Cells from recent production runs were characterized as a function of electron and proton irradiation. These same cells were also characterized as a function of solar intensity and operating temperature, both before and after the electron irradiations. The long term stability of GaAs cells during photon exposure was examined. Some cells were found to degrade with photon exposure and some did not. Calibration standards were made for GaAs/Ge solar cells by flight on a high altitude balloon.

  18. Advancing Space Situational Awareness through International Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance

    2012-07-01

    The growing interest in Space Situational Awareness and the recognized need for global coordination has led to the involvement of numerous international activities to increase awareness and foster cooperation. These activities are serving to prioritize and to coordinate our efforts and helping to establish a stronger, global Space Situational Awareness enterprise. This coordination is important for our data infrastructure, research developments, and the provision of operational services. Among the organizations that are contributing to this global coordination are: the International Space Environment Service, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites, and the International Committee on GNSS. In this presentation, the contributions of these various organizations to coordinating our Space Situational Awareness efforts will be described, with an emphasis on space weather.

  19. Analysis of Direct Solar Illumination on the Backside of Space Station Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a complex spacecraft that will take several years to assemble in orbit. During many of the assembly and maintenance procedures, the space station's large solar arrays must he locked, which can significantly reduce power generation. To date, power generation analyses have not included power generation from the backside of the solar cells in a desire to produce a conservative analysis. This paper describes the testing of ISS solar cell backside power generation, analytical modeling and analysis results on an ISS assembly mission.

  20. Advanced Mating System Development for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of space flight sealing and the work required for the further development of a dynamic interface seal for the use on space mating systems to support a fully androgynous mating interface. This effort has resulted in the advocacy of developing a standard multipurpose interface for use with all modern modular space architecture. This fully androgynous design means a seal-on-seal (SOS) system.

  1. A Deep Space Multi-Hop Power Grid Infrastructure Using Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsrud, C. M.; Straub, J.

    2014-06-01

    A system utilizing multiple space solar power satellites to support a tortile-style orbit highway from the Earth to the Moon and/or Mars is presented. This reduces spacecraft mass and volume via removing large solar panels lowering mission costs.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  3. Cost study of solar cell space power systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study of historical costs for solar cell space power systems was made by a NASA ad hoc study group. The study covered thirteen missions that represented a broad cross-section of flight projects over the past decade. Fully burdened costs in terms of 1971 dollars are presented for the system and the solar array. The costs correlate reasonably well with array area and do not increase in proportion to array area. The trends for array costs support the contention that solar cell and module standardization would reduce costs.

  4. Investigation of small solar system objects with the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope (ST) to study small objects in the solar system in order to understand the birth and the early evolution of the solar system is discussed. The upper size limit of the small bodies is defined as approximately 5000 km and includes planetary satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, and comets.The use of the astronomical instruments aboard the ST, such as the faint object camera, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, to study the small solar system objects is discussed.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Milam, S. N.; Kalirai, J. S.; Sonneborn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is poised to revolutionize many areas of astrophysical research including Solar System Science. Scheduled for launch in 2018, JWST is ~100 times more powerful than the Hubble and Spitzer observatories. It has greater sensitivity, higher spatial resolution in the infrared, and significantly higher spectral resolution in the mid infrared. Imaging and spectroscopy (both long-slit and integral-field) will be available across the entire 0.6 - 28.5 micron wavelength range. Herein, we discuss the capabilities of the four science instruments with a focus on Solar System Science, including instrument modes that enable observations over the huge range of brightness presented by objects within the Solar System. The telescope is being built by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems for NASA, ESA, and CSA. JWST development is led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST.

  6. Early Results from Solar Dynamic Space Power System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Mason, Lee S.

    1996-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built and tested a 2-kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal vacuum facility with a simulated Sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum and solar flux as encountered in low-Earth orbit. The solar dynamic system includes a Brayton power conversion unit integrated with a solar receiver which is designed to store energy for continuous power operation during the eclipse phase of the orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration project and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. System testing to date has accumulated over 365 hours of power operation (ranging from 400 watts to 2.0-W(sub e)), including 187 simulated orbits, 16 ambient starts and 2 hot restarts. Data are shown for an orbital startup, transient and steady-state orbital operation and shutdown. System testing with varying insolation levels and operating speeds is discussed. The solar dynamic ground test demonstration is providing the experience and confidence toward a successful flight demonstration of the solar dynamic technologies on the Space Station Mir in 1997.

  7. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  8. Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

  9. Advanced optical technologies for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2007-09-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems

  10. Selection and Prioritization of Advanced Propulsion Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, Bill; Farris, Bob; Johnson, Les; Jones, Jonathan; Kos, Larry; Woodcock, Gordon; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system will require spacecraft with much greater capability than spacecraft which have been launched in the past. This is particularly true for exploration of the outer planets. Outer planet exploration requires shorter trip times, increased payload mass, and ability to orbit or land on outer planets. Increased capability requires better propulsion systems, including increased specific impulse. Chemical propulsion systems are not capable of delivering the performance required for exploration of the solar system. Future propulsion systems will be applied to a wide variety of missions with a diverse set of mission requirements. Many candidate propulsion technologies have been proposed but NASA resources do not permit development of a] of them. Therefore, we need to rationally select a few propulsion technologies for advancement, for application to future space missions. An effort was initiated to select and prioritize candidate propulsion technologies for development investment. The results of the study identified Aerocapture, 5 - 10 KW Solar Electric Ion, and Nuclear Electric Propulsion as high priority technologies. Solar Sails, 100 Kw Solar Electric Hall Thrusters, Electric Propulsion, and Advanced Chemical were identified as medium priority technologies. Plasma sails, momentum exchange tethers, and low density solar sails were identified as high risk/high payoff technologies.

  11. Advanced solar concentrator development in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Daniel J.

    Sandia National Laboratories is the lead laboratory for the United States Department of Energy's program to develop, build, and test advanced solar concentrators that are low in cost, have high performance, and demonstrate a long lifetime. The principal focus of DOE's concentrator program is on the development of heliostats for central receiver power plants and point focus parabolic dishes for use with a 25-kWe Stirling engine. The status and future plans of DOE's program in each area are reviewed.

  12. Solar power satellite concepts and potential related space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent parametric studies of alternate SPS design concepts have shown that the concept appears technically feasible. The parametric studies were based on the use of advanced technology silicon solar cells for solar energy conversion. Solar array blanket unit masses of 0.31 to 0.46 kg/sq m were investigated. Conversion efficiencies of 15 to 17 percent air mass zero (AMO at 247 K) with a concentration ratio of two were considered. The systems were sized for a ground power output of 10 GW. To the level of detail studied, no design or operational problems were encountered that did not appear amenable to solution; however, the economic viability of the SPS concepts studied is obviously dependent upon a combination of technology advancement and/or the costs of competitive sources.

  13. Integration between solar and space science data for space weather forecast using web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.

    2007-08-01

    As the technology develops, the opportunity that the human beings behave in space, and it is still understood that the solar activities (especially the solar flare) influence the airlines communication, the ship communication and the power generator of the electric power company, etc. Forecasting the effects of the solar activities is becoming very important because there is such a background. Our goal is that constructs the detailed model from the Sun to the magnetosphere of the earth and simulates the solar activities and the effects. We try to integrate the existing observational data including the ground observational data and satellite observational data using by web service technology as a base to construct the model. We introduce our activity to combine the solar and space science data in Japan. Methods Generally, it is difficult to develop the virtual common database, but web service makes interconnection among different databases comparatively easy. We try to connect some databases in the portal site. Each different data objects is aggregated to a common data object. We can develop more complex services. We use RELAX NG in order to develop these applications easily. We begin the trial of the interconnection among the solar and space science data in Japan. In the case of solar observational data, we find the activity such as VO, for example, VSO and EGSO, but space science data seems to be very complex. In addition to this, there is time lag that solar activity has an effect on the magnetosphere of the Earth. We discuss these characteristic in the data analysis between the solar and space data. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research `The Basic Study of Space Weather Prediction' (17GS0208) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Technology, and Culture of Japan

  14. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; Spina, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  15. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  16. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  17. Performance of High-Efficiency Advanced Triple-Junction Solar Panels for the LILT Mission Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.; Sharma, Surya; Buitrago, Oscar; Sharps, Paul R.; Blok, Ron; Kroon, Martin; Jalink, Cees; Harris, Robin; Stella, Paul; Distefano, Sal

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Discovery Mission Dawn is designed to (LILT) conditions. operate within the solar system's Asteroid belt, where the large distance from the sun creates a low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) condition. To meet the mission power requirements under LlLT conditions, very high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft to be built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) under contract with JPL. Emcore's InGaP/InGaAs/Ge advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of greater than 27.6% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the solar panels [1]. The two solar array wings, to be built by Dutch Space, with 5 large- area panels each (total area of 36.4 sq. meters) are projected to produce between 10.3 kWe and 1.3 kWe of end-of life (EOL) power in the 1.0 to 3.0 AU range, respectively. The details of the solar panel design, testing and power analysis are presented.

  18. Advances in high energy astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1972-01-01

    Observational techniques, derived through space technology, and examples of what can be learned from X-ray observations of a few astronomical objects are given. Astronomical phenomena observed include the sun, stellar objects, and galactic objects.

  19. Space Weathering in the Inner Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    "Space weathering" is the term given to the cumulative effects incurred by surfaces which are exposed to the harsh environment of space. Lunar sample studies over the last decade or so have produced a clear picture of space weathering processes in the lunar environment. By combining laboratory and remote spectra with microanalytical methods (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), we have begun to unravel the various processes (irradiation, micrometeorite bombardment, etc) that contribute to space weathering and the physical and optical consequences of those processes on the Moon. Using the understanding gleaned from lunar samples, it is possible to extrapolate weathering processes to other airless bodies from which we have not yet returned samples (i.e. Mercury, asteroids). Through experiments which simulate various components of weathering, the expected differences in environment (impact rate, distance from Sun, presence of a magnetic field, reduced or enhanced gravity, etc) and composition (particularly iron content) can be explored to understand how space weathering will manifest on a given body.

  20. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  1. Advanced techniques for future observations from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques for the study of global meteorology and the chemistry of the atmosphere are considered. Remote sensing from Spacelab/Shuttle and free-flying satellites will provide the platforms for instrumentation based on advanced technology. Several laser systems are being developed for the measurement of tropospheric winds and pressure, and trace species in the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition, a high-resolution passive infrared sensor shows promise for measuring temperature from sea level up through the stratosphere. Advanced optical and microwave instruments are being developed for wind measurements in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Microwave techniques are also useful for the study of meteorological parameters at the air-sea interface.

  2. Development of a model of space station solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    Space structures, such as the space station solar arrays, must be extremely lightweight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a control system. The tension preload in the blanket of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomena known as grounding, or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. The grounding phenomena is examined in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. Various techniques are used for developing new stiffness matrices from the rigorous solutions of the differential equations, including the solution of the directed force problem. A new directed force stiffness matrix developed by the author provides all the rigid body capabilities for the beam in space.

  3. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Program Overview of 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Hulgan, Wendy W.; Dankanich, John W.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    The primary source of electric propulsion development throughout NASA is implemented by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Project at the NASA MSFC under the management of the Science Mission Directorate. The Solar Electric Propulsion technology area's objective is to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to enhance or enable mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Major activities include developing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development, advanced cathode testing and xenon recovery testing. Progress on current investments and future plans are discussed.

  4. Economics of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.; Price, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The competitive outlook for geothermal and solar heating changed dramatically during the past year. With the recent sharp price increases in imported oil and natural gas and the planned decontrol of domestic prices, geothermal and solar energy will become competitive for space heating throughout most of the country. Under these new conditions, geothermal energy could competitively provide about 40% of the national demand for space heat and domestic hot water (about 7 quads based on 1980 demands). Nearly all of the geothermal energy demand would be in high-population-density areas. Solar energy could competitively provide about 50% (about 9 quads) of the annual demand. Most of the solar energy demand would be concentrated in suburban and rural areas. Conventional energy should remain competitive for about 30% (about 5 quads) of the annual demand. Conventional energy demand would be concentrated in the South and as supplemental energy for solar/conventional systems. Geothermal, solar, and conventional energy would be equally competitive for about 20% of the annual demand, which is why the individual market shares add to 120%.

  5. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  6. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    SciTech Connect

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  7. Overview of Small and Large-Scale Space Solar Power Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Howell, Joe; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John

    2006-01-01

    An overview of space solar power studies performed at the Boeing Company under contract with NASA will be presented. The major concepts to be presented are: 1. Power Plug in Orbit: this is a spacecraft that collects solar energy and distributes it to users in space using directed radio frequency or optical energy. Our concept uses solar arrays having the same dimensions as ISS arrays, but are assumed to be more efficient. If radiofrequency wavelengths are used, it will necessitate that the receiving satellite be equipped with a rectifying antenna (rectenna). For optical wavelengths, the solar arrays on the receiving satellite will collect the power. 2. Mars Clipper I Power Explorer: this is a solar electric Mars transfer vehicle to support human missions. A near-term precursor could be a high-power radar mapping spacecraft with self-transport capability. Advanced solar electric power systems and electric propulsion technology constitute viable elements for conducting human Mars missions that are roughly comparable in performance to similar missions utilizing alternative high thrust systems, with the one exception being their inability to achieve short Earth-Mars trip times. 3. Alternative Architectures: this task involves investigating alternatives to the traditional solar power satellite (SPS) to supply commercial power from space for use on Earth. Four concepts were studied: two using photovoltaic power generation, and two using solar dynamic power generation, with microwave and laser power transmission alternatives considered for each. All four architectures use geostationary orbit. 4. Cryogenic Propellant Depot in Earth Orbit: this concept uses large solar arrays (producing perhaps 600 kW) to electrolyze water launched from Earth, liquefy the resulting hydrogen and oxygen gases, and store them until needed by spacecraft. 5. Beam-Powered Lunar Polar Rover: a lunar rover powered by a microwave or laser beam can explore permanently shadowed craters near the lunar

  8. A Study of Defense Applications of Space Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Space solar power (SSP) is generally considered to be the collection in space of energy from the sun and its wireless transmission from space for use on earth. It has been observed that the implementation of such a system could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake its development. A study conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sought to determine if unique, cost effective, and efficient approaches exist for supplying significant power on demand for Navy, Marine Corps, or other Department of Defense applications by employing a space-based solar power system. The study was initiated by and prepared for top NRL management in part as a result of the publication of the National Security Space Office's (NSSO) report "Space-Based Solar Power as an Opportunity for Strategic Security." The NSSO report's recommendations included statements calling for the U.S. Government to conduct analyses, retire technical risk, and become an early demonstrator for SBSP. It should be noted that the principal objective of the NRL study differed significantly from that of the multitude of previous studies performed in reference to SBSP in that it focused on defense rather than utility grid applications.

