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Sample records for advanced spacecraft systems

  1. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  2. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  3. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  4. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  5. Incipient fault detection study for advanced spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, G. Martin; Black, Michael C.; Hovenga, J. Mike; Mcclure, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A feasibility study to investigate the application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery of planned NASA advanced spacecraft components is described. Factors investigated include: (1) special problems associated with small, high RPM machines; (2) application across multiple component types; (3) microgravity; (4) multiple fault types; (5) eight different analysis techniques including signature analysis, high frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, amplitude analysis, and pattern recognition are compared; and (6) small sample statistical analysis is used to compare performance by computation of probability of detection and false alarm for an ensemble of repeated baseline and faulted tests. Both detection and classification performance are quantified. Vibration monitoring is shown to be an effective means of detecting the most important problem types for small, high RPM fans and pumps typical of those planned for the advanced spacecraft. A preliminary monitoring system design and implementation plan is presented.

  6. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  7. Enabling Advanced Automation in Spacecraft Operations with the Spacecraft Emergency Response System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julie; Fox, Jeffrey A.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    True autonomy is the Holy Grail of spacecraft mission operations. The goal of launching a satellite and letting it manage itself throughout its useful life is a worthy one. With true autonomy, the cost of mission operations would be reduced to a negligible amount. Under full autonomy, any problems (no matter the severity or type) that may arise with the spacecraft would be handled without any human intervention via some combination of smart sensors, on-board intelligence, and/or smart automated ground system. Until the day that complete autonomy is practical and affordable to deploy, incremental steps of deploying ever-increasing levels of automation (computerization of once manual tasks) on the ground and on the spacecraft are gradually decreasing the cost of mission operations. For example, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has been flying spacecraft with low cost operations for several years. NASA-GSFC's SMEX (Small Explorer) and MIDEX (Middle Explorer) missions have effectively deployed significant amounts of automation to enable the missions to fly predominately in 'light-out' mode. Under light-out operations the ground system is run without human intervention. Various tools perform many of the tasks previously performed by the human operators. One of the major issues in reducing human staff in favor of automation is the perceived increased in risk of losing data, or even losing a spacecraft, because of anomalous conditions that may occur when there is no one in the control center. When things go wrong, missions deploying advanced automation need to be sure that anomalous conditions are detected and that key personal are notified in a timely manner so that on-call team members can react to those conditions. To ensure the health and safety of its lights-out missions, NASA-GSFC's Advanced Automation and Autonomy branch (Code 588) developed the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS). The SERS is a Web-based collaborative environment that enables

  8. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  9. Research on advanced spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Etou, Takao; Imai, Ryouichi; Oota, Kazuo; Kaneko, Yutaka; Maeda, Toshihide; Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    Engineering test satellite systems to validate element technologies required for spacecraft composing advanced space infrastructures are studied. Case studies are conducted on element technologies for diversified manned space technology and the outline of the engineering test satellite systems is demonstrated. Debris observing systems, their debris collection and retrieval methods which are being reviewed in many countries are examined. Technical problems are picked up, and the fundamental concept of experiment satellites is determined. Missions deemed to be suitable for micro-satellites and various civil on-ground technologies focusing on electronic technology applicable to them are picked up. Functions of extravehicular operation systems required by the missions, and fundamental concept of the systems and subsystems are made clear. Missions to which artificial gravity experiment satellites that are effective are examined and preparatory review is conducted on artificial gravity generation methods, methods to retrieve experiment equipment and samples, and outline of the satellite systems. Technical problems of engineering test satellites to validate on-orbit cryogenic propellant storage and transportation technologies are picked up and the fundamental concept of the satellites are determined. A review is conducted on electrical propulsion Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) technology satellite to validate fundamental technology for large electrical propulsion engine and electrical propulsion engine OTV operation technology, and to pick up problems on the orbit of electrical propulsion OTV.

  10. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  11. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  12. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  13. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Executive summary. [modeling spacecraft environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of studies conducted to establish the requirements for advanced subsystem analytical tools is presented. Modifications are defined for updating current computer programs used to analyze environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems so that consumables for future advanced spacecraft may be managed.

  14. Space power systems - 'Spacecraft 2000'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The program 'Spacecraft 2000' has the objective to identify critical, high-payoff, potential spacecraft technologies, taking into account the formulation, advocation, and the management of the requisite technology development programs. This program represents a joint NASA-industry program. The technology areas addressed by 'Spacecraft 2000' are related to spacecraft power/energy storage, thermal control/thermal management, power management and distribution, autonomous operation-control, on-board system integration, spacecraft environmental interactions, secondary propulsion, communications technologies, a total system response approach, and system-subsystem technology verification. The expected benefits of a development of advanced technologies include decreased spacecraft bus system weights, decreased mission costs, increased reliability/lifetimes, and increased operational flexibility.

  15. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-03-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  16. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  17. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  18. Opening the Solar System: An Advanced Nuclear Spacecraft for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, R. O.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is limited by our technology, not our imagination. We dream of a time when we can freely travel among the planets and truly become a spacefaring people. However, the current state of our technology limits our options for architecting missions to other planets. Instead of sailing the seas of space in the way that we cruise the seas of Earth, our limited propulsion technology requires us to depart Earth on a giant cluster of gas tanks and return in a lifeboat. This inefficient approach to exploration is evident in many of today's leading mission plans for human flights to Mars, asteroids, and other destinations. The cost and complexity of this approach to mission architecting makes it extremely difficult to realize our dreams of exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This does not need to be the case. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been investigating the feasibility of a new take on nuclear propulsion with the performance to enable a paradigm shift in human space exploration. During the fall of 2013, engineers at MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office developed a spacecraft concept (pictured below) around this new propulsion technology and redefined the human Mars mission to show its full potential. This spacecraft, which can be launched with a fleet of soon-to-be available SLS launch vehicles, is fueled primarily with hydrogen, and is fully reusable with no staging required. The reusable nature of this design enables a host of alternative mission architectures that more closely resemble an ocean voyage than our current piecemeal approach to exploration.

  19. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  20. Advanced system on a chip microelectronics for spacecraft and science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2003-01-01

    The explosive growth of the modern microelectronics field opens new horizons for the development of new lightweight, low power, and smart spacecraft and science instrumentation systems in the new millennium explorations. Although this growth is mostly driven by the commercial need for low power, portable and computationally intensive products, the applicability is obvious in the space sector. The additional difficulties needed to be overcome for applicability in space include radiation hardness for total ionizing dose and single event effects (SEE), and reliability. Additionally, this new capability introduces a whole new philosophy of design and R&D, with strong implications in organizational and inter-agency program management. One key component specifically developed towards low power, small size, highly autonomous spacecraft systems, is the smart sensor remote input/output (TRIO) chip. TRIO can interface to 32 transducers with current sources/sinks and voltage sensing. It includes front-end analog signal processing, a 10-bit ADC, memory, and standard serial and parallel I/Os. These functions are very useful for spacecraft and subsystems health and status monitoring, and control actions. The key contributions of the TRIO are feasibility of modular architectures, elimination of several miles of wire harnessing, and power savings by orders of magnitude. TRIO freely operates from a single power supply 2.5- 5.5 V with power dissipation <10 mW. This system on a chip device rapidly becomes a NASA and Commercial Space standard as it is already selected by thousands in several new millennium missions, including Europa Orbiter, Mars Surveyor Program, Solar Probe, Pluto Express, Stereo, Contour, Messenger, etc. In the Science Instrumentation field common instruments that can greatly take advantage of the new technologies are: energetic-particle/plasma and wave instruments, imagers, mass spectrometers, X-ray and UV spectrographs, magnetometers, laser rangefinding

  1. Spacecraft Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghofranian, Siamak (Inventor); Chuang, Li-Ping Christopher (Inventor); Motaghedi, Pejmun (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and apparatus for docking a spacecraft. The apparatus comprises elongate members, movement systems, and force management systems. The elongate members are associated with a docking structure for a spacecraft. The movement systems are configured to move the elongate members axially such that the docking structure for the spacecraft moves. Each of the elongate members is configured to move independently. The force management systems connect the movement systems to the elongate members and are configured to limit a force applied by the each of the elongate members to a desired threshold during movement of the elongate members.

  2. Advanced antennas for SAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gail, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Single and multi-frequency antenna concepts were developed to evaluate the feasibility of building large aperture polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems to be launched in low cost vehicles such as the Delta 2. The antennas are 18.9 m long by 2.6 m wide (L-band) and achieve single polarization imaging to an incidence angle of 55 degrees and dual/quad imaging to 42 degrees. When combined with strawman spacecraft designs, both concepts meet the mass and volume constraints imposed by a Delta 2 launch.

  3. Space Launch System Spacecraft/Payloads Integration and Evolution Office Advanced Development FY 2014 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, C. M.; Bickley, F. P.; Hueter, U.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Development Office (ADO), part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program, provides SLS with the advanced development needed to evolve the vehicle from an initial Block 1 payload capability of 70 metric tons (t) to an eventual capability Block 2 of 130 t, with intermediary evolution options possible. ADO takes existing technologies and matures them to the point that insertion into the mainline program minimizes risk. The ADO portfolio of tasks covers a broad range of technical developmental activities. The ADO portfolio supports the development of advanced boosters, upper stages, and other advanced development activities benefiting the SLS program. A total of 36 separate tasks were funded by ADO in FY 2014.

  4. Development of a filter regeneration system for advanced spacecraft fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, A. F., Jr.; Descamp, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a filter regeneration system for efficiently cleaning fluid particulate filters is presented. Based on a backflush/jet impingement technique, the regeneration system demonstrated a cleaning efficiency of 98.7 to 100%. The operating principles and design features are discussed with emphasis on the primary system components that include a regenerable filter, vortex particle separator, and zero-g particle trap. Techniques and equipment used for ground and zero-g performance tests are described. Test results and conclusions, as well as possible areas for commercial application, are included.

  5. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSoucie, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans/initial results.

  6. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  7. Advanced spacecraft: What will they look like and why

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Humphrey W.

    1990-01-01

    The next century of spaceflight will witness an expansion in the physical scale of spacecraft, from the extreme of the microspacecraft to the very large megaspacecraft. This will respectively spawn advances in highly integrated and miniaturized components, and also advances in lightweight structures, space fabrication, and exotic control systems. Challenges are also presented by the advent of advanced propulsion systems, many of which require controlling and directing hot plasma, dissipating large amounts of waste heat, and handling very high radiation sources. Vehicle configuration studies for a number of theses types of advanced spacecraft were performed, and some of them are presented along with the rationale for their physical layouts.

  8. Advanced composites for large Navy spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William E.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of work conducted on contract for the Naval Sea Systems Command. The objective of this contract was to provide direction for the development of high modulus graphite reinforced metal matrix composites. These advanced materials can have a significant effect on the performance of a spacecraft before, during and after an evasive maneuver. The work conducted on this program was organized into seven technical tasks. Task 1 was development of a generic Navy spacecraft model. Finite element models of candidate structural designs were developed. In Task 2, the finite-element model(s) of the structure were used to conduct analytical assessments involving conventional materials, resin matrix composites and metal matrix composites (MMC). In Task 3 and 4, MMC material design, fabrication and evaluation was conducted. This consisted of generating material designs and developing a data base for a broad range of graphite reinforced MMC materials. All material was procured according to specifications which set material quality and material property standards. In Task 5, a set of evasive maneuvering requirements were derived and used in Task 6 to conduct analytical simulations. These analytical simulations used current SOA material properties and projected material properties to provide an indication of key payoffs for material development. In Task 7, a set of material development recommendations was generated.

  9. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  10. Conceptual spacecraft systems design and synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Systems (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth designs is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze, and conduct parametric studies and modify earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  11. Spacecraft telecommunications system mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Sakamoto, L. L.

    1988-02-01

    Mass is the most important limiting parameter for present-day planetary spacecraft design, In fact, the entire design can be characterized by mass. The more efficient the design of the spacecraft, the less mass will be required. The communications system is an essential and integral part of planetary spacecraft. A study is presented of the mass attributable to the communications system for spacecraft designs used in recent missions in an attempt to help guide future design considerations and research and development efforts. The basic approach is to examine the spacecraft by subsystem and allocate a portion of each subsystem to telecommunications. Conceptually, this is to divide the spacecraft into two parts, telecommunications and nontelecommunications. In this way, it is clear what the mass attributable to the communications system is. The percentage of mass is calculated using the actual masses of the spacecraft parts, except in the case of CRAF. In that case, estimated masses are used since the spacecraft was not yet built. The results show that the portion of the spacecraft attributable to telecommunications is substantial. The mass fraction for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF (Mariner Mark 2) is 34, 19, and 18 percent, respectively. The large reduction of telecommunications mass from Voyager to Galileo is mainly due to the use of a deployable antenna instead of the solid antenna on Voyager.

  12. NEAR spacecraft flight system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft was built and launched in 29 months. After a 4-year cruise phase the spacecraft was in orbit about the asteroid Eros for 1 year, which enabled the science payload to return unprecedented scientific data. A summary of spacecraft in-flight-performance, including a discussion of the December 1998 aborted orbit insertion burn, is provided. Several minor hardware failures that occurred during the last few years of operations are described. Lessons learned during the cruise phase led to new features being incorporated into several in-flight software uploads. The added innovative features included the capability for the spacecraft to autonomously choose a spacecraft attitude that simultaneously kept the medium-gain antennas pointed at Earth while using solar pressure to control system momentum and a capability to combine a propulsive momentum dump with a trajectory correction maneuver. The spacecraft proved flexible, reliable, and resilient over the 5-year mission.

  13. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  14. Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

  15. Development of an advanced spacecraft water and waste materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Middleton, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    An Integrated Waste Management-Water System (WM-WS) which uses radioisotopes for thermal energy is described and results of its trial in a 4-man, 180 day simulated space mission are presented. It collects urine, feces, trash, and wash water in zero gravity, processes the wastes to a common evaporator, distills and catalytically purifies the water, and separates and incinerates the solid residues using little oxygen and no chemical additives or expendable filters. Technical details on all subsystems are given along with performance specifications. Data on recovered water and heat loss obtained in test trials are presented. The closed loop incinerator and other projects underway to increase system efficiency and capacity are discussed.

  16. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  17. A Reconfigurable Communications System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Kifle, Muli

    2004-01-01

    Two trends of NASA missions are the use of multiple small spacecraft and the development of an integrated space network. To achieve these goals, a robust and agile communications system is needed. Advancements in field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology have made it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips; thus this technology has great potential as the basis for a reconfigurable communications system. This report discusses the requirements of future space communications, reviews relevant issues, and proposes a methodology to design and construct a reconfigurable communications system for small scientific spacecraft.

  18. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  19. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feoktistov, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The task of building a spacecraft is compared to the construction of an artificial cybernetic system able to acquire and process information. Typical features for future spacecraft are outlined and the assignment of duties in spacecraft control between automatic devices and the crew is analyzed.

  20. Spacecraft surgical scrub system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbate, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ease of handling and control in zero gravity and minimizing the quantity of water required were prime considerations. The program tasks include the selection of biocidal agent from among the variety used for surgical scrub, formulation of a dispensing system, test, and delivery of flight dispensers. The choice of an iodophore was based on effectiveness on single applications, general familiarity among surgeons, and previous qualification for space use. The delivery system was a choice between the squeeze foamer system and impregnated polyurethane foam pads. The impregnated foam pad was recommended because it is a simpler system since the squeeze foamer requires some applicator to effectively clean the skin surfaces, whereas the form pad is the applicator and agent combined. Testing demonstrated that both systems are effective for use as surgical scrubs.

  1. Spacecraft power system architecture to mitigate spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A power system architecture for a spacecraft and a method of a power supply for a spacecraft are presented which take advantage of the reduced plasma interaction associated with positive ground high voltage photovoltaic arrays and provide a negative ground power supply for electrical loads of the spacecraft. They efficiently convert and regulate power to the load bus and reduce power system mass and complexity. The system and method ground the positive terminal of the solar arrays to the spacecraft hull, and using a power converter to invert the electric sign, permit a negative ground for the electrical distribution bus and electrical components. A number of variations including a load management system and a battery management system having charging and recharging devices are presented.

  2. Spacecraft Impacts with Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the benefits of advanced power and electric propulsion systems for various space missions. Advanced power technologies that were considered included multiband gap and thin-film solar arrays, lithium batteries, and flywheels. Electric propulsion options included Hall effect thrusters and Ion thrusters. Several mission case studies were selected as representative of future applications for advanced power and propulsion systems. These included a low altitude Earth science satellite, a LEO communications constellation, a GEO military surveillance satellite, and a Mercury planetary mission. The study process entailed identification of overall mission performance using state-of-the-art power and propulsion technology, enhancements made possible with either power or electric propulsion advances individually, and the collective benefits realized when advanced power and electric propulsion are combined. Impacts to the overall spacecraft included increased payload, longer operational life, expanded operations and launch vehicle class step-downs.

  3. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  4. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  5. Technology needs of advanced Earth observation spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, J. J.; Postuchow, J. R.; Schartel, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing missions were synthesized which could contribute significantly to the understanding of global environmental parameters. Instruments capable of sensing important land and sea parameters are combined with a large antenna designed to passively quantify surface emitted radiation at several wavelengths. A conceptual design for this large deployable antenna was developed. All subsystems required to make the antenna an autonomous spacecraft were conceptually designed. The entire package, including necessary orbit transfer propulsion, is folded to package within the Space Transportation System (STS) cargo bay. After separation, the antenna, its integral feed mast, radiometer receivers, power system, and other instruments are automatically deployed and transferred to the operational orbit. The design resulted in an antenna with a major antenna dimension of 120 meters, weighing 7650 kilograms, and operating at an altitude of 700 kilometers.

  6. Waste Management System overview for future spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Waste Management Systems (WMS) for post Apollo spacecraft will be significantly more sophisticated and earthlike in user procedures. Some of the features of the advanced WMS will be accommodation of both males and females, automatic operation, either tissue wipe or anal wash, measurement and sampling of urine, feces and vomitus for medical analysis, water recovery, and solids disposal. This paper presents an overview of the major problems of and approaches to waste management for future spacecraft. Some of the processes discussed are liquid/gas separation, the Dry-John, the Hydro-John, automated sampling, vapor compression distillation, vacuum distillation-catalytic oxidation, incineration, and the integration of the above into complete systems.

  7. Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing. The advantages of this scheme are: 1) Because only a fraction of the power is processed through the dc-dc converter, the single- stage conversion efficiency is 94 to 98 percent; 2) Costly, high-efficiency dc-dc converters are not necessary for high end-to-end system efficiency; 3) The system is highly fault tolerant because the bypass connection will still deliver power if the dc-dc converter fails; and 4) The converters can easily be connected in parallel, allowing higher power systems to be built from a common building block. This new technology will be spaceflight tested in the Photovoltaic Regulator Kit Experiment

  8. Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  9. Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing.

  10. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  11. Low-Impact Mating System for Docking Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Robertson, Brandan; Carroll, Monty B.; Le, Thang; Morales, Ray

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a low-impact mating system suitable for both docking (mating of two free-flying spacecraft) and berthing (in which a robot arm in one spacecraft positions an object for mating with either spacecraft). The low-impact mating system is fully androgynous: it mates with a copy of itself, i.e., all spacecraft and other objects to be mated are to be equipped with identical copies of the system. This aspect of the design helps to minimize the number of unique parts and to standardize and facilitate mating operations. The system includes a closed-loop feedback control subsystem that actively accommodates misalignments between mating spacecraft, thereby attenuating spacecraft dynamics and mitigating the need for precise advance positioning of the spacecraft. The operational characteristics of the mating system can be easily configured in software, during operation, to enable mating of spacecraft having various masses, center-of-gravity offsets, and closing velocities. The system design provides multi-fault tolerance for critical operations: for example, to ensure unmating at a critical time, a redundant unlatching mechanism and two independent pyrotechnic release subsystems are included.

  12. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  13. Spacecraft capture and docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kinyuen (Inventor); Rafeek, Shaheed (Inventor); Myrick, Thomas (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system for capturing and docking an active craft to a passive craft has a first docking assembly on the active craft with a first contact member and a spike projecting outwardly, a second docking assembly on the passive craft having a second contact member and a flexible net deployed over a target area with an open mesh for capturing the end of the spike of the active craft, and a motorized net drive for reeling in the net and active craft to mate with the passive craft's docking assembly. The spike has extendable tabs to allow it to become engaged with the net. The net's center is coupled to a net spool for reeling in. An alignment funnel has inclined walls to guide the net and captured spike towards the net spool. The passive craft's docking assembly includes circumferentially spaced preload wedges which are driven to lock the wedges against the contact member of the active craft. The active craft's docking assembly includes a rotary table and drive for rotating it to a predetermined angular alignment position, and mating connectors are then engaged with each other. The system may be used for docking spacecraft in zero or low-gravity environments, as well as for docking underwater vehicles, docking of ancillary craft to a mother craft in subsonic flight, in-flight refueling systems, etc.

  14. Advanced Electric Propulsion for RLV Launched Geosynchronous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion has been shown to increase a geostationary satellite's payload when launched by existing expendable launch vehicles. In the case of reusable launch vehicles or expendable launch vehicles where an upper stage is an expensive option, this methodology can be modified by using the existing on-board apogee chemical system to perform a perigee burn and then letting the electric propulsion system complete the transfer to geostationary orbit. The elimination of upper stages using on-board chemical and electric propulsion systems was thus examined for GEO spacecraft. Launch vehicle step-down from an Atlas IIAR to a Delta 7920 (no upper stage) was achieved using expanded on-board chemical tanks, 40 kW payload power for electric propulsion, and a 60 day elliptical to GEO SEP orbit insertion. Optimal combined chemical and electric trajectories were found using SEPSPOT. While Hall and ion thrusters provided launch vehicle step-down and even more payload for longer insertion times, NH3 arcjets had insufficient performance to allow launch vehicle step-down. Degradation levels were only 5% to 7% for launch step-down cases using advanced solar arrays. Results were parameterized to allow comparisons for future reusable launch vehicles. Results showed that for an 8 W/kg initial power/launch mass power density spacecraft, 50% to 100% more payload can be launched using this method.

  15. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  16. Spacecraft configuration study for second generation mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, M.; Vonstentzsch, W.; Zanella, F.; Hayes, R.; Mcgovern, F.; Tyner, R.

    1985-01-01

    A high power, high performance communicatons satellite bus being developed is designed to satisfy a broad range of multimission payload requirements in a cost effective manner and is compatible with both STS and expendable launchers. Results are presented of tradeoff studies conducted to optimize the second generation mobile satellite system for its mass, power, and physical size. Investigations of the 20-meter antenna configuration, transponder linearization techniques, needed spacecraft modifications, and spacecraft power, dissipation, mass, and physical size indicate that the advanced spacecraft bus is capable of supporting the required payload for the satellite.

  17. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  18. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  19. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  20. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Washington, three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars-support missions have been investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: a solar radiation absorption (SRA) system, a solar-pumped laser (SPL) system, and a solar powered mangetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process developed at the University of Washington. A solar concentrator focuses sunlight into an absorption chamber. A mixture of hydrogen and potassium vapor absorbs the incident radiation and is heated to approximately 3700 K. The hot propellant gas exhausts through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SRA has an I(sub sp) of approximately 1000 sec and produces a thrust of 2940 N using two thrust chambers. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sun-synchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The laser beams are transmitted to the spacecraft via laser relay satellites. The laser energy heats the hydrogen propellant through a plasma breakdown process in the center of an absorption chamber. Propellant flowing through the chamber, heated by the plasma core, expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SPL has an I(sub sp) of 1285 sec and produces a thrust of 1200 N using two thrust chambers. The MPD system uses indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. In this system, the argon propellant is ionized and electromagnetically accelerated by a magnetoplasmadynamic arc to produce thrust. The MPD spacecraft has an I(sub sp) of 2490 sec and produces a thrust of 100 N. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary

  1. MIDEX Advanced Modular and Distributed Spacecraft Avionics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffa, John A.; Castell, Karen; Flatley, Thomas; Lin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    MIDEX (Medium Class Explorer) is the newest line in NASA's Explorer spacecraft development program. As part of the MIDEX charter, the MIDEX spacecraft development team has developed a new modular, distributed, and scaleable spacecraft architecture that pioneers new spaceflight technologies and implementation approaches, all designed to reduce overall spacecraft cost while increasing overall functional capability. This resultant "plug and play" system dramatically decreases the complexity and duration of spacecraft integration and test, providing a basic framework that supports spacecraft modularity and scalability for missions of varying size and complexity. Together, these subsystems form a modular, flexible avionics suite that can be modified and expanded to support low-end and very high-end mission requirements with a minimum of redesign, as well as allowing a smooth, continuous infusion of new technologies as they are developed without redesigning the system. This overall approach has the net benefit of allowing a greater portion of the overall mission budget to be allocated to mission science instead of a spacecraft bus. The MIDEX scaleable architecture is currently being manufactured and tested for use on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), an inhouse program at GSFC.

  2. Spacecraft component heater control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, Frederick D. (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A heater control circuit is disclosed as being constructed in a single integrated circuit, with the integrated circuit conveniently mounted proximate to a spacecraft component requiring temperature control. Redundant heater controllers control power applied to strip heaters disposed to provide heat to a component responsive to sensed temperature from temperature sensors. Signals from these sensors are digitized and compared with a dead band temperature and set point temperature stored in memory to generate an error signal if the sensed temperature is outside the parameter stored in the memory. This error signal is utilized by a microprocessor to selectively instruct the heater controllers to apply power to the strip heaters. If necessary, the spacecraft central processor may access or interrogate the microprocessor in order to alter the set point temperature and dead band temperature range to obtain operational data relating to the operation of an integrated circuit for relaying to the ground control, or to switch off faulty components.

  3. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  4. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  5. High voltage spacecraft electrical systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Factors which must be considered when designing the best and the most cost-effective high-voltage electrical system for a spacecraft are discussed with particular attention given to the EMC considerations, high-voltage power bus, and harnesses. It is emphasized that the use of serial data buses and lines greatly simplify the harness design and weight. Careful attention to the grounding concept and the EMC requirements is necessary for insuring a 'quiet' spacecraft.

  6. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  7. State estimation for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Susan H.; Sheble, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    A state estimator appropriate for spacecraft power systems is presented. Phasor voltage and current measurements are used to determine the system state. A weighted least squares algorithm with a multireference transmission cable model is used. Bad data are identified and resolved. Once the bad data have been identified, they are removed from the measurement set and the system state can be estimated from the remaining data. An observability analysis is performed on the remaining measurements to determine if the system state can be found from the reduced measurement set. An example of the algorithm for a sample spacecraft power system is presented.

  8. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  9. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  10. Gyrohorizon compass system on a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavozin, Zh. G.

    1981-11-01

    Equations of motion are obtained for a gyrohorizon compass system from the kinetic moment theorem of Blumin and Zavozin (1979). Inequalities are derived which are the sufficient conditions of the stability of the gyro system for the case of arbitrary motion of the spacecraft in a Newtonian gravitational field.

  11. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  12. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  13. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  14. Apollo experience report: Spacecraft pyrotechnic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falbo, M. J.; Robinson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Pyrotechnic devices were used successfully in many systems of the Apollo spacecraft. The physical and functional characteristics of each device are described. The development, qualification, and performance tests of the devices and the ground-support equipment are discussed briefly. Recommendations for pyrotechnic devices on future space vehicles are given.

  15. Fault analysis of multichannel spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement computer-controlled fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Elements under study include the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study will be applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS) breadboard. The results of the power system fault study and the planned implementation of these faults into the LASEPS breadboard are described.

  16. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detwiler, R. C.; Smith, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Galileo PMAD (power management and distribution system) is described, and the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware are discussed. The spacecraft is powered by two general-purpose heat-source-radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Power bus regulation is provided by a shunt regulator. Galileo PMAD distributes a 570-W beginning of mission (BOM) power source to a user complement of some 137 load elements. Extensive use of pyrotechnics requires two pyro switching subassemblies. They initiate 148 squibs which operate the 47 pyro devices on the spacecraft. Detection and correction of faults in the Galileo PMAD is an autonomous feature dictated by requirements for long life and reliability in the absence of ground-based support. Volatile computer memories in the spacecraft command and data system and attitude control system require a continuous source of backup power during all anticipated power bus fault scenarios. Power for the Jupiter Probe is conditioned, isolated, and controlled by a Probe interface subassembly. Flight performance of the spacecraft and the PMAD has been successful to date, with no major anomalies.

  17. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  18. Space Weather Effects on Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Space-based systems are developing into critical infrastructure required to support the quality of life on Earth. Hence, spacecraft reliability is a serious issue that is complicated by exposure to the space environment. Complex mission designs along with rapidly evolving technologies have outpaced efforts to accommodate detrimental space environment impacts on systems. Hazardous space environments, the effects on systems, and the accommodation of the effects are described with a focus on the need to predict space environments.

  19. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  20. Spacecraft Systems Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keigler, John E.; Rowell, Larry F.

    1986-01-01

    Issues addressed include: definition of user/commercial/government needs by function; criteria for prioritization of needs; overall criteria for technology assessment; system configuration drivers (key trade studies); space infrastructure interface; and cost drivers (pros and cons of standardization, manufacturing, test, serviceability, and supportability).

  1. Autonomous omnidirectional spacecraft antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a low gain Electronically Switchable Spherical Array Antenna is discussed. This antenna provides roughly 7 dBic gain for receive/transmit operation between user satellites and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. When used as a pair, the antenna provides spherical coverage. The antenna was tested in its primary operating modes: directed beam, retrodirective, and Omnidirectional.

  2. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  3. Parallel processing spacecraft communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An uplink controlling assembly speeds data processing using a special parallel codeblock technique. A correct start sequence initiates processing of a frame. Two possible start sequences can be used; and the one which is used determines whether data polarity is inverted or non-inverted. Processing continues until uncorrectable errors are found. The frame ends by intentionally sending a block with an uncorrectable error. Each of the codeblocks in the frame has a channel ID. Each channel ID can be separately processed in parallel. This obviates the problem of waiting for error correction processing. If that channel number is zero, however, it indicates that the frame of data represents a critical command only. That data is handled in a special way, independent of the software. Otherwise, the processed data further handled using special double buffering techniques to avoid problems from overrun. When overrun does occur, the system takes action to lose only the oldest data.

  4. Integrated Thermal Insulation System for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziej, Paul (Inventor); Bull, Jeff (Inventor); Kowalski, Thomas (Inventor); Switzer, Matthew (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated thermal protection system (TPS) for a spacecraft includes a grid that is bonded to skin of the spacecraft, e.g., to support the structural loads of the spacecraft. A plurality of thermally insulative, relatively large panels are positioned on the grid to cover the skin of the spacecraft to which the grid has been bonded. Each panel includes a rounded front edge and a front flange depending downwardly from the front edge. Also, each panel includes a rear edge formed with a rounded socket for receiving the rounded front edge of another panel therein, and a respective rear flange depends downwardly from each rear edge. Pins are formed on the front flanges, and pin receptacles are formed on the rear flanges, such that the pins of a panel mechanically interlock with the receptacles of the immediately forward panel. To reduce the transfer to the skin of heat which happens to leak through the panels to the grid, the grid includes stringers that are chair-shaped in cross-section.