  9. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Fliglit Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail3-'. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar TM, Teonexm, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  10. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  11. Solar Seismology from Space. a Conference at Snowmass, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Harvey, J.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Toomre, J.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of the ground based observing environment suffers from several degrading factors: diurnal interruptions and thermal variations, atmospheric seeing and transparency fluctuations and adverse weather interruptions are among the chief difficulties. The limited fraction of the solar surface observable from only one vantage point is also a potential limitation to the quality of the data available without going to space. Primary conference goals were to discuss in depth the scientific return from current observations and analyses of solar oscillations, to discuss the instrumental and site requirements for realizing the full potential of the seismic analysis method, and to help bring new workers into the field by collecting and summarizing the key background theory. At the conclusion of the conference there was a clear consensus that ground based observation would not be able to provide data of the quality required to permit a substantial analysis of the solar convection zone dynamics or to permit a full deduction of the solar interior structure.

  12. Relativistic solar proton events before the space era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Margaret

    In the study of large solar proton events that have occurred in the last two solar cycles (cycles 22 and 23), the events before the space era (1942-1965) are often forgotten. The first four events were identified by the Forbush ionization chambers that responded to particles above approximately 4 GV. The event in July 1946 associated with solar activity near the central meridian of the sun has not been equaled. The event on 23 February 1956, with its 4500% increase recorded by the Leeds neutron monitor, represents the highest 15-minute increase in cosmic radiation since that time. The >30 MeV fluence of the November 12-15, 1960 events has been estimated to be higher than the Bastille Day event in July 2000. We present a review and little known facts associated with these early ground-level events and compare some of these events with those of the more recent solar cycles.

  13. Advanced technology for America's future in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In response to Recommendation 8 of the Augustine Committee Report, NASA's Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) developed a proposed 'Integrated Technology Plan for the Civil Space Program' that entails substantial changes in the processes, structure and the content of NASA's space research and technology program. The Space Systems and Technology Advisory Committee (SSTAC, a subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Committee) and several other senior, expert, informed advisory groups conducted a review of NASA's proposed Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). This review was in response to the specific request in Recommendation 8 that 'NASA utilize an expert, outside review process, managed from headquarters, to assist in the allocation of technology funds'. This document, the final report from that review, addresses: (1) summary recommendations; (2) mission needs; (3) the integrated technology plan; (4) summary reports of the technical panels; and (5) conclusions and observations.

  14. Solar Space and Water Heating for School -- Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    90 page report gives overview of retrofitted solar space-heating and hot-water system installation for 61-year-old high school. Description, specifications, modifications, plan drawings for roof, three floors, basement, correspondence, and documents are part of report.

  15. Solar Heated Space Systems. A Unit of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, John; Weber, Robert D.

    Designed for use in vocational education programs, this unit on solar space heating contains information and suggestions for teaching at the secondary school level. It focuses on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning programs. Educational objectives and educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for each of the eight…

  16. The NASA Lewis Research Center program in space solar cell research and technology. [efficient silicon solar cell development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Progress in space solar cell research and technology is reported. An 18 percent-AMO-efficient silicon solar cell, reduction in the radiation damage suffered by silicon solar cells in space, and high efficiency wrap-around contact and thin (50 micrometer) coplanar back contact silicon cells are among the topics discussed. Reduction in the cost of silicon cells for space use, cost effective GaAs solar cells, the feasibility of 30 percent AMO solar energy conversion, and reliable encapsulants for space blankets are also considered.

  17. Application of advanced technology to space automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Lowrie, J. W.; Hughes, C. A.; Stephens, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Automated operations in space provide the key to optimized mission design and data acquisition at minimum cost for the future. The results of this study strongly accentuate this statement and should provide further incentive for immediate development of specific automtion technology as defined herein. Essential automation technology requirements were identified for future programs. The study was undertaken to address the future role of automation in the space program, the potential benefits to be derived, and the technology efforts that should be directed toward obtaining these benefits.

  18. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  19. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  20. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft releases the payload as the spacecraft passes by Mars. Both the SRA-powered spacecraft and the SPL-powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD-propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  1. Advanced planning activity. [for interplanetary flight and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Selected mission concepts for interplanetary exploration through 1985 were examined, including: (1) Jupiter orbiter performance characteristics; (2) solar electric propulsion missions to Mercury, Venus, Neptune, and Uranus; (3) space shuttle planetary missions; (4) Pioneer entry probes to Saturn and Uranus; (5) rendezvous with Comet Kohoutek and Comet Encke; (6) space tug capabilities; and (7) a Pioneer mission to Mars in 1979. Mission options, limitations, and performance predictions are assessed, along with probable configurational, boost, and propulsion requirements.

  2. Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics, Auburn University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, Dan W.; Hopkins, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    The union of Auburn University's Center for Space Power and Advanced Electronics and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center to form a Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) is discussed. An area of focus for the CCDS will be the development of silicon carbide electronics technology, in terms of semiconductors and crystal growth. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form.

  3. Advanced Learning Space as an Asset for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Císarová, Klára; Lamr, Marián; Vitvarová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes an e-learning system called Advanced Learning Space that was developed at the Technical University of Liberec. The system provides a personalized virtual work space and promotes communication among students and their teachers. The core of the system is a module that can be used to automatically record, store and playback…

  4. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  5. Athena: Advanced air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Corey G.; Ziemer, John; Plonka, John; Henderson, Scott; Copioli, Paul; Reese, Charles; Ullman, Christopher; Frank, Jeremy; Breslauer, Alan; Patonis, Hristos

    1994-01-01

    The infrastructure for routine, reliable, and inexpensive access of space is a goal that has been actively pursued over the past 50 years, but has yet not been realized. Current launch systems utilize ground launching facilities which require the booster vehicle to plow up through the dense lower atmosphere before reaching space. An air launched system on the other hand has the advantage of being launched from a carrier aircraft above this dense portion of the atmosphere and hence can be smaller and lighter compared to its ground based counterpart. The goal of last year's Aerospace Engineering Course 483 (AE 483) was to design a 227,272 kg (500,000 lb.) air launched space booster which would beat the customer's launch cost on existing launch vehicles by at least 50 percent. While the cost analysis conducted by the class showed that this goal could be met, the cost and size of the carrier aircraft make it appear dubious that any private company would be willing to invest in such a project. To avoid this potential pitfall, this year's AE 483 class was to design as large an air launched space booster as possible which can be launched from an existing or modification to an existing aircraft. An initial estimate of the weight of the booster is 136,363 kg (300,000 lb.) to 159,091 kg (350,000 lb.).

  6. Advanced technologies for NASA space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A review of the technology requirements for future space programs is presented. The technologies are emphasized with a discussion of their mission impact. Attention is given to automation and robotics, materials, information acquisition/processing display, nano-electronics/technology, superconductivity, and energy generation and storage.

  7. Space station propulsion: The advanced development program at Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A reference configuration was established for the initial operating capability (IOC) station. The reference configuration has assumed hydrazine fueled thrusters as the propulsion system. This was to establish costing and as a reference for comparison when other propulsion systems are considered. An integral part of the plan to develop the Space Station is the advanced development program. The objective of this program is to provide advanced technology alternatives for the initial and evolutionary Space Station which optimize the system's functional characteristics in terms of performance, cost, and utilization. The portion of the Advanced Development Program that is concerned with auxiliary propulsion and the research and programmatic activities conducted are discussed.

  8. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

  9. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  10. A New Multi-Wavelength Synoptic Network for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Continuous solar observations are important for many research topics in solar physics, such as magnetic field evolution, flare and CME characteristics, and p-mode oscillation measurements. In addition, space weather operations require constant streams of solar data as input. The deployment of a number of identical instruments around the world in a network has proven to be a very effective strategy for obtaining nearly continuous solar observations. The financial costs of a network are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than space-based platforms; network instrumentation can be easily accessed for maintenance and upgrades; and telemetry bandwidth is readily available. Currently, there are two solar observing networks with consistent instruments: BiSON and GONG, both designed primarily for helioseismology. In addition, GONG has been augmented with continual magnetic field measurements and H-alpha imagery, with both being used for space weather operational purposes. However, GONG is now 18 years old and getting increasingly more challenging to maintain. There are also at least three scientific motivations for a multi-wavelength network: Recent advances in helioseismology have demonstrated the need for multi-wavelength observations to allow more accurate interpretation of the structure and dynamics below sunspots. Vector magnetometry would greatly benefit from multi-wavelength observations to provide height information and resolve the azimuthal ambiguity. Finally, space weather operations always need a consistent reliable source of continual solar data. This presentation will outline the scientific need for a multi-wavelength network, and discuss some concepts for the design of the instrumentation. A workshop on the topic will be held in Boulder this April.

  11. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class fiee-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of technology experiments. Recent space solar power (SSP) studies by NASA have taken a stepping stones approach that lead to the gigawatt systems necessary to cost-effectively deliver power from space. These steps start with a 100 kW-class satellite, leading to a 500 kW and then a 1 MW-class platform. Later steps develop a 100 M W bus that could eventually lead to a 1-2 GW pilot plant for SSP. Our studies have shown that a modular approach is cost effective. Modular designs include individual laser-power-beaming satellites that fly in constellations or that are autonomously assembled into larger structures at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Microwave power-beamed approaches are also modularized into large numbers of identical units of solar arrays, power converters, or supporting structures for arrays and microwave transmitting antennas. A cost-effective approach to launching these modular units is to use existing Earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems, in which the modules are dropped into low Earth orbit (LEO) and then the modules perform their own orbit transfer to GEO using expendable solar arrays to power solar electric thrusters. At GEO, the modules either rendezvous and are assembled robotically into larger platforms, or are deployed into constellations of identical laser power-beaming satellites. Since solar electric propulsion by the modules is cost-effective for both

  12. Advanced technology for space communications and tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1988-10-01

    Technological advances in the communications and tracking areas being developed by NASA and applicable to future missions and associated space operations are discussed. The applications scenarios considered include the Space Shuttle, Space Station, lunar base, and Mars missions. Performance goals and conceptual designs are discussed, and the relevance of optical, laser, and millimeter wave-based implementations to the various applications are examined. Recommendations for future systems developments are addressed.

  13. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  14. NASDA activities in space solar power system research, development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, Sumio; Yamamoto, Yasunari; Uesugi, Masato

    1993-01-01

    NASDA activities in solar cell research, development, and applications are described. First, current technologies for space solar cells such as Si, GaAs, and InP are reviewed. Second, future space solar cell technologies intended to be used on satellites of 21st century are discussed. Next, the flight data of solar cell monitor on ETS-V is shown. Finally, establishing the universal space solar cell calibration system is proposed.

  15. Solar Cycle Variation and Application to the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Shinn, Judy L.; Tai, Hsiang; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Atwell, William

    1999-01-01

    The interplanetary plasma and fields are affected by the degree of disturbance that is related to the number and types of sunspots in the solar surface. Sunspot observations were improved with the introduction of the telescope in the seventeenth century, allowing observations which cover many centuries. A single quantity (sunspot number) was defined by Wolf in 1848 that is now known to be well correlated with many space observable quantities and is used herein to represent variations caused in the space radiation environment. The resultant environmental models are intended for future aircraft and space-travel-related exposure estimates.

  16. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells have been fabricated with encouraging AM0 efficiencies summarized as: monolithic GaAs/Ge: 19.1 percent (28 C, 4 sq cm); monolithic InP/Ga0.47In0.53As: 22.2 percent (25 C, 0.296 sq cm); monolithic AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs: 27.6 percent (80 C, 0.2 sq cm, 100 X); mechanically stacked GaAs/GaSb: 30.8 percent (25 C, 0.049 sq cm, 100 X); and mechanically stacked GaAs/CuInSe2: 23.1 percent (25 C, 4 sq cm). Significant improvement in tandem cell efficiencies nearing to theoretical predictions has been projected with the improvement in cell material quality and processing. Thin-film cells offer improved specific power. It is pointed out that both the monolithic and mechanically stacked cells have their own problems as to size, processing, current-voltage matching, weight, etc. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full spectrum range simulators are required to measure efficiencies correctly.

  17. Space Weather Research in Greece: The Solar Energetic Particle Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga E.

    2015-03-01

    Space Weather Research carried out in the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), within the SEPServer and COMESEP projects under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union (EU) is presented. Results and services that these projects provide to the whole scientific community as well as stakeholders are underlined. NOA strongly contributes in terms of crucial Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) dataset provided, data analysis and SEP catalogue items provided as well as comparative results of the various components of the project server, greatly facilitating the investigation of SEPs and their origin. SEP research highlights carried out at NOA are also presented, used to test and validate the particle SEP model developed and incorporated within the SEP forecasting tools of the COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP) Space Weather Alert System, i.e. the First European Alert System for geomagnetic storms and SEP radiation hazards.

  18. Advances in Pharmacotherapeutics of Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2006-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is common occurrence in the U.S. manned space flight program and nearly 2/3 of Shuttle crewmembers experience SMS. Several drugs have been prescribed for therapeutic management of SMS. Typically, orally-administered SMS medications (scopolamine, promethazine) have poor bioavailability and often have detrimental neurocognitive side effects at recommended doses. Intramuscularly administered promethazine (PMZ) is perceived to have optimal efficacy with minimal side effects in space. However, intramuscular injections are painful and the sedating neurocognitive side effects of promethazine, significant in controlled ground testing, may be masked in orbit because injections are usually given prior to crew sleep. Currently, EVAs cannot be performed by symptomatic crew or prior to flight day three due to the lack of a consistently efficacious drug, concern about neurocognitive side effects, and because an in-suit vomiting episode is potentially fatal. NASA has long sought a fast acting, consistently effective anti-motion sickness medication which has only minor neurocognitive side effects. Development of intranasal formulations of scopolamine and promethazine, the two commonly used SMS drugs at NASA for both space and reduced gravity environment medical operations, appears to be a logical alternative to current treatment modalities for SMS. The advantages are expected to be fast absorption, reliable and high bioavailability, and probably reduced neurocognitive side effects owing to dose reduction. Results from clinical trials with intranasal scopolamine gel formulation and pre-clinical testing of a prototype microcapsule intranasal gel dosage form of PMZ (INPMZ) will be discussed. These formulations are expected to offer a dependable and effective noninvasive treatment option for SMS.