  5. Simple Systems for Detecting Spacecraft Meteoroid Punctures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes proposed systems to be installed in spacecraft to detect punctures by impinging meteoroids or debris. Relative to other systems that have been used for this purpose, the proposed systems would be simpler and more adaptable, and would demand less of astronauts attention and of spacecraft power and computing resources. The proposed systems would include a thin, hollow, hermetically sealed panel containing an inert fluid at a pressure above the spacecraft cabin pressure. A transducer would monitor the pressure in the panel. It is assumed that an impinging object that punctures the cabin at the location of the panel would also puncture the panel. Because the volume of the panel would be much smaller than that of the cabin, the panel would lose its elevated pressure much faster than the cabin would lose its lower pressure. The transducer would convert the rapid pressure drop to an electrical signal that could trigger an alarm. Hence, the system would provide an immediate indication of the approximate location of a small impact leak, possibly in time to take corrective action before a large loss of cabin pressure could occur.

  6. Stability analysis of spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Sheble, G. B.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The problems in applying standard electric utility models, analyses, and algorithms to the study of the stability of spacecraft power conditioning and distribution systems are discussed. Both single-phase and three-phase systems are considered. Of particular concern are the load and generator models that are used in terrestrial power system studies, as well as the standard assumptions of load and topological balance that lead to the use of the positive sequence network. The standard assumptions regarding relative speeds of subsystem dynamic responses that are made in the classical transient stability algorithm, which forms the backbone of utility-based studies, are examined. The applicability of these assumptions to a spacecraft power system stability study is discussed in detail. In addition to the classical indirect method, the applicability of Liapunov's direct methods to the stability determination of spacecraft power systems is discussed. It is pointed out that while the proposed method uses a solution process similar to the classical algorithm, the models used for the sources, loads, and networks are, in general, more accurate. Some preliminary results are given for a linear-graph, state-variable-based modeling approach to the study of the stability of space-based power distribution networks.

  7. A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  8. Spaceborne Global Positioning System for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Lamar F. (Inventor); Niles, Frederick A. (Inventor); Wennersten, Miriam D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The spaceborne Global Positioning System receiver provides navigational solutions and is designed for use in low Earth orbit. The spaceborne GPS receiver can determine the orbital position of a spacecraft using any of the satellites wi thin the GPS constellation. It is a multiple processor system incorporating redundancy by using a microcontroller to handle the closure of tracking loops for acquired GPS satellites, while a separate microprocessor computes the spacecraft navigational solution and handles other tasks within the receiver. 'Me spaceborne GPS receiver can use either microcontroller or the microprocessor to close the satellite tracking loops. The use of microcontroller provides better tracking performance of acquired GPS satellites. The spaceborne GPS receiver utilizes up to seven separate GPS boards, with each board including its own set of correlators, down-converters and front-end components. The spaceborne GPS receiver also includes telemetry and time-marking circuitry. The spaceborne GPS receiver communicates with other spacecraft systems through a variety of interfaces and can be software-configured to support several different mission profiles.

  9. Automated load management for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the results of a study undertaken by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to design and implement the load management techniques for autonomous spacecraft power systems, such as the Autonomously Managed Power System Test Facility. Attention is given to four load-management criteria, which encompass power bus balancing on multichannel power systems, energy balancing in such systems, power quality matching of loads to buses, and contingency load shedding/adding. Full implementation of these criteria calls for the addition of a second power channel.

  10. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  11. MEMS based pumped liquid cooling systems for micro/nano spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, G. C.; Shakkottai, P.; Sur, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The electronic and other payload power densities in future micro/nano spacecraft are expected to exceed 25 Watts/cm(sup 2) and require advanced thermal control concepts and technologies to keep their payload within allowable temperature limits. This paper presents background on the need for pumped liquid cooling systems for future micro/nano spacecraft and results from this ongoing experimental investigation.

  12. An online spacecraft environment interactions information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the role that EnviroNET assumes as a contemporary system that scientists and engineers can use to share information on networks that are connected globally. Advantage is being taken to use this powerful communication tool for the space community to articulate the various anomalies that our space systems are experiencing. EnviroNET is being considered as a test bed for developing an expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced anomalies for spacecraft. The various offline activities in progress toward this objective are described.

  13. Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  14. Resistojet propulsion for large spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resistojet propulsion systems have characteristics that are ideally suited for the on-orbit and primary propulsion requirements of large spacecraft systems. These characteristics which offer advantages over other forms of propulsion are reviewed and presented. The feasibility of resistojets were demonstrated in space whereas only a limited number of ground life tests were performed. The major technology issues associated with these ground tests are evaluated. The past performance of resistojets is summarized and, looks into the present day technology status is reviewed. The material criteria, along with possible concepts, needed to attain high performance resistojets are presented.

  15. Advances in optical property measurements of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the instruments and experimental approaches, used for measuring the optical properties of thermal control systems, are presented. The instruments' use in studies concerning the effects of combined contaminants and space environment on these materials, and in the qualification of hardware for spacecraft, are described. Instruments for measuring the solar absorptance and infrared emittance offer improved speed, accuracy and data handling. A transient method for directly measuring material infrared emittance is described. It is shown that oxygen exposure before measuring the solar absorptance should be avoided.

  16. Modeling of DC spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Future spacecraft power systems must be capable of supplying power to various loads. This delivery of power may necessitate the use of high-voltage, high-power dc distribution systems to transmit power from the source to the loads. Using state-of-the-art power conditioning electronics such as dc-dc converters, complex series and parallel configurations may be required at the interface between the source and the distribution system and between the loads and the distribution system. This research will use state-variables to model and simulate a dc spacecraft power system. Each component of the dc power system will be treated as a multiport network, and a state model will be written with the port voltages as the inputs. The state model of a component will be solved independently from the other components using its state transition matrix. A state-space averaging method is developed first in general for any dc-dc switching converter, and then demonstrated in detail for the particular case of the boost power stage. General equations for both steady-state (dc) and dynamic effects (ac) are obtained, from which important transfer functions are derived and applied to a special case of the boost power stage.

  17. Modeling of DC spacecraft power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, F. C.

    1995-07-01

    Future spacecraft power systems must be capable of supplying power to various loads. This delivery of power may necessitate the use of high-voltage, high-power dc distribution systems to transmit power from the source to the loads. Using state-of-the-art power conditioning electronics such as dc-dc converters, complex series and parallel configurations may be required at the interface between the source and the distribution system and between the loads and the distribution system. This research will use state-variables to model and simulate a dc spacecraft power system. Each component of the dc power system will be treated as a multiport network, and a state model will be written with the port voltages as the inputs. The state model of a component will be solved independently from the other components using its state transition matrix. A state-space averaging method is developed first in general for any dc-dc switching converter, and then demonstrated in detail for the particular case of the boost power stage. General equations for both steady-state (dc) and dynamic effects (ac) are obtained, from which important transfer functions are derived and applied to a special case of the boost power stage.

  18. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  19. A review of nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Nock, K. T.

    1990-01-01

    The last 25-30 years of system concepts and design philosophies for spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) are reviewed. NEP spacecraft-system design constraints and criteria are identified, including radiation exposure of humans and electronics, thermal control requirements, effluent contamination of spacecraft surfaces, surface erosion, launch-vehicle integration, operations and safety requirements, attitude control, EM interference, and power control and distribution. The impact on spacecraft design philosophy of these constraints and criteria is explored. Several NEP spacecraft are characterized and discussed with respect to the propulsion system used. The electric propulsion system catagories are electrothermal (arcjet), EM (magnetoplasmadynamic and pulsed-inductive thruster) and electrostatic (ion engine). A brief summary of the mission, nuclear power source, electric propulsion system, and spacecraft configuration are provided for each NEP spacecraft concept.

  20. A pulsed cathodic arc spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, P. R. C.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Tarrant, R. N.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the use of a centre-triggered cathodic arc as a spacecraft propulsion system that uses an inert solid as a source of plasma. The cathodic vacuum arc produces almost fully ionized plasma with a high exhaust velocity (>104 m s-1), giving a specific impulse competitive with other plasma or ion thrusters. A centre trigger design is employed that enables efficient use of cathode material and a high pulse-to-pulse repeatability. We compare three anode geometries, two pulse current profiles and two pulse durations for their effects on impulse generation, energy and cathode material usage efficiency. Impulse measurement is achieved through the use of a free-swinging pendulum target constructed from a polymer material. Measurements show that impulse is accurately controlled by varying cathode current. The cylindrical anode gave the highest energy efficiency. Cathode usage is optimized by choosing a sawtooth current profile. There is no requirement for an exhaust charge neutralization system.

  1. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John F.; Haggerty, James J.; Woodburn, John H.

    1961-01-01

    In this twentieth century, we are privileged to witness the first steps toward realization of an age-old dream: the exploration of space. Already, in the first few years of the Space Age, man has been able to penetrate the layer of atmosphere which surrounds his planet and to venture briefly into space. Scores of man-made objects have been thrust into space, some of them to roam the solar system forever. Behind each space mission are years of patient research, thousands of man-hours of labor, and large sums of money. Because the sums involved are so enormous, the question is frequently asked, "Is it worth it?" Many people want to know what return this huge investment will bring to mankind. The return on the investment is knowledge. The accumulation of knowledge over the centuries has made possible our advanced way of life. As we unlock more and more of the secrets of the universe through space exploration, we add new volumes to the encyclopedia of man's knowledge. This will be applied to the benefit of mankind. For the practical-minded, there are concrete benefits to our way of life. Although we are still in the Stone Age of space exploration, a number of immediate applications of space technology are already apparent. For instance, imagine the benefits of an absolutely perfect system of predicting the weather. Or, going a step further, even changing the weather. And wouldn't it be fascinating to watch the next Olympic games, telecast from Tokyo, on your TV set? These are just a few of the practical benefits made possible by space technology.

  2. Development of an advanced combined iodine dispenser/detector. [for spacecraft water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, J. B.; Jensen, F. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Schubert, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Injection of iodine into water is widely used to control microbial growth. An entirely automated device for I2 injection has been developed for spacecraft application. Transfer of I2 into the water from a concentrated form is controlled electrochemically via feedback from an integrated photometric I2 level detector. All components are contained within a package weighing only 1.23 kg (2.7 lb) dry, which occupies only 1213 cu cm (74 cu in) of space, and which has the capacity to iodinate 10,900 kg (24,000 lb) of water of 5 ppm. These features exceed design specifications. The device performed satisfactorily during extended testing at variable water flow rates and temperatures. Designed to meet specifications of the Shuttle Orbiter, the device will find application in the regenerative water systems of advanced spacecraft.

  3. Lightweight Radiator System for a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Mason, Georgia; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2005-01-01

    Three documents describe various aspects of a proposed lightweight, deployable radiator system for dissipating excess heat from the life-support system of a habitable spacecraft. The first document focuses on a radiator tube that would include a thin metal liner surrounded and supported by a thicker carbon-fiber-reinforced composite tubular structure that, in turn, would be formed as part of a unitary composite radiator-fin structure consisting mostly of a sheet of reticulated vitreous carbon laminated between carbon-fiber-reinforced face sheets. The thermal and mechanical properties, including the anisotropies, of the component materials are taken into account in the design. The second document describes thermo-structural bumpers, in the form of exterior multiple-ply carbon-fiber sheets enclosing hollows on opposite sides of a radiator fin, which would protect the radiator tube against impinging micrometeors and orbital debris. The third document describes a radiator system that would include multiple panels containing the aforementioned components, among others. The system would also include mechanisms for deploying the panels from compact stowage. Deployment would not involve breaking and remaking of fluid connections to the radiator panels.

  4. Verification of technical elements of the advanced spacecraft based upon the CCSDS recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Sigeo; Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu; Fujii, Seiichi; Tumura, Kaoru; Yokomizo, Masato; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    We are going to meet the era when advanced spacecraft such as space stations are developed and operated. The current system of the satellite operations control will need to undergo many changes. We consider that the future system will require the following functions: the function for interchanging data between international agencies, processing the various kinds of space data, and distributing data as many unspecified users require. However, we have to solve the following problems in order to satisfy these requirements: the problem of standardization of space data communication protocol, establishment of multimedia data management method, and standardization of the user interface. This paper describes three techniques to solve the above mentioned problems. That is, standardization of the data communication protocol between space and ground by AOS (Advanced Orbiting System) protocol of CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Recommendation, management of multimedia data by catalog reference, standardization of user interface by SFDU(Standard Formatted Data Unit) of CCSDS Recommendation.

  5. Low power arcjet system spacecraft impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lichtin, D. A.; Palchefsky, J. W.; Bogorad, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Application of electrothermal arcjets on communications satellites requires assessment of integration concerns identified by the user community. Perceived risks include plume contamination of spacecraft materials, induced arcing or electrostatic discharges between differentially charged spacecraft surfaces, and conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) for both steady state and transient conditions. A Space Act agreement between Martin Marietta Astro Space, the Rocket Research Company, and NASA's Lewis Research Center was established to experimentally examine these issues. Spacecraft materials were exposed to an arcjet plume for 40 hours, representing 40 weeks of actual spacecraft life, and contamination was characterized by changes in surface properties. With the exception of the change in emittance of one sample, all measurable changes in surface properties resulted in acceptable end of life characteristics. Charged spacecraft samples were benignly and consistently reduced to ground potential during exposure to the powered arcjet plume, suggesting that the arcjet could act as a charge control device on spacecraft. Steady state EMI signatures obtained using two different power processing units were similar to emissions measured in a previous test. Emissions measured in UHF, S, C, Ku and Ka bands obtained a null result which verified previous work in the UHF, S, and C bands. Characteristics of conducted and radiated transient emissions appear within standard spacecraft susceptibility criteria.

  6. Flight System Testbed for Low Cost Spacecraft Interface Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Thomas, N.

    1994-01-01

    A world leader in space technology, JPL has over 30 years experience in developing spacecraft systems and managing deep space missions for NASA. Future scientific missions will require the rapid development of small, lightweight, high-technology, low-cost spacecraft. JPL is developing a method of meeting these requirements: a test facility specifically for supporting a rapid prototyping development environment that creates a virtual (simulated) spacecraft in which system-level evaluations of components can be carried out very early in the development cycle, long before an actual spacecraft is built.

  7. Planetary spacecraft - SEPS interface design. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The interactions between a spacecraft which would rendezvous with the comet Tempel II, the stage, and the mission design are summarized along with solar electric propulsion system design issues. Attention is given to data communication, the spacecraft pointing control system, spacecraft power, plasma interactions, the release of a probe to study the comet Halley, and thruster usage. It was concluded that for a planetary mission design using a low-thrust stage, the control of the mission should reside in the payload spacecraft and that the power should be provided by the stage; the NASA standard 28 VDC bus is recommended.

  8. Demonstration Experiments to Advance Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Dietrich, D.

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety technologies developed during the implementation of NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) highlighted the need for a range of normal-gravity and low-gravity technology demonstration experiments. Terrestrial fire safety technologies have relied heavily on both bench-scale and full-scale experiments and have included extensive study of the ignitability of materials and fire behavior, quantification of fire signatures, fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire fighter protection equipment. Full-scale tests of these technologies in terrestrial fire-fighting applications are frequently performed to demonstrate their performance and give first-responders hands-on experience in their use. However, experiments conducted to aid the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies have generally been performed at length and time scales that make extrapolation of the results to full scale unreliable. Extrapolation of the results of the relatively few spacecraft fire safety experiments conducted in long- term low-gravity to spacecraft-relevant length and time scales is problematic. In general, the results cannot be verified in ground-based low-g facilities and remains a challenging problem for current numerical simulations. This paper will highlight low-g and ground-based experiments and demonstrations that are being conducted and planned to provide relevant spacecraft fire safety data.

  9. Spacecraft attitude and velocity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paluszek, Michael A. (Inventor); Piper, Jr., George E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude and/or velocity control system includes a controller which responds to at least attitude errors to produce command signals representing a force vector F and a torque vector T, each having three orthogonal components, which represent the forces and torques which are to be generated by the thrusters. The thrusters may include magnetic torquer or reaction wheels. Six difference equations are generated, three having the form ##EQU1## where a.sub.j is the maximum torque which the j.sup.th thruster can produce, b.sub.j is the maximum force which the j.sup.th thruster can produce, and .alpha..sub.j is a variable representing the throttling factor of the j.sup.th thruster, which may range from zero to unity. The six equations are summed to produce a single scalar equation relating variables .alpha..sub.j to a performance index Z: ##EQU2## Those values of .alpha. which maximize the value of Z are determined by a method for solving linear equations, such as a linear programming method. The Simplex method may be used. The values of .alpha..sub.j are applied to control the corresponding thrusters.

  10. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  11. Liquid rocket actuators and operators. [in spacecraft control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    All the types of actuators and associated operators used in booster, upper stage, and spacecraft propulsion and reaction-control systems except for chemical-explosive actuators and turbine actuators are discussed. Discussion of static and dynamic seals, mechanical transmission of motion, and instrumentation is included to the extent that actuator or operator design is affected. Selection of the optimum actuator configuration is discussed for specific application which require a tradeoff study that considers all the relevant factors: available energy sources, load capacity, stroke, speed of response, leakage limitations, environmental conditions, chemical compatibility, storage life and conditions, size, weight, and cost. These factors are interrelated with overall control-system design evaluations that are beyond the scope of this monograph; however, literature references are cited for a detailed review of the general considerations. Perinent advanced-state-of-the-art design concepts are surveyed briefly.

  12. Advanced optical sensing and processing technologies for the distributed control of large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. M.; Fraser, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine state-of-the-art optical sensing and processing technology applied to control the motion of flexible spacecraft. Proposed large flexible space systems, such an optical telescopes and antennas, will require control over vast surfaces. Most likely distributed control will be necessary involving many sensors to accurately measure the surface. A similarly large number of actuators must act upon the system. The used technical approach included reviewing proposed NASA missions to assess system needs and requirements. A candidate mission was chosen as a baseline study spacecraft for comparison of conventional and optical control components. Control system requirements of the baseline system were used for designing both a control system containing current off-the-shelf components and a system utilizing electro-optical devices for sensing and processing. State-of-the-art surveys of conventional sensor, actuator, and processor technologies were performed. A technology development plan is presented that presents a logical, effective way to develop and integrate advancing technologies.

  13. Magnet-Based System for Docking of Miniature Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Nathan; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype system for docking a miniature spacecraft with a larger spacecraft has been developed by engineers at the Johnson Space Center. Engineers working on Mini AERCam, a free-flying robotic camera, needed to find a way to successfully dock and undock their miniature spacecraft to refuel the propulsion and recharge the batteries. The subsystems developed (see figure) include (1) a docking port, designed for the larger spacecraft, which contains an electromagnet, a ball lock mechanism, and a service probe; and (2) a docking cluster, designed for the smaller spacecraft, which contains either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. A typical docking operation begins with the docking spacecraft maneuvering into position near the docking port on the parent vehicle. The electromagnet( s) are then turned on, and, if necessary, the docking spacecraft is then maneuvered within the capture envelope of the docking port. The capture envelope for this system is approximated by a 5-in. (12.7-cm) cube centered on the front of the docking-port electromagnet and within an angular misalignment of <30 . Thereafter, the magnetic forces draw the smaller spacecraft toward the larger one and this brings the spacecraft into approximate alignment prior to contact. Mechanical alignment guides provide the final rotational alignment into one of 12 positions. Once the docking vehicle has been captured magnetically in the docking port, the ball-lock mechanism is activated, which locks the two spacecraft together. At this point the electromagnet( s) are turned off, and the service probe extended if recharge and refueling are to be performed. Additionally, during undocking, the polarity of one electromagnet can be reversed to provide a gentle push to separate the two spacecraft. This system is currently being incorporated into the design of Mini AERCam vehicle.

  14. Conceptual definition of Automated Power Systems Management. [for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Skelly, L.; Weiner, H.

    1977-01-01

    Automated Power Systems Management (APSM) is defined as the capability of a spacecraft power system to automatically perform monitoring, computational, command, and control functions without ground intervention. Power systems for future planetary spacecraft must have this capability because they must perform up to 10 years, and accommodate real-time changes in mission execution autonomously. Specific APSM functions include fault detection, isolation, and correction; system performance and load profile prediction; power system optimization; system checkout; and data storage and transmission control. This paper describes the basic method of implementing these specific functions. The APSM hardware includes a central power system computer and a processor dedicated to each major power system subassembly along with digital interface circuitry. The major payoffs anticipated are in enhancement of spacecraft reliability and life and reduction of overall spacecraft program cost.

  15. Iterative Repair Planning for Spacecraft Operations Using the Aspen System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, G.; Knight, R.; Chien, S.; Fukunaga, A.; Govindjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN). ASPEN encodes complex spacecraft knowledge of operability constraints, flight rules, spacecraft hardware, science experiments and operations procedures to allow for automated generation of low level spacecraft sequences. Using a technique called iterative repair, ASPEN classifies constraint violations (i.e., conflicts) and attempts to repair each by performing a planning or scheduling operation. It must reason about which conflict to resolve first and what repair method to try for the given conflict. ASPEN is currently being utilized in the development of automated planner/scheduler systems for several spacecraft, including the UFO-1 naval communications satellite and the Citizen Explorer (CX1) satellite, as well as for planetary rover operations and antenna ground systems automation. This paper focuses on the algorithm and search strategies employed by ASPEN to resolve spacecraft operations constraints, as well as the data structures for representing these constraints.

  16. Time-Transfer System for Two Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, William; Wu, Seen-Chong; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Dunn, Charles; Romans, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the time-transfer system of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which information on the distribution of Earth mass is extracted from position and time measurements for two spacecraft about 200 km apart in a circular, nearly polar orbit. Each spacecraft carriers a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a K/Ka-band ranging (KBR) instrument, and an ultra-stable oscillator (USO) that serves as a clock for the GPS and KBR units. The long-term errors of the USOs are cancelled by use of a technique, called dual-one-way phase measurements, in which the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft A as measured at spacecraft B are added to the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft B as measured at spacecraft A. GPS data are used to synchronize time between the USOs to within approximately 150 ps as needed to enable the dual-one-way phase measurements: For each spacecraft, the GPS data are used to solve for orbital positions, and the difference between the onboard clocks and a ground clock every 5 minutes. The relative clock rate between the spacecraft is then determined from the difference between the two solutions.

  17. Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

  18. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  19. Advanced Technologies for Future Spacecraft Cockpits and Space-based Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Galan, Carlos; Uckun, Serdar; Gregory, William; Williams, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a new era of Space Exploration, aimed at sending crewed spacecraft beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), in medium and long duration missions to the Lunar surface, Mars and beyond. The challenges of such missions are significant and will require new technologies and paradigms in vehicle design and mission operations. Current roles and responsibilities of spacecraft systems, crew and the flight control team, for example, may not be sustainable when real-time support is not assured due to distance-induced communication lags, radio blackouts, equipment failures, or other unexpected factors. Therefore, technologies and applications that enable greater Systems and Mission Management capabilities on-board the space-based system will be necessary to reduce the dependency on real-time critical Earth-based support. The focus of this paper is in such technologies that will be required to bring advance Systems and Mission Management capabilities to space-based environments where the crew will be required to manage both the systems performance and mission execution without dependence on the ground. We refer to this concept as autonomy. Environments that require high levels of autonomy include the cockpits of future spacecraft such as the Mars Exploration Vehicle, and space-based control centers such as a Lunar Base Command and Control Center. Furthermore, this paper will evaluate the requirements, available technology, and roadmap to enable full operational implementation of onboard System Health Management, Mission Planning/re-planning, Autonomous Task/Command Execution, and Human Computer Interface applications. The technology topics covered by the paper include enabling technology to perform Intelligent Caution and Warning, where the systems provides directly actionable data for human understanding and response to failures, task automation applications that automate nominal and Off-nominal task execution based

  20. Reactor/Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layton, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to assess the technological feasibility of a nuclear-reactor-powered spacecraft propelled by electric thrusters. This vehicle would be capable of performing detailed exploration of the outer planets of the solar system during the remainder of this century. The purpose of this study was to provide comparative information on a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system. The results have shown that the performance is very competitive and that a 400 kWe space power system is dimensionally compatible with a single Space Shuttle launch. Performance parameters of system mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kWe. A 400 kWe reference system received primary attention. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. The preliminary mass determination for the complete power system was very close to the desired goal of 20 kg/kWe. Use of more advanced technology (higher turbine inlet temperature) will substantially improve system performance characteristics.

  1. The Pluto System As Seen By New Horizons Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Pluto system as NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft saw it in July 2015. This animation, made with real images taken by New Horizons, begins with Pluto flying in for its close-up on July 14; we then...

  2. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  3. An advanced environment for spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Harris, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is under development at the JPL with a view to prospective small and large space missions. EASE is a modular multimission/multisystem architecture for spacecraft analysis that encompases monitoring and sequence support; its collection of software analysis modules is specific to a given mission, thereby easily accommodating mission scale. An EASE subsystem analysis module can be developed in modular program sets or packages, and a level of automation can then be introduced within such sets to achieve intramodule automation.

  4. Radio Ranging System for Guidance of Approaching Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manikonda, Vikram; vanDoom, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A radio communication and ranging system has been proposed for determining the relative position and orientations of two approaching spacecraft to provide guidance for docking maneuvers. On Earth, the system could be used similarly for guiding approaching aircraft and for automated positioning of large, heavy objects. In principle, the basic idea is to (1) measure distances between radio transceivers on the two spacecraft and (2) compute the relative position and orientations from the measured distances.

  5. Investigation of expert system application to spacecraft power system control

    SciTech Connect

    Pistole, C.; Bein, J.

    1984-08-01

    This paper addresses the application of expert systems to spacecraft power system control through investigation of two salient technical issues. These are the maximum speed of an expert system, and interaction between the expert system and transient phenomena. The basis of this discussion will be test data obtained through development of the Fault Isolation Expert System (FIES) at Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver. The expert system was tested to determine the minimum time required to clear a power system fault. This response time will be compared to conventional fault handling techniques, and analyzed to determine the maximum bandwidth of the system to be controlled. The second issue to be investigated is the relationship between expert system speed and power system transients. Specifically, FIES is intended to deal with quasi steady state inputs only. Therefore, expert system inputs must be filtered to eliminate the interaction between the expert system and transient phenomena. This paper will discuss the considerations involved in the tailoring of inputs.

  6. Time maintenance system for the BMDO MSX spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermes, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is responsible for designing and implementing a clock maintenance system for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organizations (BMDO) Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft. The MSX spacecraft has an on-board clock that will be used to control execution of time-dependent commands and to time tag all science and housekeeping data received from the spacecraft. MSX mission objectives have dictated that this spacecraft time, UTC(MSX), maintain a required accuracy with respect to UTC(USNO) of +/- 10 ms with a +/- 1 ms desired accuracy. APL's atomic time standards and the downlinked spacecraft time were used to develop a time maintenance system that will estimate the current MSX clock time offset during an APL pass and make estimates of the clock's drift and aging using the offset estimates from many passes. Using this information, the clock's accuracy will be maintained by uplinking periodic clock correction commands. The resulting time maintenance system is a combination of offset measurement, command/telemetry, and mission planning hardware and computing assets. All assets provide necessary inputs for deciding when corrections to the MSX spacecraft clock must be made to maintain its required accuracy without inhibiting other mission objectives. The MSX time maintenance system is described as a whole and the clock offset measurement subsystem, a unique combination of precision time maintenance and measurement hardware controlled by a Macintosh computer, is detailed. Simulations show that the system estimates the MSX clock offset to less than+/- 33 microseconds.

  7. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-06-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  8. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO2) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests.

  9. Applying Contamination Modelling to Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Designs and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Thomson, Shaun; Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants generated from the operations of a propulsion system may impinge on spacecraft critical surfaces. Plume depositions or clouds may hinder the spacecraft and instruments from performing normal operations. Firing thrusters will generate both molecular and particulate contaminants. How to minimize the contamination impact from the plume becomes very critical for a successful mission. The resulting effect from either molecular or particulate contamination of the thruster firing is very distinct. This paper will discuss the interconnection between the functions of spacecraft contamination modeling and propulsion system implementation. The paper will address an innovative contamination engineering approach implemented from the spacecraft concept design, manufacturing, integration and test (I&T), launch, to on- orbit operations. This paper will also summarize the implementation on several successful missions. Despite other contamination sources, only molecular contamination will be considered here.

  10. An economy of scale system's mensuration of large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.

  11. Survey of Command Execution Systems for NASA Spacecraft and Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Vandi; Jonsson, Ari; Simmons, Reid; Estlin, Tara; Levinson, Rich

    2005-01-01

    NASA spacecraft and robots operate at long distances from Earth Command sequences generated manually, or by automated planners on Earth, must eventually be executed autonomously onboard the spacecraft or robot. Software systems that execute commands onboard are known variously as execution systems, virtual machines, or sequence engines. Every robotic system requires some sort of execution system, but the level of autonomy and type of control they are designed for varies greatly. This paper presents a survey of execution systems with a focus on systems relevant to NASA missions.

  12. Multi-kilowatt modularized spacecraft power processing system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. E.; Hayden, J. H.; Hedges, R. T.; Rehmann, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    A review of existing information pertaining to spacecraft power processing systems and equipment was accomplished with a view towards applicability to the modularization of multi-kilowatt power processors. Power requirements for future spacecraft were determined from the NASA mission model-shuttle systems payload data study which provided the limits for modular power equipment capabilities. Three power processing systems were compared to evaluation criteria to select the system best suited for modularity. The shunt regulated direct energy transfer system was selected by this analysis for a conceptual design effort which produced equipment specifications, schematics, envelope drawings, and power module configurations.

  13. A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Ken; Thornton, Richard; Clark, Tracy; Beaman, Bob G.; Dennehy, Neil; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presently many types of spacecraft use a Spacecraft Attitude Control System (ACS) with momentum wheels for steering and electrochemical batteries to provide electrical power for the eclipse period of the spacecraft orbit. Future spacecraft will use Flywheels for combined use in ACS and Energy Storage. This can be done by using multiple wheels and varying the differential speed for ACS and varying the average speed for energy storage and recovery. Technology in these areas has improved since the 1990s so it is now feasible for flywheel systems to emerge from the laboratory for spacecraft use. This paper describes a new flywheel system that can be used for both ACS and energy storage. Some of the possible advantages of a flywheel system are: lower total mass and volume, higher efficiency, less thermal impact, improved satellite integration schedule and complexity, simplified satellite orbital operations, longer life with lower risk, less pointing jitter, and greater capability for high-rate slews. In short, they have the potential to enable new types of missions and provide lower cost. Two basic types of flywheel configurations are the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) and the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS).

  14. Using IoT Device Technology in Spacecraft Checkout Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a common theme in both the technical and popular press in recent years because many of the enabling technologies that are required to make IoT a reality have now matured. Those technologies are revolutionising the way industrial systems and products are developed because they offer significant advantages over older technologies. This paper looks at how IoT device technology can be used in spacecraft checkout systems to achieve smaller, more capable, and more scalable solutions than are currently available. It covers the use of IoT device technology for classical spacecraft test systems as well as for hardware-in-the-loop simulation systems used to support spacecraft checkout.

  15. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) for Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julia; Chu, Kai-Dee; Baker, Paul; Starr, Cynthia; Fox, Jeffrey; Baitinger, Mick

    1998-01-01

    Today, most mission operations are geared toward lowering cost through unmanned operations. 7-day/24-hour operations are reduced to either 5-day/8-hour operations or become totally autonomous, especially for deep-space missions. Proper and effective notification during a spacecraft emergency could mean success or failure for an entire mission. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) is a tool designed for autonomous mission operations. The SERS automatically contacts on-call personnel as needed when crises occur, either on-board the spacecraft or within the automated ground systems. Plus, the SERS provides a group-ware solution to facilitate the work of the person(s) contacted. The SERS is independent of the spacecraft's automated ground system. It receives and catalogues reports for various ground system components in near real-time. Then, based on easily configurable parameters, the SERS determines whom, if anyone, should be alerted. Alerts may be issued via Sky-Tel 2-way pager, Telehony, or e-mail. The alerted personnel can then review and respond to the spacecraft anomalies through the Netscape Internet Web Browser, or directly review and respond from the Sky-Tel 2-way pager.