  19. Advanced Interconnect Roadmap for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, Lissa

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the NASA electronic parts and packaging program for space applications. The topics include: 1) Forecasts; 2) Technology Challenges; 3) Research Directions; 4) Research Directions for Chip on Board (COB); 5) Research Directions for HDPs: Multichip Modules (MCMs); 6) Research Directions for Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); 7) Research Directions for Photonics; and 8) Research Directions for Materials. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  20. Advances in space radiation shielding codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Qualls, Garry D.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Prael, Richard E.; Norbury, John W.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; De Angelis, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Early space radiation shield code development relied on Monte Carlo methods and made important contributions to the space program. Monte Carlo methods have resorted to restricted one-dimensional problems leading to imperfect representation of appropriate boundary conditions. Even so, intensive computational requirements resulted and shield evaluation was made near the end of the design process. Resolving shielding issues usually had a negative impact on the design. Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary concept to the final design. For the last few decades, we have pursued deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design methods. A single ray trace in such geometry requires 14 milliseconds and limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given.

  1. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1994-01-01

    NASA is responsible for developing much of the nation's future space technology. Cost estimates for new programs are required early in the planning process so that decisions can be made accurately. Because of the long lead times required to develop space hardware, the cost estimates are frequently required 10 to 15 years before the program delivers hardware. The system design in conceptual phases of a program is usually only vaguely defined and the technology used is so often state-of-the-art or beyond. These factors combine to make cost estimating for conceptual programs very challenging. This paper describes an effort to develop parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance and time. The nature of the relationships between the driver variables and cost will be discussed. In particular, the relationship between weight and cost will be examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost will be developed and tested statistically against a historical database of major research and development projects.

  2. New developments in SOLAR2000 for space research and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    The SOLAR2000 (S2K) project provides solar spectral irradiances and integrated solar irradiance proxies for space researchers as well as ground- and space-based operational users. The S2K model currently represents empirical solar irradiances and integrated irradiance proxies covering the spectral range from the X-rays through the far infrared and has evolved through 23 version releases since October 1999. Variability is provided for time frames ranging from 1947 to 2052. The combination of variability through multiple time periods with spectral formats ranging from resolved emission lines through integrated irradiance proxies is a unique feature that provides researchers and operational users the same solar energy for a given day but in formats suitable for their distinctly different applications. We report on new developments in the SOLAR2000 version 2.24 model. There are several models and reference spectra now included in SOLAR2000 including the S2K extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance model provided by Tobiska (S2K: 1 121 nm), the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) model provided by Woods (VUV2002: 1 420 nm), and the ASTM-E490 reference spectrum (122 1,000,000 nm). Improved model accuracy in the XUV EUV spectral regions is obtained with the inclusion of the new TIMED SEE version 7 dataset. We report on integrated irradiance products including some revisions to previously reported proxies, E10.7, QEUV, Peuv, T∞, RSN, and S, and an introduction to seven new integrated irradiance proxies. They include E1_40, XE10.7, Xb10, Xhf, X10.7, ESRC, and ESRB. The Schatten solar dynamo model output is included in the S2K Operational Grade model and provides forecast proxies out to five solar cycles. The SOLAR2000 Research Grade (RG) model provides historical irradiances and proxies for space research and is freely available, via web download, to users of any platform through the use of an IDL virtual machine (VM) graphic user interface (GUI) application. The SOLAR2000 Professional

  3. RF Technologies for Advancing Space Communication Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Bibyk, Irene K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will address key technologies under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center designed to provide architecture-level impacts. Specifically, we will describe deployable antennas, a new type of phased array antenna and novel power amplifiers. The evaluation of architectural influence can be conducted from two perspectives where said architecture can be analyzed from either the top-down to determine the areas where technology improvements will be most beneficial or from the bottom-up where each technology s performance advancement can affect the overall architecture s performance. This paper will take the latter approach with focus on some technology improvement challenges and address architecture impacts. For example, using data rate as a performance metric, future exploration scenarios are expected to demand data rates possibly exceeding 1 Gbps. To support these advancements in a Mars scenario, as an example, Ka-band and antenna aperture sizes on the order of 10 meters will be required from Mars areostationary platforms. Key technical challenges for a large deployable antenna include maximizing the ratio of deployed-to-packaged volume, minimizing aerial density, maintaining RMS surface accuracy to within 1/20 of a wavelength or better, and developing reflector rigidization techniques. Moreover, the high frequencies and large apertures manifest a new problem for microwave engineers that are familiar to optical communications specialists: pointing. The fine beam widths and long ranges dictate the need for electronic or mechanical feed articulation to compensate for spacecraft attitude control limitations.

  4. Advanced high temperature thermoelectrics for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, A.; Ewell, R.; Wood, C.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results from a spacecraft system study show that an optimum hot junction temperature is in the range of 1500 K for advanced nuclear reactor technology combined with thermoelectric conversion. Advanced silicon germanium thermoelectric conversion is feasible if hot junction temperatures can be raised roughly 100 C or if gallium phosphide can be used to improve the figure of merit, but the performance is marginal. Two new classes of refractory materials, rare earth sulfides and boron-carbon alloys, are being investigated to improve the specific weight of the generator system. Preliminary data on the sulfides have shown very high figures of merit over short temperature ranges. Both n- and p-type doping have been obtained. Pure boron-carbide may extrapolate to high figure of merit at temperatures well above 1500 K but not lower temperature; n-type conduction has been reported by others, but not yet observed in the JPL program. Inadvertant impurity doping may explain the divergence of results reported.

  5. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope lower enclosure thermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Warner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The exterior of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure requires cooling to eliminate so-called external dome seeing caused by solar loading during the observing day. This is achieved by way of coolant circulation through external plate coil panels, thereby maintaining the exterior surfaces of the enclosure at or just below ambient air temperature. As the distance from the optical path increases (e.g., on the surface of the lower enclosure), the stringency of the temperature requirement is diminished, thereby allowing a greater difference between the surface temperature and the ambient air temperature. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled performance of an active thermal control strategy on the lower enclosure to a passive strategy that employs concrete panels. A life-cycle cost analysis of each option is also presented.

  6. Update of the Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D.; Peterson, Todd T.; Ehresman, Derik T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project, which has achieved the successful design, fabrication, and testing of a full-scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator, is discussed. The design and fabrication process are summarized, and the test results for the reflective facet optical performance and the concentrator structural repeatability are reported. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen-panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort, which entailed developing a vapor-deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  7. Advanced Receiver tracking of Voyager 2 near solar conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Hurd, W. J.; Vilnrotter, V. A.; Wiggins, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Receiver (ARX) was used to track the Voyager 2 spacecraft at low Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles near solar conjunction in December of 1987. The received carrier signal exhibited strong fluctuations in both phase and amplitude. The ARX used spectral estimation and mathematical modeling of the phase and receiver noise processes to set an optimum carrier tracking bandwidth. This minimized the mean square phase error in tracking carrier phase and thus minimized the loss in the telemetry signal-to-noise ratio due to the carrier loop. Recovered symbol SNRs and errors in decoded engineering data for the ARX are compared with those for the current Block 3 telemetry stream. Optimum bandwidths are plotted against SEP angle. Measurements of the power spectral density of the solar phase and amplitude fluctuations are also given.

  8. Sandwich module prototype progress for space solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Paul; Hodkin, Jason; Harrington, Forest; Person, Clark; Nurnberger, Michael; Nguyen, Bang; LaCava, Susie; Scheiman, Dave; Stewart, Grant; Han, Andrew; Hettwer, Ethan; Rhoades, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Space solar power (SSP) has been broadly defined as the collection of solar energy in space and its wireless transmission for use on earth. This approach potentially gives the benefit of provision of baseload power while avoiding the losses due to the day/night cycle and tropospheric effects that are associated with terrestrial solar power. Proponents have contended that the implementation of such systems could offer energy security, environmental, and technological advantages to those who would undertake their development. Among recent implementations commonly proposed for SSP, the modular symmetrical concentrator (MSC) and other modular concepts have received considerable attention. Each employs an array of modules for performing conversion of concentrated sunlight into microwaves or laser beams for transmission to earth. While prototypes of such modules have been designed and developed previously by several groups, none have been subjected to the challenging conditions inherent to the space environment and the possible solar concentration levels in which an array of modules might be required to operate. The research described herein details our team's efforts in the development of photovoltaic arrays, power electronics, microwave conversion electronics, and antennas for microwave-based "sandwich" module prototypes. The implementation status and testing results of the prototypes are reviewed.

  9. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Space Station Freedom Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Best, Steve R.; Myhre, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Solar array coupons designed for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system were subjected to hypervelocity impacts using the HYPER facility in the Space Power Institute at Auburn University and the Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Simulation Facility in the Materials and Processes Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At Auburn, the solar cells and array blanket materials received several hundred impacts from particles in the micron to 100 micron range with velocities typically ranging from 4.5 to 10.5 km/s. This fluence of particles greatly exceeds what the actual components will experience in low earth orbit. These impacts damaged less than one percent of total area of the solar cells and most of the damage was limited to the cover glass. There was no measurable loss of electrical performance. Impacts on the array blanket materials produced even less damage and the blanket materials proved to be an effective shield for the back surface of the solar cells. Using the light gas gun at MSFC, one cell of a four cell coupon was impacted by a 1/4 inch spherical aluminum projectile with a velocity of about 7 km/s. The impact created a neat hole about 3/8 inch in diameter. The cell and coupon were still functional after impact.

  10. Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

  11. Advanced Space Propulsion System Flowfield Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon

    1998-01-01

    Solar thermal upper stage propulsion systems currently under development utilize small low chamber pressure/high area ratio nozzles. Consequently, the resulting flow in the nozzle is highly viscous, with the boundary layer flow comprising a significant fraction of the total nozzle flow area. Conventional uncoupled flow methods which treat the nozzle boundary layer and inviscid flowfield separately by combining the two calculations via the influence of the boundary layer displacement thickness on the inviscid flowfield are not accurate enough to adequately treat highly viscous nozzles. Navier Stokes models such as VNAP2 can treat these flowfields but cannot perform a vacuum plume expansion for applications where the exhaust plume produces induced environments on adjacent structures. This study is built upon recently developed artificial intelligence methods and user interface methodologies to couple the VNAP2 model for treating viscous nozzle flowfields with a vacuum plume flowfield model (RAMP2) that is currently a part of the Plume Environment Prediction (PEP) Model. This study integrated the VNAP2 code into the PEP model to produce an accurate, practical and user friendly tool for calculating highly viscous nozzle and exhaust plume flowfields.

  12. Performance and economics of residential solar space heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehr, F. J.; Vineyard, T. A.; Barnes, R. W.; Oneal, D. L.

    1982-11-01

    The performance and economics of residential solar space heating were studied for various locations in the contiguous United States. Common types of active and passive solar heating systems were analyzed with respect to an average-size, single-family house designed to meet or exceed the thermal requirements of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Minimum Property Standards (HUD-MPS). The solar systems were evaluated in seventeen cities to provide a broad range of climatic conditions. Active systems evaluated consist of air and liquid flat plate collectors with single- and double-glazing: passive systems include Trombe wall, water wall, direct gain, and sunspace systems. The active system solar heating performance was computed using the University of Wisconsin's F-CHART computer program. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method was employed to compute solar heating performance for the passive systems. Heating costs were computed with gas, oil, and electricity as backups and as conventional heating system fuels.

  13. Large area low-cost space solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barona, C. R.; Cioni, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A development program to produce 5.9 x 5.9 cm space quality silicon solar cells with a cost goal of 30 $/W is described. Cell types investigated include wraparound dielectric, mechanical wraparound and conventional contact configurations with combinations of 2 or 10 ohm/cm resistivity, back surface reflectors and/or fields, and diffused or ion implanted junctions. A single step process to cut cell and cover glass simultaneously is being developed. Results for cell and array tests are given. Large solar arrays that might use cells of this type are discussed.

  14. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  15. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: beginning construction of the world's largest solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Wagner, J.; Keil, S.; Elmore, D.; Hubbard, R.; Hansen, E.; Warner, M.; Jeffers, P.; Phelps, L.; Marshall, H.; Goodrich, B.; Richards, K.; Hegwer, S.; Kneale, R.; Ditsler, J.

    2010-07-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has successfully passed its final design review and the Environmental Impact Study for construction of ATST on Haleakala, Maui, HI has been concluded in December of 2009. The project is now entering its construction phase. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0."03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0."1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectropolarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a fourmeter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  16. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    Parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase are developed. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance, and time. The relationship between weight and cost is examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested statistically against a historical data base of major research and development programs. It is concluded that the technique presented is sound, but that it must be refined in order to produce acceptable cost estimates.

  17. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  18. Advanced dosimetry systems for the space transport and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailly, L. F.; Schneider, M. F.; Clark, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced dosimetry system concepts are described that will provide automated and instantaneous measurement of dose and particle spectra. Systems are proposed for measuring dose rate from cosmic radiation background to greater than 3600 rads/hr. Charged particle spectrometers, both internal and external to the spacecraft, are described for determining mixed field energy spectra and particle fluxes for both real time onboard and ground-based computer evaluation of the radiation hazard. Automated passive dosimetry systems consisting of thermoluminescent dosimeters and activation techniques are proposed for recording the dose levels for twelve or more crew members. This system will allow automatic onboard readout and data storage of the accumulated dose and can be transmitted to ground after readout or data records recovered with each crew rotation.

  19. Distributed networks enable advances in US space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    2011-06-01

    Space weather, the shorter-term variable impact of the Sun’s photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth’s environment, adversely affects our technological systems. These technological systems, including their space component, are increasingly being seen as a way to help solve 21st Century problems such as climate change, energy access, fresh water availability, and transportation coordination. Thus, the effects of space weather on space systems and assets must be mitigated and operational space weather using automated distributed networks has emerged as a common operations methodology. The evolution of space weather operations is described and the description of distributed network architectures is provided, including their use of tiers, data objects, redundancy, and time domain definitions. There are several existing distributed networks now providing space weather information and the lessons learned in developing those networks are discussed along with the details of examples for the Solar Irradiance Platform (SIP), Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS), GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), and Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS).

  20. Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Aschwanden, M. J. 2005, Physics of the Solar Corona . An Introduction with Problems and Solutions (2nd edition), ed. Aschwanden, M. J. Balasubramaniam, K...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0020 Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity...Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-09

  1. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple etalons systems are discussed that meet the 4-meter NSO/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (http://www.nso.edu/ATST/index.html) instrument and science requirements for a narrow bandpass imaging system. A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer working in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, and a wide-band and broad-band high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations will be described that provides spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5nm and reduces parasitic light levels to 1/10000 as required by precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like triple etalon system provides for spectral purity of 100 thousandths. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon, allowing much more stable blocking filters, and can have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass Cavallini-like configuration can provide a competing configuration. This design can provide high contrast with only a double etalon. The selection of the final focal plan instrument will depend on a trade-off of the ideal instrument versus reality, the number of etalons, the aperture of etalons, the number of blocking filters the electronic control system and computer interfaces, the temperature control and controllers for the etalons and the electronics. The use of existing experience should provide significant cost savings. The heritage of use of etalons and multiple etalon systems in solar physics come from a number of observatories, which includes MSFC Solar Observatory (NASA), Sac Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will reply on the existing experience from these observatories.