  16. Development of a Spacecraft Materials Selector Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, G.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report contains a description of the knowledge base tool and examples of its use. A downloadable version of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base is available through the NASA Space Environments and Effects Program. The "Spacecraft Materials Selector" knowledge base is part of an electronic expert system. The expert system consists of an inference engine that contains the "decision-making" code and the knowledge base that contains the selected body of information. The inference engine is a software package previously developed at Boeing, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST) kit.

  17. Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Spacecraft Exercise Treadmill Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fialho, Ian; Tyer, Craig; Murphy, Bryan; Cotter, Paul; Thampi, Sreekumar

    2011-01-01

    A novel, passive system has been developed for isolating an exercise treadmill device from a spacecraft in a zero-G environment. The Treadmill 2 Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (T2-VIS) mechanically isolates the exercise treadmill from the spacecraft/space station, thereby eliminating the detrimental effect that high impact loads generated during walking/running would have on the spacecraft structure and sensitive microgravity science experiments. This design uses a second stage spring, in series with the first stage, to achieve an order of magnitude higher exercise- frequency isolation than conventional systems have done, while maintaining desirable low-frequency stability performance. This novel isolator design, in conjunction with appropriately configured treadmill platform inertia properties, has been shown (by on-orbit zero-G testing onboard the International Space Station) to deliver exceedingly high levels of isolation/ stability performance.

  18. Automating a spacecraft electrical power system using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    Since Skylab, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recognized the need for large electrical power systems (EPS's) in upcoming Spacecraft. The operation of the spacecraft depends on the EPS. Therefore, it must be efficient, safe, and reliable. In 1978, as a consequence of having to supply a large number of EPS personnel to monitor and control Skylab, the Electrical power Branch of MSFC began the autonomously managed power system (AMPS) project. This project resulted in the assembly of a 25-kW high-voltage dc test facility and provided the means of getting man out of the loop as much as possible. AMPS includes several embedded controllers which allow a significant level of autonomous operation. More recently, the Electrical Division at MSFC has developed the space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard to investigate managing and distributing power in the Space Station Freedom habitation and laboratory modules. Again, the requirement for a high level of autonomy for the efficient operation over the lifetime of the station and for the benefits of enhanced safety has been demonstrated. This paper describes the two breadboards and the hierarchical approach to automation which was developed through these projects.

  19. SCL: An off-the-shelf system for spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Vangaasbeck, James

    1994-01-01

    In this age of shrinking military, civil, and commercial space budgets, an off-the-shelf solution is needed to provide a multimission approach to spacecraft control. A standard operational interface which can be applied to multiple spacecraft allows a common approach to ground and space operations. A trend for many space programs has been to reduce operational staff by applying autonomy to the spacecraft and to the ground stations. The Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) system developed by Interface and Control Systems, Inc. (ICS) provides an off-the-shelf solution for spacecraft operations. The SCL system is designed to provide a hyper-scripting interface which remains standard from program to program. The spacecraft and ground station hardware specifics are isolated to provide the maximum amount of portability from system to system. Uplink and downlink interfaces are also isolated to allow the system to perform independent of the communications protocols chosen. The SCL system can be used for both the ground stations and the spacecraft, or as a value added package for existing ground station environments. The SCL system provides an expanded stored commanding capability as well as a rule-based expert system on-board. The expert system allows reactive control on-board the spacecraft for functions such as electrical power systems (EPS), thermal control, etc. which have traditionally been performed on the ground. The SCL rule and scripting capability share a common syntax allowing control of scripts from rules and rules from scripts. Rather than telemeter over sampled data to the ground, the SCL system maintains a database on-board which is available for interrogation by the scripts and rules. The SCL knowledge base is constructed on the ground and uploaded to the spacecraft. The SCL system follows an open-systems approach allowing other tasks to communicate with SCL on the ground and in space. The SCL system was used on the Clementine program (launched January 25

  20. SCL: An off-the-shelf system for spacecraft control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brian; Vangaasbeck, James

    1994-11-01

    In this age of shrinking military, civil, and commercial space budgets, an off-the-shelf solution is needed to provide a multimission approach to spacecraft control. A standard operational interface which can be applied to multiple spacecraft allows a common approach to ground and space operations. A trend for many space programs has been to reduce operational staff by applying autonomy to the spacecraft and to the ground stations. The Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) system developed by Interface and Control Systems, Inc. (ICS) provides an off-the-shelf solution for spacecraft operations. The SCL system is designed to provide a hyper-scripting interface which remains standard from program to program. The spacecraft and ground station hardware specifics are isolated to provide the maximum amount of portability from system to system. Uplink and downlink interfaces are also isolated to allow the system to perform independent of the communications protocols chosen. The SCL system can be used for both the ground stations and the spacecraft, or as a value added package for existing ground station environments. The SCL system provides an expanded stored commanding capability as well as a rule-based expert system on-board. The expert system allows reactive control on-board the spacecraft for functions such as electrical power systems (EPS), thermal control, etc. which have traditionally been performed on the ground. The SCL rule and scripting capability share a common syntax allowing control of scripts from rules and rules from scripts. Rather than telemeter over sampled data to the ground, the SCL system maintains a database on-board which is available for interrogation by the scripts and rules. The SCL knowledge base is constructed on the ground and uploaded to the spacecraft. The SCL system follows an open-systems approach allowing other tasks to communicate with SCL on the ground and in space. The SCL system was used on the Clementine program (launched January 25

  1. Control system design for spacecraft formation flying: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew Dunbar

    Spacecraft formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space science missions, such as separated spacecraft interferometers (SSI). However the sensing, control and coordination of such instruments pose many new design challenges. SSI missions will require precise relative sensing and control, fuel-efficient, fuel-balanced operation to maximize mission life and group-level autonomy to reduce operations costs. Enabling these new formation flying capabilities requires precise relative sensing and estimation, enhanced control capabilities such as cooperative control (multiple independent spacecraft acting together), group-level formation management and informed design of a system architecture to manage distributed sensing and control-system resources. This research defines an end-to-end control system, including the key elements unique to the formation flying problem: cooperative control, relative sensing, coordination, and the control-system architecture. A new control-system design optimizes performance under typical spacecraft constraints (e.g., on-off actuators, finite fuel, limited computation power, limited contact with ground control, etc.). Standard control techniques have been extended, and new ones synthesized to meet these goals. In designing this control system, several contributions have been made to the field of spacecraft formation flying control including: an analytic two-vehicle fuel-time-optimal cooperative control algorithm, a fast numeric multi-vehicle, optimal cooperative control algorithm that can be used as a feedforward or a feedback controller, a fleet-level coordinator for autonomous fuel balancing, validation of GPS-based relative sensing for formation flying, and trade studies of the relative control and relative-estimation-architecture design problems. These research contributions are mapped to possible applications for three spacecraft formation flying missions currently in development. The lessons learned from this research

  2. Spacecraft Power Systems Engineering: Solutions for NASA's Manned Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of spacecraft power systems is presented, with a focus on applications in the manned space program. The topics include: 1) History; 2) State-of-the-art; 3) Development directions; 4) Focus on applications in the manned space program led from JSC; 5) Power Systems Engineering Trade Space; 6) Power Generation and Energy Storage; 7) Power Distribution and Control; and 8) Actuation

  3. Advanced X-Ray Timing Array Mission: Conceptual Spacecraft Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, L.; Thomas, H. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Baysinger, M.; Maples, C. D.; Fabisinski, L.L.; Hornsby, L.; Thompson, K. S.; Miernik, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for submillisecond timing of bright galactic x-ray sources. The two science instruments are the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) (a collimated instrument with 2-50-keV coverage and over 3 square meters of effective area) and a Sky Monitor (SM), which acts as a trigger for pointed observations of x-ray transients. The spacecraft conceptual design team developed two spacecraft concepts that will enable the AXTAR mission: A minimal configuration to be launched on a Taurus II and a larger configuration to be launched on a Falcon 9 or similar vehicle.

  4. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  5. Overview study of Space Power Technologies for the advanced energetics program. [spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Gross, S.; Millner, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, W.; Powell, J.; Schmidt, E.; Wolf, M.; Woodcock, G.

    1981-01-01

    Space power technologies are reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art and to identify advanced or novel concepts which promise large increases in performance. The potential for incresed performance is judged relative to benchmarks based on technologies which have been flight tested. Space power technology concepts selected for their potentially high performance are prioritized in a list of R & D topical recommendations for the NASA program on Advanced Energetics. The technology categories studied are solar collection, nuclear power sources, energy conversion, energy storage, power transmission, and power processing. The emphasis is on electric power generation in space for satellite on board electric power, for electric propulsion, or for beamed power to spacecraft. Generic mission categories such as low Earth orbit missions and geosynchronous orbit missions are used to distinguish general requirements placed on the performance of power conversion technology. Each space power technology is judged on its own merits without reference to specific missions or power systems. Recommendations include 31 space power concepts which span the entire collection of technology categories studied and represent the critical technologies needed for higher power, lighter weight, more efficient power conversion in space.

  6. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  7. Laser Doppler And Range Systems For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P. W.; Gagliardi, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses two types of proposed laser systems containing active transponders measuring distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (via Doppler effect) between deep space vehicle and earth-orbiting satellite. Laser system offers diffraction advantage over microwave system. Delivers comparable power to distant receiver while using smaller transmitting and receiving antennas and less-powerful transmitter. Less subject to phase scintillations caused by passage through such inhomogeneous media as solar corona. One type of system called "incoherent" because range and Doppler measurements do not require coherence with laser carrier signals. Other type of system called "coherent" because successful operation requires coherent tracking of laser signals.

  8. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  9. A modular electric power system test bed for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1994-01-01

    In the new climate of smaller, faster, and cheaper space science satellites, a new power system topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This new topology is based on a series connected boost converter (SCBC) and can greatly affect the size, weight, fault tolerance, and cost of any small spacecraft using photovoltaic solar arrays. The paper presents electric power system design factors and requirements as background information. The series connected boost converter topology is discussed and several advantages over existing technologies are illustrated. Besides being small, lightweight, and efficient, this topology has the added benefit of inherent fault tolerance. A positive ground power system test bed has been developed for the TROPIX spacecraft program. Performance of the SCBC in the test bed is described in detail. SCBC efficiencies of 95 percent to 98 percent have been measured. Finally, a modular, photovoltaic regulator 'kit' concept is presented. Two SCBC's are used to regulate solar array charging of batteries and to provide 'utilitytype' power to the user loads. The kit's modularity will allow a spacecraft electric power system to be built from off-the-shelf hardware; resulting in smaller, faster, and cheaper spacecraft.

  10. Compact Laser Multi-gas Spectral Sensors for Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, Frank K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research effort has been the development of a new gas sensor technology to meet NASA requirements for spacecraft and space station human life support systems for sensitive selective and real time detection of trace gas species in the mid-infrared spectral region.

  11. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna

    1994-01-01

    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  12. Thermal modeling and analysis of structurally complex spacecraft using the IDEAS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Large antenna satellites of unprecedented sizes are needed for a number of applications. Antenna diameters on the order of 50 meters and upward are required. Such antennas involve the use of large expanses of lattice structures with hundreds or thousands of individual connecting members. In connection with the design of such structures, the consideration of thermal effects represents a crucial factor. Software capabilities have emerged which are coded to include major first order thermal effects and to purposely ignore, in the interest of computational efficiency, the secondary effects. The Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) is one such system. It has been developed for an employment in connection with thermal-structural interaction analyses related to the design of large structurally complex classes of future spacecraft. An IDEAS overview is presented. Attention is given to a typical antenna analysis using IDEAS, the thermal and loading analyses of a tetrahedral truss spacecraft, and ecliptic and polar orbit analyses.

  13. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  14. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  15. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  16. High-temperature behavior of advanced spacecraft TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to develop more efficient, lighter weight, and higher temperature thermal protection systems (TPS) for future reentry space vehicles. The research carried out during this funding period involved the design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and characterization of thermal protection materials to be used on future hypersonic vehicles. This work is important for the prediction of material performance at high temperature and aids in the design of thermal protection systems for a number of programs including programs such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), Pegasus and Pegasus/SWERVE, the Comet Rendezvous and Flyby Vehicle (CRAF), and the Mars mission entry vehicles. Research has been performed in two main areas including development and testing of thermal protection systems (TPS) and computational research. A variety of TPS materials and coatings have been developed during this funding period. Ceramic coatings were developed for flexible insulations as well as for low density ceramic insulators. Chemical vapor deposition processes were established for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. Experimental testing and characterization of these materials has been carried out in the NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities and in the Ames time-of-flight mass spectrometer facility. By means of computation, we have been better able to understand the flow structure and properties of the TPS components and to estimate the aerothermal heating, stress, ablation rate, thermal response, and shape change on the surfaces of TPS. In addition, work for the computational surface thermochemistry project has included modification of existing computer codes and creating new codes to model material response and shape change on atmospheric entry vehicles in a variety of environments (e.g., earth and Mars atmospheres).

  17. The conceptual studies on future spacecraft systems, part B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    This report reviews a manned satellite and ultra small satellite system. For manned spacecraft, it is necessary to verify the required technology in spacecraft development. In this conceptual study, environmental control and life support system (ECLSS), water recycling system, and pressurization module were reviewed for onboard experiment system. The two-phase flow loop radiator was also examined for thermal control system. On the basis of these discussions, several possible basic configurations were proposed. Ultra small satellites have advantages such as short development period, low cost, and multifunction, so that the ultra small satellites are expected to activate space development business. Possible missions for ultra small satellites were reviewed in comparison with small satellites. Also discussed were technology of parts, assembly, power supply, and sensors, in order to manufacture the ultra small satellite. Several structural techniques were also proposed. On the basis of these discussions and proposals, a system model of an ultra small satellite was reviewed.

  18. Scaled CMOS Reliability and Considerations for Spacecraft Systems: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark

    2012-01-01

    New space missions will increasingly rely on more advanced technologies because of system requirements for higher performance, particularly in instruments and high-speed processing. Component-level reliability challenges with scaled CMOS in spacecraft systems from a bottom-up perspective have been presented. Fundamental Front-end and Back-end processing reliability issues with more aggressively scaled parts have been discussed. Effective thermal management from system-level to the componentlevel (top-down) is a key element in overall design of reliable systems. Thermal management in space systems must consider a wide range of issues, including thermal loading of many different components, and frequent temperature cycling of some systems. Both perspectives (top-down and bottom-up) play a large role in robust, reliable spacecraft system design.

  19. MOORE: A prototype expert system for diagnosing spacecraft problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlin, Katherine; Weissert, Jerry; Krantz, Kerry

    1988-01-01

    MOORE is a rule-based, prototype expert system that assists in diagnosing operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) problems. It is intended to assist spacecraft engineers at the TDRS ground terminal in trouble shooting problems that are not readily solved with routine procedures, and without expert counsel. An additional goal of the prototype system is to develop in-house expert system and knowledge engineering skills. The prototype system diagnoses antenna pointing and earth pointing problems that may occur within the TDRS Attitude Control System (ACS). Plans include expansion to fault isolation of problems in the most critical subsystems of the TDRS spacecraft. Long term benefits are anticipated with use of an expert system during future TDRS programs with increased mission support time, reduced problem solving time, and retained expert knowledge and experience. Phase 2 of the project is intended to provide NASA the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite. Phase 2 also envisions addressing two unexplored applications for expert systems, spacecraft integration and tests (I and T) and support to launch activities. The concept, goals, domain, tools, knowledge acquisition, developmental approach, and design of the expert system. It will explain how NASA obtained the knowledge and capability to develop the system in-house without assistance from outside consultants. Future plans will also be presented.

  20. A high power spacecraft thermal management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, J.; Kroliczek, E. J.; Mccabe, M. E., Jr.; Benner, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test results of an ammonia hybrid capillary pumped loop thermal control system. As a hytbrid, the system can operate as either a passive, capillary pumped loop, or, as a mechanically pumped system. The system is comprised of an evaporator section, a condenser section, 10 meters of liquid and vapor transport lines, a mechanical pump, and a reservoir. In the evaporator section, four capillary pumps are each integrated into three cold plates. The mechanical pump is installed in the liquid line and is in series with the capillary pumps. Testing has demonstrated that in the capillary pumped mode, the HPSTM can acquire and transport a total heat load of between 120 W and 24 kW, with a maximum heat flux density of 4.3 W/sq cm in the evaporator section. In the mechanically pumped configuration, a heat acquisition potential of 50 kW (9 W/sq cm heat flux density) has been demonstrated. The hybrid system still retains the proven capillary capabilities of temperature control, heat load sharing and fluid flow control between evaporator plates, rapid power cycling, and pressure priming recovery of deprimed evaporators.

  1. Conjugating binary systems for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, Philomena G.; Dean, William G.; Sisk, Lori A.; Karu, Zain S.

    1989-01-01

    The materials search was directed to liquid pairs which can form hydrogen bonds of just the right strength, i.e., strong enough to give a high heat of mixing, but weak enough to enable phase change to occur. The cursory studies performed in the area of additive effects indicate that Conjugating Binary (CB) performance can probably be fine-tuned by this means. The Fluid Loop Test Systems (FLTS) tests of candidate CBs indicate that the systems Triethylamine (TEA)/water and propionaldehyde/water show close to the ideal, reversible behavior, at least initially. The Quick Screening Tests QSTs and FLTS tests, however, both suffer from rather severe static due either to inadequate stirring or temperature control. Thus it is not possible to adequately evaluate less than ideal CB performers. Less than ideal performers, it should be noted, may have features that make them better practical CBs than ideal performers. Improvement of the evaluation instrumentation is thus indicated.

  2. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  3. A study of fault injection in multichannel spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements to be studied are the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study are being applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard. Some of the reactions of the breadboard to some of the faults which have been encountered are presented along with the results of this study.

  4. Comparative analysis of large antenna spacecraft using the ideas system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS), capable of providing mobile communications for commercial and government applications in nonmetropolitan areas of the continental U.S. and Canada as an augmentation to existing and planned terrestrial systems, is being studied. The satellite system would provide 'narrow band' telecommunications services such as mobile radio, telephone, dispatch, safety, and special radio services, and thin-route fixed telephone and data services in the 806-890 MHz band and continuous emergency beacon monitoring in the 406-406.1 MHz band. A single Shuttle launch with an upper stage orbital transfer system would place the LMSS spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit over the continental U.S. in 1995 with a 10-year lifetime. The present investigation has the objective to evaluate, compare, and rank selected spacecraft concepts, to suggest design improvement to the individual concepts, and to identify technology needs.

  5. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  6. Toward a Dynamically Reconfigurable Computing and Communication System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifle, Muli; Andro, Monty; Tran, Quang K.; Fujikawa, Gene; Chu, Pong P.

    2003-01-01

    Future science missions will require the use of multiple spacecraft with multiple sensor nodes autonomously responding and adapting to a dynamically changing space environment. The acquisition of random scientific events will require rapidly changing network topologies, distributed processing power, and a dynamic resource management strategy. Optimum utilization and configuration of spacecraft communications and navigation resources will be critical in meeting the demand of these stringent mission requirements. There are two important trends to follow with respect to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) future scientific missions: the use of multiple satellite systems and the development of an integrated space communications network. Reconfigurable computing and communication systems may enable versatile adaptation of a spacecraft system's resources by dynamic allocation of the processor hardware to perform new operations or to maintain functionality due to malfunctions or hardware faults. Advancements in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology make it possible to incorporate major communication and network functionalities in FPGA chips and provide the basis for a dynamically reconfigurable communication system. Advantages of higher computation speeds and accuracy are envisioned with tremendous hardware flexibility to ensure maximum survivability of future science mission spacecraft. This paper discusses the requirements, enabling technologies, and challenges associated with dynamically reconfigurable space communications systems.

  7. A comparative study of electric power distribution systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power distribution systems for spacecraft are compared concentrating on two interrelated issues: the choice between dc and high frequency ac, and the converter/inverter topology to be used at the power source. The relative merits of dc and ac distribution are discussed. Specific converter and inverter topologies are identified and analyzed in detail for the purpose of detailed comparison. Finally, specific topologies are recommended for use in dc and ac systems.

  8. Analysis of shadowing effects on spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Orbiting Spacecraft Shadowing Analysis (OSSA) computer program that was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center in order to assess the shadowing effects on various power systems. The algorithms, inputs and outputs are discussed. Examples of typical shadowing analyses that have been performed for the International Space Station Freedom, International Space Station Alpha and the joint United States/Russian Mir Solar Dynamic Flight Experiment Project are covered. Effects of shadowing on power systems are demonstrated.

  9. Code for Analyzing and Designing Spacecraft Power System Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert

    2005-01-01

    GPHRAD is a computer code for analysis and design of disk or circular-sector heat-rejecting radiators for spacecraft power systems. A specific application is for Stirling-cycle/linear-alternator electric-power systems coupled to radioisotope general-purpose heat sources. GPHRAD affords capabilities and options to account for thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density) of either metal-alloy or composite radiator materials.

  10. A Prototyping Effort for the Integrated Spacecraft Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Raymond; Tung, Yu-Wen; Maldague, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Computer modeling and simulation has recently become an essential technique for predicting and validating spacecraft performance. However, most computer models only examine spacecraft subsystems, and the independent nature of the models creates integration problems, which lowers the possibilities of simulating a spacecraft as an integrated unit despite a desire for this type of analysis. A new project called Integrated Spacecraft Analysis was proposed to serve as a framework for an integrated simulation environment. The project is still in its infancy, but a software prototype would help future developers assess design issues. The prototype explores a service oriented design paradigm that theoretically allows programs written in different languages to communicate with one another. It includes creating a uniform interface to the SPICE libraries such that different in-house tools like APGEN or SEQGEN can exchange information with it without much change. Service orientation may result in a slower system as compared to a single application, and more research needs to be done on the different available technologies, but a service oriented approach could increase long term maintainability and extensibility.

  11. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  12. A distributed microprocessor system for spacecraft control and data handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The specific requirements for spacecraft computing systems are considered. These requirements are partly related to the constraints of limited resources of power, weight, and volume. Another important factor is the requirement of extremely high reliability. These reliability requirements have led to introduction of automated redundancy techniques on board the spacecraft. The various redundant computers check each other and provide recovery procedures when a computer is found to have failed. Past and future capabilities are considered along with distributed processing requirements. System considerations are discussed, taking into account suboptimum computer throughput, sensitivity to software modifications, hierarchic timing, I/O granularity, restricted communications, synchronous functions, hierarchic control, and concurrent error detection. A description is presented of the Unified Data System (UDS), which consists of a set of standard microcomputers connected by several buses. Attention is also given to synchronization and timing, the executive control structure, the programming language, and the executive program.

  13. Spacecraft attitude control using a smart control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft attitude control has been implemented using control loops written in native code for a space hardened processor. The Naval Research Lab has taken this approach during the development of the Attitude Control Electronics (ACE) package. After the system was developed and delivered, NRL decided to explore alternate technologies to accomplish this same task more efficiently. The approach taken by NRL was to implement the ACE control loops using systems technologies. The purpose of this effort was to: (1) research capabilities required of an expert system in processing a classic closed-loop control algorithm; (2) research the development environment required to design and test an embedded expert systems environment; (3) research the complexity of design and development of expert systems versus a conventional approach; and (4) test the resulting systems against the flight acceptance test software for both response and accuracy. Two expert systems were selected to implement the control loops. Criteria used for the selection of the expert systems included that they had to run in both embedded systems and ground based environments. Using two different expert systems allowed a comparison of the real-time capabilities, inferencing capabilities, and the ground-based development environment. The two expert systems chosen for the evaluation were Spacecraft Command Language (SCL), and NEXTPERT Object. SCL is a smart control system produced for the NRL by Interface and Control Systems (ICS). SCL was developed to be used for real-time command, control, and monitoring of a new generation of spacecraft. NEXPERT Object is a commercially available product developed by Neuron Data. Results of the effort were evaluated using the ACE test bed. The ACE test bed had been developed and used to test the original flight hardware and software using simulators and flight-like interfaces. The test bed was used for testing the expert systems in a 'near-flight' environment

  14. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Geng, Steven M.; Schrieber, Jeffrey G.; Tobery, E. Wayne; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    One of the advantages of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used to maintain electronic components within a controlled temperature range, to warm propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and to gasify liquid propellants. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated a very large quantity of waste heat due to the relatively low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have much higher conversion efficiencies than their predecessors and therefore may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of approx. 6 to 7% and 200 C housing surface temperatures, would need to use large and heavy radiator heat exchangers to transfer the waste heat to the internal spacecraft components. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation by using the heat exchangers or additional shields. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22% and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can use the available waste heat more efficiently by more direct heat transfer methods such as heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures allow the SRG110 much more flexibility to the spacecraft designers in configuring the generator without concern of overheating nearby scientific instruments, thereby eliminating the need for thermal shields. This paper will investigate using a high efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander) to illustrate the advantages with regard to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings.

  15. The Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft lifts off from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observatory at 10:39 a.m. EDT, on Aug. 25, 1997, from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. Launch was scrubbed one day by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. The ACE spacecraft will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles on its one-million-mile journey. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA. Study of these energetic particles may contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. ACE has a two-year minimum mission lifetime and a goal of five years of service. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif.

  16. The Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft lifts off from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Photographers and other onlookers watch as a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observatory at 10:39 a.m. EDT, on Aug. 25, 1997, from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. Liftoff had been scheduled for Aug. 24, but was scrubbed one day by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. The ACE spacecraft will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles on its one-million-mile journey. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA. Study of these energetic particles may contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. ACE has a two-year minimum mission lifetime and a goal of five years of service. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif.

  17. Spacecraft Parachute Recovery System Testing from a Failure Rate Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft parachute recovery systems, especially those with a parachute cluster, require testing to identify and reduce failures. This is especially important when the spacecraft in question is human-rated. Due to the recent effort to make spaceflight affordable, the importance of determining a minimum requirement for testing has increased. The number of tests required to achieve a mature design, with a relatively constant failure rate, can be estimated from a review of previous complex spacecraft recovery systems. Examination of the Apollo parachute testing and the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster recovery chute system operation will clarify at which point in those programs the system reached maturity. This examination will also clarify the risks inherent in not performing a sufficient number of tests prior to operation with humans on-board. When looking at complex parachute systems used in spaceflight landing systems, a pattern begins to emerge regarding the need for a minimum amount of testing required to wring out the failure modes and reduce the failure rate of the parachute system to an acceptable level for human spaceflight. Not only a sufficient number of system level testing, but also the ability to update the design as failure modes are found is required to drive the failure rate of the system down to an acceptable level. In addition, sufficient data and images are necessary to identify incipient failure modes or to identify failure causes when a system failure occurs. In order to demonstrate the need for sufficient system level testing prior to an acceptable failure rate, the Apollo Earth Landing System (ELS) test program and the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System failure history will be examined, as well as some experiences in the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System will be noted.

  18. Development of the Spacecraft Materials Selector Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A specific knowledge base to evaluate the on-orbit performance of selected materials on spacecraft is being developed under contract to the NASA SEE program. An artificial intelligence software package, the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST), contains an inference engine used to operate knowledge bases constructed to selectively recall and distribute information about materials performance in space applications. This same system is used to make estimates of the environmental exposures expected for a given space flight. The performance capabilities of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base are described in this paper. A case history for a planned flight experiment on ISS is shown as an example of the use of the SMS, and capabilities and limitations of the knowledge base are discussed.

  19. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acheson, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

  20. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.

    1995-01-01

    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  1. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  2. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  3. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  4. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Passivation with Ionic Silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; McCoy, LaShelle e.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth is common on wetted surfaces in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems despite the use of chemical and physical disinfection methods. Advanced control technologies are needed to limit microorganisms and increase the reliability of life support systems required for long-duration human missions. Silver ions and compounds are widely used as antimicrobial agents for medical applications and continue to be used as a residual biocide in some spacecraft water systems. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified silver fluoride for use in the potable water system on the next generation spacecraft. Due to ionic interactions between silver fluoride in solution and wetted metallic surfaces, ionic silver is rapidly depleted from solution and loses its antimicrobial efficacy over time. This report describes research to prolong the antimicrobial efficacy of ionic silver by maintaining its solubility. Three types of metal coupons (lnconel 718, Stainless Steel 316, and Titanium 6AI-4V) used in spacecraft potable water systems were exposed to either a continuous flow of water amended with 0.4 mg/L ionic silver fluoride or to a static, pre-treatment passivation in 50 mg/L ionic silver fluoride with or without a surface oxidation pre-treatment. Coupons were then challenged in a high-shear, CDC bioreactor (BioSurface Technologies) by exposure to six bacteria previously isolated from spacecraft potable water systems. Continuous exposure to 0.4 mg/L ionic silver over the course of 24 hours during the flow phase resulted in a >7-log reduction. The residual effect of a 24-hour passivation treatment in 50 mg/L of ionic silver resulted in a >3-log reduction, whereas a two-week treatment resulted in a >4-log reduction. Results indicate that 0.4 mg/L ionic silver is an effective biocide against many bacteria and that a prepassivation of metal surfaces with silver can provide additional microbial control.

  5. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  6. An expert system for diagnosing anomalies of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael; Durand, Rick; Vampola, AL; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1994-01-01

    Although the analysis of anomalous behavior of satellites is difficult because it is a very complex process, it is important to be able to make an accurate assessment in a timely manner when the anomaly is observed. Spacecraft operators may have to take corrective action or to 'safe' the spacecraft; space-environment forecasters may have to assess the environmental situation and issue warnings and alerts regarding hazardous conditions, and scientists and engineers may want to gain knowledge for future designs to mitigate the problems. Anomalies can be hardware problems, software errors, environmentally induced, or even the cause of workmanship. Spacecraft anomalies attributable to electrostatic discharges have been known to cause command errors. A goal is to develop an automated system based on this concept to reduce the number of personnel required to operate large programs or missions such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). Although expert systems to detect anomalous behavior of satellites during operations are established, diagnosis of the anomaly is a complex procedure and is a new development.

  7. The Visible Imaging System (VIS) for the Polar Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Craven, J. D.; Cravens, J. P.; Dolan, J. S.; Dvorsky, M. R.; Hardebeck, P. K.; Harvey, J. D.; Muller, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Visible Imaging System (VIS) is a set of three low-light-level cameras to be flown on the POLAR spacecraft of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) program which is an element of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) campaign. Two of these cameras share primary and some secondary optics and are designed to provide images of the nighttime auroral oval at visible wavelengths. A third camera is used to monitor the directions of the fields-of-view of these sensitive auroral cameras with respect to sunlit Earth. The auroral emissions of interest include those from N+2 at 391.4 nm, 0 I at 557.7 and 630.0 nm, H I at 656.3 nm, and 0 II at 732.0 nm. The two auroral cameras have different spatial resolutions. These resolutions are about 10 and 20 km from a spacecraft altitude of 8 R(sub e). The time to acquire and telemeter a 256 x 256-pixel image is about 12 s. The primary scientific objectives of this imaging instrumentation, together with the in-situ observations from the ensemble of ISTP spacecraft, are (1) quantitative assessment of the dissipation of magnetospheric energy into the auroral ionosphere, (2) an instantaneous reference system for the in-situ measurements, (3) development of a substantial model for energy flow within the magnetosphere, (4) investigation of the topology of the magnetosphere, and (5) delineation of the responses of the magnetosphere to substorms and variable solar wind conditions.

  8. Spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging on spacecraft materials are studied. Spacecraft charging interactions seem to couple environment to system performance through materials. Technology is still developing concerning both environment-driven and operating system-driven interactions. The meeting addressed environment but lacked specific mission requirements, as a result system definition are needed to prioritize interactions.

  9. Solar Manuvering Spacecraft Guidance and Control System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to discuss the time of a transfer trajectory by consideration of the Earth's shadow. The time of transfer trajectory of a sail spacecraft was determined by consideration of the Earth's shadow and it was compared with the results in a case where the Earth's shadow was not taken into account. The solar sail spacecraft was demonstrated to be oriented in such a way that the solar force applies in one appropriate direction. The mathematical concept and feature shape of solar sail spacecraft were proven as correct design approaches. The equations of motion that were developed in the project were proven in correct format for transfer trajectory approach by means of the purposed CN (Cyrus Nejat) Equations of Motion. Four important comments were discussed from the observed results. The problem statement was depened along with appropriate assumptions. The solar sail craft was defined appropriately. The equations of motion were determined in order to evaluate the transfer trajectory of solar sail spacecraft. In this case, the time of flight was determined for two cases: with Earth's shadow, and without Earth's shadow. The results showed that the time of fight with the Earth's shadow consideration is higher than the time of fight without the Earth's shadow, but it had close responses due to small amount of force from the solar radiation pressure. The future of this project should also apply the Moon's shadow in the problem statement and determine the shadow of the Earth as it can be seen in a cone zone. There are also appropriate control system devices that should be designed for attitude determination. It is also necessary to apply appropriate damper system, composite and smart materials to remedy vibration problems.

  10. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  11. Orbital Stability of Spacecraft Exploring Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Keaton; Marchis, F.; Bellerose, J.

    2011-05-01

    Space missions to study the composition and formation histories of multiple asteroid systems require the identification of safe orbits for the observing spacecraft. To identify regions of orbital stability, we developed an n-body simulation and Monte Carlo scheme to test a large selection of orbits around the components of multiple asteroid systems. Our n-body program integrates the equations of motion of the spacecraft, asteroid system components, and the sun for 20 days, taking into account solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft and modeling asteroids as systems of rigid points when their shape model is known. We utilized a Monte Carlo scheme to test the stability of polar and retrograde orbits from uniformly distributed starting positions with normally distributed tangential velocities around each component. We present preliminary results of simulations testing hundreds of thousands of polar and retrograde orbits around the components of the 2001 SN263 near-earth triple asteroid system, and the (90) Antiope doublet and (45) Eugenia triple systems in the main-belt. These systems are potential targets for several space mission concepts, including: the Amor mission to visit and land on the components of 2001 SN263, Jones et al. (LPSC 42, #2695, 2011), the Diversity mission to explore several asteroid systems including (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope, Marchis et al. (LPSC 42, #2062, 2011), and the ASTER mission to visit a NEA multiple asteroid, Sukhanov et al. (Cosmic Research 48-5, p. 443-450, 2010). Analysis of stable regions in position and velocity may assist in planning scientific orbits and instrumental specifications for such missions.

  12. Study of reactor Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft was investigated. The primary performance parameters of systems mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kW sub e. Mathematical models of all system components were used to determine masses and volumes. Two completely independent systems provide propulsion power so that no single-point failure can jeopardize a mission. The waste heat radiators utilize armored heat pipes to limit meteorite puncture. The armor thickness was statistically determined to achieve the required probability of survival. A 400 kW sub e reference system received primary attention as required by the contract. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. An arrangement with redundant Brayton power systems having a 1500 K (2240 F) turbine inlet temperature was shown to be compatible with the dimensions of the space shuttle orbiter payload bay.

  13. Investigation of fast initialization of spacecraft bubble memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Bubble domain technology offers significant improvement in reliability and functionality for spacecraft onboard memory applications. In considering potential memory systems organizations, minimization of power in high capacity bubble memory systems necessitates the activation of only the desired portions of the memory. In power strobing arbitrary memory segments, a capability of fast turn on is required. Bubble device architectures, which provide redundant loop coding in the bubble devices, limit the initialization speed. Alternate initialization techniques are investigated to overcome this design limitation. An initialization technique using a small amount of external storage is demonstrated.

  14. Trade Spaces in Crewed Spacecraft Atmosphere Revitalization System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing the technological response to realizing an efficient atmosphere revitalization system for future crewed spacecraft and space habitats requires identifying and describing functional trade spaces. Mission concepts and requirements dictate the necessary functions; however, the combination and sequence of those functions possess significant flexibility. Us-ing a closed loop environmental control and life support (ECLS) system architecture as a starting basis, a functional unit operations approach is developed to identify trade spaces. Generalized technological responses to each trade space are discussed. Key performance parameters that apply to functional areas are described.

  15. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 3. Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Pioneer Venus spacecraft performance requirements are presented. The specifications include: (1) Design criteria and performance requirements for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft systems and subsystems for a 1978 multiprobe mission and a 1978 orbiter mission, spacecraft system interface, and scientific instrument integration.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Curtis; Ilie, Marcel; Schallhorn, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft components may be damaged due to airflow produced by Environmental Control Systems (ECS). There are uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow field around a spacecraft from the ECS System. This paper describes an approach to estimate the uncertainty in using CFD to predict the airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft.

  17. Development of a Deployable Nonmetallic Boom for Reconfigurable Systems of Small Modular Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Launch vehicle payload capacity and the launch environment represent two of the most operationally limiting constraints on space system mass, volume, and configuration. Large-scale space science and power platforms as well as transit vehicles have been proposed that greatly exceed single-launch capabilities. Reconfigurable systems launched as multiple small modular spacecraft with the ability to rendezvous, approach, mate, and conduct coordinated operations have the potential to make these designs feasible. A key characteristic of these proposed systems is their ability to assemble into desired geometric (spatial) configurations. While flexible and sparse formations may be realized by groups of spacecraft flying in close proximity, flyers physically connected by active structural elements could continuously exchange power, fluids, and heat (via fluids). Configurations of small modular spacecraft temporarily linked together could be sustained as long as needed with minimal propellant use and reconfigured as often as needed over extended missions with changing requirements. For example, these vehicles could operate in extremely compact configurations during boost phases of a mission and then redeploy to generate power or communicate while coasting and upon reaching orbit. In 2005, NASA funded Phase 1 of a program called Modular Reconfigurable High-Energy Technology Demonstrator Assembly Testbed (MRHE) to investigate reconfigurable systems of small spacecraft. The MRHE team was led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and included Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (ATC) in Palo Alto and its subcontractor, ATK. One of the goals of Phase 1 was to develop an MRHE concept demonstration in a relevant 1-g environment to highlight a number of requisite technologies. In Phase 1 of the MRHE program, Lockheed Martin devised and conducted an automated space system assembly demonstration featuring multipurpose free-floating robots representing Spacecraft in the newly

  18. The conceptual studies on future spacecraft systems, part D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the conception of a manned experiment satellite and external vehicle action system. The manned technique is defined as a technique to maintain human activity for a certain period under closed conditions such as a satellite in orbit. The mission of a manned experiment satellite is to verify environment control and a life support system that is essential to manned spacecrafts, which includes air control by a pressurization module and a water recycling system under microgravity. Environment control, air recycling, water management and recycling, disposal of waste, washing under microgravity and heat control were reviewed for the mission. The scenario of manned spacecraft development was compared with the image of a manned experiment satellite, and an appropriate system was selected. The Pressurized Service Cabin (PSC), which is a small manned aircraft, was reviewed concerning the external vehicle action. As a result it was concluded that the external vehicle action is dangerous so that a robot or manipulator should be used instead of human activity as much as possible, and that the PSC should be regarded as a system for the development of a space-suit. However, the PSC will be used for external vehicle action until robot development is completed.

  19. A Distributed Simulation Software System for Multi-Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Richard; Davis, George; Cary, Everett

    2003-01-01

    The paper will provide an overview of the web-based distributed simulation software system developed for end-to-end, multi-spacecraft mission design, analysis, and test at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This software system was developed for an internal research and development (IR&D) activity at GSFC called the Distributed Space Systems (DSS) Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE). The long-term goal of the DSS-DSE is to integrate existing GSFC stand-alone test beds, models, and simulation systems to create a "hands on", end-to-end simulation environment for mission design, trade studies and simulations. The short-term goal of the DSE was therefore to develop the system architecture, and then to prototype the core software simulation capability based on a distributed computing approach, with demonstrations of some key capabilities by the end of Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). To achieve the DSS-DSE IR&D objective, the team adopted a reference model and mission upon which FY02 capabilities were developed. The software was prototyped according to the reference model, and demonstrations were conducted for the reference mission to validate interfaces, concepts, etc. The reference model, illustrated in Fig. 1, included both space and ground elements, with functional capabilities such as spacecraft dynamics and control, science data collection, space-to-space and space-to-ground communications, mission operations, science operations, and data processing, archival and distribution addressed.

  20. Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and

  1. System level mechanical testing of the Clementine spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haughton, James; Hauser, Joseph; Raynor, William; Lynn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the system level structural testing that was performed to qualify the Clementine Spacecraft for flight. These tests included spin balance, combined acoustic and axial random vibration, lateral random vibration, quasi-static loads, pyrotechnic shock, modal survey and on-orbit jitter simulation. Some innovative aspects of this effort were: the simultaneously combined acoustic and random vibration test; the mass loaded interface modal survey test; and the techniques used to assess how operating on board mechanisms and thrusters affect sensor vision.

  2. Innovative method for the thermal cycling of large spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimer, C. H.; Hale, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    The use of low cost, off the shelf prefabricated enclosures for spacecraft system thermal cycling applications was indicated. The enclosures are erected in the satellite integration areas without disturbing the test article, electrical test set, or RF interfaces. They are assembled by metal clad, modular urethane panels. These panels are self supporting, and are locked and sealed to each other on assembly. Penetrations for interconnecting cables, coaxial and waveguide services; and temperature conditioning inlet and outlet ducts are easily incorporated where required. The facility and its advantages and intrinsic benefits are described.

  3. Development of a Deployable Nonmetallic Boom for Reconfigurable Systems of Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Pryor, Mark; Holmes, Buck; Schaechter, David; Pedreiro, Nelson; Carrington, Connie

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, NASA commenced Phase 1 of the Modular Reconfigurable High Energy Technology Demonstrator (MRHE) program to investigate reconfigurable systems of small spacecraft. During that year, Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (ATC) led an accelerated effort to develop a 1-g MRHE concept demonstration featuring robotic spacecraft simulators equipped with docking mechanisms and deployable booms. The deployable boom built for MRHE was the result of a joint effort in which ATK was primarily responsible for developing and fabricating the Collapsible Rollable Tube (CRT patent pending) boom while Lockheed Martin designed and built the motorized Boom Deployment Mechanism (BDM) under a concurrent but separate IR&D program. Tight coordination was necessary to meet testbed integration and functionality requirements. This paper provides an overview of the CRT boom and BDM designs and presents preliminary results of integration and testing to support the MRHE demonstration.

  4. Technology forecasting for space communication. [analysis of systems for application to Spacecraft Data and Tracking Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine techniques for application to space communication. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) optical communication systems, (2) laser communications for data acquisition networks, (3) spacecraft data rate requirements, (4) telemetry, command, and data handling, (5) spacecraft tracking and data network antenna and preamplifier cost tradeoff study, and (6) spacecraft communication terminal evaluation.

  5. Interactions between SAS-C spacecraft nutations and spin control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tossman, B. E.; Thayer, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The SAS-C spacecraft is stabilized by a momentum biased reaction wheel and passive nutation damper. A closed-loop low-speed spacecraft spin rate control system is included which uses a single-axis gyro and a variable speed range on the reaction wheel. Dynamic instability can result from interactions among the gyro, damper, and spacecraft dynamic unbalance. This instability may be aggravated by gyro angular misalignment, gyro error signals, and spacecraft nutations. Analytic eigenvector, and digital computer analyses of the coupled systems are presented. Mechanisms for instability are described as well as the effects that gyro error signal, tilt, and spacecraft dynamic unbalance produce on control system performance.

  6. Definition of the topological structure of the automatic control system of spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenkov, P. V.; Karaseva, M. V.; Tsareva, E. A.; Tsarev, R. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of selection the topological structure of the automated control system of spacecrafts. The integer linear model of mathematical programming designed to define the optimal topological structure for spacecraft control is proposed. To solve the determination problem of topological structure of the control system of spacecrafts developed the procedure of the directed search of some structure variants according to the scheme "Branch and bound". The example of the automated control system of spacecraft development included the combination of ground control stations, managing the spacecraft of three classes with a geosynchronous orbit with constant orbital periods is presented.

  7. Simulation Helps Improve Atmosphere Revitalization Systems for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Coker, RObert

    2014-01-01

    Life support systems for manned spacecraft must provide breathable air and drinkable water for the astronauts. Through the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project, engineers at NASA are developing atmosphere control devices for the safety of the onboard crew. The atmosphere in a manned spacecraft needs to be regularly revitalized in order to ensure the safety of the astronauts and the success of the space mission. For missions lasting a few months, this means air is continuously dehumidified, water collected for re-use, and carbon dioxide (CO2) ejected. One component of the onboard atmosphere control system is a water-saving device that Jim Knox, aerospace engineer at NASA, is optimizing through the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project. He is leading a team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, Alabama) that is aiming to make the assembly more cost-effective and efficient by reducing its power usage and maximizing the water saved; their goal is to save 80-90% of the water in the air. They hope to offer flight system developers at NASA an integrated approach to atmosphere revitalization and water collection that will ultimately increase the time and distance space missions can travel.

  8. The Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA): A tool for automating spacecraft monitoring with expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1991-01-01

    Flight Operations Analysts (FOAs) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) are responsible for monitoring a satellite's health and safety. As satellites become more complex and data rates increase, FOAs are quickly approaching a level of information saturation. The FOAs in the spacecraft control center for the COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) satellite are currently using a fault isolation expert system named the Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource (CLEAR), to assist in isolating and correcting communications link faults. Due to the success of CLEAR and several other systems in the control center domain, many other monitoring and fault isolation expert systems will likely be developed to support control center operations during the early 1990s. To facilitate the development of these systems, a project was initiated to develop a domain specific tool, named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA). GenSAA will enable spacecraft analysts to easily build simple real-time expert systems that perform spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation functions. Lessons learned during the development of several expert systems at Goddard, thereby establishing the foundation of GenSAA's objectives and offering insights in how problems may be avoided in future project, are described. This is followed by a description of the capabilities, architecture, and usage of GenSAA along with a discussion of its application to future NASA missions.

  9. Active spacecraft potential control system selection for the Jupiter orbiter with probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Goldstein, R.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the high flux of energetic plasma electrons and the reduced photoemission rate in the Jovian environment can result in the spacecraft developing a large negative potential. The effects of the electric fields produced by this charging phenomenon are discussed in terms of spacecraft integrity as well as charged particle and fields measurements. The primary area of concern is shown to be the interaction of the electric fields with the measuring devices on the spacecraft. The need for controlling the potential of the spacecraft is identified, and a system capable of active control of the spacecraft potential in the Jupiter environment is proposed. The desirability of using this system to vary the spacecraft potential relative to the ambient plasma potential is also discussed. Various charged particle release devices are identified as potential candidates for use with the spacecraft potential control system. These devices are evaluated and compared on the basis of system mass, power consumption, and system complexity and reliability.

  10. Monitoring and control of spacecraft systems using procedural reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Ingrand, Francois Felix

    1990-01-01

    Research concerned with automating the monitoring and control of spacecraft systems is discussed. In particular, the application of SRI's Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) to the handling of malfunctions in the Reaction Control System (RCS) of NASA's Space Shuttle is examined. Unlike traditional monitoring and control systems, PRS is able to reason about and perform complex tasks in a very flexible and robust manner, somewhat in the manner of a human assistant. Using various RCS malfunctions as examples (including sensor faults, leaking components, multiple alarms, and regulator and jet failures), it is shown how PRS manages to combine both goal-directed reasoning and the ability to react rapidly to unanticipated changes in its environment. In conclusion, some important issues in the design of PRS are reviewed and future enhancements are indicated.

  11. Electronic Systems for Spacecraft Vehicles: Required EDA Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, Rafic

    1999-01-01

    The continuous increase in complexity of electronic systems is making the design and manufacturing of such systems more challenging than ever before. As a result, designers are finding it impossible to design efficient systems without the use of sophisticated Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. These tools offer integrated simulation of the electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing functions and lead to a correct by design methodology. This report identifies the EDA tools that would be needed to design, analyze, simulate, and evaluate electronic systems for spacecraft vehicles. In addition, the report presents recommendations to enhance the current JSC electronic design capabilities. This includes cost information and a discussion as to the impact, both positive and negative, of implementing the recommendations.

  12. Spacecraft system study: A study to define the impact of laser communication systems on their host spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The mutual influence of a laser communication system and its host spacecraft and the degree to which the mutual influence limited acquisition, tracking and pointing processes were investigated. A laser klink between a low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite and a geosynchronous earth orbiting (GEO) satellite was used as a baseline. The laser link between satellites was a generic channel transferring 500 Mbps data from the LEO to GEO using the GaAlAs laser as the laser light source. Major aspects of pointing and tracking with a satelliteborne optical system were evaluated including: (1) orbital aspects such as spacecraft relative motions, point ahead, and Sun snd Moon optical noise; (2) burst errors introduced by the electronic and optical noise levels; (3) servo system design and configurations, and the noise sources such as, sensor noise, base motion disturbances, gimbal friction torque noise; (4) an evaluation of the tracking and beacon link and the type of sensors used; (5) the function of the acquisition procedure and an evaluation of the sensors employed; and (6) an estimate of the size, weight and power needed for the satellite system.

  13. A guide to structural factors for advanced composites used on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwagenen, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The use of composite materials in spacecraft systems is constantly increasing. Although the areas of composite design and fabrication are maturing, they remain distinct from the same activities performed using conventional materials and processes. This has led to some confusion regarding the precise meaning of the term 'factor of safety' as it applies to these structures. In addition, composite engineering introduces terms such as 'knock-down factors' to further modify material properties for design purposes. This guide is intended to clarify these terms as well as their use in the design of composite structures for spacecraft. It is particularly intended to be used by the engineering community not involved in the day-to-day composites design process. An attempt is also made to explain the wide range of factors of safety encountered in composite designs as well as their relationship to the 1.4 factor of safety conventionally applied to metallic structures.

  14. A system for spacecraft attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A conceptual design for a double-gimbal reaction-wheel energy-wheel device which has three-axis attitude control and electrical energy storage capability is given. A mathematical model for the three-axis gyroscope (TAG) was developed, and a system of multiple units is proposed for attitude control and energy storage for a class of spacecraft. Control laws were derived to provide the required attitude-control torques and energy transfer while minimizing functions of TAG gimbal angles, gimbal rates, reaction-wheel speeds, and energy-wheel speed differences. A control law is also presented for a magnetic torquer desaturation system. A computer simulation of a three-TAG system for an orbiting telescope was used to evaluate the concept. The results of the study indicate that all control and power requirements can be satisfied by using the TAG concept.

  15. Investigation of high voltage spacecraft system interactions with plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Purvis, C. K.; Grier, N.; Staskus, J.

    1978-01-01

    The exposure of high voltage spacecraft systems to the charged particle environment of space can produce interactions that will influence system operation. An experimental investigation of these interactions has been undertaken for insulator and conductor test surfaces biased up to plus or minus 1 kV in a simulated low earth orbit charged particle environment. It has been found that these interactions are controlled by the insulator surfaces surrounding the biased conductors. For positive applied voltages the electron current collection can be enhanced by the insulators. For negative applied voltages the insulator surface confines the voltage to the conductor region; this can cause arcing. Understanding these interactions and the technology to control their impact on system operation is essential to the design of solar cell arrays for ion drive propulsion applications that use direct drive power processing.

  16. Development of an Advanced Proportional Xenon Feed Assembly for the GOCE Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Put, P.; van der List, M.; Yuce, V.

    2004-10-01

    In the last few years an increase in the use of ion propulsion systems for spacecrafts has been observed. The Proportional Xenon Feed Assembly (PXFA), currently under development at Bradford Engineering B.V. in The Netherlands, is part of the Ion Propulsion Assembly for use on the GOCE spacecraft. The PXFA is the feed system that regulates the pressure down from the propellant tank and provides the xenon flows to the main, cathode and neutralizer inlets of the Ion Thruster Assembly developed by QinetiQ (UK). Due to the high specific impulse of ion thrusters and the relatively low thrust levels (ranging from 1.5 to 20 mN), this places stringent requirements on the controllability of the very low rates by the PXFA. The scientific objectives of the GOCE program, also place stringent microdisturbance requirements on the PXFA. This techniques used in the PXFA as developed for the GOCE spacecraft, will also be an enabling technology for a variety of future science and microgravity missions.

  17. System Critical Design Audit (CDA). Books 1, 2 and 3; [Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI Lewis Spacecraft Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis Spacecraft Program is evaluated. Spacecraft integration, test, launch, and spacecraft bus are discussed. Payloads and technology demonstrations are presented. Mission data management system and ground segment are also addressed.

  18. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  19. Advances in series resonant inverter technology and its effect on spacecraft employing electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of transistorized Series Resonant Inverters (SRIs), which is higher than that of silicon-controlled rectifier alternatives, reduces spacecraft radiator requirements by 40% and may eliminate the need for heat pipes on 30-cm ion thruster systems. Recently developed 10- and 25-kW inverters have potential applications in gas thrusters, and represent the first spaceborne SRI designs for such power levels. Attention is given to the design and control system approaches employed in these inverter designs to improve efficiency and reduce weight, along with the impact of such improved parameters on electric propulsion systems.

  20. Systems Engineering Using Heritage Spacecraft Technology: Lessons Learned from Discovery and New Frontiers Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2011-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced or heritage systems and the system environment identifies unanticipated issues that result in cost overruns or schedule impacts. The Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays resulting from advanced technology or heritage assumptions for 6 D&NF missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that the cost and schedule growth did not result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. Instead, systems engineering processes did not identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement the heritage or advanced technology. This presentation summarizes the study s findings and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the risks inherent in the technology and heritage design solution.

  1. Attitude ground support system for the solar maximum mission spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, G.

    1980-01-01

    The SMM attitude ground support system (AGSS) supports the acquisition of spacecraft roll attitude reference, performs the in-flight calibration of the attitude sensor complement, supports onboard control autonomy via onboard computer data base updates, and monitors onboard computer (OBC) performance. Initial roll attitude acquisition is accomplished by obtaining a coarse 3 axis attitude estimate from magnetometer and Sun sensor data and subsequently refining it by processing data from the fixed head star trackers. In-flight calibration of the attitude sensor complement is achieved by processing data from a series of slew maneuvers designed to maximize the observability and accuracy of the appropriate alignments and biases. To ensure autonomy of spacecraft operation, the AGSS selects guide stars and computes sensor occultation information for uplink to the OBC. The onboard attitude control performance is monitored on the ground through periodic attitude determination and processing of OBC data in downlink telemetry. In general, the control performance has met mission requirements. However, software and hardware problems have resulted in sporadic attitude reference losses.

  2. Dynamic response and stability analysis of flexible, multibody systems. [spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Park, A. C.; Devers, A. D.; Frisch, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    A general version of Lagrange's equations, including auxiliary nonholonomic, rheonomic conditions of constraint, is used in the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of interconnected flexible bodies. Modeling of the nonlinear flexible/rigid dynamic coupling effects, the interaction forces/torques, and the elastic deformation effects is discussed. A digital computer program is developed to obtain time-domain solution for the nonlinear response of systems represented as a collection of individual bodies, numerical linearization of system-governing equations, time-domain solution for the perturbation response about a nominal state, and a frequency-domain stability analysis corresponding to the linearization. The digital simulation code is employed to study the dynamic behavior of a typical satellite and a spacecraft with deployable experiment booms.

  3. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 4: Probe bus and orbiter spacecraft vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozajian, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The requirements, trades, and design descriptions for the probe bus and orbiter spacecraft configurations, structure, thermal control, and harness are defined. Designs are developed for Thor/Delta and Atlas/Centaur launch vehicles with the latter selected as the final baseline. The major issues examined in achieving the baseline design are tabulated. The importance of spin axis orientation because of the effect on science experiments and earth communications is stressed.

  4. Spacecraft Data Simulator for the test of level zero processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jeff; Gordon, Julie; Mirchandani, Chandru; Nguyen, Diem

    1994-01-01

    The Microelectronic Systems Branch (MSB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a Spacecraft Data Simulator (SDS) to support the development, test, and verification of prototype and production Level Zero Processing (LZP) systems. Based on a disk array system, the SDS is capable of generating large test data sets up to 5 Gigabytes and outputting serial test data at rates up to 80 Mbps. The SDS supports data formats including NASA Communication (Nascom) blocks, Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) Version 1 & 2 frames and packets, and all the Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) services. The capability to simulate both sequential and non-sequential time-ordered downlink data streams with errors and gaps is crucial to test LZP systems. This paper describes the system architecture, hardware and software designs, and test data designs. Examples of test data designs are included to illustrate the application of the SDS.

  5. Intelligent Data Visualization for Cross-Checking Spacecraft System Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, James C.; Remolina, Emilio; Breeden, David; Stroozas, Brett A.; Mohammed, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Any reasoning system is fallible, so crew members and flight controllers must be able to cross-check automated diagnoses of spacecraft or habitat problems by considering alternate diagnoses and analyzing related evidence. Cross-checking improves diagnostic accuracy because people can apply information processing heuristics, pattern recognition techniques, and reasoning methods that the automated diagnostic system may not possess. Over time, cross-checking also enables crew members to become comfortable with how the diagnostic reasoning system performs, so the system can earn the crew s trust. We developed intelligent data visualization software that helps users cross-check automated diagnoses of system faults more effectively. The user interface displays scrollable arrays of timelines and time-series graphs, which are tightly integrated with an interactive, color-coded system schematic to show important spatial-temporal data patterns. Signal processing and rule-based diagnostic reasoning automatically identify alternate hypotheses and data patterns that support or rebut the original and alternate diagnoses. A color-coded matrix display summarizes the supporting or rebutting evidence for each diagnosis, and a drill-down capability enables crew members to quickly view graphs and timelines of the underlying data. This system demonstrates that modest amounts of diagnostic reasoning, combined with interactive, information-dense data visualizations, can accelerate system diagnosis and cross-checking.

  6. Requirements analysis for a multi-spacecraft flight system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. M.; O'Quinn, C. F.; Porter, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    The StarLight mission scheduled to launch June 2006, will demonstrate the separated spacecraft technologies of formation flying, precision formation, estimation, and long baseline stellar interferometry.

  7. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  8. Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

  9. System control of an autonomous planetary mobile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Zimmerman, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal is to suggest the scheduling and control functions necessary for accomplishing mission objectives of a fairly autonomous interplanetary mobile spacecraft, while maximizing reliability. Goals are to provide an extensible, reliable system conservative in its use of on-board resources, while getting full value from subsystem autonomy, and avoiding the lure of ground micromanagement. A functional layout consisting of four basic elements is proposed: GROUND and SYSTEM EXECUTIVE system functions and RESOURCE CONTROL and ACTIVITY MANAGER subsystem functions. The system executive includes six subfunctions: SYSTEM MANAGER, SYSTEM FAULT PROTECTION, PLANNER, SCHEDULE ADAPTER, EVENT MONITOR and RESOURCE MONITOR. The full configuration is needed for autonomous operation on Moon or Mars, whereas a reduced version without the planning, schedule adaption and event monitoring functions could be appropriate for lower-autonomy use on the Moon. An implementation concept is suggested which is conservative in use of system resources and consists of modules combined with a network communications fabric. A language concept termed a scheduling calculus for rapidly performing essential on-board schedule adaption functions is introduced.

  10. New approaches to planetary exploration - Spacecraft and information systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, A. V.; Neugebauer, M.; Stuart, J.; Miller, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Approaches are recommended for use by the NASA Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in lowering the costs of planetary missions. The inclusion of off-the-shelf hardware, i.e., configurations currently in use for earth orbits and constructed on a nearly assembly-line basis, is suggested. Alterations would be necessary for the thermal control, power supply, telecommunications equipment, and attitude sensing in order to be serviceable as a planetary observer spacecraft. New technology can be developed only when cost reduction for the entire mission would be realized. The employment of lower-cost boost motors, or even integrated boost motors, for the transfer out of earth orbit is indicated, as is the development of instruments that do not redundantly gather the same data as previous planetary missions. Missions under consideration include a Mars geoscience climatology Orbiter, a lunar geoscience Orbiter, a near-earth asteroid rendezvous, a Mars aeronomy Orbiter, and a Venus atmospheric probe.

  11. An integrated regenerative air revitalization system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, G. P.; Heppner, D. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Progress towards development of an air revitalization system (ARS) for spacecraft breathable atmosphere regeneration is assessed, and a preliminary design for a one-person ARS is described. The ARS is considered a necessary component of any permanently manned orbital station, and studies have demonstrated that penalties for expendable air supplies justify an ARS for missions longer than 40 days. CO2 must be removed and O2 returned along with N2, which can be extracted from hydrazine, with the H2 component returning to the operation of the CO2 reduction subsystem. An experimental ARS (ARX-1) features a cabin humidity control unit, a CO2 concentrator, an air-cooled CO2 reduction reactor, an oxygen generator (electrolysis), the hydrazine N2 generator, and a water handling unit. A 120-day test demonstrated one-button startup and 480 hr operation in a normal mode.

  12. An engineering database management system for spacecraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipollone, Gregorio; Mckay, Michael H.; Paris, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Studies at ESOC have demonstrated the feasibility of a flexible and powerful Engineering Database Management System in support for spacecraft operations documentation. The objectives set out were three-fold: first an analysis of the problems encountered by the Operations team in obtaining and managing operations documents; secondly, the definition of a concept for operations documentation and the implementation of prototype to prove the feasibility of the concept; and thirdly, definition of standards and protocols required for the exchange of data between the top-level partners in a satellite project. The EDMS prototype was populated with ERS-l satellite design data and has been used by the operations team at ESOC to gather operational experience. An operational EDMS would be implemented at the satellite prime contractor's site as a common database for all technical information surrounding a project and would be accessible by the cocontractor's and ESA teams.

  13. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DallBauman, L. A.; Finn, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  14. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    PubMed

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  15. An expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1992-01-01

    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool was designed for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies using an expert system. Expert systems provide an effective method for saving knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms, which allow approximate reasoning and inference and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defined. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. The environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The modularity of the expert system allows for easy updates and modifications. It not only provides scientists with needed risk analysis and confidence not found in algorithmic programs, but is also an effective learning tool, and the window implementation makes it very easy to use. The system currently runs on a Micro VAX II at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The inference engine used is NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  16. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  17. Minimization of spacecraft disturbances in space-robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vafa, Zia; Dubowsky, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Virtual manipulators for an arbitrary point of a real open chain space manipulator are presented. These virtual manipulators can be used to generate a disturbance map which can be used to select paths that reduce spacecraft disturbances. The present technique is applied to a simple two-link manipulator mounted on a free-floating spacecraft.