  2. Novel Passivating/Antireflective Coatings for Space Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Bailey, S. G.; Flood, D. J.; Faur, H. M.; Mateescu, C. G.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Scheiman, D.; Jenkins, P. P.; Brinker, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a novel process to grow passivating/antireflective (AR) coatings for terrestrial and space solar cells. Our approach involves a Room Temperature Wet Chemical Growth (RTWCG) process, which was pioneered, and is under development at SPECMAT, Inc., under a Reimbursable Space Act Agreement with NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTWCG passivating/AR coatings with graded index of refraction are applied in one easy step on finished (bare) cells. The RTWCG coatings grown on planar, textured and porous Si, as well as on poly-Si, CuInSe2, and III-V substrates, show excellent uniformity irrespective of surface topography, crystal orientation, size and shape. In this paper we present some preliminary results of the RTWCG coatings on Si and III-V substrates that show very good potential for use as a passivation/AR coating for space solar cell applications. Compared to coatings grown using conventional techniques, the RTWCG coatings have the potential to reduce reflection losses and improve current collection near the illuminated surface of space solar cells, while reducing the fabrication costs.

  3. Space Shuttle 2 advanced space transportation system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adinaro, James N.; Benefield, Philip A.; Johnson, Shelby D.; Knight, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the best configuration from all candidate configurations, it was necessary first to calculate minimum system weights and performance. To optimize the design, it is necessary to vary configuration-specific variables such as total system weight, thrust-to-weight ratios, burn durations, total thrust available, and mass fraction for the system. Optimizing each of these variables at the same time is technically unfeasible and not necessarily mathematically possible. However, discrete sets of data can be generated which will eliminate many candidate configurations. From the most promising remaining designs, a final configuration can be selected. Included are the three most important designs considered: one which closely approximates the design criteria set forth in a Marshall Space Flight Center study of the Shuttle 2; the configuration used in the initial proposal; and the final configuration. A listing by cell of the formulas used to generate the aforementioned data is included for reference.

  4. High performance silicon solar arrays employing advanced structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockey, D. E.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Adams, L.

    1981-01-01

    Specific design features to reduce cell mass, lower panel operating temperatures, and improve power to mass ratios for silicon solar cell arrays in space applications are presented. Because mass constraints limit payload capacity for launch into GEO, graphite/epoxy structures combined with high performance Si cells are needed to deliver a power/mass ratio of 265 W/kg, notably for Solar Electric Propulsion systems, compared with existing level of 65 W/kg. Shallow diffusion and back surface field cell technology have raised cell efficiencies to 15%, with a back emissivity of 1.64. Structural design requirements comprise Shuttle interface compatibility, full ground test capability, low mass, and high stiffness. Three array alternatives are discussed, and the STACBEAM configuration, which consists of a triangular truss and a piston deployer with folding accomplished on simple hinges, provides 0.2 Hz stiffness and achieves the design power/mass goals.

  5. Recent advances in thin film CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ferekides, C.S.; Ceekala, V.; Dugan, K.; Killian, L.; Oman, D.; Swaminathan, R.; Morel, D.

    1996-01-01

    CdTe thin film solar cells have been fabricated on a variety of glass substrates (borosilicate and soda lime). The CdS films were deposited to a thickness of 500{endash}2000 A by the chemical bath deposition (CBD), rf sputtering, or close spaced sublimation (CSS) processes. The CdTe films were deposited by CSS in the temperature range of 450{endash}625{degree}C. The main objective of this work is to fabricate high efficiency solar cells using processes that can meet low cost manufacturing requirements. In an attempt to enhance the blue response of the CdTe cells, ZnS films have also been prepared (CBD, rf sputtering, CSS) as an alternative window layer to CdS. Device behavior has been found to be consistent with a recombination model. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Advanced space transportation system support contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The general focus is on a phase 2 lunar base, or a lunar base during the period after the first return of a crew to the Moon, but before permanent occupancy. The software effort produced a series of trajectory programs covering low earth orbit (LEO) to various node locations, the node locations to the lunar surface, and then back to LEO. The surface operations study took a lunar scenario in the civil needs data base (CNDB) and attempted to estimate the amount of space-suit work or extravehicular activity (EVA) required to set up the base. The maintenance and supply options study was a first look at the problems of supplying and maintaining the base. A lunar surface launch and landing facility was conceptually designed. The lunar storm shelter study examined the problems of radiation protection. The lunar surface construction and equipment assembly study defined twenty surface construction and assembly tasks in detail.

  7. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems (CASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the in-house and contract work accomplished under the CASTS Project. In July 1975 the CASTS Project was initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K (600 F) operational capability for application to aerospace vehicles. Major tasks include: (1) screening composites and adhesives, (2) developing fabrication procedures and specifications, (3) developing design allowables test methods and data, and (4) design and test of structural elements and construction of an aft body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle which will be ground tested. Portions of the information are from ongoing research and must be considered preliminary. The CASTS Project is scheduled to be completed in September 1983.

  8. Space manufacturing in the construction of solar power satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, J.; Westphal, W.

    This paper deals with ongoing research work concerning energy budget and cost of the solar Satellite Power System (SPS). The fundamental model of such a total system including ground and space facilities, transportation vehicles, power satellites and rectennas is presented. The main purpose of this model is to examine the applicability of different construction scenarios to allow comparison under nearly identical constraints. Using this model in a first attempt the blankets—meaning the main part of the space segment by weight, energy investment needs and cost—are chosen representatively for the energy and cost comparison of two construction alternatives of the same SPS concept. These construction alternatives are defined just by ground and space based manufacturing of the solar blankets, while all other subsystems, operations and the transportation profiles are considered to be kept the same. It can be shown that the energy "payback" time does not only depend on the SPS concept selected but also very much on the construction and implementation scenario. The cost comparison of these alternative approaches presents not very significant differences but advantages for the space manufacturing option with potential higher differences for a less conservative approach which may apply benefits of space manufacturing meaning, for example, considerable mass savings in space. Some preliminary results are discussed and an outlook is given over the next steps to be investigated, comprising the extension of the fundamental model to include use of lunar raw materials.

  9. Performance and lifetime of solar mirror foils in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, D.; Biersack, J.P.; Staedele, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a Monte Carlo computer analysis of the long term effects of space radiation on the surfaces of giant orbiting mirrors are presented. The mirrors, thin surfaced and made of substances like, e.g., Mylar and Hostephan, which are polymers, would reflect solar radiation to earth and be of a size equivalent to that of the area they would illumine. Possible applications are the warming of cities, melting of icebergs in shipping lanes and the illumination of solar power plants. Attention was focused on the changes produced in the reflective surface by solar wind particle bombardment. It was found that an Al covering at least 0.1 mm thick would be needed for protection. Nevertheless, the surface would be destroyed by blistering and foil carbonization within 10 yr and would then require replacement. 12 references.

  10. Large area low-cost space solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.; Cioni, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A development program to produce large-area (5.9 x 5.9 cm) space quality silicon solar cells with a cost goal of 30 $/watt is descibed. Five cell types under investigation include wraparound dielectric, mechanical wraparound and conventional contact configurations with combinations of 2 or 10 ohm-cm resistivity, back surface reflectors and/or fields, and diffused or ion implanted junctions. A single step process to cut cell and cover-glass simultaneously is being developed. A description of cell developments by Applied Solar Energy Corp., Spectrolab and Spire is included. Results are given for cell and array tests, performed by Lockheed, TRW and NASA. Future large solar arrays that might use cells of this type are discussed.

  11. MHD conversion of solar energy. [space electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, C. V.; Decher, R.

    1978-01-01

    Low temperature plasmas wherein an alkali metal vapor is a component are uniquely suited to simultaneously absorb solar radiation by coupling to the resonance lines and produce electrical power by the MHD interaction. This work is an examination of the possibility of developing space power systems which take advantage of concentrated solar power to produce electricity. It is shown that efficient cycles in which expansion work takes place at nearly constant top cycle temperature can be devised. The power density of the solar MHD generator is lower than that of conventional MHD generators because of the relatively high seed concentration required for radiation absorption and the lower flow velocity permitted to avoid total pressure losses due to heating.

  12. SUITS/SWUSV: a Solar-Terrestrial Space Weather & Climate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Hauchecorne, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The SUITS/SWUSV (Solar Ultraviolet Influence on Troposphere/Stratosphere, a Space Weather & Ultraviolet Solar Variability mission) microsatellite mission is developed on one hand to determine the origins of the Sun's activity, understand the flaring process (high energy flare characterization) and onset (forecasting) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and, on the other hand, to determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's atmosphere and its response to solar variability (in particular UV) and terrestrial inputs. It therefore includes the prediction and detection of major eruptions and CMEs (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging 200-220 nm), the solar forcing on the climate through radiation, and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance 170-400 nm and ozone measurements). SUITS/SWUSV includes a 8 instruments model payload with, in particular for Space Weather and Climate, SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability), SOLSIM (Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor), a spectrometer with 0.65 nm spectral resolution from 170 to 340 nm, SUPR (Solar Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with UV filter radiometers at Lyman-Alpha, Herzberg, MgII, CN bandhead and UV bands coverage up to 400 nm, and ERBO (Earth Radiative Budget and Ozone), NADIR oriented to measure ozone (6 bands) and 0.1-100 μm ERB. Example of accommodation of the payload has been performed on a new PROBA type platform very nicely by Qinetic. Heritage is important both for instruments and platform leading to high TRL levels. SUITS/SWUSV is designed in view of ESA Small Mission Calls and other possible CNES/NASA opportunities in the near future (Heliophysics, Earth Observation, etc.).

  13. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  14. Terahertz photometers to observe solar flares from space (SOLAR-T project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre

    The space experiment SOLAR-T designed to observe solar flares at THz frequencies was completed. We present the concept, fabrication and performance of a double THz photometers system. An innovative optical setup allows observations of the full solar disk and the detection of small burst transients at the same time. It is the first detecting system conceived to observe solar flare THz emissions on board of stratospheric balloons. The system has been integrated to data acquisition and telemetry modules for this application. SOLAR-T uses two Golay cell detectors preceded by low-pass filters made of rough surface primary mirrors and membranes, 3 and 7 THz band-pass filters, and choppers. Its photometers can detect small solar bursts (tens of solar flux units) with sub second time resolution. One artificial Sun setup was developed to simulate actual observations. Tests comprised the whole system performance, on ambient and low pressure and temperature conditions. It is intended to provide data on the still unrevealed spectral shape of the mysterious THz solar flares emissions. The experiment is planned to be on board of two long-duration stratospheric balloon flights over Antarctica and Russia in 2014-2016. The SOLAR-T development, fabrication and tests has been accomplished by engineering and research teams from Mackenzie, Unicamp and Bernard Lyot Solar Observatory; Propertech Ltda.; Neuron Ltda.; and Samsung, Brazil; Tydex LCC, Russia; CONICET, Argentina; the stratospheric balloon missions will be carried in cooperation with teams from University of California, Berkeley, USA (flight over Antarctica), and Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia (flight over Russia).

  15. Solar Selective Coatings Developed for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    A solar collector having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity is envisioned for space power applications on minisatellites. A high solar absorptance is needed to collect as much of the incident solar radiation as possible and a low infrared emittance is needed to minimize radiant energy losses. A lightweight material having a high thermal conductivity is needed to transport the absorbed energy to where it is needed. Such a solar collector may be used with a low temperature-differential heat engine to provide electric power to the minisatellite components or as a source of thermal energy for a thermal bus that would heat remote regions of the spacecraft. The key to such a collector is the use of cermet coatings. Cermet coatings are composed of molecular islands of metal embedded in a three-dimensional matrix of dielectric. Recent research on molecular mixtures of aluminum and aluminum oxide at the NASA Glenn Research Center has yielded cermet coatings with a solar absorptance a of 0.797 and an infrared emittance epsilon of 0.131, yielding an alpha/epsilon ratio of 6. Although additional work is needed to further increase the alpha/epsilon ratio, these coatings are attractive owing to their potential durability in the space environment. The aluminum oxide surface should provide substantial protection from the atomic oxygen found in low Earth orbit. To help minimize emittance, these coatings are deposited on a smooth surface. The selected surface is aluminum that has been diamond turned to a mirror finish. Cermet coatings are manufactured by sputter deposition. To achieve the desired variable composition, Glenn's researchers implemented a novel approach using a cylindrical target composed of aluminum and aluminum oxide. Rotating the cylinder during the deposition process yields a coating of variable composition. A photograph of the custom-made aluminum and aluminum oxide cylindrical target installed

  16. Plasma Interaction with International Space Station High Voltage Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is presently being assembled in low-earth orbit (LEO) operating high voltage solar arrays (-160 V max, -140 V typical with respect to the ambient atmosphere). At the station's present altitude, there exists substantial ambient plasma that can interact with the solar arrays. The biasing of an object to an electric potential immersed in plasma creates a plasma "sheath" or non-equilibrium plasma around the object to mask out the electric fields. A positively biased object can collect electrons from the plasma sheath and the sheath will draw a current from the surrounding plasma. This parasitic current can enter the solar cells and effectively "short out" the potential across the cells, reducing the power that can be generated by the panels. Predictions of collected current based on previous high voltage experiments (SAMPIE (Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment), PASP+ (Photovoltaic Array Space Power) were on the order of amperes of current. However, present measurements of parasitic current are on the order of several milliamperes, and the current collection mainly occurs during an "eclipse exit" event, i.e., when the space station comes out of darkness. This collection also has a time scale, t approx. 1000 s, that is much slower than any known plasma interaction time scales. The reason for the discrepancy between predictions and present electron collection is not understood and is under investigation by the PCU (Plasma Contactor Unit) "Tiger" team. This paper will examine the potential structure within and around the solar arrays, and the possible causes and reasons for the electron collection of the array.