  18. JOSE, Jupiter orbiting spacecraft: A systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A brief summary of the mechanical properties of Jupiter is presented along with an organizational outline of the entire JOSE program. Other aspects of the program described include: spacecraft design, mission trajectories, altitude control, propulsion subsystem, on-board power supply, spacecraft structures and environmental design considerations, and telemetry.

  19. Influence of a new generation of operations support systems on current spacecraft operations philosophy: The users feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darroy, Jean Michel

    1993-01-01

    Current trends in the spacecraft mission operations area (spacecraft & mission complexity, project duration, required flexibility are requiring a breakthrough for what concerns philosophy, organization, and support tools. A major evolution is related to space operations 'informationalization', i.e adding to existing operations support & data processing systems a new generation of tools based on advanced information technologies (object-oriented programming, artificial intelligence, data bases, hypertext) that automate, at least partially, operations tasks that used be performed manually (mission & project planning/scheduling, operations procedures elaboration & execution, data analysis & failure diagnosis). All the major facets of this 'informationalization' are addressed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE, operational applications were fielded and generic products are becoming available. These various applications have generated a significant feedback from the users (at ESA, CNES, ARIANESPACE, MATRA MARCONI SPACE), which is now allowing us to precisely measure how the deployment of this new generation of tools, that we called OPSWARE, can 'reengineer' current spacecraft mission operations philosophy, how it can make space operations faster, better, and cheaper. This paper can be considered as an update of the keynote address 'Knowledge-Based Systems for Spacecraft Control' presented during the first 'Ground Data Systems for Spacecraft Control' conference in Darmstadt, June 1990, with a special emphasis on these last two years users feedback.

  20. The X-38 Spacecraft Fault-Tolerant Avionics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouba,Coy; Buscher, Deborah; Busa, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    In 1995 NASA began an experimental program to develop a reusable crew return vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station. The purpose of the CRV was threefold: (i) to bring home an injured or ill crewmember; (ii) to bring home the entire crew if the Shuttle fleet was grounded; and (iii) to evacuate the crew in the case of an imminent Station threat (i.e., fire, decompression, etc). Built at the Johnson Space Center, were two approach and landing prototypes and one spacecraft demonstrator (called V201). A series of increasingly complex ground subsystem tests were completed, and eight successful high-altitude drop tests were achieved to prove the design concept. In this program, an unprecedented amount of commercial-off-the-shelf technology was utilized in this first crewed spacecraft NASA has built since the Shuttle program. Unfortunately, in 2002 the program was canceled due to changing Agency priorities. The vehicle was 80% complete and the program was shut down in such a manner as to preserve design, development, test and engineering data. This paper describes the X-38 V201 fault-tolerant avionics system. Based on Draper Laboratory's Byzantine-resilient fault-tolerant parallel processing system and their "network element" hardware, each flight computer exchanges information on a strict timescale to process input data, compare results, and issue voted vehicle output commands. Major accomplishments achieved in this development include: (i) a space qualified two-fault tolerant design using mostly COTS (hardware and operating system); (ii) a single event upset tolerant network element board, (iii) on-the-fly recovery of a failed processor; (iv) use of synched cache; (v) realignment of memory to bring back a failed channel; (vi) flight code automatically generated from the master measurement list; and (vii) built in-house by a team of civil servants and support contractors. This paper will present an overview of the avionics system and the hardware

  1. The Human as a System - Monitoring Spacecraft Net Habitable Volume throughout the Design Lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Richard; Kallay, Anna; Twyford, Evan; Maida, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft design has historically allocated specific volume and mass "not to exceed" requirements upon individual systems and their accompanying hardware (e.g., life support, avionics) early in their conceptual design in an effort to align the spacecraft with propulsion capabilities. If the spacecraft is too heavy or too wide for the launch stack - it does not get off the ground. This approach has predictably ended with the crew being allocated whatever open, pressurized volume remains. With the recent inauguration of a new human-rated spacecraft - NASA human factors personnel have found themselves in the unique position to redefine the human as a system from the very foundation of design. They seek to develop and monitor a "not to fall below" requirement for crew net habitable volume (NHV) - balanced against the "not to exceed" system volume requirements, with the spacecraft fitting the crew versus the crew having to fit inside the spacecraft.

  2. Pluto Fast Flyby: An Overview of the Mission and Spacecraft Design, Advanced Technology Insertion Efforts, and Student Involvement Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, D. S.; Staehle, R.; Brewster, S.; Caldwell, D.; Carraway, J.; Henry, P.; Herman, M.; Kissel, G.; Peak, S.; Randolph, V.; Salvo, C.; Strand, L.; Terrile, R.; Underwood, M.; Wahl, B.; Weinstein, S.; Hansen, E.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to complete the initial reconnanissance of our solar system, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is designing a mission to send two very small spacecraft to explore Pluto and its moon, Charon.

  3. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  4. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  5. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  6. Far Ultraviolet Imaging from the Image Spacecraft. 1; System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U.; Lampton, M.; Geller, S. P.; Habraken, S.; Renotte, E.; Jamar, C.; Rochus, P.; Spann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft A,ill be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these observations and tile measurement of the magnetospheric back-round neutral gas density, the IMAGE satellite instrument complement includes three Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. In tile wavelength region 120-1 90 nm. a downward-viewing aurora imager is only minimally contaminated sunlight, scattered from clouds and ground, and radiance of the aurora observed in a nadir viewing geometry can be observed in the presence of the high-latitude day-low. Tile Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) will provide broadband ultraviolet images of the aurora for maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the LBH N2 bands of the aurora. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a monochromatic imager, will image different types of aurora, filtered by wavelength. By measuring the Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha, the proton-induced component of the aurora will be imaged separately. Finally, the GEO instrument will observe the distribution of the geocoronal emission, which is a measure of the neutral background density source of the charge exchange in the magnetosphere. The FUV instrument complement looks radially outward from the rotating IMAGE satellite and, therefore, it spends only a short time observing tile aurora and the Earth during, each spin. Detailed descriptions of the WIC, Si, GEO, and their individual performance validations are discussed in companion papers. This paper summarizes the system requirements and system design approach taken to satisfy the science requirements. One primary requirement is to maximize photon collection efficiency and use efficiently tile short time available foe exposures. The FUV auroral imagers WIC and SI both have wide fields of view and take data continuously as the auroral region proceeds through the field of view. To minimize data volume, multiple images

  7. Spacecraft mission and shielding thermal study for a space-storable fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal management and shielding problems related to a space-storable fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system are investigated. The general configuration of a space storable propulsion spacecraft and three types of shield configurations are described in detail. An advanced MLI shielding design is proposed showing good agreement with test data. All examined shield configurations were found to be acceptable for inner as well as outer planetary missions. However, for the latter small local heaters may be required to maintain the fluorine above a minimum required temperature of approximately -350 F. The fluorine/hydrazine system with a 25 percent higher specific impulse than the conventionally used propulsion systems, was suggested for interplanetary missions that require substantial velocity changes.

  8. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  9. Spacecraft 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and attitude control.

  10. The Mercury Dual Imaging System on the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, S. Edward; Boldt, John D.; Darlington, Edward H.; Espiritu, Raymond; Gold, Robert E.; Gotwols, Bruce; Grey, Matthew P.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hayes, John R.; Jaskulek, Steven E.; Kardian, Charles J.; Keller, Mary R.; Malaret, Erick R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Murphy, Patricia K.; Peacock, Keith; Prockter, Louise M.; Reiter, R. Alan; Robinson, Mark S.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Shelton, Richard G.; Sterner, Raymond E.; Taylor, Howard W.; Watters, Thomas R.; Williams, Bruce D.

    2007-08-01

    The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft will provide critical measurements tracing Mercury’s origin and evolution. MDIS consists of a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC). The NAC is a 1.5° field-of-view (FOV) off-axis reflector, coaligned with the WAC, a four-element refractor with a 10.5° FOV and 12-color filter wheel. The focal plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1,024×1,024 Atmel (Thomson) TH7888A charge-coupled device detector. Only one camera operates at a time, allowing them to share a common set of control electronics. The NAC and the WAC are mounted on a pivoting platform that provides a 90° field-of-regard, extending 40° sunward and 50° anti-sunward from the spacecraft + Z-axis—the boresight direction of most of MESSENGER’s instruments. Onboard data compression provides capabilities for pixel binning, remapping of 12-bit data into 8 bits, and lossless or lossy compression. MDIS will acquire four main data sets at Mercury during three flybys and the two-Mercury-solar-day nominal mission: a monochrome global image mosaic at near-zero emission angles and moderate incidence angles, a stereo-complement map at off-nadir geometry and near-identical lighting, multicolor images at low incidence angles, and targeted high-resolution images of key surface features. These data will be used to construct a global image base map, a digital terrain model, global maps of color properties, and mosaics of high-resolution image strips. Analysis of these data will provide information on Mercury’s impact history, tectonic processes, the composition and emplacement history of volcanic materials, and the thickness distribution and compositional variations of crustal materials. This paper summarizes MDIS’s science objectives and technical design, including the common payload design of the MDIS data processing units, as well as detailed results from ground and early flight

  11. Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array: Providing a Flexible, Efficient Solution to Space Power Systems for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Fabisinski, Leo; Justice, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is critical to consumers, spacecraft, military and other applications alike. In the aerospace industry, an increased emphasis on small satellite flights and a move toward CubeSat and NanoSat technologies, the need for systems that could package into a small stowage volume while still being able to power robust space missions has become more critical. As a result, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office identified a need for more efficient, affordable, and smaller space power systems to trade in performing design and feasibility studies. The Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space or on Earth. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to soldiers in the field. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume (shown in artist rendering in Figure 1 below). The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the progress to date on the LISA project as well as a look at its potential, with continued development, to revolutionize small spacecraft and portable terrestrial power systems.

  12. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  13. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  14. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is part of the Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical (MEMS) acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical-sensor-based systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used in characterizing both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data has cross-disciplinary utility to the microgravity life and physical sciences and the structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, while providing enhanced stability.

  15. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  16. Orbit determination and orbit control for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herberg, Joseph R.; Folta, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Future NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Spacecraft will make measurements of the earth's clouds, oceans, atmosphere, land and radiation balance. These EOS Spacecraft will be part of the NASA Mission to Planet Earth. This paper specifically addresses the EOS AM Spacecraft, referred to as 'AM' because it has a sun-synchronous orbit with a 10:30 AM descending node. This paper describes the EOS AM Spacecraft mission orbit requirements, orbit determination, orbit control, and navigation system impact on earth based pointing. The EOS AM Spacecraft will be the first spacecraft to use the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) as the primary means of navigation. TONS flight software will process one-way forward Doppler measurements taken during scheduled TDRSS contacts. An extended Kalman filter will estimate spacecraft position, velocity, drag coefficient correction, and ultrastable master oscillator frequency bias and drift. The TONS baseline algorithms, software, and hardware implementation are described in this paper. TONS integration into the EOS AM Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System; TONS assisted onboard time maintenance; and the TONS Ground Support System (TGSS) are also addressed.

  17. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  18. Advanced spacecraft designs in support of human missions to earth's neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by the NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a crew transfer vehicle (CTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the CTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the CTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP. .

  19. Power system state estimation for a spacecraft power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, F. C.; Benitez, N. L.; Cox, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    An application of the maximum likelihood state estimator to a space-based power system is presented. The state estimator uses current and voltage measurements to generate estimates of node voltages for an electrical power distribution system for the Space Shuttle. Preliminary results on the effect of noisy measurements on estimated parameters are reported. The software used in generating these results is part of an overall package being developed at Louisiana Tech University. Intended applications of this package include the analysis of power systems and real-time parallel processing on the Space Shuttle.

  20. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  1. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  2. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  3. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  4. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  5. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  6. Saturn Uranus atmospheric entry probe mission spacecraft system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The modifications required of the Pioneer F/G spacecraft design for it to deliver an atmospheric entry probe to the planets Saturn and Uranus are investigated. It is concluded that it is feasible to conduct such a mission within the constraints and interfaces defined. The spacecraft required to perform the mission is derived from the Pioneer F/G design, and the modifications required are generally routinely conceived and executed. The entry probe is necessarily a new design, although it draws on the technology of past, present, and imminent programs of planetary atmospheric investigations.

  7. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  8. ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccia, G.

    2004-10-01

    ESA is currently involved in several activities related to spacecraft chemical and electric propulsion, from the basic research and development of conventional and new concepts to the manufacturing, AIV and flight control of the propulsion subsystems of several European satellites. In the commercial application field, the strong competition among satellite manufacturers is a major driver for advancements in the area of propulsion, where increasing better performance together with low prices are required. Furthermore, new scientific and Earth observation missions dictate new challenging requirements for propulsion systems and components based on advanced technologies. For all these reasons, the technology area of spacecraft propulsion is in strong evolution and this paper presents an overview of the current European programmes and initiatives in this technology field. Specific attention is devoted in the paper to the performance and flight experience of spacecraft currently in orbit or ready to be launched.

  9. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  10. A study of the selection of microcomputer architectures to automate planetary spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauda, A.

    1982-01-01

    Performance and reliability models of alternate microcomputer architectures as a methodology for optimizing system design were examined. A methodology for selecting an optimum microcomputer architecture for autonomous operation of planetary spacecraft power systems was developed. Various microcomputer system architectures are analyzed to determine their application to spacecraft power systems. It is suggested that no standardization formula or common set of guidelines exists which provides an optimum configuration for a given set of specifications.

  11. Summary of spacecraft technology, systems reliability, and tracking data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Goddard activities are reported for 1973. An eight-year flight schedule for projected space missions is presented. Data acquired by spacecraft in the following disciplines are described: stellar ultraviolet, stellar X-rays, stellar gamma rays, solar radiation, radio astronomy, particles/fields, magnetosphere, aurora, and the upper atmosphere.

  12. Advanced dive monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Sternberger, W I; Goemmer, S A

    1999-01-01

    The US Navy supports deep diving operations with a variety of mixed-gas life support systems. A systems engineering study was conducted for the Naval Experimental Dive Unit (Panama City, FL) to develop a concept design for an advanced dive monitoring system. The monitoring system is intended primarily to enhance diver safety and secondarily to support diving medicine research. Distinct monitoring categories of diver physiology, life support system, and environment are integrated in the monitoring system. A system concept is proposed that accommodates real-time and quantitative measurements, noninvasive physiological monitoring, and a flexible and expandable implementation architecture. Human factors and ergonomic design considerations have been emphasized to assure that there is no impact on the diver's primary mission. The Navy has accepted the resultant system requirements and the basic design concept. A number of monitoring components have been implemented and successfully support deep diving operations.

  13. TALON and CRADLE: Systems for the rescue of tumbling spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idle, Dunning, V

    1991-01-01

    Advanced pressure suit and tool designs are beginning to allow extravehicular astronauts to repair space vehicles and so increase mission life and system reliability. A common spacecraft failure that is a severe challenge to the rescue mission planner is loss of attitude control resulting in tumbling motion. If an extravehicular astronaut flying the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) 'falls' into a tumble, the result could be loss of life. TALON (Tumble Arresting Large Oscillation Nullifier) is a device capable of capturing a target in an uncontrolled three-axis tumble. CRADLE (Concentric Rotating Astronaut Detumble Lifesaving Equipment) is a similar device sized to rescue a suited astronaut. The two rescue vehicles work on the same basic principle. They are structural shells with articulated limbs which can surround a tumbling target and thus align both the chaser and target centers of mass (CM).

  14. Evaluation of a Liquid Amine System for Spacecraft Carbon Dioxide Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaux, D. K.; Friedel, P.; Hwang, K. C.; Probert, G.; Ruder, J. M.; Sawamura, L.

    1974-01-01

    The analytical and experimental studies are described which were directed toward the acquisition of basic information on utilizing a liquid amine sorbent for in use in a CO2 removal system for manned spacecraft. Liquid amine systems are successfully used on submarines for control of CO2 generated by the crew, but liquid amines were not previously considered for spacecraft applications due to lack of development of satisfactory rotary phase separators. Developments in this area now make consideration of liquid amines practical for spacecraft system CO2 removal. The following major tasks were performed to evaluate liquid amine systems for spacecraft: (1) characterization, through testing, of the basic physical and thermodynamic properties of the amine solution; (2) determination of the dynamic characteristics of a cocurrent flow absorber; and (3) evaluation, synthesis, and selection of a liquid amine system concept oriented toward low power requirements. A low weight, low power system concept was developed. Numerical and graphical data are accompanied by pertinent observations.

  15. Integrated GPS/INS navigation system design for autonomous spacecraft rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylor, David Edward

    2003-10-01

    The goal of the NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is to advance the technologies for the next generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The SLI program has identified automated rendezvous and docking as an area requiring further research and development. Currently, the Space Shuttle uses a partially manual system for rendezvous, but a fully automated system could be safer and more reliable. Previous studies have shown that it is feasible to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for spacecraft navigation during rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). However, these studies have not accounted for the effects of GPS signal blockage and multipath in the vicinity of the ISS, which make a GPS-only navigation system less accurate and reliable. One possible solution is to combine GPS with an inertial navigation system (INS). The integration of GPS and INS can be achieved using a Kalman filter. GPS/INS systems have been used in aircraft for many years and have also been used in launch vehicles. However, the performance of GPS/INS systems in orbit and during spacecraft rendezvous has not been characterized. The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the ability of an integrated GPS/INS to provide accurate navigation solutions during a rendezvous scenario where the effects of ISS signal blockage, multipath and delta-v maneuvers degrade GPS-only navigation. In order to accomplish this, GPS-only and GPS/INS Kalman filters have been developed for both absolute and relative navigation, as well as a new statistical multipath model for spacecraft operating near the ISS. Several factors that affect relative navigation performance were studied, including: filter tuning, GPS constellation geometry, rendezvous approach direction, and inertial sensor performance. The results showed that each of these factors has a large impact on relative navigation performance. Finally, it has been demonstrated that a GPS/INS system based on medium accuracy aircraft

  16. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  17. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  18. Spacecraft design sensitivity for a disaster warning satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Provencher, C. E.; Leroy, B. E.; Braley, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A disaster warning satellite (DWS) is described for warning the general public of impending natural catastrophes. The concept is responsive to NOAA requirements and maximizes the use of ATS-6 technology. Upon completion of concept development, the study was extended to establishing the sensitivity of the DWSS spacecraft power, weight, and cost to variations in both warning and conventional communications functions. The results of this sensitivity analysis are presented.

  19. SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  20. SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-05-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  1. SHARP: A multi-mission AI system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-04-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager II spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real-time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real-time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  2. SHARP - A multi-mission AI system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager II spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real-time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real-time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  3. ITOS meteorological satellite system: TIROS M spacecraft (ITOS 1), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The ITOS system and mission are described along with the design of the TIROS M spacecraft, and the ITOS ground complex. The command subsystems, and the primary environmental sensor subsystem are discussed.

  4. Coupled orbit-attitude dynamics and relative state estimation of spacecraft near small Solar System bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Gaurav; Izadi, Maziar; Sanyal, Amit; Scheeres, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The effects of dynamical coupling between the rotational (attitude) and translational (orbital) motion of spacecraft near small Solar System bodies is investigated. This coupling arises due to the weak gravity of these bodies, as well as solar radiation pressure. The traditional approach assumes a point-mass spacecraft model to describe the translational motion of the spacecraft, while the attitude motion is considered to be completely decoupled from the translational motion. The model used here to describe the rigid-body spacecraft dynamics includes the non-uniform rotating gravity field of the small body up to second degree and order along with the attitude dependent terms, solar tide, and solar radiation pressure. This model shows that the second degree and order gravity terms due to the small body affect the dynamics of the spacecraft to the same extent as the orbit-attitude coupling due to the primary gravity (zeroth order) term. Variational integrators are used to simulate the dynamics of both the rigid spacecraft and the point mass. The small bodies considered here are modeled after Near-Earth Objects (NEO) 101955 Bennu, and 25143 Itokawa, and are assumed to be triaxial ellipsoids with uniform density. Differences in the numerically obtained trajectories of a rigid spacecraft and a point mass are then compared, to illustrate the impact of the orbit-attitude coupling on spacecraft dynamics in proximity of small bodies. Possible implications on the performance of model-based spacecraft control and on the station-keeping budget, if the orbit-attitude coupling is not accounted for in the model of the dynamics, are also discussed. An almost globally asymptotically stable motion estimation scheme based solely on visual/optical feedback that estimates the relative motion of the asteroid with respect to the spacecraft is also obtained. This estimation scheme does not require a model of the dynamics of the asteroid, which makes it perfectly suited for asteroids whose

  5. Tracking and data relay satellite system - NASA's new spacecraft data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C.; Garman, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's new spacecraft acquisition system provided by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Four satellites in geostationary orbit and a ground terminal will provide complete tracking, telemetry, and command service for all of NASA's orbital satellites below a 12,000 km altitude. Western Union will lease the system, operate the ground terminal and provide operational satellite control. NASA's network control center will be the focal point for scheduling user services and controlling the interface between TDRSS and the NASA communications network, project control centers, and data processing. TDRSS single access user spacecraft data systems will be designed for time shared data relay support, and reimbursement policy and rate structure for non-NASA users are being developed.

  6. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  7. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  8. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  9. Environmental control system development for manned spacecraft 1960-1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popma, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of environmental revitalization techniques from their beginnings in caisson and submarine habitats, up to the present time. The use of CO2 adsorbents, such as LiOH and their application to the first U.S. manned spaceflight is described, together with the beginnings of the regenerable CO2 sorber technology using molecular sieves and its ultimate application to Skylab. The concepts and hardware systems used for atmospheric revitalization on all major U.S. ground-based manned tests is detailed, including CO2 reduction and O2 generation processes. Current research and development efforts are also outlined. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the recently completed SSP, the most advanced and complete ECS that has been fabricated to date.

  10. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  11. Assessment of the Use of Nanofluids in Spacecraft Active Thermal Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The addition of metallic nanoparticles to a base heat transfer fluid can dramatically increase its thermal conductivity. These nanofluids have been shown to have advantages in some heat transport systems. Their enhanced properties can allow lower system volumetric flow rates and can reduce the required pumping power. Nanofluids have been suggested for use as working fluids for spacecraft Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCSs). However, there are no studies showing the end-to-end effect of nanofluids on the design and performance of spacecraft ATCSs. In the present work, a parametric study is performed to assess the use of nanofluids in a spacecraft ATCSs. The design parameters of the current Orion capsule and the tabulated thermophysical properties of nanofluids are used to assess the possible benefits of nanofluids and how their incorporation affects the overall design of a spacecraft ATCS. The study shows that the unique system and component-level design parameters of spacecraft ATCSs render them best suited for pure working fluids. The addition of nanoparticles to typical spacecraft thermal control working fluids actually results in an increase in the system mass and required pumping power.

  12. Simulation modeling for long duration spacecraft control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.

    1993-01-01

    The use of simulation is described and it is contrasted to analytical solution techniques for evaluation of analytical reliability models. The role importance sampling plays in simulation of models of this type was also discussed. The simulator tool used for our analysis is described. Finally, the use of the simulator tool was demonstrated by applying it to evaluate the reliability of a fault tolerant hypercube multiprocessor intended for spacecraft designed for long duration missions. The reliability analysis was used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages offered by simulation over analytical solution of Markovian and non-Markovian reliability models.

  13. Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) from Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Organic contamination on critical spacecraft surfaces can cause electronic problems, serious attenuation of various optical signals, thermal control changes, and adhesion problems. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled use of witness mirrors, witness plates, wipe sampling, or direct solvent extraction. Each method requires careful control of variables of technique and materials to attain the ultimate sensitivities inherent to that procedure. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant sample by infrared and mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semiquantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the nonvolatile residue (NVR), and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures.

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility fundamentals applied to spacecraft radio communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, F.; Celebiler, M.; Weil-Malherbe, C.

    1971-01-01

    A design guide for minimizing electromagnetic interference in aerospace communication equipment for ground stations is presented. Specifically treated are the mechanisms of generating unwanted radio emissions that may affect station operations as well as other communications services, the mechanisms by which sensitive receivers become susceptible to interference, means for reducing interference, standard methods of measurement, and the problems of site selection. The sources of interference are viewed primarily as originating from communications transmitters aboard spacecraft and aircraft, ground transmitters within and outside the ground stations, and other electrical sources on the ground that are not intended to radiate.

  15. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  16. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  17. Trace chemical contaminant generation rates for spacecraft contamination control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    A spacecraft presents a unique design challenge with respect to providing a comfortable environment in which people can live and work. All aspects of the spacecraft environmental design including the size of the habitable volume, its temperature, relative humidity, and composition must be considered to ensure the comfort and health of the occupants. The crew members and the materials selected for outfitting the spacecraft play an integral part in designing a habitable spacecraft because material offgassing and human metabolism are the primary sources for continuous trace chemical contaminant generation onboard a spacecraft. Since these contamination sources cannot be completely eliminated, active control processes must be designed and deployed onboard the spacecraft to ensure an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Knowledge of the expected rates at which contaminants are generated is very important to the design of these processes. Data from past spacecraft missions and human contaminant production studies have been analyzed to provide this knowledge. The resulting compilation of contaminants and generation rates serve as a firm basis for past, present, and future contamination control system designs for space and aeronautics applications.

  18. Spacecraft System Failures and Anomalies Attributed to the Natural Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedingfield, Keith, L.; Leach, Richard D.; Alexander, Margaret B. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The natural space environment is characterized by many complex and subtle phenomena hostile to spacecraft. The effects of these phenomena impact spacecraft design, development, and operations. Space systems become increasingly susceptible to the space environment as use of composite materials and smaller, faster electronics increases. This trend makes an understanding of the natural space environment essential to accomplish overall mission objectives, especially in the current climate of better/cheaper/faster. This primer provides a brief overview of the natural space environment - definition, related programmatic issues, and effects on various spacecraft subsystems. The primary focus, however, is to catalog, through representative case histories, spacecraft failures and anomalies attributed to the natural space environment. This primer is one in a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  19. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project is part of NASA s Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical sensor systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used to characterize both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data is useful to the microgravity life sciences, microgravity physical sciences, and structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, with enhanced long-term calibration stability.

  20. Development and Analysis of a Resource-Aware Power Management System as Applied to Small Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, an overall framework and solution method for managing the limited power resources of a small spacecraft is presented. Analogous to mobile computing technology, a primary limiting factor is the available power resources. In spite of the millions of dollars budgeted for research and development over decades, improvements in battery efficiency remains low. This situation is exacerbated by advances in payload technology that lead to increasingly power-hungry and data-intensive instruments. The challenge for the small spacecraft is to maximize capabilities and performance while meeting difficult design requirements and small project budgets.

  1. Technology status of a fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic technology exists and a system integration program is well underway to allow incorporation of a fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system into future spacecraft required for unmanned planetary missions. These spacecraft would be inserted in earth orbit using the Space Transportation System Shuttle and given its initial sendoff by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). The design of a typical propulsion system, assessment of thermal and structural impacts on a selected spacecraft and comparative studies with conventional propulsion systems have been completed. A major part of the current JPL Program involves assembly of a 3650 N thrust demonstration system using titanium tanks, flight weight components and structure. This system will be used to demonstrate the state-of-the-art throughout a representative flight system's qualification.

  2. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  3. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  4. Sustainable fouling management for spacecraft fluid handling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan Alexander Beirne

    Current technologies for microgravity fluid management utilize centripetal acceleration or capillary action to separate liquids from gases without gravity buoyancy. Centripetal acceleration hardware is prone to failure from fouling, while capillary technologies have only been utilized in favorable wetting environments, wherein the contact angle of the liquid, Qadv, a key design parameter, is reliably low. In this work, the impact of wastewater fouling on Qadv, is characterized, and the results applied to the development of a capillary static phase separator. Mean wastewater Qadv, on clean surfaces are between ≈78° and ≈89° on hydrophilic surfaces, and up to over ≈105° on hydrophobic surfaces. Small crystalline growth on the order of 10microm can lower advancing contact angles Qadv, by approximately 30°, while biofilm growth can lower them by approximately 15o. Vacuum drying of fouled surfaces increased Qadv, by about 8°, and defects greater in height than 5% of the capillary length increased Qadv, by approximately 30°. Interestingly, the promotion of wastewater fouling may even improve the performance of capillary dependent fluid management systems, and designs attempting to exploit wastewater wetting must account for highly variable wetting conditions. Reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from fluids with widely varying Qadv. The system uses centrifugal force to coalesce droplets via a circular path; collects bulk fluid via capillary geometries (wetting) or air drag (non-wetting); and contains bulk fluid by capillary force; while minimizing liquid carryover into the air stream by pinning edges (wetting) or tortuous path (non-wetting). Instead of attempting to prevent or reduce wastewater fouling, sustainable fluid management systems can be designed to accommodate fouling. For example, a lunar outpost water recovery system could be encouraged to foul regolith media and form

  5. Inter-Satellite Communications Considerations and Requirements for Distributed Spacecraft and Formation Flying Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwadrat, Carl F.; Horne, William D.; Edwards, Bernard L.

    2002-01-01

    In order to avoid selecting inadequate inter-spacecraft cross-link communications standards for Distributed Spacecraft System (DSS) missions, it is first necessary to identify cross-link communications strategies and requirements common to a cross-section of proposed missions. This paper addresses the cross-link communication strategies and requirements derived from a survey of 39 DSS mission descriptions that are projected for potential launch within the next 20 years. The inter-spacecraft communications strategies presented are derived from the topological and communications constraints from the DSS missions surveyed. Basic functional requirements are derived from an analysis of the fundamental activities that must be undertaken to establish and maintain a cross-link between two DSS spacecraft. Cross-link bandwidth requirements are derived from high-level assessments of mission science objectives and operations concepts. Finally, a preliminary assessment of possible cross-link standards is presented within the context of the basic operational and interoperability requirements.

  6. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  7. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  8. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  9. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  10. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    System analysis and design of any entry system must balance the level fidelity for each discipline against the project timeline. One way to inject high fidelity analysis earlier in the design effort is to develop surrogate models for the high-fidelity disciplines. Surrogate models for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) are formulated as Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs). The TPS MERs are presented that predict the amount of TPS necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that closely match estimates from NASA's high-fidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA-561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER under predicts FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  11. An advanced domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated traffic projection for U.S. domestic satellite communications service covering a period of 15 years; mid-1980 to mid-1995 was prepared. This model takes into account expected technology advances and reductions in transmission costs, legislative and regulatory changes permitting increased competition, and rising energy costs which will encourage more extensive substitution of telecommunications for travel. The historical development and current status of satellite systems are discussed as well as the characteristics of follow-on systems. Orbital arc utilization, spacecraft configuration for single shuttle launch, Earth station configuration, and system costs are examined. Areas which require technology development include multiple beam frequency reuse antennas, on-board switching, intersatellite links, and ka-band operation. Packing and deployment schemes for enclosing the satellite within the shuttle orbiter bay must also be devised.

  12. Recent advances in structural technology for large deployable and erectable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ultra-low mass deployable and erectable truss structure designs for spacecraft are identified using computerized structural sizing techniques. Extremely slender strut proportions are shown to characterize minimum mass spacecraft which are designed for shuttle transport to orbit. Discrete element effects using a recently developed buckling theory for periodic lattice type structures are presented. An analysis of fabrication imperfection effects on the surface accuracy of four different antenna reflector structures is summarized. The tetrahedral truss has the greatest potential of the structures examined for application to accurate or large reflectors. A deployable module which can be efficiently transported is identified and shown to have significant potential for application to future antenna requirements. Investigations of erectable structure assembly are reviewed.