  17. Advanced Space Suit Insulation Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.

    2000-01-01

    For planetary applications, the space suit insulation has unique requirements because it must perform in a dynamic mode to protect humans in the harsh dust, pressure and temperature environments. Since the presence of a gaseous planetary atmosphere adds significant thermal conductance to the suit insulation, the current multi-layer flexible insulation designed for vacuum applications is not suitable in reduced pressure planetary environments such as that of Mars. Therefore a feasibility study has been conducted at NASA to identify the most promising insulation concepts that can be developed to provide an acceptable suit insulation. Insulation concepts surveyed include foams, microspheres, microfibers, and vacuum jackets. The feasibility study includes a literature survey of potential concepts, an evaluation of test results for initial insulation concepts, and a development philosophy to be pursued as a result of the initial testing and conceptual surveys. The recommended focus is on microfibers due to the versatility of fiber structure configurations, the wide choice of fiber materials available, the maturity of the fiber processing industry, and past experience with fibers in insulation applications

  18. Advancing differential atom interferometry for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Williams, Jason; Yu, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometer (AI) based sensors exhibit precision and accuracy unattainable with classical sensors, thanks to the inherent stability of atomic properties. Dual atomic sensors operating in a differential mode further extend AI applicability beyond environmental disturbances. Extraction of the phase difference between dual AIs, however, typically introduces uncertainty and systematic in excess of that warranted by each AI's intrinsic noise characteristics, especially in practical applications and real time measurements. In this presentation, we report our efforts in developing practical schemes for reducing noises and enhancing sensitivities in the differential AI measurement implementations. We will describe an active phase extraction method that eliminates the noise overhead and demonstrates a performance boost of a gravity gradiometer by a factor of 3. We will also describe a new long-baseline approach for differential AI measurements in a laser ranging assisted AI configuration. The approach uses well-developed AIs for local measurements but leverage the mature schemes of space laser interferometry for LISA and GRACE. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a Contract with NASA.

  19. Advanced lightweight optics development for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbro, James W.

    1998-01-15

    A considerable amount of effort over the past year has been devoted to exploring ultra-lightweight optics for two specific NASA programs, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the High Throughput X-ray Spectrometer (HTXS). Experimental investigations have been undertaken in a variety of materials including glass, composites, nickel, beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (CSiC), Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide, Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide, and Silicon. Overall results of these investigations will be summarized, and specific details will be provided concerning the in-house development of ultra-lightweight nickel replication for both grazing incidence and normal incidence optics. This will include x-ray test results of the grazing incidence optic and cryogenic test results of the normal incidence optic. The status of two 1.5 meter diameter demonstration mirrors for NGST will also be presented. These two demonstrations are aimed at establishing the capability to manufacture and test mirrors that have an areal density of 15 kilograms per square meter. Efforts in thin membrane mirrors and Fresnel lenses will also be briefly discussed.

  20. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSoucie, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans/initial results.

  1. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  2. Visible solar-ray supply system for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kei; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiko; Yamashita, Masamichi

    The solar-ray supply system presented here will mainly provide the visible solar ray necessary for the various activities in the space station, such as cultivation experiments on plants, fishes, birds and animals, room lighting for modules, and crew sun-bathing. Even natural solar rays reaching earth surface contain harmful rays for human beings, animals, higher plants and algae: Ultraviolet rays of medium (UV-B) and long wavelength (UV-A), infrared and heat rays, are all harmful to life. On a space station, the most dangerous short-wavelength ultraviolet (UB-C), X-ray and gamma-ray are additionally included, besides those cited above in markedly higher intensity. The range of rays useful and harmless to life is the visible band of wavelengths. No conclusive studies have been conducted concerning the unexpected powerful effects on the growth of plants and algae that can be brought by pure visible solar rays, in comparison with the corresponding effects of other kinds of artificial light source.

  3. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  4. Use of Advanced Solar Cells for Commercial Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  5. Use of advanced solar cells for commercial communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-03-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  6. Use of advanced solar cells for commerical communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar- and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because of the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from Low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  7. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  8. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. PMID:27812480

  9. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  10. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  11. New frontiers in solar and space weather radiophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2002-05-01

    While not recognized at the time or for many years following, the earliest evidence for the impact of solar-terrestrial processes on technical systems appeared in the first half of the 19th century with the installation of the first practical electrical telegraph communication systems. The growth of wireless communications after Marconi's trans-Atlantic demonstration in 1901 of its long-distance feasibility was rapid. However, it was soon recognized that solar-induced disturbances also could disrupt this new technology: ``... times of bad fading [of radio signals occur in] the same time periods when cables and land [communication] lines experience difficulties ...." (Marconi, 1928). Bursts of solar radio emissions were first recognized (though not immediately) through their jamming of the early radar that were developed during the Second World War. Such solar radio phenomena remain an important concern for certain military technologies to date, as well as for newer civilian wireless technologies. This talk will present a broad overview of the history of the impacts of solar-terrestrial processes on human technologies and will address a number of contemporary issues in what has become to be known as ``space weather."

  12. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  13. Space power using solar photovoltaic panels: costs and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    Solar photovoltaic panels (SPPs) have been suggested as a possible prime space power source for multi-kilowatt applications within a ballistic missile defense (BMD) system. As a first step in an attempt to assess the affordability of possible BMD space power sources, the limitations and costs of space power satellites using SSPs in conjunction with an electrochemical energy storage system have been investigated. Both high and low earth orbital missions are considered. An extensive literature search was conducted to determine values for the principal technology-driven performance and cost figures of merit. A small computer code was then developed to evaluate the total power cost, including launch, in dollars per watt of desired space power load. The unit costs obtained were found to be heavily influenced by the nature of the mission (altitude) and the attainable specific power for the two major system components.

  14. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  15. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  16. Thin-film Solar Cells for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lush, Gregory B.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed work supports MURED goals by fostering research and development activities at Fisk and UTEP which contribute substantially to NASA's mission, preparing faculty and students at Fisk and UTEP to successfully participate in the conventional, competitive research and education process, and increasing the number of students to successfully complete degrees in NASA related fields. The project also addresses directly a core need of NASA for space power and is consistent with the Core Responsibilities of the John Glenn Space Center. Current orbital missions are limited by radiation from high energy particles trapped in the Van Allen Belt because that solar radiation degrades cell performance by damaging the crystalline lattice. Some potential orbits have been inaccessible because the radiation is too severe. Thin-film solar cells, if they can be adapted for use in the unfriendly space environment, could open new orbits to satellites by providing a radiation hard source of power. The manned mission to Mars requires photovoltaic devices for both the trip there and as a power supply on the surface. Solar arrays using thin films offer a low power/weight ratio solution that provides reliable photovoltaic power.

  17. Antiproton Trapping for Advanced Space Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1998-01-01

    The Summary of Research parallels the Statement of Work (Appendix I) submitted with the proposal, and funded effective Feb. 1, 1997 for one year. A proposal was submitted to CERN in October, 1996 to carry out an experiment on the synthesis and study of fundamental properties of atomic antihydrogen. Since confined atomic antihydrogen is potentially the most powerful and elegant source of propulsion energy known, its confinement and properties are of great interest to the space propulsion community. Appendix II includes an article published in the technical magazine Compressed Air, June 1997, which describes CERN antiproton facilities, and ATHENA. During the period of this grant, Prof. Michael Holzscheiter served as spokesman for ATHENA and, in collaboration with Prof. Gerald Smith, worked on the development of the antiproton confinement trap, which is an important part of the ATHENA experiment. Appendix III includes a progress report submitted to CERN on March 12, 1997 concerning development of the ATHENA detector. Section 4.1 reviews technical responsibilities within the ATHENA collaboration, including the Antiproton System, headed by Prof. Holzscheiter. The collaboration was advised (see Appendix IV) on June 13, 1997 that the CERN Research Board had approved ATHENA for operation at the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD), presently under construction. First antiproton beams are expected to be delivered to experiments in about one year. Progress toward assembly of the ATHENA detector and initial testing expected in 1999 has been excellent. Appendix V includes a copy of the minutes of the most recently documented collaboration meeting held at CERN of October 24, 1997, which provides more information on development of systems, including the antiproton trapping apparatus. On February 10, 1998 Prof. Smith gave a 3 hour lecture on the Physics of Antimatter, as part of the Physics for the Third Millennium Lecture Series held at MSFC. Included in Appendix VI are notes and

  18. Solar absorptance measurements in space on operational spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Hank W.; Jones, Cherie A.; Wilkes, Donald R.; Linton, Roger C.

    1995-07-01

    Spacecraft hardware such as radiators requires the maintenance of solar absorptance within tight bounds for their design life. Such hardware is sized in part based on the beginning- and end-of-life absorptance. It has been difficult to make accurate end-of-life determinations based on either ground based data or flight data. The synergistic effect of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, and contamination has made it difficult to duplicate space exposures in the laboratory. The absorptance of flight exposed samples brought back to earth are not representative of the conditions in space because of changes brought about by exposure to air. This paper proposes to augment the current in-space monitoring techniques with periodic, in- space, direct measurements of the solar absorptance on operational hardware. NASA funded AZ Technology to develop a portable, space-rated device similar to the LPSR-200 portable spectroreflectometer, a space portable spectroreflectometer (SPSR). This instrument is robotically compatible and can be run using spacecraft power or batteries. The instrument also has measurement storage capacity for later retrieval and evaluation. Although extensive development work has already been completed, authorization to build a unit for a flight experiment has not been received. The Russians have expressed an interest in having absorptance measurements made on their MIR I Space Station as part of the NASA/MIR flight experiments. Proposals are currently being made to obtain authorization for the construction and use of SPSR on NASA/MIR flight experiments, to help mitigate potential problems for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA).

  19. The role of nanostructures and quantum dots in detectors and solar cells for radiation hardened space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward W.

    2006-08-01

    Highly efficient IR detectors and photo-voltaic solar cells that incorporate nanotechnology composed of nanostructures and nanoparticles (including quantum dots) will play an important role in advanced photonic space applications. While the development of Si-based solar cells has successfully evolved into an efficient and economical technology these devices are predicted to soon reach their theoretical 29% limit efficiency. Alternative organic/polymer solar cells and IR detectors incorporating quantum dots and various nanoparticle or nanostructure materials are emerging which are expected to eventually outperform current state-of-the-art detectors and solar cell devices. By tailoring the QD design wavelength-optimized detectors and detector arrays operating over the UV-IR range can be realized. Specific examples for achieving near-IR photovoltaic and photoconductive detectors with high quantum efficiencies are presented along with brief examples of empirical data reported for assessing the radiation resistance of QD nanocrystalline devices for application in space environments.

  20. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  1. Some operational aspects of a rotating advanced-technology space station for the year 2025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Butterfield, A. J.; Cuddihy, W. F.; King, C. B.; Stone, R. W.; Wrobel, J. R.; Garn, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    The study of an Advanced Technology Space Station which would utilize the capabilities of subsystems projected for the time frame of the years 2000 to 2025 is discussed. The study includes tradeoffs of nuclear versus solar dynamic power systems that produce power outputs of 2.5 megawatts and analyses of the dynamics of the spacecraft of which portions are rotated for artificial gravity. The design considerations for the support of a manned Mars mission from low Earth orbit are addressed. The studies extend to on-board manufacturing, internal gas composition effects, and locomotion and material transfer under artificial gravity forces. The report concludes with an assessment of technology requirements for the Advanced Technology Space Station.

  2. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow; Löschl, Philipp; Seifert, Bernhard; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Kraaikamp, Emil; Isha Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Philippe, Thomas; Spina, Sheila; Bröse, Malte; Massahi, Sonny; O'Halloran, Liam; Pereira Blanco, Victor; Stausland, Christoffer; Escoubet, Philippe; Kargl, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68° to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR.

  3. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  4. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  5. Space dusty plasmas: recent developments, advances, and unsolved problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev

    2016-07-01

    The area of space dusty plasma research is a vibrant subfield of plasma physics that belongs to frontier research in physical sciences. This area is intrinsically interdisciplinary and encompasses astrophysics, planetary science, and atmospheric science. Dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in the universe; examples are proto-planetary and solar nebulae, molecular clouds, supernovae explosions, interplanetary medium, circumsolar rings, and asteroids. Within the solar system, we have planetary rings (e.g., Saturn and Jupiter), Martian atmosphere, cometary tails and comae, dust at the Moon, etc. Dust and dusty plasmas are also found in the vicinity of artificial satellites and space stations. The present review covers the main aspects of the area of space dusty plasma research. Emphasis is given to the description of dusty plasmas at the Moon which is important from the viewpoint of the future lunar missions and lunar observatory. This work was supported in part by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (under Fundamental Research Program No. 7, "Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Solar System Objects and Stellar Planet Systems. Transient Explosion Processes in Astrophysics" and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 15-02-05627-a).

  6. Orbits design for LEO space based solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addanki, Neelima Krishna Murthy

    2011-12-01

    Space Based Solar Power satellites use solar arrays to generate clean, green, and renewable electricity in space and transmit it to earth via microwave, radiowave or laser beams to corresponding receivers (ground stations). These traditionally are large structures orbiting around earth at the geo-synchronous altitude. This thesis introduces a new architecture for a Space Based Solar Power satellite constellation. The proposed concept reduces the high cost involved in the construction of the space satellite and in the multiple launches to the geo-synchronous altitude. The proposed concept is a constellation of Low Earth Orbit satellites that are smaller in size than the conventional system. 7For this application a Repeated Sun-Synchronous Track Circular Orbit is considered (RSSTO). In these orbits, the spacecraft re-visits the same locations on earth periodically every given desired number of days with the line of nodes of the spacecraft's orbit fixed relative to the Sun. A wide range of solutions are studied, and, in this thesis, a two-orbit constellation design is chosen and simulated. The number of satellites is chosen based on the electric power demands in a given set of global cities. The orbits of the satellites are designed such that their ground tracks visit a maximum number of ground stations during the revisit period. In the simulation, the locations of the ground stations are chosen close to big cities, in USA and worldwide, so that the space power constellation beams down power directly to locations of high electric power demands. The j2 perturbations are included in the mathematical model used in orbit design. The Coverage time of each spacecraft over a ground site and the gap time between two consecutive spacecrafts visiting a ground site are simulated in order to evaluate the coverage continuity of the proposed solar power constellation. It has been observed from simulations that there always periods in which s spacecraft does not communicate with any

  7. Thin-Film Solar Cells on Polymer Substrates for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepps, A. F.; McNatt, Jeremiah; Morel, D. L.; Ferckides, C. S.; Jin, M. H.; Orbey, N.; Cushman, M.; Birkmire, R. W.; Shafarman, W. N.; Newton, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays have played a key role in power generation in space. The current technology will continue to evolve but is limited in the important mass specific power metric (MSP or power/weight ratio) because it is based on bulk crystal technology. Solar cells based on thin-film materials offer the promise of much higher MSP and much lower cost. However, for many space applications, a 20% or greater AM0 efficiency (eta) may be required. The leading thin-film materials, amorphous Si, CuInSe, and CdTe have seen significant advances in efficiency over the last decade but will not achieve the required efficiency in the near future. Several new technologies are herein described to maximize both device eta and MSP. We will discuss these technologies in the context of space exploration and commercialization. One novel approach involves the use of very lightweight polyimide substrates. We describe efforts to enable this advance including materials processing and device fabrication and characterization. Another approach involves stacking two cells on top of each other. These tandem devices more effectively utilize solar radiation by passing through non-absorbed longer wavelength light to a narrow-bandgap bottom cell material. Modeling of current devices in tandem format indicates that AM0 efficiencies near 20% can be achieved with potential for 25% in the near future. Several important technical issues need to be resolved to realize the benefits of lightweight technologies for solar arrays, such as: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. Recent advances will be stressed.

  8. Solar Powered Propulsion for Space. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and performance of solar propulsion systems. Solar electric propulsion and solar thermal propulsion are reviewed. Topics include solar power satellites, nuclear electric propulsion, solar-powered orbit transfer vehicles, and solar dynamic and bimodal power systems. References also discuss atmospheric pollution control, telephone services, space commercialization, interplanetary missions, and lunar and Mars exploration. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array: Providing a Flexible, Efficient Solution to Space Power Systems for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Len; Fabisinski, Leo; Cunningham, Karen; Justice, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is critical to consumers, spacecraft, military and other applications alike. In the aerospace industry, an increased emphasis on small satellite flights and a move toward CubeSat and NanoSat technologies, the need for systems that could package into a small stowage volume while still being able to power robust space missions has become more critical. As a result, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office identified a need for more efficient, affordable, and smaller space power systems to trade in performing design and feasibility studies. The Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space or on Earth. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to soldiers in the field. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume (shown in artist rendering in Figure 1 below). The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the progress to date on the LISA project as well as a look at its potential, with continued development, to revolutionize small spacecraft and portable terrestrial power systems.

  10. Overview study of Space Power Technologies for the advanced energetics program. [spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Gross, S.; Millner, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, W.; Powell, J.; Schmidt, E.; Wolf, M.; Woodcock, G.

    1981-01-01

    Space power technologies are reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art and to identify advanced or novel concepts which promise large increases in performance. The potential for incresed performance is judged relative to benchmarks based on technologies which have been flight tested. Space power technology concepts selected for their potentially high performance are prioritized in a list of R & D topical recommendations for the NASA program on Advanced Energetics. The technology categories studied are solar collection, nuclear power sources, energy conversion, energy storage, power transmission, and power processing. The emphasis is on electric power generation in space for satellite on board electric power, for electric propulsion, or for beamed power to spacecraft. Generic mission categories such as low Earth orbit missions and geosynchronous orbit missions are used to distinguish general requirements placed on the performance of power conversion technology. Each space power technology is judged on its own merits without reference to specific missions or power systems. Recommendations include 31 space power concepts which span the entire collection of technology categories studied and represent the critical technologies needed for higher power, lighter weight, more efficient power conversion in space.

  11. Impacts of Stratospheric Dynamics on Atmospheric Behavior from the Ground to Space Solar Minimum and Solar Maximum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Constant solar and magnetospheric energy inputs are used so that day-to-day changes will arise only from lower atmospheric forcing. The simulated...from the ground to space solar minimum and solar maximum 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER BAA-76-11-01 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00173-12-1G010 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...atmospheric behavior from the ground to space under solar minimum and solar maximum conditions (Contract No.: N00173-12-1-G010 NRL) Project Summary

  12. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper two basic WPT options, using radio waves and light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  13. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2007-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this presentation, two basic WPT options, using radio waves an d light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in nearterm space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  14. Propulsion technology needs for advanced space transportation systems. [orbit maneuvering engine (space shuttle), space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans are formulated for chemical propulsion technology programs to meet the needs of advanced space transportation systems from 1980 to the year 2000. The many possible vehicle applications are reviewed and cataloged to isolate the common threads of primary propulsion technology that satisfies near term requirements in the first decade and at the same time establish the technology groundwork for various potential far term applications in the second decade. Thrust classes of primary propulsion engines that are apparent include: (1) 5,000 to 30,000 pounds thrust for upper stages and space maneuvering; and (2) large booster engines of over 250,000 pounds thrust. Major classes of propulsion systems and the important subdivisions of each class are identified. The relative importance of each class is discussed in terms of the number of potential applications, the likelihood of that application materializing, and the criticality of the technology needed. Specific technology programs are described and scheduled to fulfill the anticipated primary propulsion technology requirements.

  15. Synergies between Solar Power Supply from Space and Passenger Space Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Energy supply from space, as proposed by Peter Glaser in 1968, requires low launch costs in order to be economic, which can only be achieved through large-scale operations of reusable launch vehicles. From market research and feasibility studies performed over the past decade, passenger space travel services, which also require low launch costs, and appear to have the potential to develop into an industry as large as passenger air travel. The paper discusses the synergistic relationship between power supply from space and passenger space travel, whereby each may require the other for its realisation. While governments have been slow to adopt energy policies needed to avoid energy shortages and environmental destruction, the need for new industries to reduce record levels of unemployment world-wide may stimulate the development of passenger space travel - which could in turn stimulate the development of space-based solar power supply systems.

  16. The Promise and the Challenge of Space Solar Power in the 21st Century: Picking up the Gauntlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-01-01

    The history of human civilization is a history of great infrastructure. Chief among these developments have been advances in power, transport, and communications. Without dramatic and steady advances in these critical systems during the past two hundred years-- especially in the available sources of power--the world would be a drastically poorer and harsher home for humanity. At the same time, through the global use of existing energy technologies humanity is rapidly consuming irreplaceable fossil resources as well as changing the environment and the climate for the world itself. Both must raise concerns about the long-term sustainability of the infrastructures that have enabled our world. The importance of abundant and affordable energy in space exploration and development is equally clear. Current missions of exploration and scientific discovery are narrowly constrained by a lack of energy. Future, even more ambitious missions will never be realized without new, reliable and less expensive sources of energy. Even more, the potential emergence of new space industries such as space tourism, manufacturing in space, solar power satellites (SPS) and others, will depend on advances in space power systems just as much as they will on progress in space transportation. Recent studies and technological advances suggest that large-scale space solar power (SSP) systems may enable progress in both arenas during the next several decades. Of course, there are tremendous engineering and technological barriers that must be surmounted to someday make large SSP systems possible. Diverse areas of technology must be advanced. Some of these include space transportation, solar power generation, wireless power transmission, robotics, structural concepts and materials, and others. Nevertheless, there are potential benefits in the offing that seem to many to make challenging even these daunting technical barriers worthwhile--and perhaps essential. Unfortunately, the political and

  17. The Economics of Advanced In-Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangalore, Manju; Dankanich, John

    2016-01-01

    The cost of access to space is the single biggest driver is commercial space sector. NASA continues to invest in both launch technology and in-space propulsion. Low-cost launch systems combined with advanced in-space propulsion offer the greatest potential market capture. Launch market capture is critical to national security and has a significant impact on domestic space sector revenue. NASA typically focuses on pushing the limits on performance. However, the commercial market is driven by maximum net revenue (profits). In order to maximum the infusion of NASA investments, the impact on net revenue must be known. As demonstrated by Boeing's dual launch, the Falcon 9 combined with all Electric Propulsion (EP) can dramatically shift the launch market from foreign to domestic providers.

  18. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    space weather monitoring and alarm system--SPE exposure analysis system, an advanced space weather data distribution and display system, and a high-fidelity space weather simulation system. In addition, significant new real-time space weather data sets, which will enhance the forecasting and now-casting of near-Earth space environment conditions, are being made available through unique NASA-NOAA-USAF collaborations. These new data sets include coronal mass ejection monitoring by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and in-situ plasma and particle monitoring at the L1 libration point by the Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM) and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Advanced real-time radiation monitoring data from charged particle telescopes and tissue equivalent proportional counters will also be available to assist crew and flight controllers in monitoring the external and intravehicular radiation environment.

  19. The cavity heat pipe Stirling receiver for space solar dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James B.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1989-01-01

    The receiver/storage unit for the low-earth-orbiting Stirling system is discussed. The design, referred to as the cavity heat pipe (CHP), has been optimized for minimum specific mass and volume width. A specific version of this design at the 7-kWe level has been compared to the space station Brayton solar dynamic design. The space station design utilizes a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF2. Using the same phase change material, the CHP has been shown to have a specific mass of 40 percent and a volume of 5 percent of that of the space station Brayton at the same power level. Additionally, it complements the free-piston Stirling engine in that it also maintains a relatively flat specific mass down to at least 1 kWe. The technical requirements, tradeoff studies, critical issues, and critical technology experiments are discussed.

  20. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  1. Human exposure to large solar particle events in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Curtis, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/sq cm) and storm shelter (20 g/sq cm) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high-dose-rate values prevalent in radiation therapy.

  2. Solar Microwave and Geomagnetic Field Pulsations as Space Weather Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirev, S. D.; Fridman, V. M.; Sheiner, O. A.

    The procedure of short-term prediction of main solar flares was created on the basis of temporal behavior of long-period microwave pulsations [Kobrin et al., 1997]. At the same time it was shown that before these flares one could observe long-period (T > 20 min) pulsations of geomagnetic field [Kobrin et al, 1985]. The resemblance between microwave and geomagnetic pulsations (duration and temporal behaviour) allows us to propose the common nature of these variations: the reflection of solar energy accumulation and instabilities in solar centers of activity. To be an important factor of Space Weather above mentioned pulsations can be useful for constructing the procedures to predict the near Earth's conditions. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research and Russian Federal Programm "Astronomy" (grant N 1.5.5.5). Kobrin M.M, Malygin V.I., Snegirev S.D. Plan. Space Sci., 33, N11, p. 1251 (1985). Kobrin M.M., Pakhomov V.V., Snegirev S.D., Fridman V.M., Sheiner O.A. Proc. Workshop `STPW-96', Tokyo: RCW, p. 200 (1997).

  3. Human exposure to large solar particle events in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Curtis, S. B.

    Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/cm2) and storm shelter (20 g/cm2) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high dose rate values prevalent in radiation therapy.

  4. Reliability models applicable to space telescope solar array assembly system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patil, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A complex system may consist of a number of subsystems with several components in series, parallel, or combination of both series and parallel. In order to predict how well the system will perform, it is necessary to know the reliabilities of the subsystems and the reliability of the whole system. The objective of the present study is to develop mathematical models of the reliability which are applicable to complex systems. The models are determined by assuming k failures out of n components in a subsystem. By taking k = 1 and k = n, these models reduce to parallel and series models; hence, the models can be specialized to parallel, series combination systems. The models are developed by assuming the failure rates of the components as functions of time and as such, can be applied to processes with or without aging effects. The reliability models are further specialized to Space Telescope Solar Arrray (STSA) System. The STSA consists of 20 identical solar panel assemblies (SPA's). The reliabilities of the SPA's are determined by the reliabilities of solar cell strings, interconnects, and diodes. The estimates of the reliability of the system for one to five years are calculated by using the reliability estimates of solar cells and interconnects given n ESA documents. Aging effects in relation to breaks in interconnects are discussed.

  5. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    -ctical technologies, the 100 kw-class satellite will provide a large experiment deck for a portfolio of technology experiments. Current plans for this technology demonstrator allow 2000 kg of payload capability and up to 100 kW of power. The technology experiments could include one or more wireless power transmission demonstrations, either to the Earth s surface or to a suitable space-based receiver. Technology experiments to quantify the on-orbit performance of critical technologies for SSP or space exploration are welcomed. In addition, the technology experiments provide an opportunity for international cooperation, to advance technology readiness levels of SSP technologies that require flight demonstration. This paper will present the preliminary design for a 100 kW solar-powered satellite and a variety of technology experiments that may be suitable for flight demonstration. In addition, a space-to-Earth-surface WPT experiment will be discussed.

  6. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  7. Space Launch System Advanced Development Office, FY 2013 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, C. M.; Bickley, F. P.; Hueter, U.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Development Office (ADO), part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program, provides SLS with the advanced development needed to evolve the vehicle from an initial Block 1 payload capability of 70 metric tons (t) to an eventual capability Block 2 of 130 t, with intermediary evolution options possible. ADO takes existing technologies and matures them to the point that insertion into the mainline program minimizes risk. The ADO portfolio of tasks covers a broad range of technical developmental activities. The ADO portfolio supports the development of advanced boosters, upper stages, and other advanced development activities benefiting the SLS program. A total of 34 separate tasks were funded by ADO in FY 2013.

  8. Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

  9. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  10. Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Brisco, Holly

    1993-01-01

    Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and presents a summary of supporting analysis and test data for the assigned model parameters and performance loss factors. Each model parameter and loss factor is assessed based upon program requirements, component analysis and test data to date. A description of the LMSC performance model future test plans and predicted performance ranges are also given.

  11. Solar array electrical performance assessment for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Brisco, Holly

    1993-01-01

    Electrical power for Space Station Freedom will be generated by large Photovoltaic arrays with a beginning of life power requirement of 30.8 kW per array. The solar arrays will operate in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) over a design life of fifteen years. This paper provides an analysis of the predicted solar array electrical performance over the design life and presents a summary of supporting analysis and test data for the assigned model parameters and performance loss factors. Each model parameter and loss factor is assessed based upon program requirements, component analysis, and test data to date. A description of the LMSC performance model, future test plans, and predicted performance ranges are also given.

  12. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program: A Materials Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The realization of low-cost assess to space is one of NASA's three principal goals or "pillars" under the Office of Aero-Space Technology. In accordance with the goals of this pillar, NASA's primary space transportation technology role is to develop and demonstrate next-generation technologies to enable the commercial launch industry to develop full-scale, low cost, highly reliable space launchers. The approach involves both ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrators, including the X-33, X-34, Bantam, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), and future experimental vehicles. Next generation space transportation vehicles and propulsion systems will require the development and implementation of advanced materials and processes. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced materials efforts which are focused on the needs of next generation space transportation systems. Applications described will include ceramic matrix composite (CMC) integrally bladed turbine disk (blisk); actively cooled CMC nozzle ramp for the aerospike engine; ablative thrust chamber/nozzle; and metal matrix composite turbomachinery housings.