  13. Occultation Modeling for Radiation Obstruction Effects on Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Carufel, Guy; Li, Zu Qun; Harvey, Jason; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A geometric occultation model has been developed to determine line-of-sight obstruction of radiation sources expected for different NASA space exploration mission designs. Example applications includes fidelity improvements for surface lighting conditions, radiation pressure, thermal and power subsystem modeling. The model makes use of geometric two dimensional shape primitives to most effectively model space vehicles. A set of these primitives is used to represent three dimensional obstructing objects as a two dimensional outline from the perspective of an observing point of interest. Radiation sources, such as the Sun or a Moon's albedo is represented as a collection of points, each of which is assigned a flux value to represent a section of the radiation source. Planetary bodies, such as a Martian moon, is represented as a collection of triangular facets which are distributed in spherical height fields for optimization. These design aspects and the overall model architecture will be presented. Specific uses to be presented includes a study of the lighting condition on Phobos for a possible future surface mission, and computing the incident flux on a spacecraft's solar panels and radiators from direct and reflected solar radiation subject to self-shadowing or shadowing by third bodies.

  14. Advanced hydrologic prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Brian A.; Braatz, Dean T.; Halquist, John B.; Deweese, Michael M.; Larson, Lee; Ingram, John J.

    1999-08-01

    As our Nation's population and infrastructure grow, natural disasters are becoming a greater threat to our society's stability. In an average year, inland flooding claims 133 lives and resulting property losses exceed 4.0 billion. Last year, 1997, these losses totaled 8.7 billion. Because of this blossoming threat, the National Weather Service (NWS) has requested funding within its 2000 budget to begin national implementation of the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS). With this system in place the NWS will be able to utilize precipitation and climate predictions to provide extended probabilistic river forecasts for risk-based decisions. In addition to flood and drought mitigation benefits, extended river forecasts will benefit water resource managers in decision making regarding water supply, agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and ecosystems. It's estimated that AHPS, if implemented nationwide, would save lives and provide $677 million per year in economic benefits. AHPS is used currently on the Des Moines River basin in Iowa and will be implemented soon on the Minnesota River basin in Minnesota. Experience gained from user interaction is leading to refined and enhanced product formats and displays. This discussion will elaborate on the technical requirements associated with AHPS implementation, its enhanced products and informational displays, and further refinements based on customer feedback.

  15. GN&C Engineering Best Practices For Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  16. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  17. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  18. Method and System for Gamma-Ray Localization Induced Spacecraft Navigation Using Celestial Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheikh, Suneel I. (Inventor); Hisamoto, Chuck (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for spacecraft navigation using distant celestial gamma-ray bursts which offer detectable, bright, high-energy events that provide well-defined characteristics conducive to accurate time-alignment among spatially separated spacecraft. Utilizing assemblages of photons from distant gamma-ray bursts, relative range between two spacecraft can be accurately computed along the direction to each burst's source based upon the difference in arrival time of the burst emission at each spacecraft's location. Correlation methods used to time-align the high-energy burst profiles are provided. The spacecraft navigation may be carried out autonomously or in a central control mode of operation.

  19. Mass comparisons of electric propulsion systems for NSSK of geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Majcher, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed and exercised to allow wet mass comparisons of three axis stabilized communication satellites delivered to geosynchronous transfer orbit. The mass benefits of using advanced chemical propulsion for apogee injection and north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) functions or electric propulsion (hydrazine arcjets and xenon ion thrusters) for NSSK functions are documented. A large derated ion thrusters is proposed which minimizes thruster lifetime concerns and qualification test times when compared to those of smaller ion thrusters planned for NSSK applications. The mass benefits, which depend on the spacecraft mass and mission duration, increase dramatically with arcjet specific impulse in the 500 to 600 s range, but are nearly constant for the derated ion thruster operated in the 2300 to 3000 s range. For a given mission, the mass benefits with an ion system are typically double those of the arcjet system; however, the total thrusting time with arcjets is less than 1/3 that with ion thrusters for the same thruster power. The mass benefits may permit increases in revenue producing payload or reduce launch costs by allowing a move to a smaller launch vehicle.

  20. Overview of Potable Water Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing water necessary to maintain life support has been accomplished in spacecraft vehicles for over forty years. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. space vehicles provided potable water. The water source for the spacecraft, biocide used to preserve the water on-orbit, water stowage methodology, materials, pumping mechanisms, on-orbit water requirements, and water temperature requirements will be discussed. Where available, the hardware used to provide the water and the general function of that hardware will also be detailed. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) water systems will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to water systems in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that could be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft water systems will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  1. Evaluation and comparison of alternative designs for water/solid-waste processing systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Promising candidate designs currently being considered for the management of spacecraft solid waste and waste-water materials were assessed. The candidate processes were: (1) the radioisotope thermal energy evaporation/incinerator process; (2) the dry incineration process; and (3) the wet oxidation process. The types of spacecraft waste materials that were included in the base-line computational input to the candidate systems were feces, urine residues, trash and waste-water concentrates. The performance characteristics and system requirements for each candidate process to handle this input and produce the specified acceptable output (i.e., potable water, a storable dry ash, and vapor phase products that can be handled by a spacecraft atmosphere control system) were estimated and compared. Recommendations are presented.

  2. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  3. The Design of a Power System for the PETSAT Modular Small Spacecraft Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C. S.; Lopez Mazarias, A.; Kobayashi, C.; Nakasuka, S.

    2008-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the benefits of having a modular spacecraft where it is possible to construct a satellite using a number of modules with identical mechanical and electrical interfaces, but with each performing a specific function to achieve the required platform specification. In recent years, steps have been made towards modular spacecraft becoming a reality and the concept is due to be demonstrated in-orbit later this year with the first flight of the PETSAT spacecraft concept on the mission, SOHLA-2. This paper describes the approach to the design of the SOHLA-2 power system. The approach is significant; PETSAT is an excellent example of a modular approach to spacecraft design. The PETSAT concept consists of a number of 'Panel Modules', roughly the same size as a pizza box. The panels stack together in stowed configuration for launch, and unfold once in orbit. Apart from being a very novel approach to spacecraft design and construction, this concept offers advantages in power generation as, once unfolded, there is significant surface area on which to mount solar cells for power generation. The power system for PETSAT has been designed such that each Panel Module contains a power system that can either operate in isolation for the purpose of unit testing, or as part of a larger spacecraft power system once connected to other Panel Modules. When connected together, the power systems on each module share the energy from the solar arrays and the batteries. The approach to the design of the system has provided a simple solution to difficult problem.

  4. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  5. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  6. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  7. A review of electron bombardment thruster systems/spacecraft field and particle interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Information on the field and particle interfaces of electron bombardment ion thruster systems was summarized. Major areas discussed were the nonpropellant particles, neutral propellant, ion beam, low energy plasma, and fields. Spacecraft functions and subsystems reviewed were solar arrays, thermal control systems, optical sensors, communications, science, structures and materials, and potential control.

  8. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  9. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  10. Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Research Lab (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify the pressure relief device bellow's integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electrical power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on it seven year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four year mission at Saturn.

  11. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  12. Considerations and Architectures for Inter-Satellite Communications in Distributed Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bernard; Horne, William; Israel, David; Kwadrat, Carl; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will identify the important characteristics and requirements necessary for inter-satellite communications in distributed spacecraft systems and present analysis results focusing on architectural and protocol comparisons. Emerging spacecraft systems plan to deploy multiple satellites in various "distributed" configurations ranging from close proximity formation flying to widely separated constellations. Distributed spacecraft configurations provide advantages for science exploration and operations since many activities useful for missions may be better served by distributing them between spacecraft. For example, many scientific observations can be enhanced through spatially separated platforms, such as for deep space interferometry. operating multiple distributed spacecraft as a mission requires coordination that may be best provided through inter-satellite communications. For example, several future distributed spacecraft systems envision autonomous operations requiring relative navigational calculations and coordinated attitude and position corrections. To conduct these operations, data must be exchanged between spacecraft. Direct cross-links between satellites provides an efficient and practical method for transferring data and commands. Unlike existing "bent-pipe" relay networks supporting space missions, no standard or widely-used method exists for cross-link communications. Consequently, to support these future missions, the characteristics necessary for inter-satellite communications need to be examined. At first glance, all of the missions look extremely different. Some missions call for tens to hundreds of nano-satellites in constant communications in close proximity to each other. Other missions call for a handful of satellites communicating very slowly over thousands to hundreds of thousands of kilometers. The paper will first classify distributed spacecraft missions to help guide the evaluation and definition of cross-link architectures and

  13. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass estimating relationships (MERs) are developed to predict the amount of thermal protection system (TPS) necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that are non-ITAR and closely match estimates from NASA's highfidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA- 561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER can under predict FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  14. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  15. Recent advances in structural technology for large deployable and erectable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ultra-low mass deployable and erectable truss structure designs for spacecraft are identified using computerized structural sizing techniques. Extremely slender strut proportions are shown to characterize minimum mass spacecraft which are designed for Shuttle transport to orbit. Analytical results are presented which demonstrate discrete element effects using a recently developed buckling theory for periodic lattice type structures. An analysis of fabrication imperfection effects on the surface accuracy of four different antenna reflector structures is summarized. This study shows the tetrahedral truss to have the greatest potential of the structures examined for application to accurate or large reflectors. A deployable module which can be efficiently transported is identified and shown to have significant potential for application to future antenna requirements. Recent investigations of erectable structure assembly are reviewed. Initial experiments simulating astronaut assembly by extra-vehicular activity (EVA) show that a pair of astronauts can achieve assembly times of 2-5 min/strut. Studies indicate that an automated assembler can achieve times of less than 1 min/strut on an around-the-clock basis.

  16. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Spacecraft Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Wright, R. Doug; Repplinger, Ron S.

    1996-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth-orbiting satellites and have accumulated more that 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard Ni-H2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV Ni-H2 technology flight heritage and database. A design performance analysis is presented at both the cell and battery level. The DPV is capable of delivering up to 76 Watthours per kilogram (Wh/kg) at the cell level and 70 Wh/kg at the full battery level. This represents a 40 percent increase in specific energy at the cell level and a 60 percent increase in specific energy at the battery level compared to current IPV Ni-H2 technology.

  17. Dynamics of a variable mass system applied to spacecraft rocket attitude theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, Jason Dominic

    This research project is a study of the dynamics of a variable mass system. The scope of this research project is to gain understanding as to how a variable mass system will behave. The intent is to bring the level of understanding of variable mass dynamics higher and closer to the level of constant mass dynamics in the area of spacecrafts in particular. A main contribution is the finding of a set of criteria to minimize or eliminate the deviation of the nutation angle (or cone angle or angle of attack) of spacecraft rockets passively, i.e. without active control. The motivation for this research project is the Star 48 anomaly. The Star 48 is a solid rocket motor which has propelled (boosted) communication satellites from lower earth orbit to a higher one during the 1980's. The anomaly is that when the spacecraft rocket is being propelled, the nutation angle may deviate excessively which is considered undesirable. In the first part of this research project, a variable mass system is described and defined and the governing equations are derived. The type of governing equations derived are those that are most useful for analyzing the motion of a spacecraft rocket. The method of derivation makes use of Leibnitz Theorem, Divergence Theorem and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Next, the governing equations are specialized with several assumptions which are generally accepted assumptions applied in the analysis of spacecraft rockets. With these assumptions, the form governing equations is discussed and then the equations are solved analytically for the system's angular velocity. Having solved for the angular velocity of the system, the attitude of the system is obtained using a unique method which circumvents the nonlinearities that exist using Euler Angles and their kinematical equations. The attitude is approximately found analytically and a set of criteria is discussed which will minimize or eliminate the deviation of the nutation angle of a spacecraft rocket. Finally

  18. Spacecraft systems engineering: An introduction to the process at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, Tony; Ryschkewitsch, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective in systems engineering is to devise a coherent total system design capable of achieving the stated requirements. Requirements should be rigid. However, they should be continuously challenged, rechallenged and/or validated. The systems engineer must specify every requirement in order to design, document, implement and conduct the mission. Each and every requirement must be logically considered, traceable and evaluated through various analysis and trade studies in a total systems design. Margins must be determined to be realistic as well as adequate. The systems engineer must also continuously close the loop and verify system performance against the requirements. The fundamental role of the systems engineer, however, is to engineer, not manage. Yet, in large, complex missions, where more than one systems engineer is required, someone needs to manage the systems engineers, and we call them 'systems managers.' Systems engineering management is an overview function which plans, guides, monitors and controls the technical execution of a project as implemented by the systems engineers. As the project moves on through Phases A and B into Phase C/D, the systems engineering tasks become a small portion of the total effort. The systems management role increases since discipline subsystem engineers are conducting analyses and reviewing test data for final review and acceptance by the systems managers.

  19. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  20. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  1. Flight test of carbon-phenolic on a spacecraft launched by the pacemaker vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, T. E., Jr.; Witte, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon-phenolic material consisting of 50 percent carbon fibers and 50 percent phenolic resin was flight tested on a recoverable spacecraft launched by the Pacemaker vehicle system. The heat shield of the spacecraft was fabricated so that the carbon fibers in the ablator material had different orientations over several areas of the spacecraft. The environment in which the spacecraft was tested produced heating rates on the hemispherical nose up to 13.6 MW/sq m (1200 Btu/sq ft/sec) and stagnation-point pressures up to 1.27 MN/sq m (12.5 atm). The experimental results are presented. Due to high heating rates and possible spallation and mechanical char removal the greatest mass loss occurred in the nose region. Essentially uniform surface recession and char thickness were observed on the conical section of the spacecraft. A comparison of measured heating rates with computed turbulent and laminar heating rates, as well as measurements of sound-pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer obtained with acoustic sensors, indicated that the boundary layer underwent transition. The acoustic sensor provides an interesting new data form for the general study of boundary-layer transition for free-flight investigations.

  2. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  3. Operational aspects of a spacecraft planning/scheduling expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.; Littlefield, Ronald G.; Beyer, David S.

    1987-01-01

    Various operational aspects of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) are described. The ERBS-TDRSS Contract Planning System is an expert system which has been used operationally since June 1987 by the ERBS Flight Operations Team (FOT) at Goddard Space Flight Center to build weekly schedules of requests for service from the TDRSS. The basic operation of the system and significant enhancements and changes are discussed.

  4. On the writing of programming systems for spacecraft computers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P.; Rohr, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the systems designed to generate programs for the increasingly complex digital computers being used on board unmanned deep-space probes. Such programming systems must accommodate the special-purpose features incorporated in the hardware. The use of higher-level language facilities in the programming system can significantly simplify the task. Computers for Mariner and for the Outer Planets Grand Tour are briefly described, as well as their programming systems. Aspects of the higher level languages are considered.

  5. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  6. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronsus orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

  7. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [for solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

  8. Assessment of Spacecraft Systems Integration Using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Mandell, Myron J.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    SAIC is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code 'EPIC', an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. EPIC unites different computer tools to address the complexity associated with the interaction processes. This paper describes the overall architecture and capability of EPIC including the physics and algorithms that comprise its various components. Results from selected modeling efforts of different spacecraft-thruster systems are also presented.

  9. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  10. Analysis on coverage ability of BeiDou navigation satellite system for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sihao; Yao, Zheng; Zhuang, Xuebin; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the service ability of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) for manned spacecraft, both the current regional and the future-planned global constellations of BDS are introduced and simulated. The orbital parameters of the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-1 spacelab are used to create the simulation scenario and evaluate the performance of the BDS constellations. The number of visible satellites and the position dilution (PDOP) of precision at the spacecraft-based receiver are evaluated. Simulation and analysis show quantitative results on the coverage ability and time percentages of both the current BDS regional and future global constellations for manned-space orbits which can be a guideline to the applications and mission design of BDS receivers on manned spacecraft.

  11. Link Analysis of High Throughput Spacecraft Communication Systems for Future Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's plan to launch several spacecrafts into low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support science missions in the next ten years and beyond requires down link throughput on the order of several terabits per day. The ability to handle such a large volume of data far exceeds the capabilities of current systems. This paper proposes two solutions, first, a high data rate link between the LEO spacecraft and ground via relay satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO). Second, a high data rate direct to ground link from LEO. Next, the paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for both types of links taking into consideration spacecraft transmitter frequency, EIRP, and waveform; elevation angle dependent path loss through Earths atmosphere, and ground station receiver GT.

  12. Link Analysis of High Throughput Spacecraft Communication Systems for Future Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's plan to launch several spacecraft into low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support science missions in the next ten years and beyond requires down link throughput on the order of several terabits per day. The ability to handle such a large volume of data far exceeds the capabilities of current systems. This paper proposes two solutions, first, a high data rate link between the LEO spacecraft and ground via relay satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO). Second, a high data rate direct to ground link from LEO. Next, the paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for both types of links taking into consideration spacecraft transmitter frequency, EIRP, and waveform; elevation angle dependent path loss through Earths atmosphere, and ground station receiver GT.

  13. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  14. Study on Posture Adjusting System of Spacecraft Based on Stewart Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Feng, Wei; Dai, Wei-Bing; Yi, Wang-Min; Liu, Guang-Tong; Zheng, Sheng-Yu

    In this paper, the design principles of adjusting parallel mechanisms is introduced, including mechanical subsystem, control sub-system and software sub-system. According to the design principles, key technologies for system of adjusting parallel mechanisms are analyzed. Finally, design specifications for system of adjusting parallel mechanisms are proposed based on requirement of spacecraft integration and it can apply to cabin docking, solar array panel docking and camera docking.

  15. The Evolution of Software and Its Impact on Complex System Design in Robotic Spacecraft Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Roy

    2013-01-01

    The growth in computer hardware performance, coupled with reduced energy requirements, has led to a rapid expansion of the resources available to software systems, driving them towards greater logical abstraction, flexibility, and complexity. This shift in focus from compacting functionality into a limited field towards developing layered, multi-state architectures in a grand field has both driven and been driven by the history of embedded processor design in the robotic spacecraft industry.The combinatorial growth of interprocess conditions is accompanied by benefits (concurrent development, situational autonomy, and evolution of goals) and drawbacks (late integration, non-deterministic interactions, and multifaceted anomalies) in achieving mission success, as illustrated by the case of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Approaches to optimizing the benefits while mitigating the drawbacks have taken the form of the formalization of requirements, modular design practices, extensive system simulation, and spacecraft data trend analysis. The growth of hardware capability and software complexity can be expected to continue, with future directions including stackable commodity subsystems, computer-generated algorithms, runtime reconfigurable processors, and greater autonomy.

  16. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  17. PVDaCS - A prototype knowledge-based expert system for certification of spacecraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, Cathleen; Shiroma, Patricia J.; Simmons, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    On-line data management techniques to certify spacecraft information are mandated by increasing telemetry rates. Knowledge-based expert systems offer the ability to certify data electronically without the need for time-consuming human interaction. Issues of automatic certification are explored by designing a knowledge-based expert system to certify data from a scientific instrument, the Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer, on an operating NASA planetary spacecraft, Pioneer Venus. The resulting rule-based system, called PVDaCS (Pioneer Venus Data Certification System), is a functional prototype demonstrating the concepts of a larger system design. A key element of the system design is the representation of an expert's knowledge through the usage of well ordered sequences. PVDaCS produces a certification value derived from expert knowledge and an analysis of the instrument's operation. Results of system performance are presented.

  18. Software techniques for a distributed real-time processing system. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, F.; Lecoq, P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes software techniques developed for the Unified Data System (UDS), a distributed processor network for control and data handling onboard a planetary spacecraft. These techniques include a structured language for specifying the programs contained in each module, and a small executive program in each module which performs scheduling and implements the module task.

  19. Heat flux calibration of a near earth spacecraft temperature alarm system in rarefied flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, P. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the aerodynamic molecular beam testing performed on the near earth spacecraft temperature alarm system that is designed to provide in-flight temperature information useful for safeguarding scientific equipment during perigee maneuvers. The temperature/heat flux calibration results obtained are summarized.

  20. The Prometheus 1 spacecraft preliminary electric propulsion system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Ryan C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Dipprey, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 mission is an ambitious plan to orbit and explore the Jovian moons of Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. Such an ambitious mission is enabled by the first interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (EP) system.

  1. Solar Power System Options for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Haraburda, Francis M.; Riehl, John P.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power (10 kilowatts) electric thruster technologies in Earth orbit. This paper discusses the conceptual design of the RTD spacecraft photovoltaic (PV) power system and mission performance analyses. These power system studies assessed multiple options for PV arrays, battery technologies and bus voltage levels. To quantify performance attributes of these power system options, a dedicated Fortran code was developed to predict power system performance and estimate system mass. The low-thrust mission trajectory was analyzed and important Earth orbital environments were modeled. Baseline power system design options are recommended on the basis of performance, mass and risk/complexity. Important findings from parametric studies are discussed and the resulting impacts to the spacecraft design and cost.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This proposal describes an approach to validate the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft. The research described here is absolutely cutting edge. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional"validation by test only'' mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computationaf Fluid Dynamics can be used to veritY these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. The proposed research project includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT and OPEN FOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid . . . Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around

  3. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  4. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  5. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Power System Design and Orbital Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakermanji, George; Burns, Michael; Lee, Leonine; Lyons, John; Kim, David; Spitzer, Thomas; Kercheval, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The spacecraft is in a circular 400 Km altitude, 65 degrees inclination nadir pointing orbit with a three year basic mission life. The solar array consists of two sun tracking wings with cable wraps. The panels are populated with triple junction cells of nominal 29.5% efficiency. One axis is canted by 52 degrees to provide power to the spacecraft at high beta angles. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 Watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s x 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. The paper describes the power system design details, its performance to date and the lithium ion battery model that was developed for use in the energy balance analysis and is being used to predict the on-orbit health of the battery.

  6. Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

    1999-01-01

    Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Potassium Rankine cycle nuclear power systems for spacecraft and lunar-mass surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    The potassium Rankine cycle has high potential for application to nuclear power systems for spacecraft and surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of Rankine cycle space power systems was carried out in the 1960`s. That effort is summarized and the status of the technology today is presented. Space power systems coupling Rankine cycle power conversion to both the SP-100 reactor and thermionic reactors as a combined power cycle are described in the paper.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of elastic joints on the auto-oscillation of spacecraft with gas-reactive direction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasin, G. G.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model was obtained, on the basis of the method of mixed coordinates, of a generalized flexible spacecraft at one end of which was appended the directive action of a system of gas reactive nozzles. Various structural forms were obtained functionally describing flexible spacecraft, as systems consisting of a solid central body with flexible structural elements joined to it.

  9. Centralized database for interconnection system design. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A database application called DFACS (Database, Forms and Applications for Cabling and Systems) is described. The objective of DFACS is to improve the speed and accuracy of interconnection system information flow during the design and fabrication stages of a project, while simultaneously supporting both the horizontal (end-to-end wiring) and the vertical (wiring by connector) design stratagems used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) project engineering community. The DFACS architecture is centered around a centralized database and program methodology which emulates the manual design process hitherto used at JPL. DFACS has been tested and successfully applied to existing JPL hardware tasks with a resulting reduction in schedule time and costs.

  10. Power processing methodology. [computerized design of spacecraft electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, K. A.; Hansen, I. G.; Hayden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the interim results of a program to investigate the feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems. The object of the total program is to develop a flexible engineering tool which will allow the power processor designer to effectively and rapidly assess and analyze the tradeoffs available by providing, in one comprehensive program, a mathematical model, an analysis of expected performance, simulation, and a comparative evaluation with alternative designs. This requires an understanding of electrical power source characteristics and the effects of load control, protection, and total system interaction.

  11. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Small Spacecraft System-Level Design and Optimization for Interplanetary Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangelo, Sara; Dalle, Derek; Longmier, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of an interplanetary mission for a CubeSat, a type of miniaturized spacecraft, that uses an emerging technology, the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (CAT) is investigated. CAT is a large delta-V propulsion system that uses a high-density plasma source that has been miniaturized for small spacecraft applications. An initial feasibility assessment that demonstrated escaping Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and achieving Earth-escape trajectories with a 3U CubeSat and this thruster technology was demonstrated in previous work. We examine a mission architecture with a trajectory that begins in Earth orbits such as LEO and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) which escapes Earth orbit and travels to Mars, Jupiter, or Saturn. The goal was to minimize travel time to reach the destinations and considering trade-offs between spacecraft dry mass, fuel mass, and solar power array size. Sensitivities to spacecraft dry mass and available power are considered. CubeSats are extremely size, mass, and power constrained, and their subsystems are tightly coupled, limiting their performance potential. System-level modeling, simulation, and optimization approaches are necessary to find feasible and optimal operational solutions to ensure system-level interactions are modeled. Thus, propulsion, power/energy, attitude, and orbit transfer models are integrated to enable systems-level analysis and trades. The CAT technology broadens the possible missions achievable with small satellites. In particular, this technology enables more sophisticated maneuvers by small spacecraft such as polar orbit insertion from an equatorial orbit, LEO to GEO transfers, Earth-escape trajectories, and transfers to other interplanetary bodies. This work lays the groundwork for upcoming CubeSat launch opportunities and supports future development of interplanetary and constellation CubeSat and small satellite mission concepts.

  13. Development of a refrigeration system for lunar surface and spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of refrigeration devices suitable for potential lunar surface and spacecraft applications was performed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the vapor compression system is the best overall refrigeration system for lunar surface and spacecraft applications and the single phase radiator system is generally preferred for earth orbit applications, (2) the vapor compression cycle may have some application for simultaneous heating and cooling, (3) a Stirling cycle refrigerator was selected for the manned cabin of the space shuttle, and (4) significant increases in payload heat rejection can be obtained by a kit vapor compression refrigerator added to the shuttle R-21 loop. The following recommendations were made: (1) a Stirling cycle refrigerator may be used for food freezer and biomedical sample storage, (2) the best system for a food freezer/experiments compartment for an earth orbit space station has not been determined, (3) a deployed radiator system can be designed for large heat loads in earth orbit.

  14. Spacecraft Environments Interactive: Space Radiation and Its Effects on Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. W., Jr.; Hardage, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    The natural space environment is characterized by complex and subtle phenomena hostile to spacecraft. Effects of these phenomena impact spacecraft design, development, and operation. Space systems become increasingly susceptible to the space environment as use of composite materials and smaller, faster electronics increases. This trend makes an understanding of space radiation and its effects on electronic systems essential to accomplish overall mission objectives, especially in the current climate of smaller/better/cheaper faster. This primer outlines the radiation environments encountered in space, discusses regions and types of radiation, applies the information to effects that these environments have on electronic systems, addresses design guidelines and system reliability, and stresses the importance of early involvement of radiation specialists in mission planning, system design, and design review (part-by-part verification).

  15. Tools Automate Spacecraft Testing, Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "NASA began the Small Explorer (SMEX) program to develop spacecraft to advance astrophysics and space physics. As one of the entities supporting software development at Goddard Space Flight Center, the Hammers Company Inc. (tHC Inc.), of Greenbelt, Maryland, developed the Integrated Test and Operations System to support SMEX. Later, the company received additional Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Goddard for a tool to facilitate the development of flight software called VirtualSat. NASA uses the tools to support 15 satellites, and the aerospace industry is using them to develop science instruments, spacecraft computer systems, and navigation and control software."

  16. Spacecraft multibeam antenna system for 30/20 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, T. E.; Scott, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The major technical tasks that led to the definitions of operational and demonstration multiple beam antenna (MBA) flight systems and a proof of concept model (POC) are described. Features of the POC Model and its measured performance are presented in detail. Similar MBA's are proposed for transmitting and receiving with the POC Model representing the 20 GHz transmitting antenna. This POC MBA is a dual shaped-surface reflector system utilizing a movable free array to simulate complete CONUS coverage. The beam forming network utilizes ferrite components for switching from one beam to another. Measured results for components, subsystems and the complete MBA confirm the feasibility of the approach and also show excellent correlation with calculated values.

  17. An interfaced system for production of methane in a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The formose reaction, the homogeneously catalyzed condensation of formaldehyde to sugars, proceeds simultaneously with Cannizzaro and crossed Cannizzaro reactions. Reaction studies in a continuous stirred tank reactor have shown that rate instabilities are exhibited. There are temperature instabilities as well as concentration instabilities in calcium hydroxide catalyst, formaldehyde reactant, and hydroxyl ion. It is postulated that Ca(OH)+ is the actual catalytic species for the formose system. A unifying mechanism is developed that postulates that reactions proceed from a common intermediate complexed species, and that the selectivity for each reaction depends on the nature of the catalyst forming the carbohydrate complex. The catalytic mechanism explains the Lobry de Bruyn-van Eckenstein aldose ketose rearrangements and mutarotations of sugars that also proceed in the system.

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  19. Optimization of Layer Densities for Spacecraft Multilayered Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous tests of various multilayer insulation systems have indicated that there are optimal densities for these systems. However, the only method of calculating this optimal density was by a complex physics based algorithm developed by McIntosh. In the 1970's much data were collected on the performance of these insulation systems with many different variables analyzed. All formulas generated included number of layers and layer density as geometric variables in solving for the heat flux, none of them was in a differentiable form for a single geometric variable. It was recently discovered that by converting the equations from heat flux to thermal conductivity using Fourier's Law, the equations became functions of layer density, temperatures, and material properties only. The thickness and number of layers of the blanket were merged into a layer density. These equations were then differentiated with respect to layer density. By setting the first derivative equal to zero, and solving for the layer density, the critical layer density was determined. Taking a second derivative showed that the critical layer density is a minimum in the function and thus the optimum density for minimal heat leak, this is confirmed by plotting the original function. This method was checked and validated using test data from the Multipurpose Hydrogen Testbed which was designed using McIntosh's algorithm.

  20. Duplication and analysis of meteoroid damage on LDEF and advanced spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, David C.; Rose, M. Frank

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of exposed surfaces on LDEF since its retrieval in 1990 has revealed a wide range of meteoroid and debris (M&D) impact features in the sub-micron to millimeter size range, ranging from quasi-infinite target cratering in LDEF metallic structural members (e.g. inter-costals, tray clamps, etc.) to non-marginal perforations in metallic experimental surfaces (e.g. thin foil detectors, etc.). Approximately 34,000 impact features are estimated to exist on the exposed surfaces of LDEF. The vast majority of impact craters in metal substrates exhibit circular footprints, with approximately 50 percent retaining impactor residues in varying states of shock processing. The fundamental goals of this project were to duplicate and analyze meteoroid impact damage on spacecraft metallic materials with a view to quantifying the residue retention and oblique impact morphology characteristics. Using the hypervelocity impact test facility established at Auburn University a series of impact tests (normal and oblique incidence) were executed producing consistently high (11-12 km/s) peak impact velocities, the results of which were subsequently analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS) facilities at Auburn University.

  1. Adaptation and Re-Use of Spacecraft Power System Models for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ayres, Mark; Han, Augustina H.; Adamson, Adrian M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is embarking on a new era of space exploration, returning to the Moon and beyond. The Constellation architecture will consist of a number of new spacecraft elements, including the Orion crew exploration vehicle, the Altair lunar lander, and the Ares family of launch vehicles. Each of these new spacecraft elements will need an electric power system, and those power systems will need to be designed to fulfill unique mission objectives and to survive the unique environments encountered on a lunar exploration mission. As with any new spacecraft power system development, preliminary design work will rely heavily on analysis to select the proper power technologies, size the power system components, and predict the system performance throughout the required mission profile. Constellation projects have the advantage of leveraging power system modeling developments from other recent programs such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the Mars Exploration Program. These programs have developed mature power system modeling tools, which can be quickly modified to meet the unique needs of Constellation, and thus provide a rapid capability for detailed power system modeling that otherwise would not exist.