  13. Advanced technology for space communications and tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    The communications needs for the Growth Space Station (GSS) are envisioned to drive NASA to seek unique concepts and capability to establish this permanent presence in space. Furthermore, it will provide a facility to assemble, test, and deploy rather large and unique communications systems/subsystems. GSS is envisioned to need or desire the capability to communicate with many more satellites and spacecraft than the initial operating capability (IOC). The increased interconnectivity will include links with numerous NASA and other U.S. Government satellites, commercial satellites, foreign spacecraft, and deep space missions. In parallel, the payloads/experiments on Space Station are expected to increase in numbers and in terms of data gathering capabilities. The use of automation and robotics will require high data rate and extremely reliable links. The GSS will need to accommodate continually evolving and largely unknown future requirements for coverage, data rates, number of users, etc. This requirement for flexibility over a long term will provide a unique challenge to develop systems which are user transparent and which are quickly reconfigurable. Deep space communications are driven by the relatively near-term envisioned missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to these, projected NASA missions include Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and comet/asteroid probes. These future deep space missions will require highly reliable, long life, and very efficient communications and tracking systems to ensure success. Additionally, for space proximity operations, systems capable of supporting rendezvous, station keeping, and soft docking between various vehicles, Shuttle, satellites, unknown objects, and Space Stations are needed. In this paper, technology advancements in the communications and tracking areas being pursued within NASA, as applicable to future missions and associated space operations, are presented. The relevance of optical-, laser-, and millimeter-wave based

  14. Overview of advanced Stirling and gas turbine engine development programs and implications for solar thermal electrical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, D.

    1984-03-01

    The DOE automotive advanced engine development projects managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center were described. These included one Stirling cycle engine development and two air Brayton cycle development. Other engine research activities included: (1) an air Brayton engine development sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, and (2) plans for development of a Stirling cycle engine for space use. Current and potential use of these various engines with solar parabolic dishes were discussed.

  15. Overview of Advanced Stirling and Gas Turbine Engine Development Programs and Implications for Solar Thermal Electrical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE automotive advanced engine development projects managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center were described. These included one Stirling cycle engine development and two air Brayton cycle development. Other engine research activities included: (1) an air Brayton engine development sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, and (2) plans for development of a Stirling cycle engine for space use. Current and potential use of these various engines with solar parabolic dishes were discussed.

  16. Advanced Research Deposition System (ARDS) for processing CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricklow, Keegan Corey

    CdTe solar cells have been commercialized at the Gigawatt/year level. The development of volume manufacturing processes for next generation CdTe photovoltaics (PV) with higher efficiencies requires research systems with flexibility, scalability, repeatability and automation. The Advanced Research Deposition Systems (ARDS) developed by the Materials Engineering Laboratory (MEL) provides such a platform for the investigation of materials and manufacturing processes necessary to produce the next generation of CdTe PV. Limited by previous research systems, the ARDS was developed to provide process and hardware flexibility, accommodating advanced processing techniques, and capable of producing device quality films. The ARDS is a unique, in-line process tool with nine processing stations. The system was designed, built and assembled at the Materials Engineering Laboratory. Final assembly, startup, characterization and process development are the focus of this research. Many technical challenges encountered during the startup of the ARDS were addressed in this research. In this study, several hardware modifications needed for the reliable operation of the ARDS were designed, constructed and successfully incorporated into the ARDS. The effect of process condition on film properties for each process step was quantified. Process development to achieve 12% efficient baseline solar cell required investigation of discrete processing steps, troubleshooting process variation, and developing performance correlations. Subsequent to this research, many advances have been demonstrated with the ARDS. The ARDS consistently produces devices of 12% +/-.5% by the process of record (POR). The champion cell produced to date utilizing the ARDS has an efficiency of 16.2% on low cost commercial sodalime glass and utilizes advanced films. The ARDS has enabled investigation of advanced concepts for processing CdTe devices including, Plasma Cleaning, Plasma Enhanced Closed Space Sublimation

  17. GaAs solar cells for concentrator systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Cells for operation in space up to more than 100 suns were made, and an AMO efficiency of 21% at 100 suns with these cells was obtained. The increased efficiency resulted not only from the higher open circuit voltage associated with the higher light intensity (higher short circuit current); it also benefitted from the increase in fill factor caused by the lower relative contribution of the generation recombination current to the forward bias current when the cell's operating current density is increased. The experimental cells exhibited an AMO efficiency close to 16% at 200 C. The prospect of exploiting this capability for the continuous annealing of radiation damage or for high temperature missions (e.g., near Sun missions) remains therefore open. Space systems with concentration ratios on the order of 100 suns are presently under development. The tradeoff between increased concentration ratio and increased loss due to the cell's series resistance remains attractive even for space applications at a solar concentrator ratio of 100 suns. In the design of contact configuration with low enough series resistance for such solar concentration ratios, the shallow junction depth needed for good radiation hardness and the thin AlGaAs layer thickness needed to avoid excessive optical absorption losses have to be retained.

  18. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Davis, Dean; Born, Andrew; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near-term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 15 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  19. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  20. On the Prediction of Solar Cell Degradation in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, J. C.; Boizot, B.; Khirouni, K.; Khorenko, V.

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the validity of the procedure which is used to predict End Of Life performances of a solar cell in space. This procedure consists to measure the performances of the cell after it has been irradiated at the EOL fluence during a time ti very short compared to the duration tm of the mission in space, i.e. with a considerably larger flux. We show that this procedure is valid only when the defects created by the irradiation do not anneal (thermally or by carrier injection) with a time constant shorter than tm or larger than ti. This can be a common situation since annealing of irradiation induced defects occurs in all type of cells, at least in specific conditions (temperature, intensity of illumination, flux and nature of irradiating particles). Using modeling, we illustrate the effect of injection or thermal annealing on EOL prediction in the case GaInP, material at the heart of modern high efficiency space solar cells.

  1. SUITS/SWUSV: a small-size mission to address solar spectral variability, space weather and solar-climate relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Meftah, Mustapha; Bekki, Slimane

    2016-07-01

    We present the SUITS/SWUSV microsatellite mission investigation: "Solar Ultraviolet Influence on Troposphere/Stratosphere, a Space Weather & Ultraviolet Solar Variability" mission. SUITS/SWUSV was developed to determine the origins of the Sun's activity, understand the flaring process (high energy flare characterization) and onset of CMEs (forecasting). Another major objective is to determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's atmosphere and its response to solar variability (in particular UV) and terrestrial inputs. It therefore includes the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging) the solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance measures from 170 to 400 nm). The mission is proposed on a sun-synchronous polar orbit 18h-6h (for almost constant observing) and proposes a 7 instruments model payload of 65 kg - 65 W with: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); SOLSIM (Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor), a spectrometer with 0.65 nm spectral resolution from 170 to 340 nm; SUPR (Solar Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with UV filter radiometers at Lyman-Alpha, Herzberg, MgII index, CN bandhead and UV bands coverage up to 400 nm; HEBS (High Energy Burst Spectrometers), a large energy coverage (a few tens of keV to a few hundreds of MeV) instrument to characterize large flares; EPT-HET (Electron-Proton Telescope - High Energy Telescope), measuring electrons, protons, and heavy ions over a large energy range; ERBO (Earth Radiative Budget and Ozone) NADIR oriented; and a vector magnetometer. Complete accommodation of the payload has been performed on a PROBA type platform very nicely. Heritage is important both for instruments (SODISM and PREMOS on PICARD, LYRA on PROBA-2, SOLSPEC on ISS

  2. Advances in Radiation-Tolerant Solar Arrays for SEP Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    As the power levels of commercial communications satellites reach the 20 kWe and higher, new options begin to emerge for transferring the satellite from LEO to GEO. In the past electric propulsion has been demonstrated successfully for this mission - albeit under unfortunate circumstances when the kick motor failed. The unexpected use of propellant for the electric propulsion (EP) system compromised the life of that vehicle, but did demonstrate the viability of such an approach. Replacing the kick motor on a satellite and replacing that mass by additional propellant for the EP system as well as mass for additional revenue-producing transponders should lead to major benefits for the provider. Of course this approach requires that the loss in solar array power during transit of the Van Allen radiation belts is not excessive and still enables the 15 to 20 year mission life. In addition, SEP missions to Jupiter, with its exceptional radiation belts, would mandate a radiation-resistant solar array to compete with a radioisotope alternative. Several critical issues emerge as potential barriers to this approach: reducing solar array radiation damage, operating the array at high voltage (>300 V) for extended times for Hall or ion thrusters, designing an array that will be resistant to micrometeoroid impacts and the differing environmental conditions as the vehicle travels from LEO to GEO (or at Jupiter), producing an array that is light weight to preserve payload mass fraction - and to do this at a cost that is lower than today's arrays. This paper will describe progress made to date on achieving an array that meets all these requirements and is also useful for deep space electric propulsion missions.

  3. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-12-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  4. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  5. An overview of DARPA's advanced space technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastri, E.; Dodd, J.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the central research and development organization of the DoD and, as such, has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of U.S. technological superiority over potential adversaries. DARPA's programs focus on technology development and proof-of-concept demonstrations of both evolutionary and revolutionary approaches for improved strategic, conventional, rapid deployment and sea power forces, and on the scientific investigation into advanced basic technologies of the future. DARPA can move quickly to exploit new ideas and concepts by working directly with industry and universities. For four years, DARPA's Advanced Space Technology Program (ASTP) has addressed various ways to improve the performance of small satellites and launch vehicles. The advanced technologies that are being and will be developed by DARPA for small satellites can be used just as easily on large satellites. The primary objective of the ASTP is to enhance support to operational commanders by developing and applying advanced technologies that will provide cost-effective, timely, flexible, and responsive space systems. Fundamental to the ASTP effort is finding new ways to do business with the goal of quickly inserting new technologies into DoD space systems while reducing cost. In our view, these methods are prime examples of what may be termed 'technology leveraging.' The ASTP has initiated over 50 technology projects, many of which were completed and transitioned to users. The objectives are to quickly qualify these higher risk technologies for use on future programs and reduce the risk of inserting these technologies into major systems, and to provide the miniaturized systems that would enable smaller satellites to have significant - rather than limited - capability. Only a few of the advanced technologies are described, the majority of which are applicable to both large and small satellites.

  6. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  7. A perspective about the total solar eclipse observation from future space settlements and a review of Indonesian space researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastradipradja, D.; Dwivany, F. M.; Swandjaja, L.

    2016-11-01

    Viewing astronomy objects from space is superior to that from Earth due to the absence of terrestrial atmospheric disturbances. Since decades ago, there has been an idea of building gigantic spaceships to live in, i.e., low earth orbit (LEO) settlement. In the context of solar eclipse, the presuming space settlements will accommodate future solar eclipse chasers (amateur or professional astronomers) to observe solar eclipse from space. Not only for scientific purpose, human personal observation from space is also needed for getting aesthetical mental impression. Furthermore, since space science indirectly aids solar eclipse observation, we will discuss the related history and development of Indonesian space experiments. Space science is an essential knowledge to be mastered by all nations.

  8. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  9. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  10. Functional safety for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulau, Scott; Williams, Timothy R.

    2012-09-01

    Since inception, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has planned to implement a facility-wide functional safety system to protect personnel from harm and prevent damage to the facility or environment. The ATST will deploy an integrated safety-related control system (SRCS) to achieve functional safety throughout the facility rather than relying on individual facility subsystems to provide safety functions on an ad hoc basis. The Global Interlock System (GIS) is an independent, distributed, facility-wide, safety-related control system, comprised of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) programmable controllers that monitor, evaluate, and control hazardous energy and conditions throughout the facility that arise during operation and maintenance. The GIS has been designed to utilize recent advances in technology for functional safety plus revised national and international standards that allow for a distributed architecture using programmable controllers over a local area network instead of traditional hard-wired safety functions, while providing an equivalent or even greater level of safety. Programmable controllers provide an ideal platform for controlling the often complex interrelationships between subsystems in a modern astronomical facility, such as the ATST. A large, complex hard-wired relay control system is no longer needed. This type of system also offers greater flexibility during development and integration in addition to providing for expanded capability into the future. The GIS features fault detection, self-diagnostics, and redundant communications that will lead to decreased maintenance time and increased availability of the facility.

  11. Improved performance design of gallium arsenide solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parekh, R. H.; Barnett, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    An improved design, shallow junction heteroface, n-p, gallium arsenide solar cell for space applications is reported, with a predicted AM0 efficiency in the 21.9 to 23.0 percent range. The optimized n-p structure, while slightly more efficient, has the added advantage of being less susceptible to radiation-induced degradation by virtue of this thin top junction layer. Detailed spectral response curves and an analysis of the loss mechanisms are reported. The details of the design are readily measurable. The optimized designs were reached by quantifying the dominant loss mechanisms and then minimizing them by using computer simulations.

  12. MARINER 8 SPACE PROBE'S SOLAR ARRAYS ARE INSTALLED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Technicians prepare to install a solar panel on the Mariner H spacecraft in preparation for its launch to Mars, no earlier than May 7, 1971. The spacecraft will be launched aboard an Atlas Centaur space vehicle from Cape Kennedy's Complex 36A, and will go into orbit around Mars at the completion of a seven-month journey from Earth. It is designed to operate 90 days and return data about the planet's atmospheric and surface characteristics. Following launch, the spacecraft will be designated Mariner 8. A second Mariner Mars spacecraft is scheduled to be launched 10 days later.

  13. MARINER 8 SPACE PROBE UNDERGOES INSTALLATION OF SOLAR ARRAYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Technicians install solar panels aboard the mariner H spacecraft in a cleanroom facility at Cape Kennedy. The spacecraft will orbit Mars following a seven-month journey from Earth. Designed to function 90 days, the spacecraft, which will be designated Mariner 8 following launch, will provide data about the Red Planet's atmospheric and surface characteristics. Mariner Mars H will be launched aboard an Atlas-Centaur space vehicle no earlier than May 7, 1971, from Cape Kennedy's Launch Complex 36A. A second Mariner Mars spacecraft will be launched 10 days later.

  14. Space borne photometry perturbations from solar light scatterd by debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Vuillemin, André

    2001-10-01

    We study the possible impairment of the solar light scattered by small debris, measured by high photometric quality instrument, during space borne observations. We compute the contribution of the fragments released on orbit by the host satellite and of the debris already present in the background. Preliminary results show that these spurious fluxes can reach the level of the collected Zodiacal Light: there are the main components of the noise level which affect the scientific signal. On the future, threats on high sensitivity photometric missions should rise with the increasing launches of satellite constellations if no legislation controls the design of satellites.

  15. METEOSPACE, solar monitoring and space weather at Calern observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbard, T.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Crussaire, D.; Morand, F.; Ruty, F.; Biree, L.; Aboudarham, J.; Fuller, N.; Renaud, C.; Meftah, M.

    2016-12-01

    METEOSPACE is a new partnership project between the Paris Observatory (OP), the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), the French Air Force and a service company (LUNA technology) for the development and operation of a set of small telescopes Hα / Ca II K / Ca II H / G band to be installed at on the Calern plateau (OCA). The objective is to monitor solar activity for both research and its applications in space weather through continuous optical observations of the dynamic phenomena that are visible in the chromosphere: eruptions, destabilization of the filaments triggering coronal mass ejections and associated Moreton waves.