  2. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 5: TDRS spacecraft design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A dual spin stabilized TDR spacecraft design is presented for low data rate (LDR) and medium data rate (MDR) user spacecraft telecommunication relay service. The relay satellite provides command and data return channels for unmanned users together with duplex voice and data communication channels for manned user spacecraft. TDRS/ground links are in the Ku band. Command links are provided at UHF for LDR users and S band for MDR users. Voice communication channels are provided at UHF/VHF for LDR users and at S band for MDR users. The spacecraft is designed for launch on the Delta 2914 with system deployment planned for 1978. This volume contains a description of the overall TDR spacecraft configuration, a detailed description of the spacecraft subsystems, a reliability analysis, and a product effectiveness plan.

  3. ComPASS: A Common Framework for Streamlining Multi-Level Planning Systems from Scientist to Observatory/Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, T.

    Current efforts to integrate multiple planning and scheduling subsystems into an end-to-end, scientist-observatory/spacecraft, planning system are handcrafted and very resource intensive. In addition, future spacecraft/observatory configurations such as constellations and multi-observatory ``campaigns'' introduce challenges that require a new approach to planning and scheduling system integration. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has embarked on a multi-year project entitled ComPASS (Common Planning And Scheduling System) with the goal of producing a common framework for end-to-end collaborative planning and scheduling. ComPASS is intended to streamline automation of the planning process and enable general application of automated collaborative planning technologies. During NASA FY99, the ComPASS project has developed the infrastructure for plan distribution/collaboration, a common plan representation, and interfaces to existing components. The first set of components to be integrated include an extended version of Goddard's Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) science client, ASPEN - a planner/scheduler from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Satellite Toolkit (STK) from Analytical Graphics, Inc.

  4. Investigation of high voltage spacecraft system interactions with plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Purvis, C. K.; Grier, N.; Staskus, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken for insulator and conductor test surfaces biased up to + or - 1kV in a simulated low earth orbit charged particle environment. It was found that these interactions are controlled by the insulator surfaces surrounding the biased conductors. For positive applied voltages the electron current collection can be enhanced by the insulators. For negative applied voltages the insulator surface confines the voltage to the conductor region. Understanding these interactions and the technology to control their impact on system operation is essential to the design of solar cell arrays for ion drive propulsion applications that use direct drive power processing.

  5. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  6. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  7. Comparison of Communication Architectures for Spacecraft Modular Avionics Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, D. A.; Briscoe, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    This document is a survey of publicly available information concerning serial communication architectures used, or proposed to be used, in aeronautic and aerospace applications. It focuses on serial communication architectures that are suitable for low-latency or real-time communication between physically distributed nodes in a system. Candidates for the study have either extensive deployment in the field, or appear to be viable for near-term deployment. Eleven different serial communication architectures are considered, and a brief description of each is given with the salient features summarized in a table in appendix A. This survey is a product of the Propulsion High Impact Avionics Technology (PHIAT) Project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). PHIAT was originally funded under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program to develop avionics technologies for control of next generation reusable rocket engines. After the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative, the scope of the project was expanded to include vehicle systems control for human and robotics missions. As such, a section is included presenting the rationale used for selection of a time-triggered architecture for implementation of the avionics demonstration hardware developed by the project team

  8. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  9. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  10. Attitude control study for a large flexible spacecraft using a Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolivar, A. F.; Key, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude control performance of the solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) was evaluated. A thrust vector control system for powered flight control was examined along with a gas jet reaction control system, and a reaction wheel system, both of which have been proposed for nonpowered flight control. Comprehensive computer simulations of each control system were made and evaluated using a 30 mode spacecraft model. Results obtained indicate that thrust vector control and reaction wheel systems offer acceptable smooth proportional control. The gas jet control system is shown to be risky for a flexible structure such as SEPS, and is therefore, not recommended as a primary control method.

  11. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  12. Development of management technology for large power systems. [of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Messner, A.; Graves, J.

    1982-01-01

    Autonomous power management has been proposed as a method to perform optimization of power subsystem performance in connection with the management of multikilowatt space platforms. A concept for a 250-kW utility-type power subsystem was developed. A Cassegrain concentrator solar array primary source is conditioned by a solar array switching unit which supplies seventeen 220 +20 Vdc power channels. A power management subsystem provides the monitoring and control of the overall electrical power subsystem. The discussed system concept for autonomous management of high power space platforms utilizes on-board microprocessors in a decentralized data management architecture. A data bus protocol and a data bus contention resolution scheme were selected in conjunction with the dencentralized management architecture.

  13. Software reuse in spacecraft planning and scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David; Tuchman, Alan; Broseghini, Todd; Yen, Wen; Page, Brenda; Johnson, Jay; Bogovich, Lynn; Burkhardt, Chris; Mcintyre, James; Klein, Scott

    1993-01-01

    The use of a software toolkit and development methodology that supports software reuse is described. The toolkit includes source-code-level library modules and stand-alone tools which support such tasks as data reformatting and report generation, simple relational database applications, user interfaces, tactical planning, strategic planning and documentation. The current toolkit is written in C and supports applications that run on IBM-PC's under DOS and UNlX-based workstations under OpenLook and Motif. The toolkit is fully integrated for building scheduling systems that reuse AI knowledge base technology. A typical scheduling scenario and three examples of applications that utilize the reuse toolkit will be briefly described. In addition to the tools themselves, a description of the software evolution and reuse methodology that was used is presented.

  14. A nuclear source term analysis for spacecraft power systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1998-12-01

    All US space missions involving on board nuclear material must be approved by the Office of the President. To be approved the mission and the hardware systems must undergo evaluations of the associated nuclear health and safety risk. One part of these evaluations is the characterization of the source terms, i.e., the estimate of the amount, physical form, and location of nuclear material, which might be released into the environment in the event of credible accidents. This paper presents a brief overview of the source term analysis by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel for the NASA Cassini Space Mission launched in October 1997. Included is a description of the Energy Interaction Model, an innovative approach to the analysis of potential releases from high velocity impacts resulting from launch aborts and reentries.

  15. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  16. A historical overview of the electrical power systems in the US manned and some US unmanned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A historical overview of electrical power systems used in the U.S. manned spacecraft and some of the U.S. unmanned spacecraft is presented in this investigation. A time frame of approximately 25 years, the period for 1959 to 1984, is covered in this report. Results indicate that the nominal bus voltage was 28 volts dc in most spacecraft and all other voltage levels were derived from this voltage through such techniques as voltage inversion or rectification, or a combination. Most spacecraft used solar arrays for the main source of power except for those spacecraft that had a relatively short flight duration, or deep spaceprobes that were designed for very long flight duration. Fuel cells were used on Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle (short duration flights) while radioisotope thermoelectric generators were employed on the Pioneer, Jupiter/Saturn, Viking Lander, and Voyager spacecraft (long duration flights). The main dc bus voltage was unregulated on the manned spacecraft with voltage regulation provided at the user loads. A combination of regulated, semiregulated, and unregulated buses were used on the unmanned spacecraft depending on the type of load. For example, scientific instruments were usually connected to regulated buses while fans, relays, etc. were energized from an unregulated bus. Different forms of voltage regulation, such as shunt, buck/boot, and pulse-width modulated regulators, were used. This report includes a comprehensive bibliography on spacecraft electrical power systems for the space programs investigated.

  17. Tools for automating spacecraft ground systems: The Intelligent Command and Control (ICC) approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffel, A. William; Mclean, David

    1996-01-01

    The practical application of scripting languages and World Wide Web tools to the support of spacecraft ground system automation, is reported on. The mission activities and the automation tools used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) are reviewed. The use of the Tool Command Language (TCL) and the Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) scripting tools for automating mission operations is discussed together with the application of different tools for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory ground system.

  18. Robust spacecraft attitude determination using global positioning system receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jared Dale

    This dissertation presents the development of a new algorithm for processing GPS signals to compute attitude solutions. This new algorithm utilizes an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a quaternion state to combine signal to noise ratio (SNR) and differential carrier phase measurements. Attitude solutions can be obtained from these two measurement sources if multiple antennas are utilized which have non-aligned boresight vectors. The algorithm achieves improved integer resolution and accuracy for the carrier phase approach, and is able to perform on on-orbit antenna gain pattern calibration to aid the SNR approach. The developed algorithm is tested using both hardware in the loop space simulations and actual rooftop data. These tests are used to adjust the filter parameters and algorithm logic to achieve good performance. Testing is undertaken that demonstrates the accuracy and speed of the integer resolution process. Comparisons between rooftop and simulation results demonstrate that simulations accurately represent anticipated orbit conditions. These comparisons further show that the non-aligned antenna boresight vectors introduce little or no errors to the double difference carrier phase measurements. A trade study is conducted to assess the impact of the SNR measurements on the overall solution accuracy once the more accurate carrier phase measurements become available. The final version of the algorithm demonstrates solution accuracies of less than 0.5 degrees RMS in all three angles of rotation during rooftop tests, and accuracies on the order of 0.1 RMS in multipath-free orbit simulations. The developed and tested algorithm is then ported from its original code into a flight ready version available in NASA GEONS software. The versatility of the basic algorithm design is explored by creating a new system that incorporates magnetometer data with SNR and carrier phase measurements. The addition of the magnetometer measurements is shown to improve the integer

  19. Implications of Antenna System Calibration on Spacecraft Design and Radio Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, H. O.; Sampl, M.; Panchenko, M.; Oswal, T.; Plettemeier, D.; Maksimovic, M.; Macher, W.

    Currents on the conducting surfaces of the spacecraft hull, induced by electric fields of radio waves, strongly influence the reception properties of spacecraft antenna systems. This influence is visualized by the so-called ”effective antenna length” (h_eff ), representing the electric antenna, which differs from the physical antenna rod. Knowledge on these effective antenna vectors can be yielded by several different methods: (1) Experimental rheometry, (2) Numerical computer simulations,(3) In-flight calibration, and (4) Experimental anechoic chamber measurements. The paper addresses these methods and shows in the case of preliminary design studies of Solar Orbiter spacecraft the possibilities of numerical computer simulations, in particular the change of h_eff by design variations. The combined use of the above mentioned methods enables the determination of h_eff over a wide frequency range, the correct information on wave polarisation, and in specific cases helps to improve the performance of direction finding. So the calibration results may also be used to re-evaluate structure and position of antennas (and even positions of instruments) on board a spacecraft.

  20. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  1. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  2. Miniature Heat Transport System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochterbeck, Jay M.; Ku, Jentung (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHP) are efficient devices for heat transfer and use the basic principle of a closed evaporation-condensation cycle. The advantage of using a loop heat pipe over other conventional methods is that large quantities of heat can be transported through a small cross-sectional area over a considerable distance with no additional power input to the system. By using LHPs, it seems possible to meet the growing demand for high-power cooling devices. Although they are somewhat similar to conventional heat pipes, LHPs have a whole set of unique properties, such as low pressure drops and flexible lines between condenser and evaporator, that make them rather promising. LHPs are capable of providing a means of transporting heat over long distances with no input power other than the heat being transported because of the specially designed evaporator and the separation of liquid and vapor lines. For LHP design and fabrication, preliminary analysis on the basis of dimensionless criteria is necessary because of certain complicated phenomena that take place in the heat pipe. Modeling the performance of the LHP and miniaturizing its size are tasks and objectives of current research. In the course of h s work, the LHP and its components, including the evaporator (the most critical and complex part of the LHP), were modeled with the corresponding dimensionless groups also being investigated. Next, analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the LHP, selection of the most weighted criteria from known dimensionless groups (thermal-fluid sciences), heat transfer rate limits, (heat pipe theory), and experimental ratios which are unique to a given heat pipe class are discussed. In the third part of the report, two-phase flow heat and mass transfer performances inside the LHP condenser are analyzed and calculated for Earth-normal gravity and microgravity conditions. On the basis of recent models and experimental databanks, an analysis for condensing two-phase flow regimes

  3. A conceptual design for the attitude control and determination system for the Magnetosphere Imager spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.; Carrington, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the attitude control and determination (ACAD) system for the Magnetosphere Imager (Ml) spacecraft. The MI is a small spin-stabilized spacecraft that has been proposed for launch on a Taurus-S expendable launch vehicle into a highly-ellipdcal polar Earth orbit. Presently, launch is projected for 1999. The paper describes the MI mission and ACAD requirements and then proposes an ACAD system for meeting these requirements. The proposed design is low-power, low-mass, very simple conceptually, highly passive, and consistent with the overall MI design philosophy, which is faster-better-cheaper. Still, the MI ACAD system is extremely robust and can handle a number of unexpected, adverse situations on orbit without impacting the mission as a whole. Simulation results are presented that support the soundness of the design approach.

  4. Visual imaging control systems of the Mariner to Jupiter and Saturn spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larks, L.

    1979-01-01

    Design and fabrication of optical systems for the Mariner Jupiter Saturn (Voyager) mission is described. Because of the long distances of these planets from the sun, the spacecraft was designed without solar panels with the electricity generated on-board by radio-isotope thermal generators (RTG). The presence of RTG's and Jupiter radiation environment required that the optical systems be fabricated out of radiation stabilized materials. A narrow angle and a wide angle camera are located on the spacecraft scan platform, with the narrow angle lens a modification of the Mariner 10 lens. The optical system is described, noting that the lens was modified by moving the aperture correctors forward and placing a spider mounted secondary mirror in the original back surface of the second aperture corrector. The wide angle lens was made out of cerium doped, radiation stabilized optical glass with greatest blue transmittance, which would be resistant to RTG and Jupiter radiation.

  5. Advanced helium regulator for a fluorine propellant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.; Yankura, G.

    1976-01-01

    The space storable propulsion module is an advanced high performance (375 seconds Isp minimum) planetary spacecraft propulsion system with a mission life of 5-10 years. The propellants used are liquid fluorine and amine fuel. This application requires high pressure regulator accuracy to optimize propellant depletion characteristics. An advanced regulator concept was prepared which is compatible with both fuel and oxidizer and which features design concepts such as redundant bellows, all-metallic/ceramic construction, friction-free guidance of moving parts and gas damping. Computer simulation of the propulsion module performance over two mission profiles indicated satisfactory minimization of those propellant residual requirements imposed by regulator performance variables.

  6. The Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (gensaa): a Tool for Developing Graphical Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real-time data. The analysts must watch for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As the satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At NASA GSFC, fault-isolation expert systems are in operation supporting this data monitoring task. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will readily support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.

  7. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  8. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  9. Advanced training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  10. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.

  11. An Integrated Vision-Based System for Spacecraft Attitude and Topology Determination for Formation Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Aaron; Anderson, Kalle; Mracek, Anna; Zenick, Ray

    2004-01-01

    With the space industry's increasing focus upon multi-spacecraft formation flight missions, the ability to precisely determine system topology and the orientation of member spacecraft relative to both inertial space and each other is becoming a critical design requirement. Topology determination in satellite systems has traditionally made use of GPS or ground uplink position data for low Earth orbits, or, alternatively, inter-satellite ranging between all formation pairs. While these techniques work, they are not ideal for extension to interplanetary missions or to large fleets of decentralized, mixed-function spacecraft. The Vision-Based Attitude and Formation Determination System (VBAFDS) represents a novel solution to both the navigation and topology determination problems with an integrated approach that combines a miniature star tracker with a suite of robust processing algorithms. By combining a single range measurement with vision data to resolve complete system topology, the VBAFDS design represents a simple, resource-efficient solution that is not constrained to certain Earth orbits or formation geometries. In this paper, analysis and design of the VBAFDS integrated guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) technology will be discussed, including hardware requirements, algorithm development, and simulation results in the context of potential mission applications.

  12. Design and Analysis of the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) Spacecraft Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, P. G.; Markley, F. L.; Houghton, M. B.; Dennehy, C. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Technology 7 experiment will perform an on-orbit system-level validation of two specific Disturbance Reduction System technologies: a gravitational reference sensor employing a free-floating test mass and a set of micronewton colloidal thrusters. The Disturbance Reduction System is designed to maintain a spacecraft's position with respect to the free-floating test mass to less than 10 nm/square root of Hz, over the frequency range 10(exp -3) Hz to 10(exp -2) Hz. This paper presents the design and analysis of the coupled drag-free and attitude control system that closes the loop between the gravitational reference sensor and the micronewton thrusters while incorporating star tracker data at low frequencies. The effects of actuation and measurement noise and disturbances on the spacecraft and test masses are evaluated in a seven-degree-of-freedom planar model incorporating two translational and one rotational degrees of freedom for the spacecraft and two translational degrees of freedom for each test mass.

  13. Autonomous Navigation of the SSTI/Lewis Spacecraft Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R. C.; Long, A. C.; Lee, T.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is pursuing the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are being flight qualified in conjunction with GSFC's GPS Attitude Determination Flyer (GADFLY) experiment on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis spacecraft, which is scheduled for launch in 1997. Preflight performance assessments indicate that these algorithms can provide a real-time total position accuracy of better than 10 meters (1 sigma) and velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 meter per second (1 sigma), with selective availability at typical levels. This accuracy is projected to improve to the 2-meter level if corrections to be provided by the GPS Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are included.

  14. Remote station management using spacecraft control software (The ERS-1 PRODIS system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowson, A.

    1991-07-01

    The European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1), the first remote sensing mission to combine all ground and on-board activities into one integrated system, is considered. The main objectives of the mission include development and promotion of applications related to a better knowledge of ocean parameters, sea state, and ice conditions; increase of the scientific understanding of coastal zones and ocean processes; and integration of the satellite and ground segment to provide the performance necessary to deliver high-resolution data to commercial customers in the areas of fishing, navigation, and pollution control. The attempt to handle the principal ground station using a spacecraft control system as though it were an independent spacecraft is considered to be successful to a great extent and provides a possible option for consideration by future projects.

  15. Advanced Operating System Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cittolin, Sergio; Riccardi, Fabio; Vascotto, Sandro

    In this paper we describe an R&D effort to define an OS architecture suitable for the requirements of the Data Acquisition and Control of an LHC experiment. Large distributed computing systems are foreseen to be the core part of the DAQ and Control system of the future LHC experiments. Neworks of thousands of processors, handling dataflows of several gigaBytes per second, with very strict timing constraints (microseconds), will become a common experience in the following years. Problems like distributyed scheduling, real-time communication protocols, failure-tolerance, distributed monitoring and debugging will have to be faced. A solid software infrastructure will be required to manage this very complicared environment, and at this moment neither CERN has the necessary expertise to build it, nor any similar commercial implementation exists. Fortunately these problems are not unique to the particle and high energy physics experiments, and the current research work in the distributed systems field, especially in the distributed operating systems area, is trying to address many of the above mentioned issues. The world that we are going to face in the next ten years will be quite different and surely much more interconnected than the one we see now. Very ambitious projects exist, planning to link towns, nations and the world in a single "Data Highway". Teleconferencing, Video on Demend, Distributed Multimedia Applications are just a few examples of the very demanding tasks to which the computer industry is committing itself. This projects are triggering a great research effort in the distributed, real-time micro-kernel based operating systems field and in the software enginering areas. The purpose of our group is to collect the outcame of these different research efforts, and to establish a working environment where the different ideas and techniques can be tested, evaluated and possibly extended, to address the requirements of a DAQ and Control System suitable for LHC

  16. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  17. Development of the solar array deployment and drive system for the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger; Ngo, Son

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) spacecraft is a NASA science low-earth orbit explorer-class satellite to be launched in 1995, and is an in-house Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project. It has two deployable aluminum honeycomb solar array wings with each wing being articulated by a single axis solar array drive assembly. This paper will address the design, the qualification testing, and the development problems as they surfaced of the Solar Array Deployment and Drive System.

  18. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  19. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  20. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  1. Power Systems Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    California Institute of Technology

    2007-03-31

    In the 17 quarters of the project, we have accomplished the following milestones - first, construction of the three multiwavelength laser scattering machines for different light scattering study purposes; second, build up of simulation software package for simulation of field and laboratory particulates matters data; third, carried out field online test on exhaust from combustion engines with our laser scatter system. This report gives a summary of the results and achievements during the project's 16 quarters period. During the 16 quarters of this project, we constructed three multiwavelength scattering instruments for PM2.5 particulates. We build up a simulation software package that could automate the simulation of light scattering for different combinations of particulate matters. At the field test site with our partner, Alturdyne, Inc., we collected light scattering data for a small gas turbine engine. We also included the experimental data feedback function to the simulation software to match simulation with real field data. The PM scattering instruments developed in this project involve the development of some core hardware technologies, including fast gated CCD system, accurately triggered Passively Q-Switched diode pumped lasers, and multiwavelength beam combination system. To calibrate the scattering results for liquid samples, we also developed the calibration system which includes liquid PM generator and size sorting instrument, i.e. MOUDI. In this report, we give the concise summary report on each of these subsystems development results.

  2. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  3. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  4. Data management system advanced architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, ED

    1991-01-01

    The topics relating to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are presented in view graph form and include: (1) the data management system (DMS) concept; (2) DMS evolution rationale; (3) the DMS advance architecture task; (4) DMS group support for Ames payloads; (5) DMS testbed development; (6) the DMS architecture task status; (7) real time multiprocessor testbed; (8) networked processor performance; (9) and the DMS advance architecture task 1992 goals.

  5. Analysis and experiments for a system of two spacecraft paired by means of a flexible link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Marco; Palmerini, Giovanni B.; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    A field of current interest in space technology is the on-orbit operation concept, often requiring that a chaser spacecraft captures a target spacecraft. The physical link connecting the two satellites is usually characterized by a high degree of flexibility, because of the special requirements imposed to the space systems, and specifically the constraints on the mass at launch. The focus of this paper is the study of an attitude control of the paired spacecraft system such that the elastic oscillations do not interfere with the attitude dynamics, and the final configuration is reached without residual vibrations. At the scope, a rest-to-rest techniques, that requires an accurate description of the dynamic model of the paired satellites as a flexible multibody setup, is applied. The results of this control are first tested by means of a numerical tool, simulating nominal and non-nominal scenarios. Then the identified control is proved in an experimental test-bed, consisting of two free-floating platforms connected by means of an elastic joint. The performance of the rest-to-rest technique is compared to other classical control laws aiming to minimally excite the system undesired dynamics, showing a promising superiority.

  6. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  7. The feasibility study and evaluation of applying expert system techniques to the mission operations for the AXAF-I spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kai H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) is a spacecraft for X-ray emitting sources observation and has been tentatively scheduled for a space shuttle launch in late 1998 at the Kennedy Space Center. Its main objectives are 'to determine the nature of astronomical objects ranging from normal stars to quasars, to understand the nature of the physical processes which take place in and between astronomical objects, and to add to our understanding of the history and evolution of the universe.' The AXAF-I will have an expected five year life time for the science mission phase. During the science mission phase, the monitoring and management operation of the flight and ground systems is personnel intensive, requiring system experts on duty around the clock. The purpose of the expert system presented in this report is intended to reduce the level of expertise, training, and personnel requirement for the mission operation. The telemetry data from the spacecraft can be divided into two categories: the science observation data and the engineering status data. The science data contains the outputs from the X-ray sensing devices and will be forwarded to the AXAF-I Science Center for interpretation; while the engineering status data will be monitored by the Operation Control Center (OCC) for the operation diagnosis of the spacecraft. The expert system is designed to assist the operation controllers at the OCC to perform the daily mission operations. Since there are hundreds of engineering telemetry data points and the interpretation of the telemetry depends on many factors, e.g., sun or eclipse, the monitoring of the AXAF-I is not a trivial task. In this phase of expert system development, the focus has been limited to the engineering data interpretation, i.e., warnings will be provided to the operation controllers to signal any anomaly. The system is hosted in a Silicon Graphics Indigo-2 workstation running the IRIX operating system. The expert system tool used

  8. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  9. In-flight propulsion system characterization for both Mars Exploration Rover Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Todd J.; Picha, Frank Q.

    2004-01-01

    Two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft were dispensed to red planet in 2003, culminating in a phenomenally successful prime science mission. Twin cruise stage propulsion systems were developed in record time, largely through heritage with Mars Pathfinder. As expected, consumable usage was minimal during the short seven-month cruise for both spacecraft. Propellant usage models based on pressure and temperature agreed with throughput models with in a few percent. Trajectory correction maneuver performance was nominal, allowing the cancellation of near-Mars maneuvers. Spin thruster delivered impulse was 10-12% high vs. ground based models for the intial spin-down maneuvers, while turn performance was XX-XX% high/low vs. expectations. No clear indications for pressure transducer drift were noted during the brief MER missions.

  10. Spacecraft/rover hybrids for the exploration of small Solar System bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavone, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Nesnas, I. A. D.; Hoffman, J. A.; Strange, N. J.

    In this paper we present a mission architecture for the systematic and affordable in-situ exploration of small Solar System bodies (such as asteroids, comets, and Martian moons). At a general level, a mother spacecraft would deploy on the surface of a small body one, or several, spacecraft/rover hybrids, which are small (<; 5 kg, ≈ 15 Watts), multi-faceted robots enclosing three mutually orthogonal flywheels and surrounded by external spikes (in particular, there is no external propulsion). By accelerating/decelerating the flywheels and by exploiting the low gravity environment, the hybrids would be capable of performing both long excursions (by hopping) and short traverses to specific locations (through a sequence of controlled “ tumbles” ). Their control would rely on synergistic operations with the mother spacecraft (where most of hybrids perception and localization functionalities would be hosted), which would make the platforms minimalistic and in turn the entire mission architecture affordable. Specifically, in the first part of the paper we present preliminary models and laboratory experiments for the hybrids, first-order estimates for critical subsystems, and a preliminary study for synergistic mission operations. In the second part, we tailor our mission architecture to the exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. The mission aims at exploring Phobos' Stickney crater, whose spectral similarities with C-type asteroids and variety of terrain properties make it a particularly interesting exploration target to address both high-priority science for the Martian system and strategic knowledge gaps for the future human exploration of Mars.

  11. Potential biofouling of spacecraft propellant systems due to contaminated deionized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    Deionized (DI) water, with a density close to hydrazine, is used to fill spacecraft propellant tanks for mechanical testing during ground operations, after which is it removed and the tanks dried for use with anhydrous hydrazine. Pure nitrogen is used as a pressurant during storage and during water fill and drain operations. Since DI water systems are notorious for contamination by slime-forming bacteria, DI water intended for use in New Horizons and STEREO hydrazine tanks at APL was assessed for microorganism content using the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method. Results show that some growth occurred during storage of DI water in propellant tanks, however not at the logarithmic rate associated with well-nourished bacteria. Ralstonia and Burkholderia were present in DI water on-loaded however only Ralstonia was present in off-loaded water. One possible source of nutrients during water storage in propellant tanks is organic material originating from the EPDM (EPR per AF-E-332) expulsion diaphragm. This paper will demonstrate potential for bio-fouling of spacecraft propulsion systems due to growth of slime-forming bacteria and will suggest that specifications controlling microorganism content should be imposed on water used for spacecraft ground testing.

  12. Motion-Based System Identification and Fault Detection and Isolation Technologies for Thruster Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward; Sutter, David W.; Berkovitz, Dustin; Betts, Bradley J.; Kong, Edmund; delMundo, Rommel; Lages, Christopher R.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing the motions of a thruster-controlled spacecraft, it is possible to provide on-line (1) thruster fault detection and isolation (FDI), and (2) vehicle mass- and thruster-property identification (ID). Technologies developed recently at NASA Ames have significantly improved the speed and accuracy of these ID and FDI capabilities, making them feasible for application to a broad class of spacecraft. Since these technologies use existing sensors, the improved system robustness and performance that comes with the thruster fault tolerance and system ID can be achieved through a software-only implementation. This contrasts with the added cost, mass, and hardware complexity commonly required by FDI. Originally developed in partnership with NASA - Johnson Space Center to provide thruster FDI capability for the X-38 during re-entry, these technologies are most recently being applied to the MIT SPHERES experimental spacecraft to fly on the International Space Station in 2004. The model-based FDI uses a maximum-likelihood calculation at its core, while the ID is based upon recursive least squares estimation. Flight test results from the SPHERES implementation, as flown aboard the NASA KC-1 35A 0-g simulator aircraft in November 2003 are presented.

  13. Time determination for spacecraft users of the Navstar Global Positioning System /GPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenchik, T. J.; Fang, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation is performed by time measurements. A description is presented of a two body model of spacecraft motion. Orbit determination is the process of inferring the position, velocity, and clock offset of the user from measurements made of the user motion in the Newtonian coordinate system. To illustrate the effect of clock errors and the accuracy with which the user spacecraft time and orbit may be determined, a low-earth-orbit spacecraft (Seasat) as tracked by six Phase I GPS space vehicles is considered. The obtained results indicate that in the absence of unmodeled dynamic parameter errors clock biases may be determined to the nanosecond level. There is, however, a high correlation between the clock bias and the uncertainty in the gravitational parameter GM, i.e., the product of the universal gravitational constant and the total mass of the earth. It is, therefore, not possible to determine clock bias to better than 25 nanosecond accuracy in the presence of a gravitational error of one part per million.

  14. Scaled CMOS Reliability and Considerations for Spacecraft Systems : Bottom-Up and Top-Down Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The recently launched Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flagship mission, named Curiosity, is the most complex rover ever built by NASA and is scheduled to touch down on the red planet in August, 2012 in Gale Crater. The rover and its instruments will have to endure the harsh environments of the surface of Mars to fulfill its main science objectives. Such complex systems require reliable microelectronic components coupled with adequate component and system-level design margins. Reliability aspects of these elements of the spacecraft system are presented from bottom- up and top-down perspectives.

  15. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  16. Resilience Engineering in Critical Long Term Aerospace Software Systems: A New Approach to Spacecraft Software Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulo, D. A.

    Safety critical software systems permeate spacecraft, and in a long term venture like a starship would be pervasive in every system of the spacecraft. Yet software failure today continues to plague both the systems and the organizations that develop them resulting in the loss of life, time, money, and valuable system platforms. A starship cannot afford this type of software failure in long journeys away from home. A single software failure could have catastrophic results for the spaceship and the crew onboard. This paper will offer a new approach to developing safe reliable software systems through focusing not on the traditional safety/reliability engineering paradigms but rather by focusing on a new paradigm: Resilience and Failure Obviation Engineering. The foremost objective of this approach is the obviation of failure, coupled with the ability of a software system to prevent or adapt to complex changing conditions in real time as a safety valve should failure occur to ensure safe system continuity. Through this approach, safety is ensured through foresight to anticipate failure and to adapt to risk in real time before failure occurs. In a starship, this type of software engineering is vital. Through software developed in a resilient manner, a starship would have reduced or eliminated software failure, and would have the ability to rapidly adapt should a software system become unstable or unsafe. As a result, long term software safety, reliability, and resilience would be present for a successful long term starship mission.

  17. Innovative Embedded Fiber Sensor System for Spacecraft's Health in Situ Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, E.; Kruzelecky, R.; Zou, J.; Wong, B.; Mohammad, N.; Thatte, G.; Jamroz, W.; Riendeau, S.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of various parameters in satellites is desirable to provide the necessary information on the condition and status of the spacecraft and its various subsystems (AOCS, thermal, propulsion, power, mechanisms etc.) throughout its lifecycle. Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors represent an alternative to current technological approaches, enabling in situ distributed dynamic health monitoring, to provide a mapping of the spacecraft strain and temperature distributions, for varying operating and orbital conditions. In addition, these sensors may be implemented in the very early spacecraft fabrication stages, as built-in testing and diagnostic tools, and then used continuously through the mission phases until the end of the spacecraft mission. This can substantially reduce the cost of ground qualification and facilitate improved spacecraft design. MPBC has developed and ground qualified a demonstrator fiber sensor network, the Fiber Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) that has been successfully integrated with ESA's Proba-2. This is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2008, and will be the first complete fiber-optic sensing system in space. The advantages of the MPBC approach include a central interrogation system that can be used to control a multi-parameter sensing incorporating various types of sensors. Using a combination of both parallel signal distribution and serial wavelength division sensor multiplexing along single strands of optical fiber enables a high sensor capacity. In a continuous effort, MPB Communications (MPBC) is developing an innovative Embedded Distributed Fiber Sensor (EDFOS) within space composite structures. It addresses the challenges of embedding very thin fiber sensors within a selected material matrix, the decoupling of the strain and temperature effects on the fiber, and the sensor distribution. The embedded sensor approach allows the sensor system to follow the status of the space structure through its entire life cycle; from fabrication

  18. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  19. Advancements in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickerin, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closedloop water recovery systems, enabling long duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC), are under development which aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy induced effects. In this work, a microgravity compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a 1-g like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions, e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling and analysis of the system.

  20. A trajectory generation and system characterization model for cislunar low-thrust spacecraft. Volume 2: Technical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David J.; Pinon, Elfego, III; Oconnor, Brendan M.; Bilby, Curt R.

    1990-01-01

    The documentation of the Trajectory Generation and System Characterization Model for the Cislunar Low-Thrust Spacecraft is presented in Technical and User's Manuals. The system characteristics and trajectories of low thrust nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft can be generated through the use of multiple system technology models coupled with a high fidelity trajectory generation routine. The Earth to Moon trajectories utilize near Earth orbital plane alignment, midcourse control dependent upon the spacecraft's Jacobian constant, and capture to target orbit utilizing velocity matching algorithms. The trajectory generation is performed in a perturbed two-body equinoctial formulation and the restricted three-body formulation. A single control is determined by the user for the interactive midcourse portion of the trajectory. The full spacecraft system characteristics and trajectory are provided as output.

  1. The reduced order model problem in distributed parameter systems adaptive identification and control. [adaptive control of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. R., Jr.; Lawrence, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The reduced order model problem in distributed parameter systems adaptive identification and control is investigated. A comprehensive examination of real-time centralized adaptive control options for flexible spacecraft is provided.

  2. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  3. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Bradshaw, Heather; Robinson, Frank; Neuberger, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This presentation walks through the lessons learned from design, hardware, analysis and testing perspective. ATLAS lessons learned include general thermal design, analysis, hardware, and testing issues as well as lessons specific to laser systems, two-phase thermal control, and optical assemblies with precision alignment requirements.

  4. Advances in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closed-loop water recovery systems, enabling long-duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment, are under development. These brine water recovery concepts aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy-induced effects. In this work, a microgravity-compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly, thereby creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a terrestrial-like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions; e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling, and analysis of the system.

  5. Impact of computer advances on future finite elements computations. [for aircraft and spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed over the past 10 years in engineering data base management and parallel computing is discussed, and certain opportunities for research toward the next generation of structural analysis capability are proposed. Particular attention is given to data base management associated with the IPAD project and parallel processing associated with the Finite Element Machine project, both sponsored by NASA, and a near term strategy for a distributed structural analysis capability based on relational data base management software and parallel computers for a future structural analysis system.

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  7. Advances in percutaneous electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Mooney, V; Roth, A M

    1976-01-01

    In the past eight years, developing a percutaneous electrode system has advanced to a successful, yet simple, method to transmit electrical signals, overcoming the serious problems of excessive mechanical irritation at the skin interface. Experience with over 50-74% in the clinical applications of 1) chronic pain relief; 2) contracture correction; and 3) sensory feedback.

  8. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  9. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  10. Design of a power management and distribution system for a thermionic-diode powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    1996-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Development Branch of the Power Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio is designing a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System for the Air Force's Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) Engine Ground Test Demonstration (EGD). The ISUS program uses solar-thermal propulsion to perform orbit transfers from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and from LEO to Molnya. The ISUS uses the same energy conversion receiver to perform the LEO to High Earth Orbit (HEO) transfer and to generate on-orbit electric power for the payloads. On-orbit power generation is accomplished via two solar concentrators heating a dual-cavity graphite-core which has Thermionic Diodes (TMD's) encircling each cavity. The graphite core and concentrators together are called the Receiver and Concentrator (RAC). The TDM-emitters reach peak temperatures of approximately 2200K, and the TID-collectors are run at approximately 1000K. Because of the high Specific Impulse (I(sup sp)) of solar thermal propulsion relative to chemical propulsion, and because a common bus is used for communications, GN&C, power, etc., a substantial increase in payload weight is possible. This potentially allows for a stepdown in the required launch vehicle size or class for similar payload weight using conventional chemical propulsion and a separate spacecraft bus. The ISUS power system is to provide 1000W(sub e) at 28+/-6V(sub dc) to the payload/spacecraft from a maximum TID generation capability of 1070W(sub e) at 2200K. Producing power with this quality, protecting the spacecraft from electrical faults and accommodating operational constraints of the TID's are the responsibilities of the PMAD system. The design strategy and system options examined along with the proposed designs for the Flight and EGD configurations are discussed herein.

  11. Use of Spacecraft Command Language for Advanced Command and Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mims, Tikiela L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the use of SCL in building and monitoring command and control applications in order to determine its fitness for space operations. Approximately 24,325 lines of PCG2 code was converted to SCL yielding a 90% reduction in the number of lines of code as many of the functions and scripts utilized in SCL could be ported and reused. Automated standalone testing, simulating the actual production environment, was performed in order to generalize and gauge the relative time it takes for SCL to update and write a given display. The use of SCL rules, functions, and scripts allowed the creation of several test cases permitting the detection of the amount of time it takes update a given set of measurements given the change in a globally existing CUI or CUI. It took the SCL system an average 926.09 ticks to update the entire display of 323 measurements.

  12. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  13. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  14. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The proof of concept, feasibility, and verification of the advanced prop fan and of the integrated advanced prop fan aircraft are established. The use of existing hardware is compatible with having a successfully expedited testbed ready for flight. A prop fan testbed aircraft is definitely feasible and necessary for verification of prop fan/prop fan aircraft integrity. The Allison T701 is most suitable as a propulsor and modification of existing engine and propeller controls are adequate for the testbed. The airframer is considered the logical overall systems integrator of the testbed program.

  15. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  17. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  18. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  19. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C): Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebsock, Ken; West, John

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the NESC completed an in-depth assessment to identify, define and document engineering considerations for the Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of human-rated spacecraft systems. This study had been requested by the Astronaut Office at JSC to help them to better understand what is required to ensure safe, robust, and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. The 22 GN&C engineering Best Practices described in this paper are a condensed version of what appears in the NESC Technical Report. These Best Practices cover a broad range from fundamental system architectural considerations to more specific aspects (e.g., stability margin recommendations) of GN&C system design and development. 15 of the Best Practices address the early phases of a GN&C System development project and the remaining 7 deal with the later phases. Some of these Best Practices will cross-over between both phases. We recognize that this set of GN&C Best Practices will not be universally applicable to all projects and mission applications.

  20. Modeling and analysis of a flywheel microvibration isolation system for spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhanji; Li, Dongxu; Luo, Qing; Jiang, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The microvibrations generated by flywheels running at full speed onboard high precision spacecrafts will affect stability of the spacecraft bus and further degrade pointing accuracy of the payload. A passive vibration isolation platform comprised of multi-segment zig-zag beams is proposed to isolate disturbances of the flywheel. By considering the flywheel and the platform as an integral system with gyroscopic effects, an equivalent dynamic model is developed and verified through eigenvalue and frequency response analysis. The critical speeds of the system are deduced and expressed as functions of system parameters. The vibration isolation performance of the platform under synchronal and high-order harmonic disturbances caused by the flywheel is investigated. It is found that the speed range within which the passive platform is effective and the disturbance decay rate of the system are greatly influenced by the locations of the critical speeds. Structure optimization of the platform is carried out to enhance its performance. Simulation results show that a properly designed vibration isolation platform can effectively reduce disturbances emitted by the flywheel operating above the critical speeds of the system.

  1. Insulation Requirements of High-Voltage Power Systems in Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, A. Haq; Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The scope, size, and capability of the nation's space-based activities are limited by the level of electrical power available. Long-term projections show that there will be an increasing demand for electrical power in future spacecraft programs. The level of power that can be generated, conditioned, transmitted, and used will have to be considerably increased to satisfy these needs, and increased power levels will require that transmission voltages also be increased to minimize weight and resistive losses. At these projected voltages, power systems will not operate satisfactorily without the proper electrical insulation. Open or encapsulated power supplies are currently used to keep the volume and weight of space power systems low and to protect them from natural and induced environmental hazards. Circuits with open packaging are free to attain the pressure of the outer environment, whereas encapsulated circuits are imbedded in insulating materials, which are usually solids, but could be liquids or gases. Up to now, solid insulation has usually been chosen for space power systems. If the use of solid insulation is continued, when voltages increase, the amount of insulation for encapsulation also will have to increase. This increased insulation will increase weight and reduce system reliability. Therefore, non-solid insulation media must be examined to satisfy future spacecraft power and voltage demands. In this report, we assess the suitability of liquid, space vacuum, and gas insulation for space power systems.

  2. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  3. Adsorption and Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Bauman, Liese; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water, as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water desirable. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. Adsorption processes are frequently good candidates for separation and purification in space by virtue of such characteristics as gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: carbon dioxide separation from cabin air, gas-phase trace contaminant control, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each application are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may have additional applications, such as control of greenhouse gas composition and purification of hydroponic solutions, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption

  4. An introduction to NASA's advanced computing program: Integrated computing systems in advanced multichip modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Alkalai, Leon

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes within NASA's space exploration program favor the design, implementation, and operation of low cost, lightweight, small and micro spacecraft with multiple launches per year. In order to meet the future needs of these missions with regard to the use of spacecraft microelectronics, NASA's advanced flight computing (AFC) program is currently considering industrial cooperation and advanced packaging architectures. In relation to this, the AFC program is reviewed, considering the design and implementation of NASA's AFC multichip module.

  5. RocketCam systems for providing situational awareness on rockets, spacecraft, and other remote platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridenoure, Rex

    2004-09-01

    Space-borne imaging systems derived from commercial technology have been successfully employed on launch vehicles for several years. Since 1997, over sixty such imagers - all in the product family called RocketCamTM - have operated successfully on 29 launches involving most U.S. launch systems. During this time, these inexpensive systems have demonstrated their utility in engineering analysis of liftoff and ascent events, booster performance, separation events and payload separation operations, and have also been employed to support and document related ground-based engineering tests. Such views from various vantage points provide not only visualization of key events but stunning and extremely positive public relations video content. Near-term applications include capturing key events on Earth-orbiting spacecraft and related proximity operations. This paper examines the history to date of RocketCams on expendable and manned launch vehicles, assesses their current utility on rockets, spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles (e.g., UAVs), and provides guidance for their use in selected defense and security applications. Broad use of RocketCams on defense and security projects will provide critical engineering data for developmental efforts, a large database of in-situ measurements onboard and around aerospace vehicles and platforms, compelling public relations content, and new diagnostic information for systems designers and failure-review panels alike.

  6. Spacecraft environments interactions: Protecting against the effects of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, J. L.; Mccollum, M. B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the natural space environments on spacecraft design, development, and operation are the topic of a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. This primer, second in the series, describes the interactions between a spacecraft and the natural space plasma. Under certain environmental/spacecraft conditions, these interactions result in the phenomenon known as spacecraft charging. It is the focus of this publication to describe the phenomenon of spacecraft charging and its possible adverse effects on spacecraft and to present the key elements of a Spacecraft Charging Effects Protection Plan.

  7. Cassette bacteria detection system. [for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system, with a zero-g capability, based on the filter-capable approach, and intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in spacecraft is discussed. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. High signals for the incubated water sample indicate the presence of viable organisms.

  8. Orbital Spacecraft Consumables Resupply System (OSCRS). Volume 3: Program Cost Estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    A cost analysis for the design, development, qualification, and production of the monopropellant and bipropellant Orbital Spacecraft Consumable Resupply System (OSCRS) tankers, their associated avionics located in the Orbiter payload bay, and the unique ground support equipment (GSE) and airborne support equipment (ASE) required to support operations is presented. Monopropellant resupply for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) in calendar year 1991 is the first defined resupply mission with bipropellant resupply missions expected in the early to mid 1990's. The monopropellant program estimate also includes contractor costs associated with operations support through the first GRO resupply mission.

  9. Concurrent System Engineering and Risk Reduction for Dual-Band (RF/optical) Spacecraft Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielhauer, Karl, B.; Boone, Bradley, G.; Raible, Daniel, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering approach to examining the potential for combining elements of a deep-space RF and optical communications payload, for the purpose of reducing the size, weight and power burden on the spacecraft and the mission. Figures of merit and analytical methodologies are discussed to conduct trade studies, and several potential technology integration strategies are presented. Finally, the NASA Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project is described, which directly addresses the combined RF and optical approach.

  10. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  11. Building automation system of payment platform weight component for large spacecraft reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Badanina, J. O.

    2016-04-01

    Considered Design and the logic of opening large convertible antenna. The necessity of compensation weight component in the assembly and testing of the design. Given the logic of the movement elements of power spokes, concluded that the use of the tracking system to compensate for the weight component. The analysis of the existing equipment and control systems. Produced selection of the manufacturer of automated equipment that meets the stated objectives of management and control. It is concluded that the design component of the weight compensation system based on servo controllers and sensors combined platform automation, controlled by special software. The structure of the platform automation, consistent workflow testing. It defines the principles of interaction between subsystems of the weight compensation component for receiving, processing and monitoring of process parameters testing. It is concluded that the proposed system can be integrated into the automation system and the perspective of process control testing of disclosure of large spacecraft.

  12. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  13. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  14. The development and flight test of a deployable precision landing system for spacecraft recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.; Murray, James E.; Neufeld, David C.; Reed, R. Dale

    1993-01-01

    A joint NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and Johnson Space Center program was conducted to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of entry from space that included a precision landing. The feasibility of this system was studied using a flight model of a spacecraft in the generic shape of a flattened biconic which weighed approximately 150 lb and was flown under a commercially available, ram-air parachute. Key elements of the vehicle included the Global Positioning System guidance for navigation, flight control computer, ultrasonic sensing for terminal altitude, electronic compass, and onboard data recording. A flight test program was used to develop and refine the vehicle. This vehicle completed an autonomous flight from an altitude of 10,000 ft and a lateral offset of 1.7 miles which resulted in a precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. At times, the autonomous flight was conducted in the presence of winds approximately equal to vehicle airspeed. Several techniques for computing the winds postflight were evaluated. Future program objectives are also presented.

  15. An Approach to the Design and Implementation of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Mangus, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Over 39 years and a long list of missions, the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) groups at the Goddard Space Flight Center have gradually developed approaches to the design and implementation of successful spacecraft attitude control systems. With the recent creation of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center at Goddard, there is a desire to document some of these design practices to help to ensure their consistent application in the future. In this paper, we will discuss the beginnings of this effort, drawing primarily on the experience of one of the past attitude control system (ACS) groups at Goddard (what was formerly known as Code 712, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch). We will discuss the analysis and design methods and criteria used, including guidelines for linear and nonlinear analysis, as well as the use of low- and high-fidelity simulation for system design and verification of performance. Descriptions of typical ACS sensor and actuator hardware will be shown, and typical sensor/actuator suites for a variety of mission types detailed. A description of the software and hardware test effort will be given, along with an attempt to make some qualitative estimates on how much effort is involved. The spacecraft and GN&C subsystem review cycles will be discussed, giving an outline of what design reviews are typically held and .what information should be presented at each stage. Finally, we will point out some of the lessons learned at Goddard.

  16. An approach to the design and implementation of spacecraft attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Mangus, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Over 39 years and a long list of missions, the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) groups at the Goddard Space Flight Center have gradually developed approaches to the design and implementation of successful spacecraft attitude control systems. With the recent creation of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center at Goddard, there is a desire to document some of these design practices to help to ensure their consistent application in the future. In this paper, we will discuss the beginnings of this effort, drawing primarily on the experience of one of the past attitude control system (ACS) groups at Goddard (what was formerly known as Code 712, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch). We will discuss the analysis and design methods and criteria used, including guidelines for linear and nonlinear analysis, as well as the use of low- and high-fidelity simulation for system design and verification of performance. Descriptions of typical ACS sensor and actuator hardware will be shown, and typical sensor/actuator suites for a variety of mission types detailed. A description of the software and hardware test effort will be given, along with an attempt to make some qualitative estimates on how much effort is involved. The spacecraft and GN&C subsystem review cycles will be discussed, giving an outline of what design reviews are typically held and what information should be presented at each stage. Finally, we will point out some of the lessons learned at Goddard.

  17. Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

    2008-01-01

    A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

  18. A low cost imaging displacement measurement system for spacecraft thermal vacuum testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A low cost imaging displacement technique suitable for use in thermal vacuum testing was built and tested during thermal vacuum testing of the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF, later renamed Spitzer infrared telescope facility). The problem was to measure the relative displacement of different portions of the spacecraft due to thermal expansion or contraction. Standard displacement measuring instrumentation could not be used because of the widely varying temperatures on the spacecraft and for fear of invalidating the thermal vacuum testing. The imaging system was conceived, designed, purchased, and installed in approximately 2 months at very low cost. The system performed beyond expectations proving that sub millimeter displacements could be measured from over 2 meters away. Using commercial optics it was possible to make displacement measurements down to 10 (mu)m. An automated image processing tool was used to process the data, which not only speeded up data reduction, but showed that velocities and accelerations could also be measured. Details of the design and capabilities of the system are discussed along with the results of the test on the observatory. Several images from the actual test are presented.

  19. The development and flight test of a deployable precision landing system for spacecraft recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Alex G.; Murray, James E.; Neufeld, David C.; Reed, R. Dale

    1993-09-01

    A joint NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and Johnson Space Center program was conducted to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of entry from space that included a precision landing. The feasibility of this system was studied using a flight model of a spacecraft in the generic shape of a flattened biconic which weighed approximately 150 lb and was flown under a commercially available, ram-air parachute. Key elements of the vehicle included the Global Positioning System guidance for navigation, flight control computer, ultrasonic sensing for terminal altitude, electronic compass, and onboard data recording. A flight test program was used to develop and refine the vehicle. This vehicle completed an autonomous flight from an altitude of 10,000 ft and a lateral offset of 1.7 miles which resulted in a precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. At times, the autonomous flight was conducted in the presence of winds approximately equal to vehicle airspeed. Several techniques for computing the winds postflight were evaluated. Future program objectives are also presented.

  20. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  1. Spacecraft Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Manshadi, Farzin; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Some of the various categories of issues that must be considered in the selection and design of spacecraft antennas for a Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) are addressed, and parametric studies for some of the antenna concepts to help the system designer in making the most appropriate antenna choice with regards to weight, size, and complexity, etc. are provided. The question of appropriate polarization for the spacecraft as well as for the User Terminal Antenna required particular attention and was studied in some depth. Circular polarization seems to be the favored outcome of this study. Another problem that has generally been a complicating factor in designing the multiple beam reflector antennas, is the type of feeds (single vs. multiple element and overlapping vs. non-overlapping clusters) needed for generating the beams. This choice is dependent on certain system design factors, such as the required frequency reuse, acceptable interbeam isolation, antenna efficiency, number of beams scanned, and beam-forming network (BFN) complexity. This issue is partially addressed, but is not completely resolved. Indications are that it may be possible to use relatively simple non-overlapping clusters of only a few elements, unless a large frequency reuse and very stringent isolation levels are required.

  2. The Interaction of Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Quality and Water Processing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Croomes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although designed to remove organic contaminants from a variety of waste water streams, the planned U.S.- and present Russian-provided water processing systems onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have capacity limits for some of the more common volatile cleaning solvents used for housekeeping purposes. Using large quantities of volatile cleaning solvents during the ground processing and in-flight operational phases of a crewed spacecraft such as the ISS can lead to significant challenges to the water processing systems. To understand the challenges facing the management of water processing capacity, the relationship between cabin atmospheric quality and humidity condensate loading is presented. This relationship is developed as a tool to determine the cabin atmospheric loading that may compromise water processing system performance. A comparison of cabin atmospheric loading with volatile cleaning solvents from ISS, Mir, and Shuttle are presented to predict acceptable limits to maintain optimal water processing system performance.

  3. Modeling the Multi-Body System Dynamics of a Flexible Solar Sail Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young; Stough, Robert; Whorton, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Solar sail propulsion systems enable a wide range of space missions that are not feasible with current propulsion technology. Hardware concepts and analytical methods have matured through ground development to the point that a flight validation mission is now realizable. Much attention has been given to modeling the structural dynamics of the constituent elements, but to date an integrated system level dynamics analysis has been lacking. Using a multi-body dynamics and control analysis tool called TREETOPS, the coupled dynamics of the sailcraft bus, sail membranes, flexible booms, and control system sensors and actuators of a representative solar sail spacecraft are investigated to assess system level dynamics and control issues. With this tool, scaling issues and parametric trade studies can be performed to study achievable performance, control authority requirements, and control/structure interaction assessments.

  4. Research on advanced transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  5. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  6. Spacecraft/Rover Hybrids for the Exploration of Small Solar System Bodies. [NASA NIAC Phase I Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavone, Marco; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Nesnas, Issa A. D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a novel mission architecture for the systematic and affordable in-situ exploration of small Solar System bodies. Specifically, a mother spacecraft would deploy over the surface of a small body one, or several, spacecraft/rover hybrids, which are small, multi-faceted enclosed robots with internal actuation and external spikes. They would be capable of 1) long excursions (by hopping), 2) short traverses to specific locations (through a sequence of controlled tumbles), and 3) high-altitude, attitude-controlled ballistic flight (akin to spacecraft flight). Their control would rely on synergistic operations with the mother spacecraft (where most of hybrids' perception and localization functionalities would be hosted), which would make the platforms minimalistic and, in turn, the entire mission architecture affordable.

  7. Spacecraft-level verification of the Van Allen Probes' RF communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowne, M. J.; Srinivasan, D.; Royster, D.; Weaver, G.; Matlin, D.; Mosavi, N.

    This paper presents the verification process, lessons learned, and selected test results of the radio frequency (RF) communication system of the Van Allen Probes, formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). The Van Allen Probes mission is investigating the doughnut-shaped regions of space known as the Van Allen radiation belts where the Sun interacts with charged particles trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Understanding this dynamic area that surrounds our planet is important to improving our ability to design spacecraft and missions for reliability and astronaut safety. The Van Allen Probes mission features two nearly identical spacecraft designed, built, and operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RF communication system features the JHU/APL Frontier Radio. The Frontier Radio is a software-defined radio (SDR) designed for spaceborne communications, navigation, radio science, and sensor applications. This mission marks the first spaceflight usage of the Frontier Radio. RF ground support equipment (RF GSE) was developed using a ground station receiver similar to what will be used in flight and whose capabilities provided clarity into RF system performance that was previously not obtained until compatibility testing with the ground segments. The Van Allen Probes underwent EMC, acoustic, vibration, and thermal vacuum testing at the environmental test facilities at APL. During this time the RF communication system was rigorously tested to ensure optimal performance, including system-level testing down to threshold power levels. Compatibility tests were performed with the JHU/APL Satellite Communication Facility (SCF), the Universal Space Network (USN), and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Successful completion of this program as described in this paper validated the design of the system and demonstrated that it will be able to me

  8. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  9. Ground-based VLBI relativistic time delay model for Spacecrafts in Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Zheng, Y.; Du, L.

    2003-02-01

    The ground VLBI relativistic time delay model for spacecraft in the solar system is derived, first in the barycentric reference system and then transferred to the non-spinning geocentric reference system. A universal analyzed expression is presented, from which another model given by Ping Jinsong can be obtained. It is also pointed that several models for extra-galactic sources are available from the formula such as Zhu-Groten?Shapiro and IERS(92,96) recommended models if the geocentric distances of the sources become infinite large. Adopting the formula given here is recommended in processing VLBI observable due to its rigorousness and errors-free. The using limitation of the formula and estimation in magnitude for various neglecting items as well as the computation steps in details are also discussed.

  10. Orbital Spacecraft Consumables Resupply System (OSCRS). Volume 4: Extended study results Part 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The objectives consisted of three major tasks. The first was to establish the definition of Space Station and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) user requirements and interfaces and to evaluate system requirements of a water tanker to be used at the station. The second task is to conduct trade studies of system requirements, hardware/software, and operations to evaluate the effect of automatic operation at the station or remote from the station in consonance with the OMV. The last task is to evaluate automatic refueling concepts and to evaluate the impact to Orbital Spacecraft Consumable Resupply System (OSCRS) concept/design to use expendable launch vehicles (ELV) to place the tank into orbit. Progress in each area is discussed.

  11. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  12. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Two-year results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Carr, Sandra E.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Svoboda, Judy V.; Huls, M. H.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of iodine to maintain microbial water quality in a simulated spacecraft water system is being studied. An iodine level of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained by passing ultrapure influent water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Six liters are withdrawn daily and the chemical and microbial quality of the water is monitored regularly. Stainless steel coupons used to monitor biofilm formation are being analyzed by culture methods, epifluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results from the first two years of operation show a single episode of high bacterial colony counts in the iodinated system. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has limited but not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm during the first two years of operation. Significant microbial contamination has been present continuously in a parallel noniodinated system since the third week of operation.

  13. A Spacecraft Housekeeping System-on-Chip in a Radiation Hardened Structured ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, George; DuMonthier, Jeffrey J.; Sheikh, Salman S.; Powell, Wesley A.; King, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Housekeeping systems are essential to health monitoring of spacecraft and instruments. Typically, sensors are distributed across various sub-systems and data is collected using components such as analog-to-digital converters, analog multiplexers and amplifiers. In most cases programmable devices are used to implement the data acquisition control and storage, and the interface to higher level systems. Such discrete implementations require additional size, weight, power and interconnect complexity versus an integrated circuit solution, as well as the qualification of multiple parts. Although commercial devices are readily available, they are not suitable for space applications due the radiation tolerance and qualification requirements. The Housekeeping System-o n-A-Chip (HKSOC) is a low power, radiation hardened integrated solution suitable for spacecraft and instrument control and data collection. A prototype has been designed and includes a wide variety of functions including a 16-channel analog front-end for driving and reading sensors, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, on-chip temperature sensor, power supply current sense circuits, general purpose comparators and amplifiers, a 32-bit processor, digital I/O, pulse-width modulation (PWM) generators, timers and I2C master and slave serial interfaces. In addition, the device can operate in a bypass mode where the processor is disabled and external logic is used to control the analog and mixed signal functions. The device is suitable for stand-alone or distributed systems where multiple chips can be deployed across different sub-systems as intelligent nodes with computing and processing capabilities.

  14. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.; Kakad, Yogendra P.

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  15. Validation of a rapid bacteria endospore enumeration system for use with spacecraft assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Kuhlman, G.; Kirschner, L.; Kazarians, G.; Matsuyama, A.; Pickett, M.; Venkateswaran, K.; Kastner, J.; Kern, R.

    NASA planetary protection policy sets forth strict limits on the number of bacterial endospores that can be present on a spacecraft at launch Currently the only approved method for counting the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results a timeframe that can be at odds with the rapid pace and rigorous deadlines of spacecraft assembly A possible alternative to the traditional culture based approach is the Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System RMDS which has previously been used for process and contamination control in the pharmaceutical and food industries The RMDS is rapid and simple shows high sensitivity 1 colony forming unit CFU sample and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods It combines membrane filtration adenosine triphosphate ATP bioluminescence chemistry and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device CCD camera In this study we have optimized the assay condition and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications Seven species of Bacillus nine strains that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed In order to select for spores the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol All strains were detected by the RMDS in sim 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise The RMDS-based spore detection method is undergoing the final stages of validation and is

  16. Time-domain system identification of low-order models for flexible spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Robert John

    1998-12-01

    System Identification (SI) is the process of developing or improving a mathematical representation of a physical system using experimental data. Accurate SI is often a precursor to sophisticated control algorithms which assume that the 'plant' to be controlled is known. To achieve accurate models, many of the best current SI methods require that the size of the identified state space model be significantly larger than the expected system size, a process called overspecification. Large models are impractical for model-based controller design and create numerical difficulties during the SI process. Low order and high accuracy are two conflicting requirements for SI. Appropriate SI methods for on-orbit modeling of lightly-damped flexible spacecraft are established, including methods such as OKID with ERA, Q-Markov CovER, ORSE and Subspace. Tests on Daisy, a flexible spacecraft emulator, demonstrate that these methods exhibit the overspecification problem. To investigate SI of low-order models, model reduction techniques are employed. Balanced model reduction offers promising results for stable models. Since model stability is not guaranteed by many SI methods, three new approaches to balanced model reduction are derived and tested when identified models are unstable. A new identification approach using OKID and cubic smoothing splines is presented, allowing low-order highly-accurate models to be directly identified. Avoiding impractically large models reduces computational requirements and potential for numerical problems. Augmented SI is an approach that allows existing linear system identification techniques to better model non-idealities such as nonlinear friction. Augmented and standard SI experiments demonstrate that the linear system assumption made throughout this thesis is appropriate for Daisy.

  17. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances Part 2: Spacecraft Antennas and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Richard E.; Kodis, Mary Anne; Epp, Larry W.; Orr, Richard; Schuchman, Leonard; Collins, Michael; Sands, O. Scott; Vyas, Hemali; Williams, W. Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent advances in antenna and power systems technology to enable a high data rate Ka-band Mars-to-Earth telecommunications system. Promising antenna technologies are lightweight, deployable space qualified structures at least 12-m in diameter (potentially up to 25-m). These technologies include deployable mesh reflectors, inflatable reflectarray and folded thermosetting composite. Advances in 1kW-class RF power amplifiers include both TWTA and SSPA technologies.

  18. Active rendezvous between a low-earth orbit user spacecraft and the Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, H. L.; Herrnstein, J. R.

    1989-10-01

    Active rendezvous of an unmanned spacecraft with the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle is considered. The various operational constraints facing both the maneuvering spacecraft and the Shuttle during such a rendezvous sequence are discussed. Specifically, the actively rendezvousing user spacecraft must arrive in the generic Shuttle control box at a specified time after Shuttle launch. In so doing it must at no point violate Shuttle separation requirements. In addition, the spacecraft must be able to initiate the transfer sequence from any point in its orbit. The four-burn rendezvous sequence incorporating two Hohmann transfers and an intermediate phasing orbit as a low-energy solution satisfying the above requirements are discussed. The general characteristics of the four-burn sequence are discussed, with emphasis placed on phase orbit altitude and delta-velocity requirements. The planning and execution of such a sequence in the operational environment are then considered. Factor crucial in maintaining the safety of both spacecraft, such as spacecraft separation and contingency analysis, are considered in detail.

  19. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS), Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstration advanced anionics system (DAAS) function description, hardware description, operational evaluation, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) are provided. Projected advanced avionics system (PAAS) description, reliability analysis, cost analysis, maintainability analysis, and modularity analysis are discussed.

  20. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334 N (300 lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. This paper describes and summarizes the development and in-flight performance of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicted upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling are also discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data.