  16. GOES-R Rapid Refresh Imagery Advancements for the Earth and Space Weather Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T. J.; Lindsey, D. T.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of GOES, the GOES-R series, with planned launch in early 2016 offers improved spacecraft and instrument technology to provide more accurate, detailed and timely detection of high impact environmental phenomena, and at the same time significant opportunities and challenges in quickly creating, updating, and disseminating data and products in near real-time to produce more accurate forecasts and warnings. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will provide three times more spectral information, four times the spatial resolution, and more than five times faster temporal coverage than the current system with rapid scan imagery of severe storms, tropical cyclones, volcanic eruptions, and fires potentially as often as every thirty seconds in mesoscale mode and at least every 5 min or 15 min (as opposed to the 7.5, 15 or 30 min data from today's imager). Additional advancements over current GOES capabilities include continuous total lightning detection and mapping of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) with only twenty second latency or less, and increased dynamic range, resolution, and sensitivity imaging solar activity with the Solar UV Imager (SUVI) every ten seconds. The total lightning is very useful for identifying hazardous and severe thunderstorms, monitoring storm intensification and tracking evolution. Used in tandem with radar, visible satellite, and surface observations, total lightning data has great potential to increase lead time for severe storm warnings and improve public safety. The space weather instruments provide more detailed observations of coronal mass ejection, solar flares, and energetic particles to produce more accurate forecasts and warnings of solar storms. The data from the ABI, GLM and space weather instruments will have a wide-range of uses and multiple societal benefits in areas such as severe weather, energy, transportation, and commerce. This presentation will highlight the

  17. Solar Wind Plasma and UV effects on Surfaces in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dust plasma interactions on airless bodies in space affect both the exposed surfaces and the plasma flow around them. For example, charging, evaporation, and sputtering can shape the spatial and size distributions of small dust particles, and simultaneously alter the composition and energy distribution of the solar wind flow. Recent Ulysses observations of the temporal variability of the flux and direction of the interstellar dust flow show that the dynamics of submicron sized interplanetary and interstellar dust is determined by their charge and interactions with the large-scale structure of the heliospheric magnetic fields. Future observations by the Solar Probe Plus mission near the Sun are expected to identify pick-up ions from the evaporation and sputtering of dust and the effects of mass-loading on the solar wind. Charging of surfaces, combined with near-surface electric fields can lead to the mobilization and transport of small charged dust particles on all airless bodies in the solar system. Halley's comet showed large brightness fluctuations on very short time-scales at distances well beyond 8 AU. Surface charging due to intermittent high-speed solar wind streams have been suggested to be responsible for lofting small grains, increasing the effective surface area of the dormant nucleus. Images taken of the surface of asteroid Eros indicated the accumulation of fine dust in craters, possibly due to electrostatic dust transport. Remote sensing and in situ observations indicating dust transport on the Moon date back to the Apollo era and remain highly controversial. This presentation, motivated by existing observations, will describe a series of small-scale laboratory experiments and supporting theory to investigate dust charging, the properties of photoelectron sheaths, and the emergence of intense electric fields near boundaries of lit and dark surfaces, and regions shielded and exposed to the solar wind plasma flow. The Moon is the nearest place where

  18. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  19. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  20. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  1. Vital phase of space science. [solar terrestrial interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Space science began with the indirect phase where the activity in space was inferred from such terrestrial phenomena as geomagnetic storms, ionospheric variations, and fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity. The direct phase was initiated with spaceflight placing instruments directly in space and permitting the direct observation of UV and X rays, as well as precision observations of solar luminosity variations. The evidence from these many direct studies, together with the historical record of terrestrial conditions, shows that the variations of the luminosity of the Sun affect the terrestrial atmosphere at all levels, with devastating changes in climate tracking the major changes in the activity level and luminosity of the Sun. The quantification and understanding of this vital connection should be the first priority of space science and geophysics, from oceans and atmosphere through the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and all the way to the convective zone of the Sun. It becomes the vital phase of space science, focused on the basic science of the changing habitability of Earth.

  2. Advanced Fuels Can Reduce the Cost of Getting Into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1998-01-01

    Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs, and advanced propellant technologies can make space vehicles safer and easier to operate, and can improve their performance. Five major areas have been identified for fruitful research: monopropellants, alternative hydrocarbons, gelled hydrogen, metallized gelled propellants, and high-energy-density propellants. During the development of the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Plan, these technologies were identified as those most likely to be effective for new NASA vehicles. Several NASA research programs had fostered work in fuels under the topic Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles in 1996 to 1997. One component of this topic was to promote the development and commercialization of monopropellant rocket fuels, hypersonic fuels, and high-energy-density propellants. This research resulted in the teaming of small business with large industries, universities, and Government laboratories. This work is ongoing with seven contractors. The commercial products from these contracts will bolster advanced propellant research. Work also is continuing under other programs, which were recently realigned under the "Three Pillars" of NASA: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. One of the five areas is described below, and its applications and effect on future missions is discussed. This work is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the assistance of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The regenerative cooling of spacecraft engines and other components can improve overall vehicle performance. Endothermic fuels can absorb energy from an engine nozzle and chamber and help to vaporize high-density fuel before it enters the combustion chamber. For supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, endothermic fuels can absorb the high heat fluxes created on the wing leading edges and

  3. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betto, M.; Jørgensen, J. L.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Denver, T.

    2006-10-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the costs of the deep space missions. Navigation is the Achilles’ heel of deep space. Being performed on ground, it imposes considerable constraints on the system and the operations, it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, above all, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, up to now, ground navigation has been the only possible solution. The technological breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the micro-advanced stellar compass (μASC) might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, on-board and without any a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust, elegant and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performances obtained during the ground tests. The results are very positive and encouraging.

  4. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betto, M.; Jørgensen, J. L.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Denver, T.

    2003-11-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the costs of the deep space missions. Navigation is the Achilles' heel of deep space. Being performed on ground, it imposes considerable constraints on the system and the operations, it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, above all, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, up to now, ground navigation has been the only possible solution. The technological breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the micro-Advanced Stellar Compass (μASC) might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, on-board and without any a-priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust, elegant and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performances obtained during the ground tests. The results are very positive and encouraging.

  5. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  6. Advanced thermal management techniques for space power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Angel Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Current thermal management techniques are not sufficient for the increasing waste heat dissipation of novel electronic technologies. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. The benefits and limitations of emerging cooling technologies are discussed. These technologies include: liquid pumped devices, mechanically pumped two-phase cooling, capillary pumped evaporative cooling, and thermoelectric devices. Currently, liquid pumped devices offer the most promising alternative for electronics thermal control.

  7. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  8. Space station experiment definition: Advanced power system test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, H. E.; Neff, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced photovoltaic power system test bed was provided and the requirements for advanced photovoltaic power system experiments better defined. Results of this study will be used in the design efforts conducted in phase B and phase C/D of the space station program so that the test bed capabilities will be responsive to user needs. Critical PV and energy storage technologies were identified and inputs were received from the idustry (government and commercial, U.S. and international) which identified experimental requirements. These inputs were used to develop a number of different conceptual designs. Pros and cons of each were discussed and a strawman candidate identified. A preliminary evolutionary plan, which included necessary precursor activities, was established and cost estimates presented which would allow for a successful implementation to the space station in the 1994 time frame.

  9. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  10. High-efficiency heteroepitaxial solar cells for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, S. M.; Tobin, S. P.; Keavney, C. J.; Wojtczuk, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental results for several technical approaches aimed at achieving highly efficient solar cells for space-power applications are reported. Efficiencies of up to 24.5 percent (170X, AM0) and 21.7 percent (1X, AM0) have been achieved with homoepitaxial GaAs p/n cells. This one-sun AM0 efficiency value is believed to be the highest reported to date. Tandem solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Ge structures have been fabricated and shown to have efficiencies up to 21.3 percent (1X, AM0), and a GaAs-on-Si cell at 15.2 percent (1X, AM0) is reported. Homoepitaxial n/p InP cells with an efficiency of 18.8 percent (1X, AM0) are also reported. The fabrication of heteroepitaxial InP solar cells with one-sun AM0 efficiency values of 9.4 percent (on GaAs) and 7.2 percent (on Si) is described.

  11. Shape control of slack space reflectors using modulated solar pressure.

    PubMed

    Borggräfe, Andreas; Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-07-08

    The static deflection profile of a large spin-stabilized space reflector because of solar radiation pressure acting on its surface is investigated. Such a spacecraft consists of a thin reflective circular film, which is deployed from a supporting hoop structure in an untensioned, slack manner. This paper investigates the use of a variable reflectivity distribution across the surface to control the solar pressure force and hence the deflected shape. In this first analysis, the film material is modelled as one-dimensional slack radial strings with no resistance to bending or transverse shear, which enables a semi-analytic derivation of the nominal deflection profile. An inverse method is then used to find the reflectivity distribution that generates a specific, for example, parabolic deflection shape of the strings. Applying these results to a parabolic reflector, short focal distances can be obtained when large slack lengths of the film are employed. The development of such optically controlled reflector films enables future key mission applications such as solar power collection, radio-frequency antennae and optical telescopes.

  12. Shape control of slack space reflectors using modulated solar pressure

    PubMed Central

    Borggräfe, Andreas; Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    The static deflection profile of a large spin-stabilized space reflector because of solar radiation pressure acting on its surface is investigated. Such a spacecraft consists of a thin reflective circular film, which is deployed from a supporting hoop structure in an untensioned, slack manner. This paper investigates the use of a variable reflectivity distribution across the surface to control the solar pressure force and hence the deflected shape. In this first analysis, the film material is modelled as one-dimensional slack radial strings with no resistance to bending or transverse shear, which enables a semi-analytic derivation of the nominal deflection profile. An inverse method is then used to find the reflectivity distribution that generates a specific, for example, parabolic deflection shape of the strings. Applying these results to a parabolic reflector, short focal distances can be obtained when large slack lengths of the film are employed. The development of such optically controlled reflector films enables future key mission applications such as solar power collection, radio-frequency antennae and optical telescopes. PMID:26345083

  13. Solar and space weather phenomenological forecasting using pattern recognition operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.; Ramos, F.; Vijaykumar, N.; Andrade, M.; Fernandes, F.; Cecatto, J.; Sharma, A.; Sawant, H.

    Yohkoh, SOHO and HESSI satellites have shown morphological change of the coronal magnetic structures in several scales. Particularly, the soft X ray images- have revealed the existence of dynamic structures with magnetic field configuration varying from regular to complex patterns. In order to characterize the spatio- temporal evolution of such structures, a methodology is proposed in terms of matrix computational operators to quantify the amount of symmetry breaking along the gradient field evolution of the sequence of images. Characterization of symmetry breaking in the gradient field of the energy envelope has been an useful tool to understand complex plasma regimes. In this paper we introduce the application of the Gradient Pattern Analysis (GPA) technique as a new matrix computational operator for spatio-temporal plasma gradient field analysis. This operator yields a measure of the symmetry breaking and phase disorder parameters responding to the active region plasma regimes. In order to characterize the GPA performance into the context of solar physics, we apply this technique on X-ray emission measurement from solar coronal plasma observed by means of Yohkoh satellite. The preliminary results and interpretations suggest a new phenomenological approach for the spatio- temporal evolution of soft X ray active regions, mainly those whose morphology- goes from a regular to a complex magnetic configuration a companied by thec increase of the dissipated energy. We discuss the importance of this semi-empirical modelling for space weather forecasting into the context of solar-terrestrial relationship.

  14. Ultralightweight Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrators for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, M. J.; McDanal, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    The first phase of this project was completed in March 2000, and included the successful technology demonstration of a new ultralightweight photovoltaic concentrator array at the fully functional panel level. The new array is called the Stretched Lens Aurora (SLA) array, and uses deployable, flexible, thin-film silicone rubber Fresnel lenses to focus sunlight onto high efficiency multijunction solar cells, which are mounted to a composite radiator surface for waste heat dissipation. A prototype panel was delivered to NASA Marshall in March 2000, and comprised four side-by-side lenses focussing sunlight onto four side-by-side photovoltaic receivers. This prototype panel was tested by NASA Glenn prior to delivery to NASA Marshall. The best of the four lens/receiver modules achieved 27.4% efficiency at room temperature in the NASA Glenn solar simulator tests. This performance equates to 375 W/sq.m. areal power and 378 W/kg specific power at the fully functional panel level. We believe this to be the first space solar array of any kind to simulataneously meet the two long-standing NASA goals of 300 W/sq.m. and 300 W/kg at the functional panel level. Key results for the first phase of the program have been documented by ENTECH in a Draft Final Technical Report, which is presently being reviewed by NASA, and which should be published in the near future.

  15. First Solar System Results of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanCleve, J.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Stansberry, J. A.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Devost, D.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Glaccum, W.; Grillmair, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, formerly known as SIRTF, is now operational and delivers unprecedented sensitivity for the observation of Solar System targets. Spitzer's capabilities and first general results were presented at the January 2004 AAS meeting. In this poster, we focus on Spitzer's performance for moving targets, and the first Solar System results. Spitzer has three instruments, IRAC, IRS, and MIPS. IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) provides simultaneous images at wavelengths of 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) has 4 modules providing low-resolution (R=60-120) spectra from 5.3 to 40 microns, high-resolution (R=600) spectra from 10 to 37 m, and an autonomous target acquisition system (PeakUp) which includes small-field imaging at 15 m. MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF) does imaging photometry at 24, 70, and 160 m and low-resolution (R=15-25) spectroscopy (SED) between 55 and 96 microns. Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) programs include the moons of the outer Solar System, Pluto, Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and comets

  16. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.

  17. 2-kW Solar Dynamic Space Power System Tested in Lewis' Thermal Vacuum Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Working together, a NASA/industry team successfully operated and tested a complete solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal vacuum facility with a simulated sun. This NASA Lewis Research Center facility, known as Tank 6 in building 301, accurately simulates the temperatures, high vacuum, and solar flux encountered in low-Earth orbit. The solar dynamic space power system shown in the photo in the Lewis facility, includes the solar concentrator and the solar receiver with thermal energy storage integrated with the power conversion unit. Initial testing in December 1994 resulted in the world's first operation of an integrated solar dynamic system in a relevant environment.

  18. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, J. P., Jr.; Buden, D.

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO2) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The status of this advanced heat pipe reactor is reviewed and the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications are explored.

  19. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.P. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications.

  20. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Testing was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by Space Systems Loral, LLC (SSL). The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration of flight-type design that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four string currents (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micro-seconds to 2.75 milli-seconds. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-ESD functional testing showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. These test results point to a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission.