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Sample records for advanced spacecraft testing

  1. Research on advanced spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Etou, Takao; Imai, Ryouichi; Oota, Kazuo; Kaneko, Yutaka; Maeda, Toshihide; Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    Engineering test satellite systems to validate element technologies required for spacecraft composing advanced space infrastructures are studied. Case studies are conducted on element technologies for diversified manned space technology and the outline of the engineering test satellite systems is demonstrated. Debris observing systems, their debris collection and retrieval methods which are being reviewed in many countries are examined. Technical problems are picked up, and the fundamental concept of experiment satellites is determined. Missions deemed to be suitable for micro-satellites and various civil on-ground technologies focusing on electronic technology applicable to them are picked up. Functions of extravehicular operation systems required by the missions, and fundamental concept of the systems and subsystems are made clear. Missions to which artificial gravity experiment satellites that are effective are examined and preparatory review is conducted on artificial gravity generation methods, methods to retrieve experiment equipment and samples, and outline of the satellite systems. Technical problems of engineering test satellites to validate on-orbit cryogenic propellant storage and transportation technologies are picked up and the fundamental concept of the satellites are determined. A review is conducted on electrical propulsion Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) technology satellite to validate fundamental technology for large electrical propulsion engine and electrical propulsion engine OTV operation technology, and to pick up problems on the orbit of electrical propulsion OTV.

  2. Tools Automate Spacecraft Testing, Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "NASA began the Small Explorer (SMEX) program to develop spacecraft to advance astrophysics and space physics. As one of the entities supporting software development at Goddard Space Flight Center, the Hammers Company Inc. (tHC Inc.), of Greenbelt, Maryland, developed the Integrated Test and Operations System to support SMEX. Later, the company received additional Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Goddard for a tool to facilitate the development of flight software called VirtualSat. NASA uses the tools to support 15 satellites, and the aerospace industry is using them to develop science instruments, spacecraft computer systems, and navigation and control software."

  3. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  4. NASA Handbook for Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of structural dynamics and vibrations, in both methodology and capability, have the potential to make spacecraft system testing more effective from technical, cost, schedule, and hardware safety points of view. However, application of these advanced test methods varies widely among the NASA Centers and their contractors. Identification and refinement of the best of these test methodologies and implementation approaches has been an objective of efforts by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on behalf of the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer. But to develop the most appropriate overall test program for a flight project from the selection of advanced methodologies, as well as conventional test methods, spacecraft project managers and their technical staffs will need overall guidance and technical rationale. Thus, the Chief Engineer's Office has recently tasked JPL to prepare a NASA Handbook for Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing. An outline of the proposed handbook, with a synopsis of each section, has been developed and is presented herein. Comments on the proposed handbook is solicited from the spacecraft structural dynamics testing community.

  5. NASA Handbook for Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of structural dynamics and vibrations, in both methodology and capability, have the potential to make spacecraft system testing more effective from technical, cost, schedule, and hardware safety points of view. However, application of these advanced test methods varies widely among the NASA Centers and their contractors. Identification and refinement of the best of these test methodologies and implementation approaches has been an objective of efforts by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on behalf of the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer. But to develop the most appropriate overall test program for a flight project from the selection of advanced methodologies, as well as conventional test methods, spacecraft project managers and their technical staffs will need overall guidance and technical rationale. Thus, the Chief Engineer's Office has recently tasked JPL to prepare a NASA Handbook for Spacecraft Structural Dynamics Testing. An outline of the proposed handbook, with a synopsis of each section, has been developed and is presented herein. Comments on the proposed handbook are solicited from the spacecraft structural dynamics testing community.

  6. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  7. Advanced antennas for SAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gail, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Single and multi-frequency antenna concepts were developed to evaluate the feasibility of building large aperture polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems to be launched in low cost vehicles such as the Delta 2. The antennas are 18.9 m long by 2.6 m wide (L-band) and achieve single polarization imaging to an incidence angle of 55 degrees and dual/quad imaging to 42 degrees. When combined with strawman spacecraft designs, both concepts meet the mass and volume constraints imposed by a Delta 2 launch.

  8. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  9. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  10. SAS-A spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic tests were conducted on the spacecraft for: (1) alignment, compensation, calibration, and bias determination for the spacecraft three-axis vector magnetometer; (2) determination of permanent, induced, and stray magnetic moments of the spacecraft and compensation of permanent magnetic moments by permanent magnets; and (3) evaluation of the spin and attitude control system.

  11. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  12. ISIS-B spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic tests of the ISIS B spacecraft were conducted to determine the various magnetic moments of the spacecraft, evalute its spin and attitude control systems, and calibrate the six onboard magnetometer probes. Test procedures and equipment are described. Techniques for evaluting the data are discussed, and test results are presented. The spacecraft's magnetic characteristics were found to be satisfactory. Proper threshold values for gating the torquing coils were obtained. The onboard magnetometers were satisfactorily calibrated.

  13. NASA's Orion Spacecraft Undergoes Water Landing Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 25, 2016, the Orion spacecraft underwent a water drop test at the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Join host Eric Gillard, of NASA Langley, and g...

  14. Vibration and acoustic testing of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft are subjected to a variety of dynamics environments, which may include: quasi-static, vibration and acoustic loads at launch: pyrotechnic shocks generated by separation mechanisms; on orbit jitter; and sometimes, planetary landing loads. There is a trend in the aerospace industry to rely more on structural analyses and less on testing to simulate these environments, because dynamics testing of spacecraft is time consuming, risky and expensive.

  15. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  16. Advanced composites for large Navy spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William E.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of work conducted on contract for the Naval Sea Systems Command. The objective of this contract was to provide direction for the development of high modulus graphite reinforced metal matrix composites. These advanced materials can have a significant effect on the performance of a spacecraft before, during and after an evasive maneuver. The work conducted on this program was organized into seven technical tasks. Task 1 was development of a generic Navy spacecraft model. Finite element models of candidate structural designs were developed. In Task 2, the finite-element model(s) of the structure were used to conduct analytical assessments involving conventional materials, resin matrix composites and metal matrix composites (MMC). In Task 3 and 4, MMC material design, fabrication and evaluation was conducted. This consisted of generating material designs and developing a data base for a broad range of graphite reinforced MMC materials. All material was procured according to specifications which set material quality and material property standards. In Task 5, a set of evasive maneuvering requirements were derived and used in Task 6 to conduct analytical simulations. These analytical simulations used current SOA material properties and projected material properties to provide an indication of key payoffs for material development. In Task 7, a set of material development recommendations was generated.

  17. Incipient fault detection study for advanced spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, G. Martin; Black, Michael C.; Hovenga, J. Mike; Mcclure, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A feasibility study to investigate the application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery of planned NASA advanced spacecraft components is described. Factors investigated include: (1) special problems associated with small, high RPM machines; (2) application across multiple component types; (3) microgravity; (4) multiple fault types; (5) eight different analysis techniques including signature analysis, high frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, amplitude analysis, and pattern recognition are compared; and (6) small sample statistical analysis is used to compare performance by computation of probability of detection and false alarm for an ensemble of repeated baseline and faulted tests. Both detection and classification performance are quantified. Vibration monitoring is shown to be an effective means of detecting the most important problem types for small, high RPM fans and pumps typical of those planned for the advanced spacecraft. A preliminary monitoring system design and implementation plan is presented.

  18. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  19. Accelerated life testing of spacecraft subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.

    1972-01-01

    The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft Assembled for Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The major components of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft cruise stage atop the aeroshell, which has the descent stage and rover inside were connected together in October 2008 for several weeks of system testing, including simulation of launch vibrations and deep-space environmental conditions.

    These components will be taken apart again, for further work on each of them, after the environmental testing. The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  2. Spacecraft load, design and test philosophies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    The development of spacecraft loads, design and test philosophies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) during the past 25 years is presented. Examples from the JPL's Viking, Voyager and Galileo spacecraft are used to explain the changes in philosophy necessary to meet the program requirements with a reduction in cost and schedule. Approaches to validate mathematical models of large structures which can't be ground tested as an overall system because of size and/or adverse effects of terrestrial conditions such as gravity are presented.

  3. Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing. The advantages of this scheme are: 1) Because only a fraction of the power is processed through the dc-dc converter, the single- stage conversion efficiency is 94 to 98 percent; 2) Costly, high-efficiency dc-dc converters are not necessary for high end-to-end system efficiency; 3) The system is highly fault tolerant because the bypass connection will still deliver power if the dc-dc converter fails; and 4) The converters can easily be connected in parallel, allowing higher power systems to be built from a common building block. This new technology will be spaceflight tested in the Photovoltaic Regulator Kit Experiment

  4. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  5. Surface Charging Application Tests for Geosynchronous Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Cooke, D. L.; Tautz, M.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Kuharski, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    The testing of a geosynchronous spacecraft surface charging application that combines the charged particle environment (~ 1 eV to 200 keV electron and proton fluxes) of the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) with algorithms from the NASCAP-2K surface charging program is described. Spacecraft frame charging (chassis potential) is determined from low energy ion data collected by the Charge Control System (CCS) on a DSCS III B-7 spacecraft at 307° E. Longitude. Several simple descriptions of satellite geometry and materials are employed, including one which approximates features of the DSCS satellite [i.e., Mandell and Cooke, AIAA-2004-986, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 5-8, 2004]. Preliminary tests compared modeled and observed chassis potentials for three days when observed peak charging levels ranged from -200 to -600 volts [Hilmer et al. (2005), EOS Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SM41A-1169]. While the electron and proton spectra generated by the MSM proved to be suitable for the charging calculation, the MSM does not produce all of the low energy electrons (< 20 eV) usually present in geosynchronous orbit to keep spacecraft from charging positive so only negative charging is assumed. Frame charging details vary greatly with MSM input parameter selection. The charging application works best with MSM spectra generated using the input parameter set that statistically produces the best electron fluxes in the midnight-dawn local time sector where surface charging is most often observed. Comparisons in the present study will concentrate on utilizing MSM particle fluxes generated using this "best set" of the input parameters and testing will cover an extended period of up to several months. These tests will help us refine the MSM and NASCAP-2K algorithm configurations needed to best address spacecraft surface charging.

  6. Thermal balance testing of the MSAT spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, Serge; Choueiry, Elie; Pang, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the recently completed thermal balance/thermal vacuum testing of an MSAT satellite, the first satellite to provide mobile communications service for all of continental North America. MSAT is a two-spacecraft program, using a three-axis-stabilized HUGHES HS-601 series bus as the vehicle for the Canadian-designed payload. The thermal tests performed at the Canadian Space Agency's David Florida Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, lasted approximately 32 days.

  7. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  8. Surface Charging Application Tests for Geosynchronous Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Cooke, D. L.; Roth, C. J.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Kuharski, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    The testing of a geosynchronous spacecraft surface charging application that combines the charged particle environment (~ 1 eV to 200 keV electron and proton fluxes) of the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) with algorithms from the NASCAP-2K surface charging program is described. Spacecraft frame charging (chassis potential) is determined from low energy ion data collected by the Charge Control System (CCS) on a DSCS III B- 7 spacecraft at 307° E. Longitude. Several simple descriptions of satellite geometry and materials are employed, including one which approximates features of the DSCS satellite [i.e., Mandell and Cooke, AIAA-2004-986, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 5-8, 2004]. Preliminary tests compared modeled and observed chassis potentials for three days when observed peak charging levels ranged from -200 to -600 volts [Hilmer et al. (2005), EOS Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SM41A-1169]. While the electron and proton spectra generated by the MSM proved to be suitable for the charging calculation, the MSM does not produce all of the low energy electrons (< 20 eV) usually present in geosynchronous orbit to keep spacecraft from charging positive so only negative charging is assumed. Frame charging details vary greatly with MSM input parameter selection. The charging application works best with MSM spectra generated using the input parameter set that statistically produces the best electron fluxes in the midnight-dawn local time sector where surface charging is most often observed. Comparisons in the present study will concentrate on utilizing MSM particle fluxes generated using this "best set" of the input parameters. These tests will help us refine the MSM and NASCAP-2K algorithm configurations needed to best address spacecraft surface charging.

  9. Thermal vacuum testing techniques for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Cesium frequency standards are to be flown on the NTS-2 satellite which is a program conducted to develop technology and time standards for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. Mission requirements for the thermal design of this frequency standard called for a low nominal temperature (15 C) and the removal of most of the heat generated by the standard from the spacecraft. The test program run to determine the thermal properties of the frequency standard is described. A simulator was constructed for these tests. Special mathematical analysis techniques were developed and were used to predict the thermal environment for different orbital conditions. Thermal vacuum tests of the flight frequency standard and the integrated spacecraft demonstrated the validity of this technique.

  10. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  11. Advanced spacecraft: What will they look like and why

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Humphrey W.

    1990-01-01

    The next century of spaceflight will witness an expansion in the physical scale of spacecraft, from the extreme of the microspacecraft to the very large megaspacecraft. This will respectively spawn advances in highly integrated and miniaturized components, and also advances in lightweight structures, space fabrication, and exotic control systems. Challenges are also presented by the advent of advanced propulsion systems, many of which require controlling and directing hot plasma, dissipating large amounts of waste heat, and handling very high radiation sources. Vehicle configuration studies for a number of theses types of advanced spacecraft were performed, and some of them are presented along with the rationale for their physical layouts.

  12. Spacecraft contamination prediction and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffery, J. A.; Maag, C. R.; Morelli, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques used in the prediction of spacecraft contamination for the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and in the determination of the effects of such contamination are presented. Following a quick-look assessment of the contributions of ground-based initial contaminant loading, launch vehicle interface effects, vacuum-exposed outgassing deposition and attitude control thruster impingement and venting to the spacecraft contamination burden, the evaluations centered on the effects of the attitude control thruster on the scan platform optics, including calculations of thruster flowfields and a high-fidelity computer simulation of contaminant distribution. The evaluations revealed a considerable problem with thruster contamination, which could be solved by the use of a thrust shield and the avoidance of thruster operation at certain scan platform orientations. The effects of the various possible contaminants on spacecraft thermal and optical system performances were also investigated in studies of the optical transmittance of deposited monomethyl hydrazine nitrate, vacuum optical degradation due to contaminant outgassing and re-emission outgassing, and an operational satellite contaminant monitor on the NOAA-C satellite. It is concluded that with a good evaluation and testing program, contamination control may become a necessary portion of system design procedures, and recommendations for the implementation of various practices and tests to minimize contamination effects are presented.

  13. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  14. The role of mission operations in spacecraft integration and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of mission operations personnel in the spacecraft integration and test process offers significant benefits to spacecraft programs in terms of test efficiency, staffing and training efficiency, test completeness, and subsequent cost containment. Operations personnel who have had real-time contact experience and have been responsible for the assessment of on orbit spacecraft operations bring a unique view of spacecraft operations to pre-launch spacecraft test activities. Because of the unique view of the spacecraft/ground interface that experienced operations personnel have, they can propose optimum test approaches and optimum test data analysis techniques. Additionally, the testing that is typically required to validate operations methodologies can be integrated into spacecraft performance testing scenarios.

  15. Technology needs of advanced Earth observation spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, J. J.; Postuchow, J. R.; Schartel, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing missions were synthesized which could contribute significantly to the understanding of global environmental parameters. Instruments capable of sensing important land and sea parameters are combined with a large antenna designed to passively quantify surface emitted radiation at several wavelengths. A conceptual design for this large deployable antenna was developed. All subsystems required to make the antenna an autonomous spacecraft were conceptually designed. The entire package, including necessary orbit transfer propulsion, is folded to package within the Space Transportation System (STS) cargo bay. After separation, the antenna, its integral feed mast, radiometer receivers, power system, and other instruments are automatically deployed and transferred to the operational orbit. The design resulted in an antenna with a major antenna dimension of 120 meters, weighing 7650 kilograms, and operating at an altitude of 700 kilometers.

  16. Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing.

  17. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  18. Spacecraft material flammability testing and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, Paul W.

    1987-01-01

    Material and configuration testing for the Space Shuttle is mainly at 30 percent oxygen concentration at 70 kPa (10.2 psia). This is the worst case atmosphere during a mission and occurs 10 hours prior to extravehicular activity. The pressure is reduced from the nominal 101 kPa (14.7 paia) and the oxygen concentration is increased to 30 percent for medical reasons to prevent the bends during the extravehicular activity. NASA has tested many materials at 23.8, 25.9 and 30 percent oxygen levels for the Shuttle program. Data is given to show how flammability of material is affected by percentage of oxygen for those materials that would be considered for spacecraft applications.

  19. MIDEX Advanced Modular and Distributed Spacecraft Avionics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffa, John A.; Castell, Karen; Flatley, Thomas; Lin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    MIDEX (Medium Class Explorer) is the newest line in NASA's Explorer spacecraft development program. As part of the MIDEX charter, the MIDEX spacecraft development team has developed a new modular, distributed, and scaleable spacecraft architecture that pioneers new spaceflight technologies and implementation approaches, all designed to reduce overall spacecraft cost while increasing overall functional capability. This resultant "plug and play" system dramatically decreases the complexity and duration of spacecraft integration and test, providing a basic framework that supports spacecraft modularity and scalability for missions of varying size and complexity. Together, these subsystems form a modular, flexible avionics suite that can be modified and expanded to support low-end and very high-end mission requirements with a minimum of redesign, as well as allowing a smooth, continuous infusion of new technologies as they are developed without redesigning the system. This overall approach has the net benefit of allowing a greater portion of the overall mission budget to be allocated to mission science instead of a spacecraft bus. The MIDEX scaleable architecture is currently being manufactured and tested for use on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), an inhouse program at GSFC.

  20. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  1. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  2. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  3. Workmanship vibration test of the SAS-B spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demas, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of a technical problem made it necessary to remove the transmitter from the SAS-B spacecraft. The transmitter was repaired and reinstalled in the spacecraft. After this operation it was necessary to test the mechanical properties of the reassembled spacecraft in a vibration test to be conducted near the spacecraft launching place on the San Marco Range in the Indian Ocean. A vibration system was, therefore, sent to San Marco. The design of the vibration system is discussed, giving attention also to alternative solutions for conducting the required tests.

  4. Cycle life test. [of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Statistical information concerning cell performance characteristics and limitations of secondary spacecraft cells is presented. Weaknesses in cell design as well as battery weaknesses encountered in various satellite programs are reported. Emphasis is placed on improving the reliability of space batteries.

  5. Spacecraft Impacts with Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the benefits of advanced power and electric propulsion systems for various space missions. Advanced power technologies that were considered included multiband gap and thin-film solar arrays, lithium batteries, and flywheels. Electric propulsion options included Hall effect thrusters and Ion thrusters. Several mission case studies were selected as representative of future applications for advanced power and propulsion systems. These included a low altitude Earth science satellite, a LEO communications constellation, a GEO military surveillance satellite, and a Mercury planetary mission. The study process entailed identification of overall mission performance using state-of-the-art power and propulsion technology, enhancements made possible with either power or electric propulsion advances individually, and the collective benefits realized when advanced power and electric propulsion are combined. Impacts to the overall spacecraft included increased payload, longer operational life, expanded operations and launch vehicle class step-downs.

  6. Demonstration Experiments to Advance Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Dietrich, D.

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety technologies developed during the implementation of NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) highlighted the need for a range of normal-gravity and low-gravity technology demonstration experiments. Terrestrial fire safety technologies have relied heavily on both bench-scale and full-scale experiments and have included extensive study of the ignitability of materials and fire behavior, quantification of fire signatures, fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire fighter protection equipment. Full-scale tests of these technologies in terrestrial fire-fighting applications are frequently performed to demonstrate their performance and give first-responders hands-on experience in their use. However, experiments conducted to aid the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies have generally been performed at length and time scales that make extrapolation of the results to full scale unreliable. Extrapolation of the results of the relatively few spacecraft fire safety experiments conducted in long- term low-gravity to spacecraft-relevant length and time scales is problematic. In general, the results cannot be verified in ground-based low-g facilities and remains a challenging problem for current numerical simulations. This paper will highlight low-g and ground-based experiments and demonstrations that are being conducted and planned to provide relevant spacecraft fire safety data.

  7. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feoktistov, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The task of building a spacecraft is compared to the construction of an artificial cybernetic system able to acquire and process information. Typical features for future spacecraft are outlined and the assignment of duties in spacecraft control between automatic devices and the crew is analyzed.

  8. Status of the NASA-Lewis Research Center spacecraft charging investigation. [spacecraft materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Purvis, C. K.

    1978-01-01

    The technology necessary to control the absolute and differental charging of spacecraft surfaces is detailed for developing ground simulation facilities, characterizing the charging and discharging characteristics of spacecraft materials, deriving analytical modelling tools and issuing design guideline documents. Facilities were developed and testing of various materials was completed. Comparisons between experimental results, space results and predictions from models were made. Harness transient monitors were flown on satellites.

  9. Design and performance test of spacecraft test and operation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Cui, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Main test processor (MTP) software is the key element of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) for spacecraft test and operation used in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) for years without innovation. With the increasing demand for a more efficient and agile MTP software, the new MTP software was developed. It adopts layered and plug-in based software architecture, whose core runtime server provides message queue management, share memory management and process management services and forms the framework for a configurable and open architecture system. To investigate the MTP software's performance, the test case of network response time, test sequence management capability and data-processing capability was introduced in detail. Test results show that the MTP software is common and has higher performance than the legacy one.

  10. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  11. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.

    1994-05-01

    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  12. Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

  13. GEOS-C noncoherent C-band transponder test procedure for spacecraft level tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selser, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Test procedures necessary for the calibration and performance verification of the noncoherent C-band transponders after spacecraft hardware integration, but prior to spacecraft/launch vehicle integration are presented.

  14. Advanced Electric Propulsion for RLV Launched Geosynchronous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion has been shown to increase a geostationary satellite's payload when launched by existing expendable launch vehicles. In the case of reusable launch vehicles or expendable launch vehicles where an upper stage is an expensive option, this methodology can be modified by using the existing on-board apogee chemical system to perform a perigee burn and then letting the electric propulsion system complete the transfer to geostationary orbit. The elimination of upper stages using on-board chemical and electric propulsion systems was thus examined for GEO spacecraft. Launch vehicle step-down from an Atlas IIAR to a Delta 7920 (no upper stage) was achieved using expanded on-board chemical tanks, 40 kW payload power for electric propulsion, and a 60 day elliptical to GEO SEP orbit insertion. Optimal combined chemical and electric trajectories were found using SEPSPOT. While Hall and ion thrusters provided launch vehicle step-down and even more payload for longer insertion times, NH3 arcjets had insufficient performance to allow launch vehicle step-down. Degradation levels were only 5% to 7% for launch step-down cases using advanced solar arrays. Results were parameterized to allow comparisons for future reusable launch vehicles. Results showed that for an 8 W/kg initial power/launch mass power density spacecraft, 50% to 100% more payload can be launched using this method.

  15. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  16. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  17. Salt materials testing for a spacecraft adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. L.; Kittel, P.; Roellig, T.

    As part of a technology development effort to qualify adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for use in a NASA spacecraft, such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a study of low temperature characteristics, heat capacity and resistance to dehydration was conducted for different salt materials. This report includes results of testing with cerrous metaphosphate, several synthetic rubies, and chromic potassium alum (CPA). Preliminary results show that CPA may be suitable for long-term spacecraft use, provided that the salt is property encapsulated. Methods of salt pill construction and testing for all materials are discussed, as well as reliability tests. Also, the temperature regulation scheme and the test cryostat design are briefly discussed.

  18. Salt materials testing for a spacecraft adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M. L.; Kittel, P.; Roellig, T.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a technology development effort to qualify adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for use in a NASA spacecraft, such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a study of low temperature characteristics, heat capacity and resistance to dehydration was conducted for different salt materials. This report includes results of testing with cerrous metaphosphate, several synthetic rubies, and chromic potassium alum (CPA). Preliminary results show that CPA may be suitable for long-term spacecraft use, provided that the salt is property encapsulated. Methods of salt pill construction and testing for all materials are discussed, as well as reliability tests. Also, the temperature regulation scheme and the test cryostat design are briefly discussed.

  19. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  20. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCNO device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  1. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of the each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  2. Apollo experience report: Manned thermal-vacuum testing of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclane, J. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Manned thermal-vacuum tests of the Apollo spacecraft presented many first-time problems in the areas of test philosophy, operational concepts, and program implementation. The rationale used to resolve these problems is explained and examined critically in view of actual experience. The series of 12 tests involving 1517 hours of chamber operating time resulted in the disclosure of numerous equipment and procedural deficiencies of significance to the flight mission. Test experience and results in view of subsequent flight experience confirmed that thermal-vacuum testing of integrated manned spacecraft provides a feasible, cost-effective, and safe technique with which to obtain maximum confidence in spacecraft flight worthiness early in the program.

  3. Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  4. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  5. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  6. Enabling Advanced Automation in Spacecraft Operations with the Spacecraft Emergency Response System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julie; Fox, Jeffrey A.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    True autonomy is the Holy Grail of spacecraft mission operations. The goal of launching a satellite and letting it manage itself throughout its useful life is a worthy one. With true autonomy, the cost of mission operations would be reduced to a negligible amount. Under full autonomy, any problems (no matter the severity or type) that may arise with the spacecraft would be handled without any human intervention via some combination of smart sensors, on-board intelligence, and/or smart automated ground system. Until the day that complete autonomy is practical and affordable to deploy, incremental steps of deploying ever-increasing levels of automation (computerization of once manual tasks) on the ground and on the spacecraft are gradually decreasing the cost of mission operations. For example, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has been flying spacecraft with low cost operations for several years. NASA-GSFC's SMEX (Small Explorer) and MIDEX (Middle Explorer) missions have effectively deployed significant amounts of automation to enable the missions to fly predominately in 'light-out' mode. Under light-out operations the ground system is run without human intervention. Various tools perform many of the tasks previously performed by the human operators. One of the major issues in reducing human staff in favor of automation is the perceived increased in risk of losing data, or even losing a spacecraft, because of anomalous conditions that may occur when there is no one in the control center. When things go wrong, missions deploying advanced automation need to be sure that anomalous conditions are detected and that key personal are notified in a timely manner so that on-call team members can react to those conditions. To ensure the health and safety of its lights-out missions, NASA-GSFC's Advanced Automation and Autonomy branch (Code 588) developed the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS). The SERS is a Web-based collaborative environment that enables

  7. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  8. Gas flow analysis during thermal vacuum test of a spacecraft. [self contamination of IMP spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The self-contamination of the IMP-H spacecraft, while it was undergoing thermal and solar vacuum tests, has been investigated in conjunction with the outgassing evaluation and detection of molecular flow anomalies occurring in the test chamber. The pressures indicated by two tubulated ionization gauges were used to calculate flow kinetics in the vacuum chamber. The fluxes of emitted molecules and chamber wall reflected molecules were monitored during the entire test. Representative equations and graphs are presented. Test results indicate that from 3 to 9 of every 100 emitted molecules returned to the spacecraft surface; that self-contamination by noncondensable gases was more severe than that by condensable gases; and that outgassing of the spacecraft was approximately 1.18 x 0.01 g/s after 10 hours and 1.18 x 0.001 after 90 hours of vacuum exposure. Testing deficiencies have been identified, and the type and location of instruments required to measure the outgassing, the degree of contamination, and return flow are discussed.

  9. Environmental charging tests of spacecraft thermal control louvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stevens, N. J.; Schmidt, F. W.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces program consists, in part, of experimental evaluation of material response to the environmental charged particle flux. A flight type spacecraft thermal control louver assembly has been tested in an electron flux. The louver blade surface potential, the louver assembly currents, and the relatively high number of discharges observed in the electron environment are self-consistent results. The unexpected result of this testing was the flutter observed when the louvers were closed. The flutter is about 1 to 2 Hz in frequency and is probably electrostatically induced.

  10. Development of infrared techniques for testing spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. B.

    1981-02-01

    Space/solar simulators are described. Infrared techniques and skin heaters, plate heaters, rod and wire heaters, and tungsten filament quartz lamps are discussed. Instrumentation and power control, and model tests are considered.

  11. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote earth field sensing magnetometer and servo control building; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils are 42-foot in diameter and a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils accommodates spacecraft access to the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  12. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  13. Cycle life test of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the life cycling program on rechargeable calls are reported. Information on required data, the use of which the data will be put, application details, including orbital description, charge control methods, load rquirements, etc., are given. Cycle tests were performed on 660 sealed, nickel cadmium cells. The cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging form 3.0 to 20 amp. hours. Nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc sealed cells, excluding synchronous orbit and accelerated test packs were added. The capacities of the nickel cadmium cells, the silver cadmium and the silver zinc cells differed in range of amp hrs. The cells were cylced under different load, charge control, and temperature conditions. All cell packs are recharged by use of a pack voltage limit. All charging is constant current until the voltage limit is reached.

  14. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  15. TIRS Cryocooler: Spacecraft Integration and Test and Early Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Marquardt, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is an instrument on Landsat 8, launched in February 2013. The focal plane is cooled by a two-stage Ball Aerospace Stirling cycle cryocooler, with a coldfinger operating at 40K. This paper describes events during the spacecraft integration and test program, and results from early orbit operation of the cryocooler.

  16. TIRS cryocooler: Spacecraft integration and test and early flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R.; Marquardt, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is an instrument on Landsat 8, launched in February 2013. The focal plane is cooled by a two-stage Ball Aerospace Stirling cycle cryocooler, with a coldfinger operating at 40K. This paper describes events during the spacecraft integration and test program, and results from early orbit operation of the cryocooler.

  17. Investigation of pyrotechnic shock. [for spacecraft structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    Review of comparative pyrotechnic shock outputs of various electro-explosive release devices that have been obtained in tests of an instrumented spacecraft structure. This research uses pyrotechnic shock spectra levels as an indicator of shock environment severity in support of a program of pyrotechnic device analysis and redesign intended to reduce shock generation.

  18. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

  19. Testing of typical spacecraft materials in a simulated substorm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Staskus, J. V.; Blech, R. A.; Narciso, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation to determine spacecraft materials characteristics under charging conditions was conducted at the Lewis Research Center substorm simulation facility. The test specimens were spacecraft paints, silvered Teflon, thermal blankets and solar array segments. The samples, ranging in size from 300 to 1,000 sq cm were exposed to monoenergetic electron energies from 2 to 20 keV at a current density of 1 nA sq cm. The samples generally behaved as capacitors with strong voltage gradients at their edges. The charging characteristics of the silvered Teflon, Kapton, and solar cell covers were controlled by the secondary emission characteristics. Insulators that did not discharge were the spacecraft paints and the quartz fiber cloth thermal blanket sample. All other samples did experience discharges when the surface voltage reached -8 to -16 kV. The discharges were photographed. The breakdown voltage for each sample was determined and the average energy lost in the discharge was computed.

  20. Spacecraft Environmental Testing SMAP (Soil, Moisture, Active, Passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Testing a complete full up spacecraft to verify it will survive the environment, in which it will be exposed to during its mission, is a formidable task in itself. However, the ''test like you fly'' philosophy sometimes gets compromised because of cost, design and or time. This paper describes the thermal-vacuum and mass properties testing of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) earth orbiting satellite. SMAP will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state (the hydrosphere state). SMAP hydrosphere state measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. It will explain the problems encountered, and the solutions developed, which minimized the risk typically associated with such an arduous process. Also discussed, the future of testing on expensive long lead-time spacecraft. Will we ever reach the ''build and shoot" scenario with minimal or no verification testing?

  1. Development of an advanced combined iodine dispenser/detector. [for spacecraft water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, J. B.; Jensen, F. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Schubert, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Injection of iodine into water is widely used to control microbial growth. An entirely automated device for I2 injection has been developed for spacecraft application. Transfer of I2 into the water from a concentrated form is controlled electrochemically via feedback from an integrated photometric I2 level detector. All components are contained within a package weighing only 1.23 kg (2.7 lb) dry, which occupies only 1213 cu cm (74 cu in) of space, and which has the capacity to iodinate 10,900 kg (24,000 lb) of water of 5 ppm. These features exceed design specifications. The device performed satisfactorily during extended testing at variable water flow rates and temperatures. Designed to meet specifications of the Shuttle Orbiter, the device will find application in the regenerative water systems of advanced spacecraft.

  2. A modular electric power system test bed for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1994-01-01

    In the new climate of smaller, faster, and cheaper space science satellites, a new power system topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This new topology is based on a series connected boost converter (SCBC) and can greatly affect the size, weight, fault tolerance, and cost of any small spacecraft using photovoltaic solar arrays. The paper presents electric power system design factors and requirements as background information. The series connected boost converter topology is discussed and several advantages over existing technologies are illustrated. Besides being small, lightweight, and efficient, this topology has the added benefit of inherent fault tolerance. A positive ground power system test bed has been developed for the TROPIX spacecraft program. Performance of the SCBC in the test bed is described in detail. SCBC efficiencies of 95 percent to 98 percent have been measured. Finally, a modular, photovoltaic regulator 'kit' concept is presented. Two SCBC's are used to regulate solar array charging of batteries and to provide 'utilitytype' power to the user loads. The kit's modularity will allow a spacecraft electric power system to be built from off-the-shelf hardware; resulting in smaller, faster, and cheaper spacecraft.

  3. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  4. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground-testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  5. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalosky, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  6. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Washington, three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars-support missions have been investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: a solar radiation absorption (SRA) system, a solar-pumped laser (SPL) system, and a solar powered mangetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process developed at the University of Washington. A solar concentrator focuses sunlight into an absorption chamber. A mixture of hydrogen and potassium vapor absorbs the incident radiation and is heated to approximately 3700 K. The hot propellant gas exhausts through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SRA has an I(sub sp) of approximately 1000 sec and produces a thrust of 2940 N using two thrust chambers. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sun-synchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The laser beams are transmitted to the spacecraft via laser relay satellites. The laser energy heats the hydrogen propellant through a plasma breakdown process in the center of an absorption chamber. Propellant flowing through the chamber, heated by the plasma core, expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SPL has an I(sub sp) of 1285 sec and produces a thrust of 1200 N using two thrust chambers. The MPD system uses indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. In this system, the argon propellant is ionized and electromagnetically accelerated by a magnetoplasmadynamic arc to produce thrust. The MPD spacecraft has an I(sub sp) of 2490 sec and produces a thrust of 100 N. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary

  7. System level mechanical testing of the Clementine spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haughton, James; Hauser, Joseph; Raynor, William; Lynn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the system level structural testing that was performed to qualify the Clementine Spacecraft for flight. These tests included spin balance, combined acoustic and axial random vibration, lateral random vibration, quasi-static loads, pyrotechnic shock, modal survey and on-orbit jitter simulation. Some innovative aspects of this effort were: the simultaneously combined acoustic and random vibration test; the mass loaded interface modal survey test; and the techniques used to assess how operating on board mechanisms and thrusters affect sensor vision.

  8. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.

    1995-01-01

    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  9. Spacecraft Parachute Recovery System Testing from a Failure Rate Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft parachute recovery systems, especially those with a parachute cluster, require testing to identify and reduce failures. This is especially important when the spacecraft in question is human-rated. Due to the recent effort to make spaceflight affordable, the importance of determining a minimum requirement for testing has increased. The number of tests required to achieve a mature design, with a relatively constant failure rate, can be estimated from a review of previous complex spacecraft recovery systems. Examination of the Apollo parachute testing and the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster recovery chute system operation will clarify at which point in those programs the system reached maturity. This examination will also clarify the risks inherent in not performing a sufficient number of tests prior to operation with humans on-board. When looking at complex parachute systems used in spaceflight landing systems, a pattern begins to emerge regarding the need for a minimum amount of testing required to wring out the failure modes and reduce the failure rate of the parachute system to an acceptable level for human spaceflight. Not only a sufficient number of system level testing, but also the ability to update the design as failure modes are found is required to drive the failure rate of the system down to an acceptable level. In addition, sufficient data and images are necessary to identify incipient failure modes or to identify failure causes when a system failure occurs. In order to demonstrate the need for sufficient system level testing prior to an acceptable failure rate, the Apollo Earth Landing System (ELS) test program and the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System failure history will be examined, as well as some experiences in the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System will be noted.

  10. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  11. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Asteroid modeling for testing spacecraft approach and landing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Iain; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin; Rowell, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration of asteroids presents autonomous-navigation challenges that can be aided by virtual models to test and develop guidance and hazard-avoidance systems. Researchers have extended and applied graphics techniques to create high-resolution asteroid models to simulate cameras and other spacecraft sensors approaching and descending toward asteroids. A scalable model structure with evenly spaced vertices simplifies terrain modeling, avoids distortion at the poles, and enables triangle-strip definition for efficient rendering. To create the base asteroid models, this approach uses two-phase Poisson faulting and Perlin noise. It creates realistic asteroid surfaces by adding both crater models adapted from lunar terrain simulation and multiresolution boulders. The researchers evaluated the virtual asteroids by comparing them with real asteroid images, examining the slope distributions, and applying a surface-relative feature-tracking algorithm to the models. PMID:25051570

  14. Testing of typical spacecraft materials in a simulated substorm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Staskus, J. V.; Blech, R. A.; Narciso, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The test specimens were spacecraft paints, silvered Teflon, thermal blankets, and solar array segments. The samples, ranging in size from 300 to 1000 sq cm were exposed to monoenergetic electron energies from 2 to 20 keV at a current density of 1 NA/sq cm. The samples generally behaved as capacitors with strong voltage gradient at their edges. The charging characteristics of the silvered Teflon, Kapton, and solar cell covers were controlled by the secondary emission characteristics. Insulators that did not discharge were the spacecraft paints and the quartz fiber cloth thermal blanket sample. All other samples did experience discharges when the surface voltage reached -8 to -16kV. The discharges were photographed. The breakdown voltage for each sample was determined and the average energy lost in the discharge was computed.

  15. Neutralization tests on the SERT II spacecraft. [of ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit precession returned the SERT II spacecraft to continuous sunlight in January 1979 for the first time since early 1972, and new experiments were planned and conducted. Neutralization of an ion beam was accomplished by a second neutralizer cathode located 1 meter away. Plasma potential measurements were made of the plasma surrounding the ion beam and connecting the beam to the second neutralizer. When the density of the connecting plasma was increased by turning on the main discharge of a neighboring ion thruster, the neutralization of the ion beam occurred with improved (lower) coupling voltage. These and other tests reported should aid in the future design of spacecraft using electric thruster systems. Data taken indicate that cross neutralization of ion thrusters in a multiple thruster array should occur readily.

  16. The spacecraft Stardust undergoes lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers at left check instruments during a lighting test on the solar panels of the Stardust spacecraft. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule (its white cap is seen on the near end of the spacecraft) to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  17. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  18. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO2) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests.

  19. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  20. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  1. SCARLET development, fabrication and testing for the Deep Space 1 spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.M.; Allen, D.M.

    1997-12-31

    An advanced version of ``Solar Concentrator Arrays with Refractive Linear Element Technology`` (SCARLET) is being assembled for use on the first NASA/JPL New Millennium spacecraft: Deep Space 1 (DS1). The array is scaled up from the first SCARLET array that was built for the METEOR satellite in 1995 and incorporates advanced technologies such as dual-junction solar cells and an improved structural design. Due to the failure of the Conestoga launch vehicle, this will be the first flight of a modular concentrator array. SCARLET will provide 2.6 kW to the DS1 spacecraft to be launched in July 1998 for a mission that includes fly-bys of the asteroid McAuliffe, Mars, and the comet West-Kohoutek-Ikemura. This paper describes the SCARLET design, fabrication/assembly, and testing program for the flight system.

  2. Telemetry Tests Of The Advanced Receiver II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Bevan, Roland P.; Marina, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Report describes telemetry tests of Advanced Receiver II (ARX-II): digital radio receiving subsystem operating on intermediate-frequency output of another receiving subsystem called "multimission receiver" (MMR), detecting carrier, subcarrier, and data-symbol signals transmitted by spacecraft, and extracts Doppler information from signals. Analysis of data shows performance of MMR/ARX-II system comparable and sometimes superior to performances of Blk-III/BPA and Blk-III/SDA/SSA systems.

  3. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John F.; Haggerty, James J.; Woodburn, John H.

    1961-01-01

    In this twentieth century, we are privileged to witness the first steps toward realization of an age-old dream: the exploration of space. Already, in the first few years of the Space Age, man has been able to penetrate the layer of atmosphere which surrounds his planet and to venture briefly into space. Scores of man-made objects have been thrust into space, some of them to roam the solar system forever. Behind each space mission are years of patient research, thousands of man-hours of labor, and large sums of money. Because the sums involved are so enormous, the question is frequently asked, "Is it worth it?" Many people want to know what return this huge investment will bring to mankind. The return on the investment is knowledge. The accumulation of knowledge over the centuries has made possible our advanced way of life. As we unlock more and more of the secrets of the universe through space exploration, we add new volumes to the encyclopedia of man's knowledge. This will be applied to the benefit of mankind. For the practical-minded, there are concrete benefits to our way of life. Although we are still in the Stone Age of space exploration, a number of immediate applications of space technology are already apparent. For instance, imagine the benefits of an absolutely perfect system of predicting the weather. Or, going a step further, even changing the weather. And wouldn't it be fascinating to watch the next Olympic games, telecast from Tokyo, on your TV set? These are just a few of the practical benefits made possible by space technology.

  4. In-orbit RF test of an Intelsat VI spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosell, Gunnar E. G.; Teixeira, Basilio; Olimpiew, Alexandre; Petterson, Bengt A.; Sanders, Stewart B.

    An account is given of the RF in-orbit test (IOT) conducted to verify the performance of Intelsat VI's antennas and transponders, as well as its telemetry, command, and ranging subsystems. Attention is given to novel measurement methods developed and implemented at the Intelsat IOT station in Fucino, Italy; these encompass synthesized digital spectrum analyzers, fast frequency-switching synthesizers, and dual-pulse generator controls. The IOT measurements obtained for the Intelsat 602 spacecraft are found to be in good agreement with prelaunch data.

  5. Analyses of flight model spacecraft performance during thermal-vacuum tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmins, A. R.; Heuser, R. E.; Strain, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Malfunction data from the thermal-vacuum tests of 39 flight-model spacecraft were analyzed. The results are interpreted in terms of the test variables, and in terms of the spacecraft performance. The malfunction data are correlated with the test time as a single variable, and also with the composite variable of time plus temperature. The improvement in spacecraft performance is examined by means of malfunction rates, malfunctions per spacecraft, and the probability of no failure related to test time. The minimum thermal-vacuum test profile required for Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft is verified, and the probability of a defect remaining undetected is estimated.

  6. Analyses of flight model spacecraft performance during thermal-vacuum tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmins, A. R.; Heuser, R. E.; Strain, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Malfunction data from the thermal-vacuum tests of 39 flight-model spacecraft have been analyzed. The results are interpreted in terms of the test variables and the spacecraft performance. The malfunction data are correlated with the test time as a single variable, and also with the composite variable of time plus temperature. The improvement in spacecraft performance is examined by means of malfunction rates, malfunctions per spacecraft, and the probability of no failure related to test time. The minimum thermal-vacuum test profile required for Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft is verified, and the probability of a defect remaining undetected is estimated.

  7. Testing of Gyroless Estimation Algorithms for the FUSE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Harman, Rick; Oshman, Yaakov

    2003-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is equipped with two ring laser gyros on each of the spacecraft body axes. In May 2001 one gyro failed. It is anticipated that all of the remaining gyros will also fail based on intensity warnings. In addition to the gyro failure, two of four reaction wheels failed in late 2001. The spacecraft control now relies heavily on magnetic torque to perform the necessary science maneuvers and hold on target. The only sensor consistently available during slews is a magnetometer. This paper documents the testing and development of magnetometer-based gyroless attitude and rate estimation algorithms for FUSE. The results of two approaches are presented, one relies on a kinematic model for propagation, a method used in aircraft tracking, and the other is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter that utilizes Euler's equations in the propagation of the estimated rate. Both algorithms are tested using flight data collected over a few months before and after the reaction wheel failure. Finally, the question of closed-loop stability is addressed. The ability of the controller to meet the science slew requirements, without the gyros, is tested through simulations.

  8. Development of electrical test procedures for qualification of spacecraft against EID. Volume 2: Review and specification of test procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkenfeld, J. M.; Harlacher, B. L.; Mathews, D.

    1982-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program to develop system electrical test procedures for the qualification of spacecraft against damage produced by space-electron-induced discharges (EID) occurring on spacecraft dielectric outer surfaces is described. A review and critical evaluation of possible approaches to qualify spacecraft against space electron-induced discharges (EID) is presented. A variety of possible schemes to simulate EID electromagnetic effects produced in spacecraft was studied. These techniques form the principal element of a provisional, recommended set of test procedures for the EID qualification spacecraft. Significant gaps in our knowledge about EID which impact the final specification of an electrical test to qualify spacecraft against EID are also identified.

  9. Testing and Optimization of Electrically Conductive Spacecraft Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, R. J.; Wertz, G. E.; Edwards, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report discussing the work done for the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program. It discusses test chamber design, coating research, and test results on electrically thermal control coatings. These thermal control coatings are being developed to have several orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than most available thermal control coatings. Most current coatings tend to have a range in surface resistivity from 1,011 to 1,013 ohms/sq. Historically, spacecraft have had thermal control surfaces composed of dielectric materials of either polymers (paints and metalized films) or glasses (ceramic paints and optical solar reflectors). Very seldom has the thermal control surface of a spacecraft been a metal where the surface would be intrinsically electrically conductive. The poor thermal optical properties of most metals have, in most cases, stopped them from being used as a thermal control surface. Metals low infrared emittance (generally considered poor for thermal control surfaces) and/or solar absorptance, have resulted in the use of various dielectric coatings or films being applied over the substrate materials in order to obtain the required optical properties.

  10. Testing of Gyroless Estimation Algorithms for the FUSE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Rick; Thienel, Julie; Oshman, Yaakov

    2003-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is equipped with two ring laser gyros on each of the spacecraft body axes. In May 2001 one gyro failed. It is anticipated that all of the remaining gyros will fail, based on intensity warnings. In addition to the gyro failure, two of four reaction wheels failed in late 2001. The spacecraft control now relies heavily on magnetic torque to perform the necessary science maneuvers and hold on target. The only sensor consistently available during slews is a magnetometer. This paper documents the testing and development of magnetometer-based gyroless attitude and rate estimation algorithms for FUSE. The results of two approaches are presented, one relies on a kinematic model for propagation, a method used in aircraft tracking. The other is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter that utilizes Euler's equations in the propagation of the estimated rate. Both algorithms are tested using flight data collected over a few months after the reaction wheel failure. Finally, the question of closed-loop stability is addressed. The ability of the controller to meet the science slew requirements, without the gyros, is analyzed.

  11. Testing of Gyroless Estimation Algorithms for the FUSE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Harman, Rick; Oshman, Yaakov

    2003-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is equipped with two ring laser gyros on each of the spacecraft body axes. In May 2001 one gyro failed. It is anticipated that all of the remaining gyros will also fail, based on intensity warnings. In addition to the gyro failure, two of four reaction wheels failed in late 2001. The spacecraft control, now relies heavily on magnetic torque to perform the necessary science maneuvers. The only sensor available during slews is a magnetometer. This paper documents the testing and development of gyroless attitude and rate estimation algorithms for FUSE. The results of two approaches are presented, one relies on a kinematics model for propagation, a method used in aircraft tracking, and the other is a traditional Extended Kalman filter that utilizes Euler's equations in the propagation of the estimated rate. Finally, the question of closed-loop stability is addressed. The ability of the controller to meet the science slew requirements, without the gyros, is tested through simulations.

  12. Advances in optical property measurements of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the instruments and experimental approaches, used for measuring the optical properties of thermal control systems, are presented. The instruments' use in studies concerning the effects of combined contaminants and space environment on these materials, and in the qualification of hardware for spacecraft, are described. Instruments for measuring the solar absorptance and infrared emittance offer improved speed, accuracy and data handling. A transient method for directly measuring material infrared emittance is described. It is shown that oxygen exposure before measuring the solar absorptance should be avoided.

  13. An advanced environment for spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Harris, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is under development at the JPL with a view to prospective small and large space missions. EASE is a modular multimission/multisystem architecture for spacecraft analysis that encompases monitoring and sequence support; its collection of software analysis modules is specific to a given mission, thereby easily accommodating mission scale. An EASE subsystem analysis module can be developed in modular program sets or packages, and a level of automation can then be introduced within such sets to achieve intramodule automation.

  14. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  15. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  16. The Thermal Balance Test of `AMOS-2' Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeev Sherman, M.

    2004-08-01

    The Thermal Balance (T/B) test of the AMOS-2 spacecraft (S/C) was performed on the flight hardware and took place between 29/5/03 and 2/6/03, six months before its successful launch to space. The test that was performed at the solar vacuum chamber in IABG facility consisted of 6 test cases that covered different S/C operation scenarios and orbital changes. The reasons behind the decision to perform a Solar T/B test are as follow: The thermal design of AMOS-2 S/C is totally different from AMOS1 S/C. High power dissipation density in the S/C. High component density inside the S/C. Severe units temperatures limits. (Mixture of units with different operation temperature limits.) Generally speaking the test - measured temperatures are colder than the predicted temperatures. The S/C units power dissipation during the test is based on calculated assumptions, no actual measurements were performed. The main concern is with the payload power dissipation. There is high uncertainty in regards to the predicted power dissipated in the payload as result of an unqualified RF loads that were used in the test. The best temperatures matching between the measured and the predicted temperatures were achieved during the cold cases, when the S/C had minimum operating TWTA's. It is the opinion of the thermal engineers that worked on the design of the S/C that the actual power dissipated during the test was lower than assumed. During the cold cases the S/C temperatures were always within their lower limits, that fact ensures that the active thermal control of the S/C functioned as designed. The paper describes the thermal design of the S/C, the test layout; the test cases and the test limitations. Finally the results and the conclusions are brought.

  17. The spacecraft Stardust undergoes lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, a worker looks over the solar panels of the Stardust spacecraft before it undergoes lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule (its white cap is seen on the left) to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  18. The spacecraft Stardust undergoes lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the fully extended solar panels of the Stardustspacecraft undergo lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  19. The spacecraft Stardust undergoes lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, a worker (left) conducts lighting tests on the fully extended solar panels of the Stardustspacecraft. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  20. The spacecraft Stardust undergoes lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Bright white light (left) and blue light (upper right) appear on the solar panels of the Stardust spacecraft during lighting tests in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  1. The spacecraft Stardust undergoes lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers adjust the solar panels of the Stardustspacecraft before performing lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  2. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  3. SWAS Spacecraft T/V Test, Unique In Chamber Tests Systems Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Jamie L.

    1997-01-01

    The Sub-Millimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) is the third mission of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It is a path finding mission to study the chemical composition of interstellar galactic clouds to help determine the process of star formation. The spacecraft recently completed a month-long then-nal vacuum/thermal balance test in the Solar Environmental Simulator, the largest thermal vacuum facility at Goddard. Rather extensive fixturing was required for the test, considering the small size of the spacecraft, and two unusual deployments were completed in order to accomplish the goals of the test. This paper discusses the space simulation testing of the fully integrated SWAS spacecraft and the unique fixturing required.

  4. Spacecraft Data Simulator for the test of level zero processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jeff; Gordon, Julie; Mirchandani, Chandru; Nguyen, Diem

    1994-01-01

    The Microelectronic Systems Branch (MSB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a Spacecraft Data Simulator (SDS) to support the development, test, and verification of prototype and production Level Zero Processing (LZP) systems. Based on a disk array system, the SDS is capable of generating large test data sets up to 5 Gigabytes and outputting serial test data at rates up to 80 Mbps. The SDS supports data formats including NASA Communication (Nascom) blocks, Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) Version 1 & 2 frames and packets, and all the Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) services. The capability to simulate both sequential and non-sequential time-ordered downlink data streams with errors and gaps is crucial to test LZP systems. This paper describes the system architecture, hardware and software designs, and test data designs. Examples of test data designs are included to illustrate the application of the SDS.

  5. Thermal Design, Test and Analysis of PharmaSat, a Small Class D Spacecraft with a Biological Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz-Aguado, Millan F.; VanOutryve, Cassandra; Ghassemiah, Shakib; Beasley, Christopher; Schooley, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Small spacecraft have been increasing in popularity because of their low cost, short turnaround and relative efficiency. In the past, small spacecraft have been primarily used for technology demonstrations, but advances in technology have made the miniaturization of space science possible [1,2]. PharmaSat is a low cost, small three cube size spacecraft, with a biological experiment on board, built at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ames Research Center. The thermal design of small spacecraft presents challenges as their smaller surface areas translate into power and thermal constraints. The spacecraft is thermally designed to run colder in the Low Earth Orbit space environment, and heated to reach the temperatures required by the science payload. The limited power supply obtained from the solar panels on small surfaces creates a constraint in the power used to heat the payload to required temperatures. The pressurized payload is isolated with low thermally conductance paths from the large ambient temperature changes. The thermal design consists of different optical properties of section surfaces, Multi Layer Insulation (MLI), low thermal conductance materials, flexible heaters and thermal spreaders. The payload temperature is controlled with temperature sensors and flexible heaters. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and testing were used to aid the thermal design of the spacecraft. Various tests were conducted to verify the thermal design. An infrared imager was used on the electronic boards to find large heat sources and eliminate any possible temperature runaways. The spacecraft was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to optimize the thermal and power analysis and qualify the thermal design of the spacecraft for the mission.

  6. Overview study of Space Power Technologies for the advanced energetics program. [spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Gross, S.; Millner, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Phillips, W.; Powell, J.; Schmidt, E.; Wolf, M.; Woodcock, G.

    1981-01-01

    Space power technologies are reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art and to identify advanced or novel concepts which promise large increases in performance. The potential for incresed performance is judged relative to benchmarks based on technologies which have been flight tested. Space power technology concepts selected for their potentially high performance are prioritized in a list of R & D topical recommendations for the NASA program on Advanced Energetics. The technology categories studied are solar collection, nuclear power sources, energy conversion, energy storage, power transmission, and power processing. The emphasis is on electric power generation in space for satellite on board electric power, for electric propulsion, or for beamed power to spacecraft. Generic mission categories such as low Earth orbit missions and geosynchronous orbit missions are used to distinguish general requirements placed on the performance of power conversion technology. Each space power technology is judged on its own merits without reference to specific missions or power systems. Recommendations include 31 space power concepts which span the entire collection of technology categories studied and represent the critical technologies needed for higher power, lighter weight, more efficient power conversion in space.

  7. Advanced X-Ray Timing Array Mission: Conceptual Spacecraft Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, L.; Thomas, H. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Baysinger, M.; Maples, C. D.; Fabisinski, L.L.; Hornsby, L.; Thompson, K. S.; Miernik, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for submillisecond timing of bright galactic x-ray sources. The two science instruments are the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) (a collimated instrument with 2-50-keV coverage and over 3 square meters of effective area) and a Sky Monitor (SM), which acts as a trigger for pointed observations of x-ray transients. The spacecraft conceptual design team developed two spacecraft concepts that will enable the AXTAR mission: A minimal configuration to be launched on a Taurus II and a larger configuration to be launched on a Falcon 9 or similar vehicle.

  8. Radiative properties of advanced spacecraft heat shield materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.; Mcnab, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are presented to show the effects of simulated reentry exposure by convective heating and by radiant heating on spectral and total emittance of statically oxidized Inconel 617 and Haynes HS188 superalloys to 1260 K and a silicide coatea (R512E) columbium 752 alloy to 1590 K. Convective heating exposures were conducted in a supersonic arc plasma wind tunnel using a wedge-shaped specimen configuration. Radiant tests were conducted at a pressure of .003 atmospheres of dry air at a flow velocity of several meters per second. Convective heating specimens were subjected to 8, 20, and 38 15-min heating cycles, and radiant heating specimens were tested for 10, 20, 50, and 100 30-min heating cycles. Changes in radiative properties are explained in terms of changes in composition resulting from simulated reentry tests. The methods used to evaluate morphological, compositional and crystallographic changes include: Auger electron spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis; and electron microprobe analysis.

  9. Relative toxicity testing of spacecraft materials. 1: Spacecraft materials. [lethality of pyrolysates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    In chamber thermodegradation procedures were used to access the lethality to rats of the pyrolysis/combustion products of three foams, an adhesive backed metallic tape and RTV silicone rubber adhesive sealant used in spacecraft construction. The role of carbon monoxide in the overall pyrolysate toxicity was also investigated. Post exposure observation of the rats, histological evaluation of selected organs, carbon monoxide concentration in the chamber atmosphere during exposure and the percent carboxyhemoglobin in the animals expiring in the chamber are discussed. Thermogravimetric analysis and dosage response results are given. The lethal effect of the RTV silicon appears to be due to physical obstruction of the respiratory system by particulate matter from pyrolysis.

  10. Spacecraft and Navy Materials Flammability: Review of Some Concepts and Test Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2004-01-01

    The agenda covered by this viewgraph presentation includes: 1) Concepts of Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Spacecraft materials flammability test methods; 3) Evaluation of flight hardware flammability; 4) Review of flammability data in conditions of interest to the Navy; 5) Overview of some flammability test methods recommended for the Navy.

  11. High-temperature behavior of advanced spacecraft TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to develop more efficient, lighter weight, and higher temperature thermal protection systems (TPS) for future reentry space vehicles. The research carried out during this funding period involved the design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and characterization of thermal protection materials to be used on future hypersonic vehicles. This work is important for the prediction of material performance at high temperature and aids in the design of thermal protection systems for a number of programs including programs such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), Pegasus and Pegasus/SWERVE, the Comet Rendezvous and Flyby Vehicle (CRAF), and the Mars mission entry vehicles. Research has been performed in two main areas including development and testing of thermal protection systems (TPS) and computational research. A variety of TPS materials and coatings have been developed during this funding period. Ceramic coatings were developed for flexible insulations as well as for low density ceramic insulators. Chemical vapor deposition processes were established for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. Experimental testing and characterization of these materials has been carried out in the NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities and in the Ames time-of-flight mass spectrometer facility. By means of computation, we have been better able to understand the flow structure and properties of the TPS components and to estimate the aerothermal heating, stress, ablation rate, thermal response, and shape change on the surfaces of TPS. In addition, work for the computational surface thermochemistry project has included modification of existing computer codes and creating new codes to model material response and shape change on atmospheric entry vehicles in a variety of environments (e.g., earth and Mars atmospheres).

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Hopper Spacecraft Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucasey, Evan Phillip Krell

    A robust test bed is needed to facilitate future development of guidance, navigation, and control software for future vehicles capable of vertical takeoff and landings. Specifically, this work aims to develop both a hardware and software simulator that can be used for future flight software development for extra-planetary vehicles. To achieve the program requirements of a high thrust to weight ratio with large payload capability, the vehicle is designed to have a novel combination of electric motors and a micro jet engine is used to act as the propulsion elements. The spacecraft simulator underwent several iterations of hardware development using different materials and fabrication methods. The final design used a combination of carbon fiber and fiberglass that was cured under vacuum to serve as the frame of the vehicle which provided a strong, lightweight platform for all flight components and future payloads. The vehicle also uses an open source software development platform, Arduino, to serve as the initial flight computer and has onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers to sense the vehicles attitude. To prevent instability due to noise, a polynomial kalman filter was designed and this fed the sensed angles and rates into a robust attitude controller which autonomously control the vehicle' s yaw, pitch, and roll angles. In addition to the hardware development of the vehicle itself, both a software simulation and a real time data acquisition interface was written in MATLAB/SIMULINK so that real flight data could be taken and then correlated to the simulation to prove the accuracy of the analytical model. In result, the full scale vehicle was designed and own outside of the lab environment and data showed that the software model accurately predicted the flight dynamics of the vehicle.

  13. A gamma-ray testing technique for spacecraft. [considering cosmic radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gribov, B. S.; Repin, N. N.; Sakovich, V. A.; Sakharov, V. M.

    1977-01-01

    The simulated cosmic radiation effect on a spacecraft structure is evaluated by gamma ray testing in relation to structural thickness. A drawing of the test set-up is provided and measurement errors are discussed.

  14. Testing relativistic theories of gravity with spacecraft-Doppler gravity-wave detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The response of a spacecraft Doppler-tracking system to the passage of a weak plane gravity wave of the most general polarization is calculated. Results show that the simultaneous tracking of several spacecraft could provide an unambiguous determination of the gravity-wave polarization, a much needed result in the continuing experimental testing of relativistic theories of gravity.

  15. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  16. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected

  17. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more

  18. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, John D; Baca, Allen G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.

  19. Performance Testing of a Photocatalytic Oxidation Module for Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Kaiser, Mark; Seminara, Gary; Bershitsky, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a candidate process technology for use in high volumetric flow rate trace contaminant control applications in sealed environments. The targeted application for PCO as applied to crewed spacecraft life support system architectures is summarized. Technical challenges characteristic of PCO are considered. Performance testing of a breadboard PCO reactor design for mineralizing polar organic compounds in a spacecraft cabin atmosphere is described. Test results are analyzed and compared to results reported in the literature for comparable PCO reactor designs.

  20. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  1. Design, construction and testing of the Communications Technology Satellite protection against spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed discussions are presented of the measures taken on the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS or Hermes) which provide protection against the effects of spacecraft charging. These measures include: a comprehensive grounding philosophy and implementation; provision of command and data line transmitters and receivers for transient noise immunity; and a fairly restrictive EMI specification. Ground tests were made on materials and the impact of these tests on the CTS spacecraft is described. Hermes, launched on 17 January 1976 on a 2914 Delta vehicle, has successfully completed 10 months of operations. Anomalies observed are being assessed in relation to spacecraft charging, but no definite correlations have yet been established. A list of conclusions with regard to the CTS experience is given and recommendations for future spacecraft are also listed.

  2. Ground radiation tests and flight atomic oxygen tests of ITO protective coatings for Galileo Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation simulation tests (protons and electrons) were performed along with atomic oxygen flight tests aboard the Shuttle to space qualify the surface protective coatings. The results, which contributed to the selection of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyester as the material for the thermal blankets of the Galileo Spacecraft, are given here. Two candidate materials, polyester and Fluorglas, were radiation-tested to determine changes at simulated Jovian radiation levels. The polyester exhibited a smaller weight loss (2.8) than the Fluorglas (8.8 percent). Other changes of polyester are given. During low-earth orbit, prior to transit to Jupiter, the thermal blankets would be exposed to atomic oxygen. Samples of uncoated and ITO-coated polyesters were flown on the Shuttle. Qualitative results are given which indicated that the ITO coating protected the underlying polyester.

  3. Evaluation of Sled Tests for Spacecraft Dynamic Environments using the Small Female and Large Male Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Jessica A.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, Nathaniel J.; Putnam, Jacob F.; Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Lawrence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) are widely used for military and automotive applications. These ATDs have been correlated to certain types of human injuries largely involving automotive-type energetics and directions of impact. Spacecraft dynamic events involve very different impact characteristics and, in the case of landings, require lower levels of acceptable injury risk due to the certainty of impact occurrence. This test series evaluated the small female and large male Hybrid IIII ATDs for spacecraft dynamic events.

  4. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  5. Verification of technical elements of the advanced spacecraft based upon the CCSDS recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Sigeo; Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu; Fujii, Seiichi; Tumura, Kaoru; Yokomizo, Masato; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    We are going to meet the era when advanced spacecraft such as space stations are developed and operated. The current system of the satellite operations control will need to undergo many changes. We consider that the future system will require the following functions: the function for interchanging data between international agencies, processing the various kinds of space data, and distributing data as many unspecified users require. However, we have to solve the following problems in order to satisfy these requirements: the problem of standardization of space data communication protocol, establishment of multimedia data management method, and standardization of the user interface. This paper describes three techniques to solve the above mentioned problems. That is, standardization of the data communication protocol between space and ground by AOS (Advanced Orbiting System) protocol of CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Recommendation, management of multimedia data by catalog reference, standardization of user interface by SFDU(Standard Formatted Data Unit) of CCSDS Recommendation.

  6. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Executive summary. [modeling spacecraft environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of studies conducted to establish the requirements for advanced subsystem analytical tools is presented. Modifications are defined for updating current computer programs used to analyze environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems so that consumables for future advanced spacecraft may be managed.

  7. Acoustic Testing of the Cassini Spacecraft and Titan IV Payload Fairing. Part 2; Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1997-01-01

    A Cassini spacecraft simulator in a full scale 60 foot high Titan 4 payload fairing with various acoustic blanket designs and configurations was recently tested in a large reverberant acoustic chamber. A first part companion paper provides the test configuration details and other background information. This paper addresses the results obtained from this test program. Emphasis will be on the effects of the new blanket designs on reducing the payload fairing's internal acoustics and the vibration response of the spacecraft's Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. Other results discussed include: the effect of blankets on fairing vibration, the effect of partial blanket coverage on acoustics and vibration and the effect of tuned vibration absorbers.

  8. Inhibited Shaped Charge Launcher Testing of Spacecraft Shield Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a test program in which several orbital debris shield designs were impact tested using the inhibited shaped charge launcher facility at Southwest Research Institute. This facility enables researchers to study the impact of one-gram aluminum projectiles on various shielding designs at velocities above 11 km/s. A total of twenty tests were conducted on targets provided by NASA-MSFC. This report discusses in detail the shield design, the projectile parameters and the test configuration used for each test. A brief discussion of the target damage is provided, as the detailed analysis of the target response will be done by NASA-MSFC.

  9. Test effectiveness study report: An analytical study of system test effectiveness and reliability growth of three commercial spacecraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Failure data from 16 commercial spacecraft were analyzed to evaluate failure trends, reliability growth, and effectiveness of tests. It was shown that the test programs were highly effective in ensuring a high level of in-orbit reliability. There was only a single catastrophic problem in 44 years of in-orbit operation on 12 spacecraft. The results also indicate that in-orbit failure rates are highly correlated with unit and systems test failure rates. The data suggest that test effectiveness estimates can be used to guide the content of a test program to ensure that in-orbit reliability goals are achieved.

  10. An Improved Formulation for Calorimetric Emittance Testing of Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauder, Lonny R.

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft often really heavily on passive thermal control to maintain operating temperature. An important parameter in the spacecraft heat balance equation is the emittance of thermal control coatings as a function of coating temperature. One method for determining the emittance of spacecraft thermal control from elevated temperature to cryogenic temperatures relies on a calorimetric technique. The fundamental equation governing this test method can be found in numerous places in the literature and although it generally provides reasonable results, its formulation is based on a conceptual flaw that only becomes apparent when the sample temperature approaches the wall temperature during testing. This paper investigates the cause for this error and develops the correct formulation for calorimetric emittance testing. Experimental data will also be presented that illustrates the difference between the two formulations and the resulting difference in the calculated emittance.

  11. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  12. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  13. Advanced optical sensing and processing technologies for the distributed control of large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. M.; Fraser, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine state-of-the-art optical sensing and processing technology applied to control the motion of flexible spacecraft. Proposed large flexible space systems, such an optical telescopes and antennas, will require control over vast surfaces. Most likely distributed control will be necessary involving many sensors to accurately measure the surface. A similarly large number of actuators must act upon the system. The used technical approach included reviewing proposed NASA missions to assess system needs and requirements. A candidate mission was chosen as a baseline study spacecraft for comparison of conventional and optical control components. Control system requirements of the baseline system were used for designing both a control system containing current off-the-shelf components and a system utilizing electro-optical devices for sensing and processing. State-of-the-art surveys of conventional sensor, actuator, and processor technologies were performed. A technology development plan is presented that presents a logical, effective way to develop and integrate advancing technologies.

  14. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  15. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  16. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and VUV Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Dever, Joyce; Savage, William

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subject to degradation in thermal and optical performance of components and materials through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation which are predominant in LEO. Due to the importance of LEO durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints and multilayer insulation materials that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside a material whose performance is well known such as Teflon FEP or Kapton H for multilayer insulation, or Z-93-P for white thermal control paints. The optical, thermal or mass loss data generated during the test was then provided to the participating material supplier. Data was not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. This paper presents a description of the types of tests and facilities that have been used for the test program as well as some examples of data that have been generated. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects to enable improved prediction of spacecraft performance.

  17. Comparative evaluation of test methods to simulate acoustic response of shroud-enclosed spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    On, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    Test methods were evaluated to ascertain whether a spacecraft, properly tested within its shroud, could be vibroacoustic tested without the shroud, with adjustments made in the acoustic input spectra to simulate the acoustic response of the missing shroud. The evaluation was based on vibroacoustic test results obtained from a baseline model composed (1) of a spacecraft with adapter, lower support structure, and shroud; (2) of the spacecraft, adapter, and lower structure, but without the shroud; and (3) of the spacecraft and adapter only. Emphasis was placed on the magnitude of the acoustic input changes required to substitute for the shroud and the difficulty of making such input changes, and the degree of missimulation which can result from the performance of a particular, less-than optimum test. Conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of input spectra adjustment methods and lower support structure simulations. Test guidelines were also developed for planning and performing a launch acoustic-environmental test.

  18. Development of electrical test procedures for qualification of spacecraft against EID. Volume 1: The CAN test and other relevant data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkenfeld, J. M.; Judge, R. J. R.; Harlacher, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program to develop system electrical test procedures for the qualification of spacecraft against damage produced by space-electron-induced discharges (EID) occurring on spacecraft dielectric outer surfaces is described. The data on the response of a simple satellite model, called CAN, to electron-induced discharges is presented. The experimental results were compared to predicted behavior and to the response of the CAN to electrical injection techniques simulating blowoff and arc discharges. Also included is a review of significant results from other ground tests and the P78-2 program to form a data base from which is specified those test procedures which optimally simulate the response of spacecraft to EID. The electrical and electron spraying test data were evaluated to provide a first-cut determination of the best methods for performance of electrical excitation qualification tests from the point of view of simulation fidelity.

  19. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  20. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccardi, D. P.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust. Contract work began 27 Apr. 1990. During 1992, a major milestone was achieved with the review of the final design of the oxidizer turbopump in Sep. 1992.

  1. Spacecraft Fabrication and Test MODIL. Semiannual report, March 1992--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.T.; Spellman, G.P.; Sanders, D.M.; Griffith, L.V.; Cruz, G.E.

    1993-05-01

    The Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF&T) MODIL is off to a good start to achieve its objective of establishing a producibility culture in the spacecraft fabrication community. The MODIL has been organized into five thrust areas: Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP) Materials and Structures; Cryocoolers; Precision Technologies; Assembly and Test. In this six months of effort, we have established significant initiatives with the aerospace industry and government laboratories. We continue to, look to the Aerospace Corporation for significant technical support and advice. We have been key participants in the Producible Technology Working Groups (PTWGs) set fact hosted a plenary meeting for the PTWGs before the GBI visits in March. In addition to defining potential high payoff areas, some contractual work has been initiated to execute demonstration projects. The purpose of the demonstration potential payoff to SDIO in the specific areas and position the program on a larger scale after receipt of the FY93 funding. We held our first industrial briefing.

  2. Testing of Gyroless Estimation Algorithms for the Fuse Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, R.; Thienel, J.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the testing and development of magnetometer-based gyroless attitude and rate estimation algorithms for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). The results of two approaches are presented, one relies on a kinematic model for propagation, a method used in aircraft tracking, and the other is a pseudolinear Kalman filter that utilizes Euler's equations in the propagation of the estimated rate. Both algorithms are tested using flight data collected over a few months after the failure of two of the reaction wheels. The question of closed-loop stability is addressed. The ability of the controller to meet the science slew requirements, without the gyros, is analyzed.

  3. Advanced Technologies for Future Spacecraft Cockpits and Space-based Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Galan, Carlos; Uckun, Serdar; Gregory, William; Williams, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a new era of Space Exploration, aimed at sending crewed spacecraft beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), in medium and long duration missions to the Lunar surface, Mars and beyond. The challenges of such missions are significant and will require new technologies and paradigms in vehicle design and mission operations. Current roles and responsibilities of spacecraft systems, crew and the flight control team, for example, may not be sustainable when real-time support is not assured due to distance-induced communication lags, radio blackouts, equipment failures, or other unexpected factors. Therefore, technologies and applications that enable greater Systems and Mission Management capabilities on-board the space-based system will be necessary to reduce the dependency on real-time critical Earth-based support. The focus of this paper is in such technologies that will be required to bring advance Systems and Mission Management capabilities to space-based environments where the crew will be required to manage both the systems performance and mission execution without dependence on the ground. We refer to this concept as autonomy. Environments that require high levels of autonomy include the cockpits of future spacecraft such as the Mars Exploration Vehicle, and space-based control centers such as a Lunar Base Command and Control Center. Furthermore, this paper will evaluate the requirements, available technology, and roadmap to enable full operational implementation of onboard System Health Management, Mission Planning/re-planning, Autonomous Task/Command Execution, and Human Computer Interface applications. The technology topics covered by the paper include enabling technology to perform Intelligent Caution and Warning, where the systems provides directly actionable data for human understanding and response to failures, task automation applications that automate nominal and Off-nominal task execution based

  4. Flight test of carbon-phenolic on a spacecraft launched by the pacemaker vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, T. E., Jr.; Witte, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon-phenolic material consisting of 50 percent carbon fibers and 50 percent phenolic resin was flight tested on a recoverable spacecraft launched by the Pacemaker vehicle system. The heat shield of the spacecraft was fabricated so that the carbon fibers in the ablator material had different orientations over several areas of the spacecraft. The environment in which the spacecraft was tested produced heating rates on the hemispherical nose up to 13.6 MW/sq m (1200 Btu/sq ft/sec) and stagnation-point pressures up to 1.27 MN/sq m (12.5 atm). The experimental results are presented. Due to high heating rates and possible spallation and mechanical char removal the greatest mass loss occurred in the nose region. Essentially uniform surface recession and char thickness were observed on the conical section of the spacecraft. A comparison of measured heating rates with computed turbulent and laminar heating rates, as well as measurements of sound-pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer obtained with acoustic sensors, indicated that the boundary layer underwent transition. The acoustic sensor provides an interesting new data form for the general study of boundary-layer transition for free-flight investigations.

  5. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  6. Ground-Based Tests of Spacecraft Polymeric Materials under OXY-GEN Plasma-Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, Vladimir; Novikov, Lev; Gaidar, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft LEO mission is accompanied by destruction of polymeric material surface under influence of atomic oxygen flow. Sources of molecular, plasma and ion beams are used for the accelerated ground-based tests of spacecraft materials. In the work application of oxygen plasma accelerator of a duoplasmatron type is described. Plasma particles have been accelerated up to average speed of 13-16 km/s. Influence of such beam on materials leads to more intensive destruction of polymers than in LEO. This fact allows to execute tests in the accelerated time scale by a method of an effective fluence. Special measures were given to decrease a concentration of both gaseous and electrode material impurities in the oxygen beam. In the work the results of simulative tests of spacecraft materials and experiments on LEO are considered. Comparison of plasma beam simulation with LEO data has shown conformity for structures of a number of polymeric materials. The relative erosion yields (normalized with respect to polyimide) of the tested materials are shown practically equal to those in LEO. The obtained results give grounds for using the plasma-generation mode with ion energies of 20-30 eV to accelerated testing of spacecraft materials for long -term LEO missions.

  7. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  8. Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.

  9. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  10. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  11. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  12. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-03-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  13. Opening the Solar System: An Advanced Nuclear Spacecraft for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, R. O.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is limited by our technology, not our imagination. We dream of a time when we can freely travel among the planets and truly become a spacefaring people. However, the current state of our technology limits our options for architecting missions to other planets. Instead of sailing the seas of space in the way that we cruise the seas of Earth, our limited propulsion technology requires us to depart Earth on a giant cluster of gas tanks and return in a lifeboat. This inefficient approach to exploration is evident in many of today's leading mission plans for human flights to Mars, asteroids, and other destinations. The cost and complexity of this approach to mission architecting makes it extremely difficult to realize our dreams of exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This does not need to be the case. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been investigating the feasibility of a new take on nuclear propulsion with the performance to enable a paradigm shift in human space exploration. During the fall of 2013, engineers at MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office developed a spacecraft concept (pictured below) around this new propulsion technology and redefined the human Mars mission to show its full potential. This spacecraft, which can be launched with a fleet of soon-to-be available SLS launch vehicles, is fueled primarily with hydrogen, and is fully reusable with no staging required. The reusable nature of this design enables a host of alternative mission architectures that more closely resemble an ocean voyage than our current piecemeal approach to exploration.

  14. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  15. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  16. Acoustic Testing of the Cassini Spacecraft and Titan 4 Payload Fairing. Part 1; Introduction and Test Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational acoustic test program. This testing consisted of acoustically exciting a Cassini spacecraft simulator in a full scale 60 foot high Titan 4 payload fairing with various acoustic blanket designs and configurations in a large reverberant acoustic chamber. The primary purpose of this test program was to measure the fairing's internal acoustics and spacecraft vibration, especially the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) vibration, and to quantify the mitigation efforts in reducing these levels. Key to this reduction effort was the utilization of new acoustic blanket designs. This paper will provide the background and rationale for performing this test program, state the test program's primary and secondary objectives and describe the test matrix, hardware and instrumentation. A second part companion paper will provide the test results and data analysis.

  17. Screening Tests for Enhanced Shielding Against Hypervelocity Particle Impacts for Future Unmanned Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzar, Robin; Hupfer, Jan; Aridon, Gwenaelle; Gergonne, Bernard; David, Matthieu; Bourke, Paul; Cougnet, Claude

    2013-08-01

    Protection of components of unmanned spacecraft against particle impacts is typically provided by the spacecraft's structure together with the intrinsic protection capabilities of the components themselves. Thus to increase the survivability of future spacecraft, one option is to enhance the protection already provided using enhanced materials and additional shielding. As part of the EU funded FP7 research project ReVuS ("Reducing the Vulnerability of Space systems"), the configurations of equipment typically found on board unmanned spacecraft were identified. For each of those configurations, potential solutions have been identified which enhance the robustness against particle impacts. The solutions are broken down into a number of shielding components that include e.g. additional protective layers made from aluminum, Kevlar, Nextel, stainless steel mesh and ceramics. To evaluate the characteristics and performances of these shielding components, a number of screening hypervelocity impact tests were performed. During these tests, representative configurations have been subjected to impacts of aluminum spheres of 3 mm and 5 mm diameter at a nominal impact velocity of 7 km/s. This paper describes the targets and presents and compares the results.

  18. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  19. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  20. Advanced spacecraft designs in support of human missions to earth's neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by the NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a crew transfer vehicle (CTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the CTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the CTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP. .

  1. The Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft lifts off from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observatory at 10:39 a.m. EDT, on Aug. 25, 1997, from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. Launch was scrubbed one day by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. The ACE spacecraft will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles on its one-million-mile journey. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA. Study of these energetic particles may contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. ACE has a two-year minimum mission lifetime and a goal of five years of service. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif.

  2. The Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft lifts off from Pad 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Photographers and other onlookers watch as a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observatory at 10:39 a.m. EDT, on Aug. 25, 1997, from Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. This is the second Delta launch under the Boeing name and the first from Cape Canaveral. Liftoff had been scheduled for Aug. 24, but was scrubbed one day by Air Force range safety personnel because two commercial fishing vessels were within the Delta's launch danger area. The ACE spacecraft will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles on its one-million-mile journey. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA. Study of these energetic particles may contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. ACE has a two-year minimum mission lifetime and a goal of five years of service. ACE was built for NASA by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and is managed by the Explorer Project Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The lead scientific institution is the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif.

  3. Lessons learned from the microbial analysis of the Herschel spacecraft during assembly, integration, and test operations.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Pukall, Rüdiger; Probst, Alexander J; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra; Mora, Maximilian; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Rettberg, Petra

    2013-12-01

    Understanding microbial diversity in spacecraft assembly clean rooms is of major interest with respect to planetary protection considerations. A coordinated screening of different clean rooms in Europe and South America by three German institutes [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), and the Institute of Microbiology and Archaea Center, University of Regensburg] took place during the assembly, test, and launch operations of the Herschel spacecraft in 2006-2009. Through this campaign, we retrieved critical information regarding the microbiome within these clean rooms and on the Herschel spacecraft, which served as a model for upcoming ESA mission preparations. This "lessons learned" document summarizes and discusses the data we obtained during this sampling campaign. Additionally, we have taken the opportunity to create a database that includes all 16S rRNA gene sequences ever retrieved from molecular and cultivable diversity studies of spacecraft assembly clean rooms to compare the microbiomes of US, European, and South American facilities.

  4. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  5. NWSC nickel cadmium spacecraft cell accelerated life test program data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lander, J.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the data leading to a proposed accelerated life test scheme to test a nickel cadmium cell under spacecraft usage conditions is described. The amount and concentration of electrolyte and the amount of precharge in the cell are discussed in relation to the design of the cell and the accelerated test design. A failure analysis of the cell is summarized. The analysis included such environmental test variables as the depth of discharge, the temperature, the amount of recharge and the charge and discharge rate.

  6. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  7. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  8. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s. PMID:27370482

  9. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  10. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  11. Apollo Soyuz test project, USA-USSR. [mission plan of spacecraft docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The mission plan of the docking of a United States Apollo and a Soviet Union Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit to test compatible rendezvous and docking equipment and procedures is presented. Space experiments conducted jointly by the astronauts and cosmonauts during the joint phase of the mission as well as experiments performed solely by the U.S. astronauts and spread over the nine day span of the flight are included. Biographies of the astronauts and cosmonauts are given.

  12. Advanced system on a chip microelectronics for spacecraft and science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2003-01-01

    The explosive growth of the modern microelectronics field opens new horizons for the development of new lightweight, low power, and smart spacecraft and science instrumentation systems in the new millennium explorations. Although this growth is mostly driven by the commercial need for low power, portable and computationally intensive products, the applicability is obvious in the space sector. The additional difficulties needed to be overcome for applicability in space include radiation hardness for total ionizing dose and single event effects (SEE), and reliability. Additionally, this new capability introduces a whole new philosophy of design and R&D, with strong implications in organizational and inter-agency program management. One key component specifically developed towards low power, small size, highly autonomous spacecraft systems, is the smart sensor remote input/output (TRIO) chip. TRIO can interface to 32 transducers with current sources/sinks and voltage sensing. It includes front-end analog signal processing, a 10-bit ADC, memory, and standard serial and parallel I/Os. These functions are very useful for spacecraft and subsystems health and status monitoring, and control actions. The key contributions of the TRIO are feasibility of modular architectures, elimination of several miles of wire harnessing, and power savings by orders of magnitude. TRIO freely operates from a single power supply 2.5- 5.5 V with power dissipation <10 mW. This system on a chip device rapidly becomes a NASA and Commercial Space standard as it is already selected by thousands in several new millennium missions, including Europa Orbiter, Mars Surveyor Program, Solar Probe, Pluto Express, Stereo, Contour, Messenger, etc. In the Science Instrumentation field common instruments that can greatly take advantage of the new technologies are: energetic-particle/plasma and wave instruments, imagers, mass spectrometers, X-ray and UV spectrographs, magnetometers, laser rangefinding

  13. IRSIM: A program for the calculation of infrared flux intensity incident on a spacecraft inside a test chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. P.

    1983-12-01

    A computer program which calculates the infrared flux intensity received by a specimen in a test chamber is described. Illumination by an array of infrared lamps in thermal testing of spacecraft too large for conventional solar simulators is considered. The code is used to decide on a sensor/baffle/lamp arrangement at an early stage in the test process; and to help resolve discrepancies observed in the test measurements. The modelling of the NOSAT dummy spacecraft is described.

  14. Duplication and analysis of meteoroid damage on LDEF and advanced spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, David C.; Rose, M. Frank

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of exposed surfaces on LDEF since its retrieval in 1990 has revealed a wide range of meteoroid and debris (M&D) impact features in the sub-micron to millimeter size range, ranging from quasi-infinite target cratering in LDEF metallic structural members (e.g. inter-costals, tray clamps, etc.) to non-marginal perforations in metallic experimental surfaces (e.g. thin foil detectors, etc.). Approximately 34,000 impact features are estimated to exist on the exposed surfaces of LDEF. The vast majority of impact craters in metal substrates exhibit circular footprints, with approximately 50 percent retaining impactor residues in varying states of shock processing. The fundamental goals of this project were to duplicate and analyze meteoroid impact damage on spacecraft metallic materials with a view to quantifying the residue retention and oblique impact morphology characteristics. Using the hypervelocity impact test facility established at Auburn University a series of impact tests (normal and oblique incidence) were executed producing consistently high (11-12 km/s) peak impact velocities, the results of which were subsequently analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS) facilities at Auburn University.

  15. A statistical approach to deriving subsystem specifications. [for spacecraft shock and vibrational environment tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keegan, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    In order to produce cost effective environmental test programs, the test specifications must be realistic and to be useful, they must be available early in the life of a program. This paper describes a method for achieving such specifications for subsystems by utilizing the results of a statistical analysis of data acquired at subsystem mounting locations during system level environmental tests. The paper describes the details of this statistical analysis. The resultant recommended levels are a function of the subsystems' mounting location in the spacecraft. Methods of determining this mounting 'zone' are described. Recommendations are then made as to which of the various problem areas encountered should be pursued further.

  16. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-06-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  17. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  18. Significance of Landsat-7 Spacecraft Level Thermal Balance and Thermal Test for ETM+Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    The thermal design and the instrument thermal vacuum (T/V) test of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument were based on the Landsat-4, 5 and 6 heritage. The ETM+ scanner thermal model was also inherited from Landsat-4, 5 and 6. The temperature predictions of many scanner components in the original thermal model had poor agreement with the spacecraft and instrument integrated sun-pointing safehold (SPSH) thermal balance (T/B) test results. The spacecraft and instrument integrated T/B test led to a change of the Full Aperture Calibrator (FAC) motor stack "solar shield" coating from MIL-C-5541 to multi-layer insulation (MLI) thermal blanket. The temperature predictions of the Auxiliary Electronics Module (AEM) in the thermal model also had poor agreement with the T/B test results. Modifications to the scanner and AEM thermal models were performed to give good agreement between the temperature predictions and the test results. The correlated ETM+ thermal model was used to obtain flight temperature predictions. The flight temperature predictions in the nominal 15-orbit mission profile, plus margins, were used as the yellow limits for most of the ETM+ components. The spacecraft and instrument integrated T/B and TN test also revealed that the standby heater capacity on the Scan Mirror Assembly (SMA) was insufficient when the Earth Background Simulator (EBS) was 1 50C or colder, and the baffle heater possibly caused the coherent noise in the narrow band data when it was on. Also, the cooler cool-down was significantly faster than that in the instrument T/V test, and the coldest Cold Focal Plane Array (CFPA) temperature achieved was colder.

  19. The spacecraft Stardust is readied for lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility watch as the Stardust spacecraft is lowered before deploying panels for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule (seen on top of the spacecraft) to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  20. The spacecraft Stardust is readied for lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility watch as the Stardust spacecraft is rotated and lowered before deploying the solar panels for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule (seen on top of the spacecraft) to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  1. Mars Pathfinder Spacecraft, Lander, and Rover Testing in Simulated Deep Space and Mars Surface Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Spacecraft was built and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during 1995/96. MPF is scheduled to launch in December 1996 and to land on Mars on July 4, 1997. The testing program for MPF required subjecting the mission hardware to both deep space and Mars surface conditions. A series of tests were devised and conducted from 1/95 to 7/96 to study the thermal response of the MPF spacecraft to the environmental conditions in which it will be exposed during the cruise phase (on the way to Mars) and the lander phase (landed on Mars) of the mission. Also, several tests were conducted to study the thermal characteristics of the Mars rover, Sojourner, under Mars surface environmental conditions. For these tests, several special test fixtures and methods were devised to simulate the required environmental conditions. Creating simulated Mars surface conditions was a challenging undertaking since Mars' surface is subjected to diurnal cycling between -20 C and -85 C, with windspeeds to 20 m/sec, occurring in an 8 torr CO2 atmosphere. This paper describes the MPF test program which was conducted at JPL to verify the MPF thermal design.

  2. Spacecraft Availability Enhancement by In-flight Testing of Spare Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to improve availability by testing redundant parts at pre-determined intervals. The purpose of the testing is to detect nonfunctional back-up equipment and develop work-around measures or replacement spacecraft before a failure of the primary equipment reduces availability. The work reported here is an outgrowth of the NASA Space Network's program for the maintenance and replenishment of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The approach is based on a standby factor and a cyclic stress factor. The standby factor accounts for the effects of adverse storage conditions encountered as part of the in-flight environment. The stress factor accounts for the effects of physical or thermal cycling due to the application of force or power that characterizes the operation or use of a component. By the quantitative consideration of standby and cycling risks, a regular testing interval can be calculated - an interval for testing that furnishes information for availability planning but does not subject the spacecraft to undue risk. This paper includes quantitative solutions for appropriate testing intervals for equipment configurations and failure rates that are representative of a Tracking and Relay Data Satellite. The effect of a single test on the availability of certain equipment is also illustrated.

  3. A low cost imaging displacement measurement system for spacecraft thermal vacuum testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A low cost imaging displacement technique suitable for use in thermal vacuum testing was built and tested during thermal vacuum testing of the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF, later renamed Spitzer infrared telescope facility). The problem was to measure the relative displacement of different portions of the spacecraft due to thermal expansion or contraction. Standard displacement measuring instrumentation could not be used because of the widely varying temperatures on the spacecraft and for fear of invalidating the thermal vacuum testing. The imaging system was conceived, designed, purchased, and installed in approximately 2 months at very low cost. The system performed beyond expectations proving that sub millimeter displacements could be measured from over 2 meters away. Using commercial optics it was possible to make displacement measurements down to 10 (mu)m. An automated image processing tool was used to process the data, which not only speeded up data reduction, but showed that velocities and accelerations could also be measured. Details of the design and capabilities of the system are discussed along with the results of the test on the observatory. Several images from the actual test are presented.

  4. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  5. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  6. Error detection and correction unit with built-in self-test capability for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timoc, Constantin

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project was to research and develop a 32-bit single chip Error Detection and Correction unit capable of correcting all single bit errors and detecting all double bit errors in the memory systems of a spacecraft. We designed the 32-bit EDAC (Error Detection and Correction unit) based on a modified Hamming code and according to the design specifications and performance requirements. We constructed a laboratory prototype (breadboard) which was converted into a fault simulator. The correctness of the design was verified on the breadboard using an exhaustive set of test cases. A logic diagram of the EDAC was delivered to JPL Section 514 on 4 Oct. 1988.

  7. Development and Testing of Automatically Generated ACS Flight Software for the MAP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; McComas, David C.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1998-01-01

    By integrating the attitude determination and control system (ACS) analysis and design, flight software development, and flight software testing processes, it is possible to improve the overall spacecraft development cycle, as well as allow for more thorough software testing. One of the ways to achieve this integration is to use code-generation tools to automatically generate components of the ACS flight software directly from a high-fidelity (HiFi) simulation. In the development of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft, currently underway at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, approximately 1/3 of the ACS flight software was automatically generated. In this paper, we will examine each phase of the ACS subsystem and flight software design life cycle: analysis, design, and testing. In the analysis phase, we scoped how much software we would automatically generate and created the initial interface. The design phase included parallel development of the HiFi simulation and the hand-coded flight software components. Everything came together in the test phase, in which the flight software was tested, using results from the HiFi simulation as one of the bases of comparison for testing. Because parts of the spacecraft HiFi simulation were converted into flight software, more care needed to be put into its development and configuration control to support both the HiFi simulation and flight software. The components of the HiFi simulation from which code was generated needed to be designed based on the fact that they would become flight software. This process involved such considerations as protecting against mathematical exceptions, using acceptable module and parameter naming conventions, and using an input/output interface compatible with the rest of the flight software. Maintaining good configuration control was an issue for the HiFi simulation and the flight software, and a way to track the two systems was devised. Finally, an integrated test approach was

  8. An Overview of Demise Calculations, Conceptual Design Studies, and Hydrazine Compatibility Testing for the GPM Core Spacecraft Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert H.; Moore, N. R.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design for demise" spacecraft. This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. This paper will describe GSFC-performed spacecraft and tankage demise analyses, vendor conceptual design studies, and vendor performed hydrazine compatibility and wettability tests performed on 6061 and 2219 aluminum alloys.

  9. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  10. Advanced beamline design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Christopher R.

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  11. Testing the strong equivalence principle with spacecraft ranging towards the nearby Lagrangian points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, Giuseppe; De Marchi, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    General relativity is supported by great experimental evidence. Yet there is a lot of interest in precisely setting its limits with on going and future experiments. A question to answer is about the validity of the strong equivalence principle. Ground experiments and lunar laser ranging have provided the best upper limit on the Nordtvedt parameter σ [η ]=4.4 ×10-4 . With the future planetary mission BepiColombo, this parameter will be further improved by at least an order of magnitude. In this paper we envisage yet another possible testing environment with spacecraft ranging towards the nearby Sun-Earth collinear Lagrangian points. Neglecting errors in planetary masses and ephemerides, we forecast σ [η ]=6.4 (2.0 )×10-4 (5 yr integration time) via ranging towards L1 in a realistic (optimistic) scenario depending on current (future) range capabilities and knowledge of the Earth's ephemerides. A combined measurement, L1+L2, gives instead 4.8 (1.7 )×10-4. In the optimistic scenario a single measurement of one year would be enough to reach ≈3 ×10-4. All figures are comparable with lunar laser ranging, but worse than BepiColombo. Performances could be much improved if data were integrated over time and over the number of satellites flying around either of the two Lagrangian points. We point out that some systematics (gravitational perturbations of other planets or figure effects) are much more in control compared to other experiments. We do not advocate a specific mission to constrain the strong equivalence principle, but we do suggest analyzing ranging data of present and future spacecrafts flying around L1/L2 (one key mission is, for instance, LISA Pathfinder). This spacecraft ranging would be a new and complementary probe to constrain the strong equivalence principle in space.

  12. The BepiColombo Spacecraft: The Mercury Transfer Module Structure Qualification Test Campaign Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Zurdo, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The BepiColombo is a space mission to Mercury (ESA in cooperation with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). The spacecraft consist of three different structures: two orbiters responsible for the scientific mission (MPO and MMO) and one service module, Mercury Transfer Module (MTM), which provides propulsion and services during the journey to Mercury. Taking into account only the MTM structure, the companies involved are ASTRIUM GERMANY acting as the prime contractor and ASTRIUM UK acting as the co- prime contractor company. EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) in Spain is the company responsible for the final design, manufacturing and qualification of the MTM structure. The test campaign specimen is the MTM core structure, which corresponds to the central cone with the structure floors, shear panels and tank support structure. This test campaign qualifies the primary load path and its primary interfaces; the rest of the MTM structure is qualified by system level vibration test. In order to qualify the MTM structure, three different kinds of qualification tests have been performed: stiffness test, global strength test and local tests in different specific areas. The most relevant test during the campaign is the global strength test case, in which several external loads are introduced (different interfaces) simulating the load introduction for a selected critical flight case. There are two important items in the qualification test campaign: 1. The instrumentation of the structure, with two main functions: to control the specimen under test loads, and to demonstrate the qualification of the structure. 2. The set-up structure, designed by ECE to allow the correct load introduction on each testing case during the whole test campaign. This paper describes the MTM structure test campaign from the definition of the loads applied in each test to the qualification of the complete structure.

  13. Recent advances in structural technology for large deployable and erectable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ultra-low mass deployable and erectable truss structure designs for spacecraft are identified using computerized structural sizing techniques. Extremely slender strut proportions are shown to characterize minimum mass spacecraft which are designed for shuttle transport to orbit. Discrete element effects using a recently developed buckling theory for periodic lattice type structures are presented. An analysis of fabrication imperfection effects on the surface accuracy of four different antenna reflector structures is summarized. The tetrahedral truss has the greatest potential of the structures examined for application to accurate or large reflectors. A deployable module which can be efficiently transported is identified and shown to have significant potential for application to future antenna requirements. Investigations of erectable structure assembly are reviewed.

  14. A guide to structural factors for advanced composites used on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwagenen, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The use of composite materials in spacecraft systems is constantly increasing. Although the areas of composite design and fabrication are maturing, they remain distinct from the same activities performed using conventional materials and processes. This has led to some confusion regarding the precise meaning of the term 'factor of safety' as it applies to these structures. In addition, composite engineering introduces terms such as 'knock-down factors' to further modify material properties for design purposes. This guide is intended to clarify these terms as well as their use in the design of composite structures for spacecraft. It is particularly intended to be used by the engineering community not involved in the day-to-day composites design process. An attempt is also made to explain the wide range of factors of safety encountered in composite designs as well as their relationship to the 1.4 factor of safety conventionally applied to metallic structures.

  15. Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments

  16. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSoucie, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans/initial results.

  17. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  18. Development of an Advanced Proportional Xenon Feed Assembly for the GOCE Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Put, P.; van der List, M.; Yuce, V.

    2004-10-01

    In the last few years an increase in the use of ion propulsion systems for spacecrafts has been observed. The Proportional Xenon Feed Assembly (PXFA), currently under development at Bradford Engineering B.V. in The Netherlands, is part of the Ion Propulsion Assembly for use on the GOCE spacecraft. The PXFA is the feed system that regulates the pressure down from the propellant tank and provides the xenon flows to the main, cathode and neutralizer inlets of the Ion Thruster Assembly developed by QinetiQ (UK). Due to the high specific impulse of ion thrusters and the relatively low thrust levels (ranging from 1.5 to 20 mN), this places stringent requirements on the controllability of the very low rates by the PXFA. The scientific objectives of the GOCE program, also place stringent microdisturbance requirements on the PXFA. This techniques used in the PXFA as developed for the GOCE spacecraft, will also be an enabling technology for a variety of future science and microgravity missions.

  19. Mechanical design and vibro-acoustic testing of ultrathin carbon foils for a spacecraft instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, John D; Baca, Allen G

    2009-01-01

    IBEX-Hi is an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument designed to measure the energy and flux distribution of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) emanating from the interaction zone between the Earth's solar system and the Milky Way galaxy. A key element to this electro-optic instrument is an array of fourteen carbon foils that are used to ionize the ENAs. The foils are comprised of an ultrathin (50-100 {angstrom} thick) layer of carbon suspended across the surface of an electroformed Nickel wire screen, which in turn is held taught by a metal frame holder. The electro formed orthogonal screen has square wire elements, 12.7 {micro}m thick, with a pitch of 131.1 wires/cm. Each foil holder has an open aperture approximately 5 cm by 2.5 cm. Designing and implementing foil holders with such a large surface area has not been attempted for spaceflight in the past and has proven to be extremely challenging. The delicate carbon foils are subject to fatigue failure from the large acoustic and vibration loads that they will be exposed to during launch of the spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution of the foil holder design from previous space instrument applications to a flight-like IBEX-Hi prototype. Vibro-acoustic qualification tests of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument and the resulting failure of several foils are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of iterative foil holder design modifications and laser vibrometer modal testing to support future fatigue failure analyses, along with additional acoustic testing of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument. The results of these design and testing activities are merged and the resulting flight-like foil holder assembly is proposed.

  20. Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2012-01-01

    We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the

  1. Materials testing for spacecraft use. [by measurement of Total Mass Loss of Volatile Condensable Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique has been developed for determining the outgassing characteristics of materials intended for spacecraft use. A measurement of the total mass loss (TML) and of the collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) is used as a guide for selecting those materials low in outgassing. The data were used to compare the outgassing from two conductive black paints. In addition, the apparatus was also used in an attempt to simulate expected launch temperatures by collecting the outgassed molecules on a glass plate, which simulates a nearby thermal control surface. The glass plate was then irradiated in vacuum by simulated sunlight. Transmittance patterns of the clean glass plate and also with the condensed material on it were compared with the transmittance pattern after irradiation of the condensate. The transmittance patterns showed a drastic change. The resultant discoloration indicated the detrimental effects of the contamination and aided in selecting the better conductive paint. Additional tests utilizing an aluminized mirror collector plate have been run to show the effect of irradiation upon the CVCM from certain different classes of materials often used on spacecraft.

  2. The development and flight test of a deployable precision landing system for spacecraft recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.; Murray, James E.; Neufeld, David C.; Reed, R. Dale

    1993-01-01

    A joint NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and Johnson Space Center program was conducted to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of entry from space that included a precision landing. The feasibility of this system was studied using a flight model of a spacecraft in the generic shape of a flattened biconic which weighed approximately 150 lb and was flown under a commercially available, ram-air parachute. Key elements of the vehicle included the Global Positioning System guidance for navigation, flight control computer, ultrasonic sensing for terminal altitude, electronic compass, and onboard data recording. A flight test program was used to develop and refine the vehicle. This vehicle completed an autonomous flight from an altitude of 10,000 ft and a lateral offset of 1.7 miles which resulted in a precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. At times, the autonomous flight was conducted in the presence of winds approximately equal to vehicle airspeed. Several techniques for computing the winds postflight were evaluated. Future program objectives are also presented.

  3. The development and flight test of a deployable precision landing system for spacecraft recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Alex G.; Murray, James E.; Neufeld, David C.; Reed, R. Dale

    1993-09-01

    A joint NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and Johnson Space Center program was conducted to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of entry from space that included a precision landing. The feasibility of this system was studied using a flight model of a spacecraft in the generic shape of a flattened biconic which weighed approximately 150 lb and was flown under a commercially available, ram-air parachute. Key elements of the vehicle included the Global Positioning System guidance for navigation, flight control computer, ultrasonic sensing for terminal altitude, electronic compass, and onboard data recording. A flight test program was used to develop and refine the vehicle. This vehicle completed an autonomous flight from an altitude of 10,000 ft and a lateral offset of 1.7 miles which resulted in a precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. At times, the autonomous flight was conducted in the presence of winds approximately equal to vehicle airspeed. Several techniques for computing the winds postflight were evaluated. Future program objectives are also presented.

  4. Fault Protection Design and Testing for the Cassini Spacecraft in a "Mixed" Thruster Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, David; Lee, Allan; Meakin, Peter; Weitl, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap from the A-branch to the B-branch RCS system. If similar degradation begins to occur on any of the B-branch thrusters, Cassini might have to assume a "mixed" thruster configuration, where a subset of both A and B branch thrusters will be designated as prime. The Cassini Fault Protection FSW was recently updated to handle this scenario. The design, implementation, and testing of this update is described in this paper.

  5. GEOS-C coherent C-band transponder test procedure for spacecraft level tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selser, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for the performance of two tests (electrical and airlink) for the transponder are outlined. The C-band test console used in performing the above tests is described (circuit diagrams and block diagrams), and equipment specifications are given. Calibration of the test equipment is also discussed.

  6. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  7. Ariane microgravity capsule - Retrievable spacecraft for research, in-orbit testing and preparing of commercial utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, J.

    An Apollo-shape spacecraft compatible with the Ariane 4 and 5 launcher is proposed for microgravity research and in-orbit testing activities in LEO. The Ariane capsule fully meets needs concerning volume and power supply. It allows a consequent continuation of former projects as well as the urgent preparation for the Columbus utilization. A payload mass of 400-900 kg in a volume of 3 cu m can be accommodated by the availability of 700 W electric energy provided by solar arrays, during a mission duration of 7 to 21 days in a micro-g environment. The Ariane capsule is designed as an auxiliary payload on the powerful and cost efficient launcher Ariane and its associated ground facilities.

  8. The solar panels of the spacecraft Stardust are deployed before undergoing lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers look over the solar panels on the Stardust spacecraft that are deployed for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  9. The spacecraft Stardust is readied for lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility deploy a solar panel on the Stardust spacecraft before performing lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  10. The spacecraft Stardust is rotated before undergoing lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers get ready to rotate the Stardust spacecraft before deploying the solar panels (at left and right) for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  11. The spacecraft Stardust is moved before undergoing lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers raise the Stardust spacecraft from its workstand to move it to another area for lighting tests on the solar panels. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  12. The spacecraft Stardust is readied for lighting test in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility check solar panels on the Stardust spacecraft before performing lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule (its white cap is seen on the left) to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  13. Advances in series resonant inverter technology and its effect on spacecraft employing electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of transistorized Series Resonant Inverters (SRIs), which is higher than that of silicon-controlled rectifier alternatives, reduces spacecraft radiator requirements by 40% and may eliminate the need for heat pipes on 30-cm ion thruster systems. Recently developed 10- and 25-kW inverters have potential applications in gas thrusters, and represent the first spaceborne SRI designs for such power levels. Attention is given to the design and control system approaches employed in these inverter designs to improve efficiency and reduce weight, along with the impact of such improved parameters on electric propulsion systems.

  14. Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Research Lab (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify the pressure relief device bellow's integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electrical power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on it seven year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four year mission at Saturn.

  15. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  16. Recent advances in structural technology for large deployable and erectable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ultra-low mass deployable and erectable truss structure designs for spacecraft are identified using computerized structural sizing techniques. Extremely slender strut proportions are shown to characterize minimum mass spacecraft which are designed for Shuttle transport to orbit. Analytical results are presented which demonstrate discrete element effects using a recently developed buckling theory for periodic lattice type structures. An analysis of fabrication imperfection effects on the surface accuracy of four different antenna reflector structures is summarized. This study shows the tetrahedral truss to have the greatest potential of the structures examined for application to accurate or large reflectors. A deployable module which can be efficiently transported is identified and shown to have significant potential for application to future antenna requirements. Recent investigations of erectable structure assembly are reviewed. Initial experiments simulating astronaut assembly by extra-vehicular activity (EVA) show that a pair of astronauts can achieve assembly times of 2-5 min/strut. Studies indicate that an automated assembler can achieve times of less than 1 min/strut on an around-the-clock basis.

  17. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Spacecraft Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Wright, R. Doug; Repplinger, Ron S.

    1996-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth-orbiting satellites and have accumulated more that 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard Ni-H2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV Ni-H2 technology flight heritage and database. A design performance analysis is presented at both the cell and battery level. The DPV is capable of delivering up to 76 Watthours per kilogram (Wh/kg) at the cell level and 70 Wh/kg at the full battery level. This represents a 40 percent increase in specific energy at the cell level and a 60 percent increase in specific energy at the battery level compared to current IPV Ni-H2 technology.

  18. A study of short test and charge retention test methods for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for testing nickel-cadmium cells for internal shorts and charge retention were studied. Included were (a) open circuit voltage decay after a brief charge, (b) open circuit voltage recovery after shorting, and (c) open circuit voltage decay and capacity loss after a full charge. The investigation included consideration of the effects of prior history, of conditioning cells prior to testing, and of various test method variables on the results of the tests. Sensitivity of the tests was calibrated in terms of equivalent external resistance. The results were correlated. It was shown that a large number of variables may affect the results of these tests. It is concluded that the voltage decay after a brief charge and the voltage recovery methods are more sensitive than the charged stand method, and can detect an internal short equivalent to a resistance of about (10,000/C)ohms where "C' is the numerical value of the capacity of the cell in ampere hours.

  19. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Poriti, Sal

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been testing high-efficiency free-piston Stirling convertors for potential use in radioisotope power systems (RPSs) since 1999. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower, Inc., and the NASA GRC. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As reliability is paramount to a RPS capable of providing spacecraft power for potential multi-year missions, GRC provides direct technology support to the ASRG flight project in the areas of reliability, convertor and generator testing, high-temperature materials, structures, modeling and analysis, organics, structural dynamics, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and permanent magnets to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. Convertor and generator testing is carried out in short- and long-duration tests designed to characterize convertor performance when subjected to environments intended to simulate launch and space conditions. Long duration testing is intended to baseline performance and observe any performance degradation over the life of the test. Testing involves developing support hardware that enables 24/7 unattended operation and data collection. GRC currently has 14 Stirling convertors under unattended extended operation testing, including two operating in the ASRG Engineering Unit (ASRG-EU). Test data and high-temperature support hardware are discussed for ongoing and future ASC tests with emphasis on the ASC-E and ASC-E2.

  20. Designing a Gas Test Loop for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Parry

    2005-11-01

    The Generation IV Reactor Program and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are investigating some new reactor concepts which require extensive materials and fuels testing in a fast neutron spectrum. The capability to test materials and fuels in a fast neutron flux in the United States is very limited to non-existent. It has been proposed to install a gas test loop (GTL) in one of the lobes of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory and harden the spectrum to provide some fast neutron flux testing capabilities in the United States. This paper describes the neutronics investigation into the design of the GTL for the ATR.

  1. Viking '75 spacecraft design and test summary. Volume 3: Engineering test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmberg, N. A.; Faust, R. P.; Holt, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering test program for the lander and the orbiter are presented. The engineering program was developed to achieve confidence that the design was adequate to survive the expected mission environments and to accomplish the mission objective.

  2. Space Launch System Spacecraft/Payloads Integration and Evolution Office Advanced Development FY 2014 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, C. M.; Bickley, F. P.; Hueter, U.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Development Office (ADO), part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program, provides SLS with the advanced development needed to evolve the vehicle from an initial Block 1 payload capability of 70 metric tons (t) to an eventual capability Block 2 of 130 t, with intermediary evolution options possible. ADO takes existing technologies and matures them to the point that insertion into the mainline program minimizes risk. The ADO portfolio of tasks covers a broad range of technical developmental activities. The ADO portfolio supports the development of advanced boosters, upper stages, and other advanced development activities benefiting the SLS program. A total of 36 separate tasks were funded by ADO in FY 2014.

  3. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Test Kinetic Impact for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    There are currently over 8,000 known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. More than 1,200 of these are classified as Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) because their Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) with Earth's orbit is <= 0.05 AU and their estimated diameters are >= 150 m. To date, 178 Earth impact structures have been discovered, indicating that our planet has previously been struck with devastating force by NEAs and will be struck again. Such collisions are aperiodic events and can occur at any time. A variety of techniques have been proposed to defend our planet from NEA impacts by deflecting the incoming asteroid. However, none of these techniques have been tested. Unless rigorous testing is conducted to produce reliable asteroid deflection systems, we will be forced to deploy completely untested -- and therefore unreliable -- deflection missions when a sizable asteroid on a collision course with Earth is discovered. Such missions will have a high probability of failure. We propose to address this problem with a campaign of deflection technology test missions deployed to harmless NEAs. The objective of these missions is to safely evaluate and refine the mission concepts and asteroid deflection system designs. Our current research focuses on the kinetic impactor, one of the simplest proposed asteroid deflection techniques in which a spacecraft is sent to collide with an asteroid at high relative velocity. By deploying test missions in the near future, we can characterize the performance of this deflection technique and resolve any problems inherent to its execution before needing to rely upon it during a true emergency. In this paper we present the methodology and results of our survey, including lists of NEAs for which safe and effective kinetic impactor test missions may be conducted within the next decade. Full mission designs are also presented for the NEAs which offer the best mission opportunities.

  4. Design and testing of a high power spacecraft thermal management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccabe, Michael E., Jr.; Ku, Jentung; Benner, Steve

    1988-01-01

    The design and test results are presented of an ammonia hybrid capillary pumped loop thermal control system which could be used for heat acquisition and transport on future large space platforms and attached payloads, such as those associated with the NASA Space Station. The High Power Spacecraft Thermal Management System (HPSTM) can operate as either a passive, capillary pumped two phase thermal control system, or, when additional pressure head is required, as a mechanically pumped loop. Testing has shown that in the capillary mode, the HPSTM evaporators can acquire a total heat load of between 600 W and 24 kW, transported over 10 meters, at a maximum heat flux density of 4.3 W/sq cm. With the mechanical pump circulating the ammonia, a heat acquisition potential of 52 kW was demonstrated for 15 minutes without an evaporator failure. These results represent a significant improvement over the maximum transport capability previously displayed in other capillary systems. The HPSTM system still retains the proven capillary capabilities of heat load sharing and flow control between evaporator plates, rapid power cycling, and nonuniform heating in both the capillary and hybrid operating modes.

  5. Assembly and Testing of a Radioisotope Power System for the New Horizons Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Rosenberg; Stephen G. Johnson

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently fueled and assembled a radioisotope power system (RPS) that was used upon the New Horizons spacecraft which was launched in January 2006. New Horizons is the first mission to the last planet - the initial reconnaissance of Pluto-Charon and the Kuiper Belt, exploring the mysterious worlds at the edge of our solar system. The RPS otherwise known as a "space battery" converts thermal heat into electrical energy. The thermal heat source contains plutonium dioxide in the form of ceramic pellets encapsulated in iridium metal. The space battery was assembled in a new facility at the Idaho National Laboratory site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The new facility has all the fueling and testing capabilities including the following: the ability to handle all the shipping containers currently certified to ship Pu-238, the ability to fuel a variety of RPS designs, the ability to perform vibrational testing to simulate transportation and launch environments, welding systems, a center of mass determination device, and various other support systems.

  6. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Test Kinetic Impact for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Hernandez, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Earth has previously been struck with devastating force by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and will be struck again. Telescopic search programs aim to provide advance warning of such an impact, but no techniques or systems have yet been tested for deflecting an incoming NEA. To begin addressing this problem, we have analyzed the more than 8000 currently known NEAs to identify those that offer opportunities for safe and meaningful near-term tests of the proposed kinetic impact asteroid deflection technique. In this paper we present our methodology and results, including complete mission designs for the best kinetic impactor test mission opportunities.

  7. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P. (Editor); Lovell, R. R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Over 50 papers from the spacecraft charging conference are included on subjects such as: (1) geosynchronous plasma environment, (2) spacecraft modeling, (3) spacecraft materials characterization, (4) spacecraft materials development, and (5) satellite design and test.

  8. Advanced recovery systems wind tunnel test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, R. H.; Wailes, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    Pioneer Aerospace Corporation (PAC) conducted parafoil wind tunnel testing in the NASA-Ames 80 by 120 test sections of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex, Moffett Field, CA. The investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two scale ram air wings in support of air drop testing and full scale development of Advanced Recovery Systems for the Next Generation Space Transportation System. Two models were tested during this investigation. Both the primary test article, a 1/9 geometric scale model with wing area of 1200 square feet and secondary test article, a 1/36 geometric scale model with wing area of 300 square feet, had an aspect ratio of 3. The test results show that both models were statically stable about a model reference point at angles of attack from 2 to 10 degrees. The maximum lift-drag ratio varied between 2.9 and 2.4 for increasing wing loading.

  9. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. COTSAT Small Spacecraft Cost Optimization for Government and Commercial Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Bui, David; Dallara, Christopher; Ghassemieh, Shakib; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ling, Kuok; Mattei, Nicholas; Mayer, David; Quigley, Emmett; Spremo, Stevan; Young, Zion

    2009-01-01

    Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) is an ongoing spacecraft research and development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The prototype spacecraft, also known as CheapSat, is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost spacecraft. The COTSAT-1 team is committed to realizing the challenging goal of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500K parts and $2.0M labor. The project's efforts have resulted in significant accomplishments within the scope of a limited budget and schedule. Completion and delivery of the flight hardware to the Engineering Directorate at NASA Ames occurred in February 2009 and a cost effective qualification program is currently under study. The COTSAT-1 spacecraft is now located at NASA Ames Research Center and is awaiting a cost effective launch opportunity. This paper highlights the advancements of the COTSAT-1 spacecraft cost reduction techniques.

  11. Advanced nozzle and engine components test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.; Delroso, Richard L.; Delrosario, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    A test facility for conducting scaled advanced nozzle and engine component research is described. The CE-22 test facility, located in the Engine Research Building of the NASA Lewis Research Center, contains many systems for the economical testing of advanced scale-model nozzles and engine components. The combustion air and altitude exhaust systems are described. Combustion air can be supplied to a model up to 40 psig for primary air flow, and 40, 125, and 450 psig for secondary air flow. Altitude exhaust can be simulated up to 48,000 ft, or the exhaust can be atmospheric. Descriptions of the multiaxis thrust stand, a color schlieren flow visualization system used for qualitative flow analysis, a labyrinth flow measurement system, a data acquisition system, and auxiliary systems are discussed. Model recommended design information and temperature and pressure instrumentation recommendations are included.

  12. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Hunter, Hamilton T.; Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.

    2002-07-01

    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  13. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  14. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  15. Development of a filter regeneration system for advanced spacecraft fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, A. F., Jr.; Descamp, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a filter regeneration system for efficiently cleaning fluid particulate filters is presented. Based on a backflush/jet impingement technique, the regeneration system demonstrated a cleaning efficiency of 98.7 to 100%. The operating principles and design features are discussed with emphasis on the primary system components that include a regenerable filter, vortex particle separator, and zero-g particle trap. Techniques and equipment used for ground and zero-g performance tests are described. Test results and conclusions, as well as possible areas for commercial application, are included.

  16. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments. [spacecraft control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design, analysis, and testing performed to develop four types of graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI) bonded and bolted composite joints for lightly loaded control surfaces on advanced space transportation systems that operate at temperatures up to 561 K (550 F) are summarized. Material properties and small specimen tests were conducted to establish design data and to evaluate specific design details. Static discriminator tests were conducted on preliminary designs to verify structural adequacy. Scaled up specimens of the final joint designs, representative of production size requirements, were subjected to a series of static and fatigue tests to evaluate joint strength. Effects of environmental conditioning were determined by testing aged (125 hours at 589 K (600 F)) and thermal cycled (116 K to 589 K (-250 F to 600 F), 125 times) specimens. It is concluded Gr/PI joints can be designed and fabricated to carry the specified loads. Test results also indicate a possible resin loss or degradation of laminates after exposure to 589 K (600 F) for 125 hours.

  17. Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2009-09-01

    The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by the

  18. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  19. Use of Spacecraft Command Language for Advanced Command and Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mims, Tikiela L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the use of SCL in building and monitoring command and control applications in order to determine its fitness for space operations. Approximately 24,325 lines of PCG2 code was converted to SCL yielding a 90% reduction in the number of lines of code as many of the functions and scripts utilized in SCL could be ported and reused. Automated standalone testing, simulating the actual production environment, was performed in order to generalize and gauge the relative time it takes for SCL to update and write a given display. The use of SCL rules, functions, and scripts allowed the creation of several test cases permitting the detection of the amount of time it takes update a given set of measurements given the change in a globally existing CUI or CUI. It took the SCL system an average 926.09 ticks to update the entire display of 323 measurements.

  20. Irradiation Facilities at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the third generation and largest test reactor built in the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC – formerly known as the Test Reactor Area), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The RTC was established in the early 1950s with the development of the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), which operated until 1970. The second major reactor was the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), which operated from 1957 to 1981, and finally the ATR, which began operation in 1967 and will continue operation well into the future. These reactors have produced a significant portion of the world’s data on materials response to reactor environments. The wide range of experiment facilities in the ATR and the unique ability to vary the neutron flux in different areas of the core allow numerous experiment conditions to co-exist during the same reactor operating cycle. Simple experiments may involve a non-instrumented capsule containing test specimens with no real-time monitoring or control capabilities1. More sophisticated testing facilities include inert gas temperature control systems and pressurized water loops that have continuous chemistry, pressure, temperature, and flow control as well as numerous test specimen monitoring capabilities. There are also apparatus that allow for the simulation of reactor transients on test specimens.

  1. Advancements in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickerin, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closedloop water recovery systems, enabling long duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC), are under development which aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy induced effects. In this work, a microgravity compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a 1-g like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions, e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling and analysis of the system.

  2. Development of an advanced static feed water electrolysis module. [for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Jensen, F. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    A Static Feed Water Electrolysis Module (SFWEM) was developed to produce 0.92 kg/day (2.0 lb/day) of oxygen (O2). Specific objectives of the program's scope were to (1) eliminate the need for feed water cavity degassing, (2) eliminate the need for subsystem condenser/separators, (3) increase current density capability while decreasing electrolysis cell power (i.e., cell voltage) requirements, and (4) eliminate subsystem rotating parts and incorporate control and monitor instrumentation. A six-cell, one-man capacity module having an active area of 0.00929 sq m (0.10 sq ft) per cell was designed, fabricated, assembled, and subjected to 111 days (2664 hr) of parametric and endurance testing. The SFWEM was successfully operated over a current density range of 0 to 1076 mA/sq cm (0 to 1000 ASF), pressures of ambient to 2067 kN/sq m (300 psia), and temperatures of ambient to 366 K (200 F). During a 94-day endurance test, the SFWEM successfully demonstrated operation without the need for feed water compartment degassing.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  4. Development of an advanced spacecraft water and waste materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Middleton, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    An Integrated Waste Management-Water System (WM-WS) which uses radioisotopes for thermal energy is described and results of its trial in a 4-man, 180 day simulated space mission are presented. It collects urine, feces, trash, and wash water in zero gravity, processes the wastes to a common evaporator, distills and catalytically purifies the water, and separates and incinerates the solid residues using little oxygen and no chemical additives or expendable filters. Technical details on all subsystems are given along with performance specifications. Data on recovered water and heat loss obtained in test trials are presented. The closed loop incinerator and other projects underway to increase system efficiency and capacity are discussed.

  5. Advances in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closed-loop water recovery systems, enabling long-duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment, are under development. These brine water recovery concepts aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy-induced effects. In this work, a microgravity-compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly, thereby creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a terrestrial-like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions; e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling, and analysis of the system.

  6. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the Improved Tiros Operational Satellite (ITOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Quality control measures for Ni-Cd spacecraft cells were analyzed. Cells were examined for electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.50 volts during the internal short test. Test results are given in tabular form.

  7. Contributions of microgravity test results to the design of spacecraft fire-safety systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  8. Contributions of Microgravity Test Results to the Design of Spacecraft Fire Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) as compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  9. Implicit Spacecraft Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an implicit algorithm for spacecraft onboard instrument calibration, particularly to onboard gyro calibration. This work is an extension of previous work that was done where an explicit gyro calibration algorithm was applied to the AQUA spacecraft gyros. The algorithm presented in this paper was tested using simulated data and real data that were downloaded from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft. The calibration tests gave very good results. A comparison between the use of the implicit calibration algorithm used here with the explicit algorithm used for AQUA spacecraft indicates that both provide an excellent estimation of the gyro calibration parameters with similar accuracies.

  10. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) Development Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was the driving force behind the development of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, an active sensor system that provides near-range sensor data as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system. The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state camera to detect the return from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The AVGS will fly as part of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technologies (DART) in October, 2004. This development effort has required a great deal of testing of various sorts at every phase of development. Some of the test efforts included optical characterization of performance with the intended target, thermal vacuum testing, performance tests in long range vacuum facilities, EMI/EMC tests, and performance testing in dynamic situations. The sensor has been shown to track a target at ranges of up to 300 meters, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, to survive and operate during the thermal vacuum cycling specific to the DART mission, to handle EM1 well, and to perform well in dynamic situations.

  11. Pluto Fast Flyby: An Overview of the Mission and Spacecraft Design, Advanced Technology Insertion Efforts, and Student Involvement Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, D. S.; Staehle, R.; Brewster, S.; Caldwell, D.; Carraway, J.; Henry, P.; Herman, M.; Kissel, G.; Peak, S.; Randolph, V.; Salvo, C.; Strand, L.; Terrile, R.; Underwood, M.; Wahl, B.; Weinstein, S.; Hansen, E.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to complete the initial reconnanissance of our solar system, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is designing a mission to send two very small spacecraft to explore Pluto and its moon, Charon.

  12. Spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging on spacecraft materials are studied. Spacecraft charging interactions seem to couple environment to system performance through materials. Technology is still developing concerning both environment-driven and operating system-driven interactions. The meeting addressed environment but lacked specific mission requirements, as a result system definition are needed to prioritize interactions.

  13. Most Probable Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats: Why NASA's Current Test 1 Might Not Always Be Conservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1[1]). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.

  14. Most Probable Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats: Why NASA's Current Test 1 Might Not Always be Conservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.

  15. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  16. Advances in multiphasic screening and testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, C E

    1967-11-01

    The multiphasic testing center of the future will probably be used both for periodic screening tests and for referrals by practicing physicians. Recent widespread interest of several branches of the Federal Government in multiphasic screening stems from the possibility that, through its use, the enormous cost of chronic illness to the country may be reduced.Recent advances in automation and the storage, retrieval, and analysis of data by computers make it economically feasible to obtain much more information about the patient's health than ever before. New instrument developments include both screening and diagnostic analysis of electrocardiograms by computers, analysis of heart sounds by computer, and a wide variety of other physiological and biochemical instruments. To allow for the inclusion and evaluation of these new procedures, a number of multiphasic testing centers will be needed which can do both research and routine testing. Close cooperation between the medical profession, the public health services and industry will be needed to best serve both the public and the medical profession.

  17. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  19. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  20. Preliminary vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the HEAO-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    These vibration, acoustic, and shock specifications provide the qualification test criteria for spacecraft components and subassemblies and for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-A) experiments. The HEAO-A was divided into zones and subzones to obtain simple component groupings. Zones are designated primarily to assist in determining the applicable specification. A Subzone is available for use when the location of the component is known but component design and weight are not well defined. When the location, weight, and mounting configuration of the component are known, the appropriate Subzone weight ranges are available. Experiment and specific component specifications are available.

  1. Proposed Facility Modifications to Support Propulsion Systems Testing Under Simulated Space Conditions at Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Preparing NASA's Plum Brook Station's Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) to support NASA's new generation of launch vehicles has raised many challenges for B-2 s support staff. The facility provides a unique capability to test chemical propulsion systems/vehicles while simulating space thermal and vacuum environments. Designed and constructed 4 decades ago to support upper stage cryogenic engine/vehicle system development, the Plum Brook Station B-2 facility will require modifications to support the larger, more powerful, and more advanced engine systems for the next generation of vehicles leaving earth's orbit. Engine design improvements over the years have included large area expansion ratio nozzles, greater combustion chamber pressures, and advanced materials. Consequently, it has become necessary to determine what facility changes are required and how the facility can be adapted to support varying customers and their specific test needs. Instrumental in this task is understanding the present facility capabilities and identifying what reasonable changes can be implemented. A variety of approaches and analytical tools are being employed to gain this understanding. This paper discusses some of the challenges in applying these tools to this project and expected facility configuration to support the varying customer needs.

  2. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  3. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  4. Advanced Test Reactor Testing Experience: Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2005-04-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 48" long and 5.0" diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. The current experiments in the ATR are for a variety of test sponsors -- US government, foreign governments, private researchers, and commercial companies needing neutron irradiation services. There are three basic types of test configurations in the ATR. The simplest configuration is the sealed static capsule, wherein the target material is placed in a capsule, or plate form, and the capsule is in direct contact with the primary coolant. The next level of complexity of an experiment is an instrumented lead experiment, which allows for active monitoring and control of experiment conditions during the irradiation. The highest level of complexity of experiment is the pressurized water loop experiment, in which the test sample can be subjected to the exact environment of a pressurized water reactor. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and future plans.

  5. Using artificial intelligence for automating testing of a resident space object collision avoidance system on an orbital spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Resident space objects (RSOs) pose a significant threat to orbital assets. Due to high relative velocities, even a small RSO can cause significant damage to an object that it strikes. Worse, in many cases a collision may create numerous additional RSOs, if the impacted object shatters apart. These new RSOs will have heterogeneous mass, size and orbital characteristics. Collision avoidance systems (CASs) are used to maneuver spacecraft out of the path of RSOs to prevent these impacts. A RSO CAS must be validated to ensure that it is able to perform effectively given a virtually unlimited number of strike scenarios. This paper presents work on the creation of a testing environment and AI testing routine that can be utilized to perform verification and validation activities for cyber-physical systems. It reviews prior work on automated and autonomous testing. Comparative performance (relative to the performance of a human tester) is discussed.

  6. Reliability Testing of Advanced Interconnect Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R. R.; Strus, M. C.; Chiaramonti, A. N.; Kim, Y. L.; Jung, Y. J.; Read, D. T.

    2011-11-01

    We describe the development of electrical test methods to evaluate damage that determines reliability in advanced, small-scale conductors, including damascene copper and aligned carbon nanotube networks. Rapid thermal cycling induced during high-current AC stressing provides a means for measuring lifetimes associated with cyclic plasticity and/or diffusive damage in damascene copper. The specific type of damage that develops depends on the line geometry and the nature of the stress state induced within the lines during cycling. Voids form in both fully passivated and partially passivated lines under high levels of hydrostatic tension. Dislocation activity takes place in partially passivated lines in the presence of high shears. High-current DC stressing provides a means for evaluating the fabrication quality of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) networks, in what we believe to be the first lifetime degradation tests of such materials. While classic electromigration is unlikely in nanocarbon, we observed through resistance changes two forms of degradation that we believe are tied to the nanotube packing and resulting conduction path density through the network: a gradual build-up of damage, and a more abrupt, unpredictable form of damage accumulation, which may be linked to sudden changes in network morphology due to stressing.

  7. Preflight Calibration Test Results for Optical Navigation Camera Telescope (ONC-T) Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, S.; Suzuki, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Cho, Y.; Yasuda, T.; Yamada, M.; Sawada, H.; Honda, R.; Morota, T.; Honda, C.; Sato, M.; Okumura, Y.; Shibasaki, K.; Ikezawa, S.; Sugita, S.

    2016-05-01

    The optical navigation camera telescope (ONC-T) is a telescopic framing camera with seven colors onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft launched on December 3, 2014. The main objectives of this instrument are to optically navigate the spacecraft to asteroid Ryugu and to conduct multi-band mapping the asteroid. We conducted performance tests of the instrument before its installation on the spacecraft. We evaluated the dark current and bias level, obtained data on the dependency of the dark current on the temperature of the charge-coupled device (CCD). The bias level depends strongly on the temperature of the electronics package but only weakly on the CCD temperature. The dark-reference data, which is obtained simultaneously with observation data, can be used for estimation of the dark current and bias level. A long front hood is used for ONC-T to reduce the stray light at the expense of flatness in the peripheral area of the field of view (FOV). The central area in FOV has a flat sensitivity, and the limb darkening has been measured with an integrating sphere. The ONC-T has a wheel with seven bandpass filters and a panchromatic glass window. We measured the spectral sensitivity using an integrating sphere and obtained the sensitivity of all the pixels. We also measured the point-spread function using a star simulator. Measurement results indicate that the full width at half maximum is less than two pixels for all the bandpass filters and in the temperature range expected in the mission phase except for short periods of time during touchdowns.

  8. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  9. Failure Engineering Study and Accelerated Stress Test Results for the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft's Power Shunt Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark; Larson, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    An Engineering-of-Failure approach to designing and executing an accelerated product qualification test was performed to support a risk assessment of a "work-around" necessitated by an on-orbit failure of another piece of hardware on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The proposed work-around involved exceeding the previous qualification experience both in terms of extreme cold exposure level and in terms of demonstrated low cycle fatigue life for the power shunt assemblies. An analysis was performed to identify potential failure sites, modes and associated failure mechanisms consistent with the new use conditions. A test was then designed and executed which accelerated the failure mechanisms identified by analysis. Verification of the resulting failure mechanism concluded the effort.

  10. Orbital Express Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Ground Testing, Flight Results and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital Express (OE) was a successful mission demonstrating automated rendezvous and docking. The 2007 mission consisted of two spacecraft, the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) and the Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NEXTSat) that were designed to work together and test a variety of service operations in orbit. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, AVGS, was included as one of the primary proximity navigation sensors on board the ASTRO. The AVGS was one of four sensors that provided relative position and attitude between the two vehicles. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for the AVGS software and testing (especially the extensive ground testing), flight operations support, and analyzing the flight data. This paper briefly describes the historical mission, the data taken on-orbit, the ground testing that occurred, and finally comparisons between flight data and ground test data for two different flight regimes.

  11. Impact of assembly, testing and launch operations on the airborne bacterial diversity within a spacecraft assembly facility clean-room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, David A.; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-10-01

    In an effort to minimize the probability of forward contamination of pristine extraterrestrial environments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration requires that all US robotic spacecraft undergo assembly, testing and launch operations (ATLO) in controlled clean-room environments. This study examines the impact of ATLO activity on the microbial diversity and overall bioburden contained within the air of the clean-room facility in which the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) underwent final preparations for launch. Air samples were collected from several facility locations and traditional culture-based and molecular methodologies were used to measure microbial burden and diversity. Surprisingly, the greatest estimates of airborne bioburden, as derived from ATP content and cultivation assays, were observed prior to the commencement of MER ATLO activities. Furthermore, airborne microbial diversity gradually declined from the initiation of ATLO on through to launch. Proteobacterial sequences were common in 16S rDNA clone libraries. Conspicuously absent were members of the Firmicutes phylum, which includes the genus Bacillus. In previous studies, species of this genus were repeatedly isolated from the surfaces of spacecraft and clean-room assembly facilities. Increased cleaning and maintenance initiated immediately prior to the start of ATLO activity could explain the observed declines in both airborne bioburden and microbial diversity.

  12. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  13. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  14. One tool - one team: the marriage of test and operations in a low-budget spacecraft development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Charles J.

    2006-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) and the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) are two organizations that have partnered on more than 85 missions since 1968 to develop, launch, and operate Research and Development, Test and Evaluation space missions. As valuable as these missions have been to the follow-on generation of Operational systems, they are consistently under-funded and forced to execute on excessively ambitious development schedules. Due to these constraints, space mission development teams that serve the RDT&E community are faced with a number of unique technical and programmatic challenges. AFRL and STP have taken various approaches throughout the mission lifecycle to accelerate their development schedules, without sacrificing cost or system reliability. In the areas of test and operations, they currently employ one of two strategies. Historically, they have sought to avoid the added cost and complexity associated with coupled development schedules and segregated the spacecraft development and test effort from the ground operations system development and test effort. However, because these efforts have far more in common than they have differences, they have more recently attempted to pursue parallel I&T and Operations development and readiness efforts. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the "decoupled test and operations" approach, used by such missions as C/NOFS and Coriolis, with the "coupled test and operations" approach, adopted by the XSS-11 and TacSat-2 missions.

  15. Spacecraft 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and attitude control.

  16. Software control program for 25 kW breadboard testing. [spacecraft power supplies; high voltage batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajak, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition software program developed to operate in conjunction with the automated control system of the 25 kW PM Electric Power System Breadboard Test facility is described. The proram provides limited interactive control of the breadboard test while acquiring data and monitoring parameters, allowing unattended continuous operation. The breadboard test facility has two positions for operating separate configurations. The main variable in each test setup is the high voltage Ni-Cd battery.

  17. Test oracle automation for V&V of an autonomous spacecraft's planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Smith, B.

    2001-01-01

    We built automation to assist the software testing efforts associated with the Remote Agent experiment. In particular, our focus was upon introducing test oracles into the testing of the planning and scheduling system component. This summary is intended to provide an overview of the work.

  18. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  19. ANTARES: Spacecraft Simulation for Multiple User Communities and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acevedo, Amanda; Berndt, Jon; Othon, William; Arnold, Jason; Gay, Robet

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is the primary tool being used for requirements assessment of the NASA Orion spacecraft by the Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) teams at Johnson Space Center (JSC). ANTARES is a collection of packages and model libraries that are assembled and executed by the Trick simulation environment. Currently, ANTARES is being used for spacecraft design assessment, performance analysis, requirements validation, Hardware In the Loop (HWIL) and Human In the Loop (HIL) testing.

  20. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  1. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  2. Environmental impact statement for Manned Spacecraft Center and White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This environment has not only attracted people and increased payrolls, but has also created a broader base for the local economy. The activity of the center was a catalyst to private enterprise and has led to sizeable residential and commercial developments. Adequate treatment of domestic and industrial waste water was maintained. A feasibility study is now being conducted to establish a plan for a coordinated, centerwide plan for advanced treatment of domestic and industrial waste water.

  3. Solar wind test of the de Broglie-Proca massive photon with Cluster multi-spacecraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Vaivads, Andris

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the universe at large and small scales relies largely on electromagnetic observations. As photons are the messengers, fundamental physics has a concern in testing their properties, including the absence of mass. We use Cluster four spacecraft data in the solar wind at 1 AU to estimate the mass upper limit for the photon. We look for deviations from Ampère's law, through the curlometer technique for the computation of the magnetic field, and through the measurements of ion and electron velocities for the computation of the current. We show that the upper bound for mγ lies between 1.4 ×10-49 and 3.4 ×10-51 kg, and thereby discuss the currently accepted lower limits in the solar wind.

  4. The importance of thermal-vacuum testing in achieving high reliability of spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work performed on thermal vacuum testing of complex mechanisms is described. The objective of these tests is to assess the mechanism reliability by monitoring performance in an environment that closely resembles the environment that will occur during flight. To be both valid and cost effective, these tests are performed in a detailed, formally controlled manner. A review of the major test observations is given, during which time some failure modes are detected. Full confidence now exists in many mechanism and component designs, and much valuable data obtained.

  5. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  6. Raytheon Advanced Miniature Cryocooler Characterization Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T.; Yates, R.; Schaefer, B.; Bellis, L.; Pillar, M.; Barr, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Raytheon Advanced Miniature (RAM) cryocooler is a flight packaged, high frequency pulse tube cooler with an integrated surge volume and inertance tube. Its design has been fully optimized to make use of the Raytheon Advanced Regenerator, resulting in improved efficiency relative to previous Raytheon pulse tube coolers. In this paper, thermodynamic characterization data for the RAM cryocooler is presented along with details of its design specifications.

  7. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  8. Performance of the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility During Altitude Firing Tests of the Delta 3 Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Dickens, Kevin W.; Skaff, Tony F.; Cmar, Mark D.; VanMeter, Matthew J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station was reactivated in order to conduct flight simulation ground tests of the Delta 3 cryogenic upper stage. The tests were a cooperative effort between The Boeing Company, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. They included demonstration of tanking and detanking of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and helium pressurant gas as well as 12 engine firings simulating first, second, and third burns at altitude conditions. A key to the success of these tests was the performance of the primary facility systems and their interfaces with the vehicle. These systems included the structural support of the vehicle, propellant supplies, data acquisition, facility control systems, and the altitude exhaust system. While the facility connections to the vehicle umbilical panel simulated the performance of the launch pad systems, additional purge and electrical connections were also required which were unique to ground testing of the vehicle. The altitude exhaust system permitted an approximate simulation of the boost-phase pressure profile by rapidly pumping the test chamber from 13 psia to 0.5 psia as well as maintaining altitude conditions during extended steady-state firings. The performance of the steam driven ejector exhaust system has been correlated with variations in cooling water temperature during these tests. This correlation and comparisons to limited data available from Centaur tests conducted in the facility from 1969-1971 provided insight into optimizing the operation of the exhaust system for future tests. Overall, the facility proved to be robust and flexible for vehicle space simulation engine firings and enabled all test objectives to be successfully completed within the planned schedule.

  9. Compatibility testing of spacecraft materials and space-storable liquid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantino, L. L.; Denson, J. R.; Krishnan, C. S.; Toy, A.

    1974-01-01

    Compatibility measurements were made for aluminum 2219-T87 alloy and titanium 6Al-4V alloy in the presence of liquid fluorine and flox. Results of post test characterization after exposure durations of 61 and 70 weeks are presented. Results of the total test program are analyzed.

  10. Test results for 20-GHz GaAs FET spacecraft power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    Test were conducted to measure the performance of the 20-GHz solid state, proof-of-concept amplifier. The amplifier operates over the 17.7 to 20.2-GHz frequency range and uses high power gallium arsenide field effect transistors. The amplifier design and test methods are briefly described. NASA and contractor performance data are compared.

  11. ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccia, G.

    2004-10-01

    ESA is currently involved in several activities related to spacecraft chemical and electric propulsion, from the basic research and development of conventional and new concepts to the manufacturing, AIV and flight control of the propulsion subsystems of several European satellites. In the commercial application field, the strong competition among satellite manufacturers is a major driver for advancements in the area of propulsion, where increasing better performance together with low prices are required. Furthermore, new scientific and Earth observation missions dictate new challenging requirements for propulsion systems and components based on advanced technologies. For all these reasons, the technology area of spacecraft propulsion is in strong evolution and this paper presents an overview of the current European programmes and initiatives in this technology field. Specific attention is devoted in the paper to the performance and flight experience of spacecraft currently in orbit or ready to be launched.

  12. The ESA Large Space Simulator Mechanical Ground Support Equipment for Spacecraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagelschuer, Dirk; Messing, Rene; Westera, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Environmental test facilities are not suitable in any case to comply with special or complex test requirements without modifications. Dedicated upgrades of the test facility and their subsystems with respect to the test requirements and specifications are often necessary. The Flight Model of the Planck Space Telescope was tested in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) of the ESTEC Test Centre. Main goals of the test were the verification of the deformation of the Telescope during thermal vacuum conditions at different temperature levels and the validation of the Thermal Model. The deformations of the telescope have been traced by two Videogrammetry canisters. In order to provide different view positions with respect to the PLANCK Telescope it was necessary to rotate the specimen by +/- 180deg. In addition very stringent requirements for the low temperature level of the thermal environment has lead to a comprehensive test set-up which was divided in four main elements: Dedicated support structure for the Videogrammetry canisters providing several DoF for adjustment. Structure to support three Infrared panels around the specimen. MLI curtain to cover the LSS 8m auxiliary chamber opening. System providing LN2 supply for the rotating PLANCK telescope cold panel. The design, manufacturing and integration of the necessary mechanical ground support to install for instance the canisters and to ensure the 180 rotation of the telescope under cold and high vacuum conditions was an extensive and important part of the entire test program. This paper will concentrate on the design issues, the implementation and verification of the MGSE provided for the Planck Space Telescope FM Videogrammetry Test in the LSS and the troubleshooting caused by a failure during the first rotation under cold conditions.

  13. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  14. Development and testing of the infrared radiometer for the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, T. C.

    1975-01-01

    The science objectives, development history, functional description, and testing of the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 infrared radiometer are discussed. Included in the functional description section is a thorough discussion of the IRR optical system, electronic operation, and thermal control. Signal development and its conversion to engineering units is traced, starting with the radiant space object, passing through the IRR optics and electronics, and culminating with data number development and interpretation. The test program section includes discussion of IRR calibration and alignment verification. Finally, the problems and failures encountered by the IRR during the period of its development and testing are reviewed.

  15. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-05-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  16. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  17. Evaluation Program for Secondary Spacecraft Cells: Synchronous Orbit Testing of Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Performance data concerning sealed nickel-cadmium cells operating under a synchronous orbit regime are presented. A space satellite maintaining a position over a fixed point on earth as the earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the sun was simulated. Results include: (1) exposure to synchronous orbit testing at a temperature of 40 C yields less than 6 years of life; (2) performance at -20 C presents a low capacity problem; (3) the capacity check, performed at the middle of each show period, provides a temporary red reconditioning effect on the cells in that the end-of-discharge voltages are higher, for approximately 7 to 10 days, following the capacity check than they were 7 to 10 days prior to the capacity check; (4) all the test packs at -20 C and 40 C have either failed or were discontinued because of low capacity; and (5) test packs at temperatures of 0 C and 10 C have delivered the best capacity during life and packs tested at 20 C showed better life capability than packs tested at -20 C and 40 C.

  18. Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

  19. Prototype Common Bus Spacecraft: Hover Test Implementation and Results. Revision, Feb. 26, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hine, Butler Preston; Turner, Mark; Marshall, William S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop the capability to evaluate control system technologies, NASA Ames Research Center (Ames) began a test program to build a Hover Test Vehicle (HTV) - a ground-based simulated flight vehicle. The HTV would integrate simulated propulsion, avionics, and sensors into a simulated flight structure, and fly that test vehicle in terrestrial conditions intended to simulate a flight environment, in particular for attitude control. The ultimate purpose of the effort at Ames is to determine whether the low-cost hardware and flight software techniques are viable for future low cost missions. To enable these engineering goals, the project sought to develop a team, processes and procedures capable of developing, building and operating a fully functioning vehicle including propulsion, GN&C, structure, power and diagnostic sub-systems, through the development of the simulated vehicle.

  20. Development, Fabrication, and Testing of a Liquid/Liquid Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Constellation Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins-Reynolds, Ebony; Le, Hung; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Microchannel technology can be incorporated into heat exchanger designs to decrease the mass and volume of space hardware. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Johnson Space Center (NASA JSC) partnered with Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to develop a liquid/liquid microchannel heat exchanger that has significant mass and volume savings without sacrificing thermal and pressure drop performance. PNNL designed the microchannel heat exchanger to the same performance design requirements of a conventional plate and fin liquid/liquid heat exchanger; 3 kW duty with inlet temperatures of 26 C and 4 C. Both heat exchangers were tested using the same test parameters on a test apparatus and performance data compared.

  1. Six Degrees of Freedom Vibration Testing of Spacecraft and Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Testing of large payloads and full launch vehicles can require more force than can be produced by a single actuator. One solution to this problem is a table with multiple actuators to produce the higher force levels. These systems include hydrostatic bearings and couplings that may also allow the table to produce multiple degree of freedom of vibration. This configuration presents a number of challenges for the vibration control system. In this paper, we describe a novel multi-axis sine vibration control system designed by Data Physics Corporation for single-axis testing using multiple degree of freedom vibration tables. One of the major technical challenges of Multi-Exciter Single-Axis (MESA) testing is the suppression of the angular and crossaxis motion that is not restrained via hardware fixturing. This paper describes how such a system can be controlled with the help of input transformations and virtual nulling channels.

  2. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  3. Mecury Spacecraft Boilerplate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Boilerplate Mercury spacecraft being manufactured 'in-house' by Langley technicians. The capsules were designed to test spacecraft recovery systems. The escape tower and rocket motors shown on the completed capsule would be removed before shipping and finally assembly for launching at Wallops Island. Design of the Little Joe capsules began at Langley before McDonnell started on the design of the Mercury capsule.

  4. Development of a carbon cloth heat post module for thermal vacuum testing of a spinning spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, M. B.; Nelson, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a high temperature, high power density, isothermal, rapid transient, infrared thermal module is described. The investigation of various alternative approaches is discussed, as well as the rationale leading to the choice of a carbon cloth concept. Evolution of module design configurations and a summary of the development test results are included, along with a detailed description of the final design, which incorporated a black plate emitter radiantly heated by the carbon cloth. The final module configuration met design criteria during a 200-hour thermal vacuum performance test at 1000 F operating temperature without contaminating a solar cell array.

  5. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Seventeenth annual report of cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Acceptance tests were conducted on nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc cells to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program meet the specifications outlined in the respective purchase contracts. Statistical information is presented on cell performance characteristics and limitations. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of space batteries. Battery weaknesses encountered in satellite programs such as IMP, NIMBUS, OGO, OAO, SAS, and TETR were studied and remedied through special tests.

  6. Development and testing of the data automation subsystem for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The data automation subsystem designed and built as part of the Mariner Mars 1971 program, sequences and controls the science instruments and formats all science data. A description of the subsystem with emphasis on major changes relative to Mariner Mars 1969 is presented. In addition, the complete test phase is described.

  7. Destructive materials thermal characteristics determination with application for spacecraft structures testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Budnik, S. A.; Nenarokomov, A. V.; Netelev, A. V.; Titov, D. M.

    2013-04-01

    In many practical situations it is impossible to measure directly thermal and thermokinetic properties of analyzed composite materials. The only way that can often be used to overcome these difficulties is indirect measurements. This type of measurements is usually formulated as the solution of inverse heat transfer problems. Such problems are ill-posed in mathematical sense and their main feature shows itself in the solution instabilities. That is why special regularizing methods are needed to solve them. The general method of iterative regularization is concerned with application to the estimation of materials properties. The objective of this paper is to estimate thermal and thermokinetic properties of advanced materials using the approach based on inverse methods. An experimental-computational system is presented for investigating the thermal and kinetics properties of composite materials by methods of inverse heat transfer problems and which is developed at the Thermal Laboratory of Department Space Systems Engineering, of Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). The system is aimed at investigating the materials in conditions of unsteady contact and/or radiation heating over a wide range of temperature changes and heating rates in a vacuum, air and inert gas medium.

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed a non-nuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC), a Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EM (engineering model) 2 & 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS) which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASC's in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and supercapacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS and RSIL ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 V or exceeded 36 V. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASC's. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  9. Feasibility test for a V-slit star mapper for pioneer spacecraft terminal navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. F.; Flannery, J. V.; Cragin, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration of the feasibility of using a V-slit star mapper to meet the sensitivity and accuracy of on-board navigational requirements for future Pioneer Missions to the outer planets was conducted by the Control and Sensors Laboratory of TRW. The breadboard was extremely simple in configuration, consisting of an end-on photomultiplier tube and a V-slit reticle located at the focal plane of the objective lens. In addition, a plano-convex lens was used between the reticle and the PMT in a Fabry-Perot configuration. The analytical effort indicated that the sensor should easily meet the requirements. The Pioneer SRA test set was examined to determine its basic accuracy and modify it where necessary to bring its accuracy into the 1-3 arc second range. The test results show that it is feasible to use this type of star mapper in the 10 arc second accuracy range. The test equipment accuracy (approximately 5 arc Sec) was sufficient to bound the sensor errors at less than 10 arc seconds.

  10. Thermal design verification testing of the Clementine spacecraft: Quick, cheap, and useful

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Hyman, Nelson L.

    1994-01-01

    At this writing, Clementine had successfully fulfilled its moon-mapping mission; at this reading it will have also, with continued good fortune, taken a close look at the asteroid Geographos. The thermal design that made all this possible was indeed formidable in many respects, with very high ratios of requirements-to-available resources and performance-to-cost and mass. There was no question that a test verification of this quite unique and complex design was essential, but it had to be squeezed into an unyielding schedule and executed with bare-bones cost and manpower. After describing the thermal control subsystem's features, we report all the drama, close-calls, and cost-cutting, how objectives were achieved under severe handicap but (thankfully) with little management and documentation interference. Topics include the newly refurbished chamber (ready just in time), the reality level of the engineering model, using the analytical thermal model, the manner of environment simulation, the hand-scratched film heaters, functioning of all three types of heat pipes (but not all heat pipes), and the BMDO sensors' checkout through the chamber window. Test results revealed some surprises and much valuable data, resulting in thermal model and flight hardware refinements. We conclude with the level of correlation between predictions and both test temperatures and flight telemetry.

  11. Development, Fabrication, and Testing of a Liquid/Liquid Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Constellation Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins-Reynolds, Ebony; Le,Hung; Stephans, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimizing mass and volume is critically important for space hardware. Microchannel technology can be used to decrease both of these parameters for heat exchangers. Working in concert with NASA, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) has developed a microchannel liquid/liquid heat exchanger that has resulted in significant mass and volume savings. The microchannel heat exchanger delivers these improvements without sacrificing thermal and pressure drop performance. A conventional heat exchanger has been tested and the performance of it recorded to compare it to the microchannel heat exchanger that PNNL has fabricated. The microchannel heat exchanger was designed to meet all of the requirements of the baseline heat exchanger, while reducing the heat exchanger mass and volume. The baseline heat exchanger was designed to have an transfer approximately 3.1 kW for a specific set of inlet conditions. The baseline heat exchanger mass was 2.7 kg while the microchannel mass was only 2.0 kg. More impressive, however, was the volumetric savings associated with the microchannel heat exchanger. The microchannel heat exchanger was an order of magnitude smaller than the baseline heat exchanger (2180cm3 vs. 311 cm3). This paper will describe the test apparatus designed to complete performance tests for both heat exchangers. Also described in this paper will be the performance specifications for the microchannel heat exchanger and how they compare to the baseline heat exchanger.

  12. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  13. Thermal design and test of a high power spacecraft transponder platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stipandic, E. A.; Gray, A. M.; Gedeon, L.

    1975-01-01

    The high power transponder subsystem on board the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) requires some unique thermal control techniques to maintain the required temperature limits throughout all mission phases. The transponder subsystem includes redundant 20-W output travelling wave tubes and a single 200-W output TWT with highly concentrated thermal dissipations of 70 W and 143 W, respectively. A thermal control system which maintains all components within the required temperature ranges has been designed and verified in thermal balance testing. Included in the design are second surface quartz mirrors on an aluminum honeycomb platform, high thermal conductivity aluminum doubler plates, commandable thermal control heaters and a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe System (VCHPS).

  14. Thermal Vacuum Testing of a Small Loop Heat Pipe with a PTFE Wick for Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Hosei; Nishikawara, Masahito; Fukuyoshi, Fuyuko; Nagai, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki

    A loop heat pipe (LHP) is a two-phase heat transfer device that utilizes the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid to transfer heat, and the capillary forces developed in fine porous wicks to circulate the fluid. LHPs have been gaining increased acceptance for spacecraft missions, and recently, small LHPs on the order of a few hundred watts have been investigated for this purpose. In this study, a 100W class small LHP with a polytetrafluoroethylene wick as the primary wick was designed and fabricated for thermal vacuum testing. The LHP has a thermoelectric converter (TEC) to control the loop operating temperature. The thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate the LHP's thermal performance under a space-simulated environment such as ultra-high-vacuum, and black body radiation, except for a gravitational effect. The loop showed large thermal hysteresis before and after the large and small head loads. The TEC was able to control the loop operating temperature with a small amount of electrical power.

  15. Thermal Assessment of Landsat-7 ETM+ Radiative Cooler in Instrument and Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Tests and in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    During the radiative cooler cool-down phase of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument thermal vacuum test #3, the coldest temperature that the Cold Focal Plane Array (CFPA) achieved was 89.5 K. The cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 89.5 K in 80 hours. In the spacecraft and instrument integrated thermal vacuum test, the cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 86.9 K in 80 hours, and was still decreasing at a rate of 0.08 K/hr when the cool-down was terminated. The cool-down was faster, and a colder CFPA temperature was obtained. In flight, the cooler cool- down was even faster, and colder. The cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 89.7 K in 33 hours, and was still decreasing at a rate of 1 K/hr when cool- down was terminated at 89.7 K. The factors that affected the ETM+ cooler cool-down are the radiation heat sink temperature for the cold stage and intermediate stage, parasitic radiation heat load to the cooler, parasitic conduction heat load to the cooler, and cooler outgas time preceding cooler cool-down.

  16. Effects of hydraulic fluid CVCM on silver-Teflon. [Collected Volatile Condensable Material spacecraft contamination tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the solar absorptance of silver-Teflon (Ag/FEP) surfaces were measured after contamination by the outgassing products of hydraulic fluid and irradiation by solar simulators. Although radiator surfaces are selected for stability to the solar ultraviolet and particulate environment, contaminant deposition and their interaction with solar exposure can degrade their performance. The test procedure to deposit the hydraulic fluid collected volatile condensible material (CVCM), irradiate, and determine solar absorptance changes by reflectance measurements using a spectrophotometer and a solar simulator is described. The tests showed that for the estimated deposition rates on the Ag/FEP, the hydraulic fluid CVCM fraction remaining under normal conditions (above -40 C) would not degrade its performance. The residual CVCM can be easily removed from Ag/FEP by wiping with a solvent saturated flannel. The changes in solar absorptance with the CVCM film thickness and the radiation exposure duration are reported, concluding that vacuum ultraviolet radiation did not prevent easy removal of CVCM.

  17. Space power systems - 'Spacecraft 2000'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The program 'Spacecraft 2000' has the objective to identify critical, high-payoff, potential spacecraft technologies, taking into account the formulation, advocation, and the management of the requisite technology development programs. This program represents a joint NASA-industry program. The technology areas addressed by 'Spacecraft 2000' are related to spacecraft power/energy storage, thermal control/thermal management, power management and distribution, autonomous operation-control, on-board system integration, spacecraft environmental interactions, secondary propulsion, communications technologies, a total system response approach, and system-subsystem technology verification. The expected benefits of a development of advanced technologies include decreased spacecraft bus system weights, decreased mission costs, increased reliability/lifetimes, and increased operational flexibility.

  18. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  19. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  20. Compatibility testing of spacecraft materials and spacestorable liquid propellants. [liquid and vapor fluorine and FLOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denson, J. R.; Toy, A.

    1974-01-01

    Compatibility data for aluminum alloy 2219-T87 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were obtained while these alloys were exposed to both liquid and vapor fluorine and FLOX at -320 F + or -10 F. These data were obtained using a new low cost compatibility method which incorporates totally sealed containers and double dogbone test specimens and propellants in the simultaneous exposure to vapor and liquid phases. The compatibility investigation covered a storage period in excess of one year. Pitting was more severe in the 2219-T87 aluminum alloy than in the Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy for both fluorine and FLOX exposure. The degree of chemical attack is more severe in the presence of FLOX than in fluorine and phase. The mechanical properties of the two alloys were not affected by storage in either of the two propellants.

  1. A high flux pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen. [for spacecraft materials ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, Robert H.; Caledonia, George E.

    1986-01-01

    The design and demonstration of a pulsed high flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen are reported. In the present test setup, molecular oxygen under several atmospheres of pressure is introduced into an evacuated supersonic expansion nozzle through a pulsed molecular beam valve. A 10J CO2 TEA laser is focused to intensities greater than 10 to the 9th W/sq cm in the nozzle throat, generating a laser-induced breakdown with a resulting 20,000-K plasma. Plasma expansion is confined by the nozzle geometry to promote rapid electron-ion recombination. Average O-atom beam velocities from 5-13 km/s at fluxes up to 10 to the 18th atoms/pulse are measured, and a similar surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples to that obtained on the STS-8 mission is found.

  2. Determination of the microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly, testing and launch facilities: First results of the ESA project MiDiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Fritze, D.; Verbarg, S.; Nellen, J.; Horneck, G.; Stackebrandt, E.; Kminek, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the near future, an increasing number of in situ life detection and sample return missions to planets and other solar system bodies will be launched. The demand to control spacecraft-carried microbial contamination becomes obvious. COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) has defined guidelines and bioburden limits for different types of missions and target bodies. The first step in the implementation of these planetary protection guidelines encompasses a qualitative and quantitative inventory of the bioburden of spacecraft assembly facilities. With information about the composition of these microbial communities the development and/or optimization of adequate cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures for spacecraft preparation before launch will be possible. In the ESA project MiDiv, we started to investigate the diversity of cultivable microorganisms found on spacecraft and spacecraft assembly halls using the satellites SMART-1 and ROSETTA as test objects. The analyses to date include cultivation of microorganisms by varying pH, temperature, oxygen, and pasteurization. A culture collection of bacterial isolates and a database of 16S RNA gene sequences have been established. The results of our preliminary work, including the numbers of colony forming units, differentiated as aerobes and facultative anaerobes as well as their phylogenetic classification, give a first overview of the breadth of physiological potential of the identified microorganisms and their capability to withstand various cleaning and sterilizing procedures currently used for the planetary protection.

  3. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) convertors at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains in terms of operation of the ASRG during space missions.

  4. Flight test of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, P. )

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the approach used in flight tests of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), the fighter which was conceived as a replacement for the F-1 Eagle and which combines stealth techologies with a supercruise capability while retaining the agility necessary in an air superiority fighter. Special attention is given to the flight test concept, flight test preparations, and test objectives. The test methods, the problems encountered, and the test results are described.

  5. Spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  6. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-04-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  7. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  8. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  9. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-29

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  10. Arcjet Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Beck, Robin; Agrawal, Parul

    2014-01-01

    A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL. The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. In May of 2013 the CA250 project executed an arcjet test series in the Ames IHF facility to evaluate a phenolic-based conformal system (named Conformal-PICA) over a range of test conditions from 40-400Wcm2. The test series consisted of four runs in the 13-inch diameter nozzle. Test models were based on SPRITE configuration (a 55-deg sphere cone), as it was able to provide a combination of required heat flux, pressure and shear within a single entry. The preliminary in-depth TC data acquired during that test series allowed a mid-fidelity thermal response model for conformal-PICA to be created while testing of seam models began to address TPS attachment and joining of multiple segments for future fabrication of large-scale aeroshells. Discussed in this paper are the results.

  11. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  12. Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Newby, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Charles; DeWeese, Richard; Moorcroft, David; Phelps, Shean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

  13. Development of test models to quantify encapsulated bioburden in spacecraft polymer materials by cultivation-dependent and molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauermeister, Anja; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Mahnert, Alexander; Probst, Alexander; Flier, Niwin; Auerbach, Anna; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Boeker, Alexander

    Bioburden encapsulated in spacecraft polymers (such as adhesives and coatings) poses a potential risk to scientific exploration of other celestial bodies, but it is not easily detectable. In this study, we developed novel testing strategies to estimate the quantity of intrinsic encapsulated bioburden in polymers used frequently on spaceflight hardware. In particular Scotch-Weld (TM) 2216 B/A (Epoxy adhesive); MAP SG121FD (Silicone coating), Solithane (®) 113 (Urethane resin); ESP 495 (Silicone adhesive); and Dow Corning (®) 93-500 (Silicone encapsulant) were investigated. As extraction of bioburden from polymerized (solid) materials did not prove feasible, a method was devised to extract contaminants from uncured polymer precursors by dilution in organic solvents. Cultivation-dependent analyses showed less than 0.1-2.5 colony forming units (cfu) per cm³ polymer, whereas quantitative PCR with extracted DNA indicated considerably higher values, despite low DNA extraction efficiency. Results obtained by this method reflected the most conservative proxy for encapsulated bioburden. To observe the effect of physical and chemical stress occurring during polymerization on the viability of encapsulated contaminants, Bacillus safensis spores were embedded close to the surface in cured polymer, which facilitated access for different analytical techniques. Staining by AlexaFluor succinimidyl ester 488 (AF488), propidium monoazide (PMA), CTC (5-cyano-2,3-diotolyl tetrazolium chloride) and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated that embedded spores retained integrity, germination and cultivation ability even after polymerization of the adhesive Scotch-Weld™ 2216 B/A.

  14. Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Charles; DeWeese, Richard; Moorcroft, David; Phelps, Shean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score. PMID:25152879

  15. Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Newby, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Charles; DeWeese, Richard; Moorcroft, David; Phelps, Shean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score. PMID:25152879

  16. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Eagel-Picher Industries, Incorporated, 20.0 amphere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation test of the 20.0 ampere-hour cells was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality. This is accomplished by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. The results obtained in the test are given, as well as the recommendations based on these findings.

  17. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  18. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries, Incorporated 3.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The capacity of the cells ranged from 3.58 to 3.97 amperehours during the three capacity tests. Three cells were removed from test, due to high pressure, during the C/10, 24-hour charge at room ambient temperature. The voltage requirement of 1.480 volts was exceeded by the cells during the C/10, 24-hour charge at 20 C, although the end-of-charge voltage was below this value (1.466-1.475 volts). Average capacity out during the 20 C charge efficiency test was 0.84 AH which represents 48% and is below the minimum requirement of 55%. The cells exhibited no pressure decay during the open-circuit stand portion of the pressure versus capacity test, as all cells reached their voltage limit (1.550 volts) before their pressure reached 20 psia with the highest pressure being 8 psia during charge.

  19. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  20. Testing of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Agrawal, Parul; Beck, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In support of the CA250 project, this paper details the results of a test campaign that was conducted at the Ames Arcjet Facility, wherein several novel low density thermal protection (TPS) materials were evaluated in an entry like environment. The motivation for these tests was to investigate whether novel conformal ablative TPS materials can perform under high heat flux and shear environment as a viable alternative to rigid ablators like PICA or Avcoat for missions like MSL and beyond. A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL, and honeycomb-based Avcoat on the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)). The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow better integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments to be used in fabrication.A novel SPRITE1 architecture, developed by the researchers at NASA Ames was used for arcjet testing. This small probe like configuration with 450 spherecone, enabled us to test the materials in a combination of high heat flux, pressure and shear environment. The heat flux near the nose were in the range of 500-1000 W/sq cm whereas in the flank section of the test article the magnitudes were about 50 of the nose, 250-500W/sq cm range. There were two candidate conformable materials under consideration for this test series. Both test materials are low density (0.28 g/cu cm) similar to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) or Silicone Impregnated Refractory Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) and are comprised of: A flexible carbon substrate (Carbon felt) infiltrated with an ablative resin system: phenolic (Conformal-PICA) or silicone (Conformal-SICA). The test demonstrated a successful performance of both the conformable ablators for heat flux conditions between 50

  1. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  2. F/A-18 FAST Offers Advanced System Test Capability

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has modified an F/A-18A Hornet aircraft with additional research flight control computer systems for use as a Full-scale Advanced Systems Test Bed. Previously f...

  3. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  4. Miniature Robotic Spacecraft for Inspecting Other Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven; Abbott, Larry; Duran, Steve; Goode, Robert; Howard, Nathan; Jochim, David; Rickman, Steve; Straube, Tim; Studak, Bill; Wagenknecht, Jennifer; Lemke, Matthew; Wade, Randall; Wheeler, Scott; Baggerman, Clinton

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)-- a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. The Mini AERCam is a successor to the AERCam Sprint -- a prior miniature robotic inspection spacecraft that was demonstrated in a space-shuttle flight experiment in 1997. The prototype of the Mini AERCam is a demonstration unit having approximately the form and function of a flight system. The Mini AERCam is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 7.5 in. (.19 cm) and a weight of about 10 lb (.4.5 kg), yet it has significant additional capabilities, relative to the 14-in. (36-cm), 35-lb (16-kg) AERCam Sprint. The Mini AERCam includes miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high-resolution still camera. The Mini AERCam is designed for either remote piloting or supervised autonomous operations, including station keeping and point-to-point maneuvering. The prototype has been tested on an air-bearing table and in a hardware-in-the-loop orbital simulation of the dynamics of maneuvering in proximity to the International Space Station.

  5. Validation test of 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the advanced design nickel-hydrogen cell is presented. An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design, which are not incorporated in state-of-the-art design cells, are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they do not have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test at the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, IN, under a NASA Lewis Research Center contract. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 19000 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. Two of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588 and 13,900).

  6. Advanced Test Reactor -- Testing Capabilities and Plans AND Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility -- Partnerships and Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2008-07-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world’s premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner “lobes” to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plans for the NSUF.

  7. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  8. Advances in Significance Testing for Cluster Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Deidra Andrea

    Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to data driven project goals such as the Human Genome Project and the development of syndromic surveillance systems. A major component of these types of projects is analyzing the abundance of data. Detecting clusters within the data can be beneficial as it can lead to the identification of specified sequences of DNA nucleotides that are related to important biological functions or the locations of epidemics such as disease outbreaks or bioterrorism attacks. Cluster detection techniques require efficient and accurate hypothesis testing procedures. In this dissertation, we improve upon the hypothesis testing procedures for cluster detection by enhancing distributional theory and providing an alternative method for spatial cluster detection using syndromic surveillance data. In Chapter 2, we provide an efficient method to compute the exact distribution of the number and coverage of h-clumps of a collection of words. This method involves defining a Markov chain using a minimal deterministic automaton to reduce the number of states needed for computation. We allow words of the collection to contain other words of the collection making the method more general. We use our method to compute the distributions of the number and coverage of h-clumps in the Chi motif of H. influenza.. In Chapter 3, we provide an efficient algorithm to compute the exact distribution of multiple window discrete scan statistics for higher-order, multi-state Markovian sequences. This algorithm involves defining a Markov chain to efficiently keep track of probabilities needed to compute p-values of the statistic. We use our algorithm to identify cases where the available approximation does not perform well. We also use our algorithm to detect unusual clusters of made free throw shots by National Basketball Association players during the 2009-2010 regular season. In Chapter 4, we give a procedure to detect outbreaks using syndromic

  9. Advanced Solar Cell Testing and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Curtis, Henry; Piszczor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The topic for this workshop stems from an ongoing effort by the photovoltaic community and U.S. government to address issues and recent problems associated with solar cells and arrays experienced by a number of different space systems. In April 2003, a workshop session was held at the Aerospace Space Power Workshop to discuss an effort by the Air Force to update and standardize solar cell and array qualification test procedures in an effort to ameliorate some of these problems. The organizers of that workshop session thought it was important to continue these discussions and present this information to the entire photovoltaic community. Thus, it was decided to include this topic as a workshop at the following SPRAT conference.

  10. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  11. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  12. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  13. ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reome; Dan Davies

    2004-04-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

  14. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davies

    2004-10-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

  15. Design, analysis and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    The analytical methodology for advanced encapsulation designs for the development of photovoltaic modules is presented. Analytical models are developed to test optical, thermal, electrical and structural properties of the various encapsulation systems. Model data is compared to relevant test data to improve model accuracy and develop general principles for the design of photovoltaic modules.

  16. Research priorities and history of advanced composite compression testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for standard compression testing research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented along with a state of the art survey (completed in 1979) including history and commentary on industrial test methods. Historically apparent research priorities and consequent (lack of) progress are supporting evidence for newly derived priorities.

  17. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  18. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  19. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  20. SERT D spacecraft study. [project planning and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The SERT D (Space Electric Rocket Test - D) study defines a possible spacecraft project that would demonstrate the use of electric ion thrusters for long-term (5 yr) station keeping and attitude control of a synchronous orbit satellite. Other mission objectives included in the study were: station walking to satellite rendezvous and inspection, use of low cost attitude sensing system, use of an advanced solar array orientation and slip ring system, and an ion thruster integrated directly with a solar array power source. The SERT D spacecraft, if launched, will become SERT 3 the third space electric thruster test.

  1. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon Dual-Use Cooler (DUC) which is a low cost space cryocooler for long life, cost sensitive missions. The DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator intended to be a direct replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  2. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  3. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  4. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    missions such as DRACO with the intent that mission operations costs be significantly reduced. The goal of the Constellation Spacecraft Trend Analysis Toolkit (CSTAT) project is to serve as the pathfinder for a fully automated trending system to support spacecraft constellations. The development approach to be taken is evolutionary. In the first year of the project, the intent is to significantly advance the state of the art in current trending systems through improved functionality and increased automation. In the second year, the intent is to add an expert system shell, likely through the adaptation of an existing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) or government-off-the-shelf (GOTS) tool to implement some level of the trending intelligence that humans currently provide in manual operations. In the third year, the intent is to infuse the resulting technology into a near-term constellation or formation-flying mission to test it and gain experience in automated trending. The lessons learned from the real missions operations experience will then be used to improve the system, and to ultimately incorporate it into a fully autonomous, closed-loop mission operations system that is truly capable of supporting large constellations. In this paper, the process of automating trend analysis for spacecraft constellations will be addressed. First, the results of a survey on automation in spacecraft mission operations in general, and in trending systems in particular will be presented to provide an overview of the current state of the art. Next, a rule-based model for implementing intelligent spacecraft subsystem trending will be then presented, followed by a survey of existing COTS/GOTS tools that could be adapted for implementing such a model. The baseline design and architecture of the CSTAT system will be presented. Finally, some results obtained from initial software tests and demonstrations will be presented.

  5. Advances in diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Andrew J; Hirano, Ikuo

    2010-08-14

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) contributes substantially to morbidity and to costs in the United States health care system. The burden of this disease has resulted in attempts at improving diagnosis and characterizing patients. Numerous research and technical advances have enhanced our understanding of both the utility and limitations of a variety of diagnostic modalities. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in GERD diagnostic testing and to discuss their implications for use in clinical practice. Topics addressed include esophageal pH monitoring, impedance testing, symptom association analyses, narrow-band imaging, and histopathology. PMID:20698036

  6. Spacecraft Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Manshadi, Farzin; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Some of the various categories of issues that must be considered in the selection and design of spacecraft antennas for a Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) are addressed, and parametric studies for some of the antenna concepts to help the system designer in making the most appropriate antenna choice with regards to weight, size, and complexity, etc. are provided. The question of appropriate polarization for the spacecraft as well as for the User Terminal Antenna required particular attention and was studied in some depth. Circular polarization seems to be the favored outcome of this study. Another problem that has generally been a complicating factor in designing the multiple beam reflector antennas, is the type of feeds (single vs. multiple element and overlapping vs. non-overlapping clusters) needed for generating the beams. This choice is dependent on certain system design factors, such as the required frequency reuse, acceptable interbeam isolation, antenna efficiency, number of beams scanned, and beam-forming network (BFN) complexity. This issue is partially addressed, but is not completely resolved. Indications are that it may be possible to use relatively simple non-overlapping clusters of only a few elements, unless a large frequency reuse and very stringent isolation levels are required.

  7. High Energy Failure Containment for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pektas, Pete; Baker, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper will be to investigate advancements and any commonality between spacecraft debris containment and the improvements being made in ballistic protection. Scope: This paper will focus on cross application of protection devices and methods, and how they relate to protecting humans from failures in spacecraft. The potential gain is to reduce the risk associated with hardware failure, while decreasing the weight and size of energy containment methods currently being used by the government and commercial industry. Method of Approach: This paper will examine testing that has already been accomplished in regards to the failure of high energy rotating hardware and compare it to advancements in ballistic protection. Examples are: DOT research and testing of turbine containment as documented in DOT/FAA/AR-96/110, DOT/FAA/AR-97/82, DOT/FAA/AR-98/22. It will also look at work accomplished by companies such as ApNano and IBD Deisenroth in the development of nano ceramics and nanometric steels. Other forms of energy absorbent materials and composites will also be considered and discussed. New Advances in State of the Art: There have been numerous advances in technology in regards to high energy debris containment and in the similar field of ballistic protection. This paper will discuss methods such as using impregnated or dry Kevlar, ceramic, and nano-technology which have been successfully tested but are yet to be utilized in spacecraft. Reports on tungsten disulfide nanotubes claim that they are 4-5 times stronger than steel and reports vary about the magnitude increase over Kevlar, but it appears to be somewhere in the range of 2-6 times stronger. This technology could also have applications in the protection of pressure vessels, motor housings, and hydraulic component failures.

  8. NASA Advanced Life Support Technology Testing and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2010, NASA's advanced life support research and development was carried out primarily under the Exploration Life Support Project of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2011, the Exploration Life Support Project was merged with other projects covering Fire Prevention/Suppression, Radiation Protection, Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control, and Thermal Control Systems. This consolidated project was called Life Support and Habitation Systems, which was managed under the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2012, NASA re-organized major directorates within the agency, which eliminated the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and created the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Life support research and development is currently conducted within the Office of the Chief Technologist, under the Next Generation Life Support Project, and within the Human Exploration Operation Missions Directorate under several Advanced Exploration System projects. These Advanced Exploration Systems projects include various themes of life support technology testing, including atmospheric management, water management, logistics and waste management, and habitation systems. Food crop testing is currently conducted as part of the Deep Space Habitation (DSH) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This testing is focused on growing salad crops that could supplement the crew's diet during near term missions.

  9. A highly efficient error analysis program for the evaluation of spacecraft tests of general relativity with application to solar probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. K.; Georgevic, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described which can be used to study the feasibility of conducting relativity experiments on a wide range of hypothetical space missions, and a few applications are presented for solar probes which approach the Sun within 0.25 to 0.35 AU. It is assumed that radio ranging data are available from these spacecraft, and that accuracies on the order of 15 meters can be achieved. This is compatible with current accuracies of ranging to Mariner spacecraft. At this level of accuracy, the range data are sensitive to a number of effects, and for this reason it has been necessary to include a total of up to 23 parameters in the feasibility studies, even though there are only two parameters of real interest in the relativity experiments.

  10. Random Vibration Testing of Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Advanced wet tantalum capacitors allow for improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the systems that is especially beneficial for space electronics. Due to launch-related stresses, acceptance testing of all space systems includes random vibration test (RVT). However, many types of advanced wet tantalum capacitors cannot pass consistently RVT at conditions specified in MIL-PRF-39006, which impedes their use in space projects. This requires a closer look at the existing requirements, modes and mechanisms of failures, specifics of test conditions, and acceptance criteria. In this work, different lots of advanced wet tantalum capacitors from four manufacturers have been tested at step stress random vibration conditions while their currents were monitored before, during, and after the testing. It has been shown that the robustness of the parts and their reliability are mostly due to effective self-healing processes and limited current spiking or minor scintillations caused by RVT do not increase the risk of failures during operation. A simple model for scintillations events has been used to simulate current spiking during RVT and optimize test conditions. The significance of scintillations and possible effects of gas generation have been discussed and test acceptance criteria for limited current spiking have been suggested.

  11. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  12. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

  13. Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a final report for the period of 12/1/03 through 11/30/04 for NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-776, entitled "Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials." During this final period, major efforts were focused on both the determination of mechanical properties of advanced ceramic materials and the development of mechanical test methodologies under several different programs of the NASA-Glenn. The important research activities made during this period are: 1. Mechanical properties evaluation of two gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides. 2) Mechanical testing for fuel-cell seal materials. 3) Mechanical properties evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and CFCCs and 4) Foreign object damage (FOD) testing.

  14. Improved method of HIPOT testing of advanced ignition system product

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.C.

    1992-04-01

    A new method of high potential (HIPOT) testing of advanced ignition system (AIS) product was developed. The new incorporated using a silver-filled RTV silicone as the electrodes of the HIPOT tester instead of the preformed, semi-rigid aluminum electrodes of the current tester. Initial results indicate that the developed method was more sensitive to the testing requirements of the HIPOT test. A patent for the combination of the material used and the method of testing developed was attempted but was withdrawn following a patent search by the US Patent Office.

  15. Test of Shi et al. Method to Infer the Magnetic Reconnection Geometry from Spacecraft Data: MHD Simulation with Guide Field and Antiparallel Kinetic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.

    2012-01-01

    When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient

  16. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  17. Structural response of an advanced combustor liner: Test and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Paul E.; Thompson, Robert L.; Tong, M.; Higgins, M.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced (segmented) combustor liner supplied by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft was tested in the structural component test rig at Lewis Research Center. It was found that the segmented liner operated at much lower temperatures than the conventional liner (about 400 F lower) for the same heat flux. At the lower temperatures and low thermal gradients, little distortion to the segments was observed. The operating conditions were not severe enough to distort or damage the segmented liner.

  18. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting... in the September 1, 2010 notice (75 FR 53682-53683). We encourage eligible applicants to submit their... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

  19. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  20. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  1. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, David W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, GRC has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, Dave; Oriti, Sal

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, NASA?s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  3. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  4. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  5. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere hour nickel cadmium spacecraft cells with design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    All evaluation tests were performed at room ambient pressure and temperature, with discharges at a 2 hour rate. Tests consisted of phenolphthalein leak tests, three capacity tests, an auxiliary electrode test, a charge retention test, an internal short test, a charge efficiency test, overcharge tests, and a pressure versus capacity test. Results of the tests and recommendations for improvements in manufacturing are presented.

  6. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  7. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  8. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  9. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  10. Active Spacecraft Potential Control Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Tajmar, M.; Scharlemann, C.; Jeszenszky, H.; Laky, G.; Fremuth, G.; Escoubet, C. P.; Svenes, K.

    2016-03-01

    In tenuous plasma the floating potential of sunlit spacecraft reaches tens of volts, positive. The corresponding field disturbs measurements of the ambient plasma by electron and ion sensors and can reduce micro-channel plate lifetime in electron detectors owing to large fluxes of attracted photoelectrons. Also the accuracy of electric field measurements may suffer from a high spacecraft potential. The Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics. New features include the use of capillaries instead of needles, new materials for the emitters and their internal thermal insulators, an extended voltage and current range of the electronics, both for ion emission and heating purposes, and a more capable control software. This enables lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Results from on-ground testing demonstrate compliance with requirements. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. Finally, the various operating modes to adapt to changing boundary conditions are described along with the main data products.

  11. Rotor Performance at High Advance Ratio: Theory versus Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2008-01-01

    Five analytical tools have been used to study rotor performance at high advance ratio. One is representative of autogyro rotor theory in 1934 and four are representative of helicopter rotor theory in 2008. The five theories are measured against three sets of well documented, full-scale, isolated rotor performance experiments. The major finding of this study is that the decades spent by many rotorcraft theoreticians to improve prediction of basic rotor aerodynamic performance has paid off. This payoff, illustrated by comparing the CAMRAD II comprehensive code and Wheatley & Bailey theory to H-34 test data, shows that rational rotor lift to drag ratios are now predictable. The 1934 theory predicted L/D ratios as high as 15. CAMRAD II predictions compared well with H-34 test data having L/D ratios more on the order of 7 to 9. However, the detailed examination of the selected codes compared to H-34 test data indicates that not one of the codes can predict to engineering accuracy above an advance ratio of 0.62 the control positions and shaft angle of attack required for a given lift. There is no full-scale rotor performance data available for advance ratios above 1.0 and extrapolation of currently available data to advance ratios on the order of 2.0 is unreasonable despite the needs of future rotorcraft. Therefore, it is recommended that an overly strong full-scale rotor blade set be obtained and tested in a suitable wind tunnel to at least an advance ratio of 2.5. A tail rotor from a Sikorsky CH-53 or other large single rotor helicopter should be adequate for this exploratory experiment.

  12. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  14. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  15. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between Ge and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially be GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q97 through 3Q98.

  16. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Technology Readiness Testing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-29

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q98. The most significant accomplishments are listed in the report.

  17. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  18. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  19. Structural Dynamics Testing of Advanced Stirling Convertor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Sal; Williams, Zach

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been supporting the development of Stirling energy conversion for use in space. Lockheed Martin has been contracted by the Department of Energy to design and fabricate flight-unit Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators, which utilize Sunpower, Inc., free-piston Advanced Stirling Convertors. The engineering unit generator has demonstrated conversion efficiency in excess of 20 percent, offering a significant improvement over existing radioisotope-fueled power systems. NASA Glenn has been supporting the development of this generator by developing the convertors through a technology development contract with Sunpower, and conducting research and experiments in a multitude of areas, such as high-temperature material properties, organics testing, and convertor-level extended operation. Since the generator must undergo launch, several launch simulation tests have also been performed at the convertor level. The standard test sequence for launch vibration exposure has consisted of workmanship and flight acceptance levels. Together, these exposures simulate what a flight convertor will experience. Recently, two supplementary tests were added to the launch vibration simulation activity. First was a vibration durability test of the convertor, intended to quantify the effect of vibration levels up to qualification level in both the lateral and axial directions. Second was qualification-level vibration of several heater heads with small oxide inclusions in the material. The goal of this test was to ascertain the effect of the inclusions on launch survivability to determine if the heater heads were suitable for flight.

  20. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  1. Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

    2006-01-01

    A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to- spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. Work on the final year of this task is reported here.

  2. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  3. Clinical applications of advanced lipoprotein testing in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moin, Danyaal S; Rohatgi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Traditional lipid profiles often fail to fully explain the elevated cardiovascular risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Advanced lipoprotein testing offers a novel means to evaluate dyslipidemia and refine risk estimation. Numerous observational studies have demonstrated a characteristic pattern of elevated levels of small, dense LDL particles, out of proportion to traditional lipid levels, in patients with both diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Commonly used glucose and lipid-lowering agents have varied effects in patients with diabetes on both LDL and HDL subfractions. The exact role of advanced lipoprotein testing in patients with diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome remains unclear but may offer improved assessment of cardiovascular risk compared with traditional lipid measurements. PMID:22162979

  4. Space station experiment definition: Advanced power system test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, H. E.; Neff, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced photovoltaic power system test bed was provided and the requirements for advanced photovoltaic power system experiments better defined. Results of this study will be used in the design efforts conducted in phase B and phase C/D of the space station program so that the test bed capabilities will be responsive to user needs. Critical PV and energy storage technologies were identified and inputs were received from the idustry (government and commercial, U.S. and international) which identified experimental requirements. These inputs were used to develop a number of different conceptual designs. Pros and cons of each were discussed and a strawman candidate identified. A preliminary evolutionary plan, which included necessary precursor activities, was established and cost estimates presented which would allow for a successful implementation to the space station in the 1994 time frame.

  5. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  6. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley; Steven Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  7. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; K. Condie

    2011-06-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  8. The advanced receiver 2: Telemetry test results in CTA 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Marina, M.

    1991-01-01

    Telemetry tests with the Advanced Receiver II (ARX II) in Compatibility Test Area 21 are described. The ARX II was operated in parallel with a Block-III Receiver/baseband processor assembly combination (BLK-III/BPA) and a Block III Receiver/subcarrier demodulation assembly/symbol synchronization assembly combination (BLK-III/SDA/SSA). The telemetry simulator assembly provided the test signal for all three configurations, and the symbol signal to noise ratio as well as the symbol error rates were measured and compared. Furthermore, bit error rates were also measured by the system performance test computer for all three systems. Results indicate that the ARX-II telemetry performance is comparable and sometimes superior to the BLK-III/BPA and BLK-III/SDA/SSA combinations.

  9. Environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces: Tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 1: Specimens 1 to 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Klinect, V. W.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets and second surface mirrors of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicle were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that the ground connection of the metal layers of the blanket, as made by the baseline grounding technique using serrated washers and grommets, deteriorated with time at test. The discharges observed on the blankets were the glow type, not the 'lightning' strike observed on past specimens. Testing was performed at ambient laboratory temperatures.

  10. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  11. LEO Spacecraft Charging Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) spacecraft have gradually required ever-increasing power levels. As a rule, this has been accomplished through the use of high voltage systems. Recent failures and anomalies on such spacecraft have been traced to various design practices and materials choices related to the high voltage solar arrays. NASA Glenn has studied these anomalies including plasma chamber testing on arrays similar to those that experienced difficulties on orbit. Many others in the community have been involved in a comprehensive effort to understand the problems and to develop practices to avoid them. The NASA Space Environments and Effects program, recognizing the timeliness of this effort, has commissioned and funded a design guidelines document intended to capture the current state of understanding. We present here an overview of this document, which is now nearing completion.

  12. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

    The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

  13. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer conflation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. The objective of this task is to design 7H and 9H compressor rotor and stator structures with the goal of achieving high efficiency at lower cost and greater durability by applying proven GE Power Systems (GEPS) heavy-duty use design practices. The designs will be based on the GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) CF6-80C2 compressor. Transient and steady-state thermo-mechanical stress analyses will be run to ensure compliance with GEPS life standards. Drawings will be prepared for forgings, castings, machining, and instrumentation for full speed, no load (FSNL) tests of the first unit on both 9H and 7H applications.

  14. In-Situ Creep Testing Capability for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer

    2012-09-01

    An instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant conditions at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The test rig has been developed such that samples will be subjected to stresses ranging from 92 to 350 MPa at temperatures between 290 and 370 °C up to at least 2 dpa (displacement per atom). The status of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) efforts to develop the test rig in-situ creep testing capability for the ATR is described. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper reports efforts by INL to evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). Initial data from autoclave tests with 304 stainless steel (304 SS) specimens are reported.

  15. Advanced Test Reactor Capabilities and Future Irradiation Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the most versatile operating research reactors in the Untied States. The ATR has a long history of supporting reactor fuel and material research for the US government and other test sponsors. The INL is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and currently operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The ATR is the third generation of test reactors built at the Test Reactor Area, now named the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), whose mission is to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The current experiments in the ATR are for a variety of customers--US DOE, foreign governments and private researchers, and commercial companies that need neutrons. The ATR has several unique features that enable the reactor to perform diverse simultaneous tests for multiple test sponsors. The ATR has been operating since 1967, and is expected to continue operating for several more decades. The remainder of this paper discusses the ATR design features, testing options, previous experiment programs, future plans for the ATR capabilities and experiments, and some introduction to the INL and DOE's expectations for nuclear research in the future.

  16. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  17. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2001-06-01

    The following paper provides an overview of GE's H System{trademark} technology, and specifically, the design, development, and test activities associated with the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program. There was intensive effort expended in bringing this revolutionary advanced technology program to commercial reality. In addition to describing the magnitude of performance improvement possible through use of H System{trademark} technology, this paper discusses the technological milestones during the development of the first 9H (50Hz) and 7H (60 Hz) gas turbines. To illustrate the methodical product development strategy used by GE, this paper discusses several technologies that were essential to the introduction of the H System{trademark}. Also included are analyses of the series of comprehensive tests of materials, components and subsystems that necessarily preceded full scale field testing of the H System{trademark}. This paper validates one of the basic premises with which GE started the H System{trademark} development program: exhaustive and elaborate testing programs minimized risk at every step of this process, and increase the probability of success when the H System{trademark} is introduced into commercial service. In 1995, GE, the world leader in gas turbine technology for over half a century, in conjunction with the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's ATS program, introduced its new generation of gas turbines. This H System{trademark} technology is the first gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. Because fuel represents the largest individual expense of running a power plant, an efficiency increase of even a single percentage point can substantially reduce operating costs over the life of a typical gas-fired, combined-cycle plant in the 400 to 500 megawatt range. The H System{trademark} is not simply a state-of-the-art gas turbine. It is an advanced, integrated, combined-cycle system in which every component is

  18. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  19. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; Jeff B. Benson; James I. Cole; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-03-01

    In 2007, the United States Department of Energy designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory, as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer's physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, and obtained access to additional PIE equipment. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program enables and facilitates user access to several university and national laboratories. So far, seven universities and one national laboratory have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these universities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user's technical needs. Universities and laboratories included in the ATR NSUF partnership program are as follows: (1) Nuclear Services Laboratories at North Carolina State University; (2) PULSTAR Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University; (3) Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator) at the University of Michigan; (4) Irradiated Materials at the University of Michigan; (5) Harry Reid Center Radiochemistry Laboratories at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; (6) Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; (7) Tandem Accelerator Ion Beam. (1.7 MV terminal voltage tandem ion accelerator) at the University of Wisconsin

  20. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  1. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. Information specifically related to 9H production is presented for continuity in H program reporting, but lies outside the ATS program. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q98 through 3Q99. The most significant accomplishments are listed.

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Blaze, Gina M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science and exploration missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. The ASRG will utilize two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source to electricity. NASA GRC has initiated several experiments to demonstrate the functionality of the ASC, including: in-air extended operation, thermal vacuum extended operation, and ASRG simulation for mobile applications. The in-air and thermal vacuum test articles are intended to provide convertor performance data over an extended operating time. These test articles mimic some features of the ASRG without the requirement of low system mass. Operation in thermal vacuum adds the element of simulating deep space. This test article is being used to gather convertor performance and thermal data in a relevant environment. The ASRG simulator was designed to incorporate a minimum amount of support equipment, allowing integration onto devices powered directly by the convertors, such as a rover. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and implementation of these experiments.

  3. Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

  4. Gaia Spacecraft Mechanical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebranchu, C.; Blender, F.; Touzeau, S.; Escolar, D.

    2012-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's cornerstone mission for global space astrometry. Its goal is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented number of stars. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical system engineering and verification of the spacecraft. This development includes several technical challenges. First of all, the very high stability performance as required for the mission is a key driver for the design; which incurs a high degree of stability. This is achieved through decoupling between payload and service module, and the use of high-performance engineering tools and of Silicon Carbide (Boostec® SiC) for the Payload. Compliance of spacecraft mass and volume with launcher capability is another key challenge, as well as the development of the 10.3 meter diameter deployable sunshield. The spacecraft mechanical verification follows an innovative approach, with direct testing on the flight model, without dedicated structural model. Gaia mechanical development is the fruit of a successful international cooperation.

  5. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

  6. Hyperfiltration wash water recovery subsystem - Design and test results. [for extended mission spacecraft such as space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reysa, R. P.; Price, D. F.; Olcott, T.; Gaddis, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Hyperfiltration Wash Water Recovery (HWWR) subsystem, designed to offer low-power high-volume wash water purification for extended mission spacecraft, is discussed in terms of preprototype design and configuration. Heated wash water collected from the shower, hand wash, and laundry flows into a temperature-controlled (374 K) waste storage tank. Two parallel 25 micron absolute filters at the tank outlet remove large particles from the feed stream. A positive displacement feed pump delivers wash water to the hyperfiltration module at a constant flow rate of 0.20 lpm with discharge pressure variations from 4181-7239 Kpa. The hyperfiltration membrane module is a single-pass design including 36 porous stainless steel tubes, and is designed to provide an approximate water recovery rate of 90 percent. Permeate and brine water flows are monitored by flow meters, and removal of urea and ammonia is achieved by adding 15 percent NaOCl solution to the permeate fluid stream. An alternate module design using two diameters of tubing (allowing a smaller pressure drop and a larger membrane area) gave a superior predicted performance over the first module with larger tubing throughout.

  7. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Norman R.; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data.

  8. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.; Kakad, Yogendra P.

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  9. Design of a Gas Test Loop Facility for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Wemple

    2005-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-NE) has identified the need for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials, primarily in support of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. These fuel development programs require a unique environment to test and qualify potential reactor fuel forms. This environment should combine a high fast neutron flux with a hard neutron spectrum and high irradiation temperature. An effort is presently underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to modify a large flux trap in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to accommodate such a test facility [1,2]. The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project Conceptual Design was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Such a capability will be needed if programs such as the AFCI, Gen-IV, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), and space nuclear propulsion are to meet development objectives and schedules. These programs are beginning some irradiations now, but many call for fast flux testing within this decade.

  10. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  11. Advances in Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ellen; Mohammed, Shehla

    2016-01-01

    The ability to identify genetic mutations causing an increased risk of cancer represents the first widespread example of personalised medicine, in which genetic information is used to inform patients of their cancer risks and direct an appropriate strategy to minimise those risks. Increasingly, an understanding of the genetic basis of many cancers also facilitates selection of the most effective therapeutic options. The technology underlying genetic testing has been revolutionised in the years since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2001. This has advanced knowledge of the genetic factors underlying familial cancer risk, and has also improved genetic testing capacity allowing a larger number of patients to be tested for a constitutional cancer predisposition. To use these tests safely and effectively, they must be assessed for their ability to provide accurate and useful results, and be requested and interpreted by health professionals with an understanding of their strengths and limitations. Genetic testing is increasing in its scope and ambition with each year that passes, requiring a greater proportion of the healthcare workforce to acquire a working knowledge of genetics and genetic testing to manage their patients safely and sensitively. PMID:27075345

  12. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Harms, Elvin; Henderson, Stuart; Leibfritz, Jerry; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Valishev, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  13. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  14. INEL advanced test reactor plutonium-238 production feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, B.G. )

    1993-01-10

    Results of a preliminary neutronics assessment indicate the feasibility of [sup 238]Pu production in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Based on the results of this assessment, an annual production of 11.3 kg [sup 238]Pu can be achieved in the ATR. An annual loading of 102 kg [sup 237]Np is required for the particular target configuration and irradiation scenario examined. The [sup 236]Pu contaminant level is approximately 6 parts per million at zero cooling time. The product quality is about 90% [sup 238]Pu. Neptunium feedstock requirements, [sup 238]Pu production rates, or product purity can be optimized depending on their relative importances.

  15. Preliminary flight test results from the advanced photovoltaic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurement as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January, 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight, limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris catering and contamination.

  16. Preliminary results from the advanced photovoltaic experiment flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurement as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January, 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight; limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris catering and contamination.

  17. Preliminary results from the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Hickey, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Phototovoltaic Experiment is a space flight test designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurements and to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of the space environment on solar cells. After a flight of 69 months in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility set of experiments, it was retrieved in January 1990. The electronic data acquisition system functioned as designed, measuring and recording cell performance data over the first 358 days of flight, limited by battery lifetime. Significant physical changes are also readily apparent, including erosion of front surface paint, micrometeoroid and debris cratering, and contamination.

  18. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions - Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not now required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already apparent as

  19. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Collin J. Knight; Jeff B. Benson; Frances M. Marshall; Mitchell K. Meyer; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was designated by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). This designation made test space within the ATR and post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment at INL available for use by approved researchers via a proposal and peer review process. The goal of the ATR NSUF is to provide those researchers with the best ideas access to the most advanced test capability, regardless of the proposer’s physical location. Since 2007, the ATR NSUF has expanded its available reactor test space, obtained access to additional PIE equipment, taken steps to enable the most advanced post-irradiation analysis possible, and initiated an educational program and digital learning library to help potential users better understand the critical issues in reactor technology and how a test reactor facility could be used to address this critical research. Recognizing that INL may not have all the desired PIE equipment, or that some equipment may become oversubscribed, the ATR NSUF established a Partnership Program. This program invited universities to nominate their capability to become part of a broader user facility. Any university is eligible to self-nominate. Any nomination is then peer reviewed to ensure that the addition of the university facilities adds useful capability to the NSUF. Once added to the NSUF team, the university capability is then integral to the NSUF operations and is available to all users via the proposal process. So far, six universities have been added to the ATR NSUF with capability that includes reactor-testing space, PIE equipment, and ion beam irradiation facilities. With the addition of these university capabilities, irradiation can occur in multiple reactors and post-irradiation exams can be performed at multiple universities. In each case, the choice of facilities is based on the user’s technical needs. The current NSUF partners are

  20. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions – Main Document

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not currently required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already

  1. Preventing Spacecraft Failures Due to Tribological Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Many mechanical failures that occur on spacecraft are caused by tribological problems. This publication presents a study that was conducted by the author on various preventatives, analyses, controls and tests (PACTs) that could be used to prevent spacecraft mechanical system failure. A matrix is presented in the paper that plots tribology failure modes versus various PACTs that should be performed before a spacecraft is launched in order to insure success. A strawman matrix was constructed by the author and then was sent out to industry and government spacecraft designers, scientists and builders of spacecraft for their input. The final matrix is the result of their input. In addition to the matrix, this publication describes the various PACTs that can be performed and some fundamental knowledge on the correct usage of lubricants for spacecraft applications. Even though the work was done specifically to prevent spacecraft failures the basic methodology can be applied to other mechanical system areas.

  2. 12 CFR 1266.3 - Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. 1266... Advances to Members § 1266.3 Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. (a) A Bank shall make long-term... housing finance assets. (b)(1) Prior to approving an application for a long-term advance, a Bank...

  3. 12 CFR 1266.3 - Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. 1266... Advances to Members § 1266.3 Purpose of long-term advances; Proxy test. (a) A Bank shall make long-term... housing finance assets. (b)(1) Prior to approving an application for a long-term advance, a Bank...

  4. Testing of Alternative Materials for Advanced Suit Bladders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Makinen, Janice; Tang, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate advanced pressure bladder membrane materials have been developed for NASA Johnson Space Center by DSM Biomedical for selective permeability of carbon dioxide and water vapor. These materials were elasthane and two other formulations of thermoplastic polyether polyurethane. Each material was tested in two thicknesses for permeability to carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Although oxygen leaks through the suit bladder would amount to only about 60 cc/hr in a full size suit, significant amounts of carbon dioxide would not be rejected by the system to justify its use. While the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen permeability is about 48 to 1, this is offset by the small partial pressure of carbon dioxide in acceptable breathing atmospheres of the suit. Humidity management remains a possible use of the membranes depending on the degree to which the water permeability is inhibited by cations in the sweat. Tests are underway to explore cation fouling from sweat.

  5. Acoustic test and analyses of three advanced turboprop models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, B. M.; Metzger, F. B.

    1980-01-01

    Results of acoustic tests of three 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter models of the prop-fan (a small diameter, highly loaded. Multi-bladed variable pitch advanced turboprop) are presented. Results show that there is little difference in the noise produced by unswept and slightly swept designs. However, the model designed for noise reduction produces substantially less noise at test conditions simulating 0.8 Mach number cruise speed or at conditions simulating takeoff and landing. In the near field at cruise conditions the acoustically designed. In the far field at takeoff and landing conditions the acoustically designed model is 5 db quieter than unswept or slightly swept designs. Correlation between noise measurement and theoretical predictions as well as comparisons between measured and predicted acoustic pressure pulses generated by the prop-fan blades are discussed. The general characteristics of the pulses are predicted. Shadowgraph measurements were obtained which showed the location of bow and trailing waves.

  6. Design of Test Support Hardware for Advanced Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Jeffrey A.; Rhodes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: (1) cooling to remove metabolic heat, and (2) breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment. This design had to be portable and supply a minimum cooling rate of 2500 BTU/hr. The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg., and it can generate a maximum water flowrate of 2.5 LPM. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit. The system intakes 150 PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4.3 and 8.3 PSIG. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1.5x operating pressure: 6.6 and 13.2 PSIG, respectively. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge. Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured. The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step

  7. Development of an advanced respirator fit-test headform.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael S; Zhuang, Ziqing; Hanson, David; Heimbuch, Brian K; McDonald, Michael J; Palmiero, Andrew J; Shaffer, Ronald E; Harnish, Delbert; Husband, Michael; Wander, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Improved respirator test headforms are needed to measure the fit of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for protection studies against viable airborne particles. A Static (i.e., non-moving, non-speaking) Advanced Headform (StAH) was developed for evaluating the fit of N95 FFRs. The StAH was developed based on the anthropometric dimensions of a digital headform reported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and has a silicone polymer skin with defined local tissue thicknesses. Quantitative fit factor evaluations were performed on seven N95 FFR models of various sizes and designs. Donnings were performed with and without a pre-test leak checking method. For each method, four replicate FFR samples of each of the seven models were tested with two donnings per replicate, resulting in a total of 56 tests per donning method. Each fit factor evaluation was comprised of three 86-sec exercises: "Normal Breathing" (NB, 11.2 liters per min (lpm)), "Deep Breathing" (DB, 20.4 lpm), then NB again. A fit factor for each exercise and an overall test fit factor were obtained. Analysis of variance methods were used to identify statistical differences among fit factors (analyzed as logarithms) for different FFR models, exercises, and testing methods. For each FFR model and for each testing method, the NB and DB fit factor data were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Significant differences were seen in the overall exercise fit factor data for the two donning methods among all FFR models (pooled data) and in the overall exercise fit factor data for the two testing methods within certain models. Utilization of the leak checking method improved the rate of obtaining overall exercise fit factors ≥100. The FFR models, which are expected to achieve overall fit factors ≥ 100 on human subjects, achieved overall exercise fit factors ≥ 100 on the StAH. Further research is needed to evaluate the correlation of FFRs fitted on the StAH to FFRs

  8. Design considerations of the irradiation test vehicle for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being jointly developed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMIT) and the U.S. Fusion Program. The vehicle is intended for neutron irradiation testing of candidate structural materials, including vanadium-based alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low activation steels. It could possibly be used for U.S./Japanese collaboration in the Jupiter Program. The first test train is scheduled to be completed by September 1998. In this report, we present the functional requirements for the vehicle and a preliminary design that satisfies these requirements.

  9. Design of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight particle fuel tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the newly formed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the next generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) in the United States. The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. These AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The experiments will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature monitoring and control combined with on-line fission product monitoring of the sweep gas. The final design phase has just been completed on the first experiment (AGR-1) in this series and the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation. This paper discusses the development of the experimental hardware and support system designs and the status of the experiment.

  10. Gimballing Spacecraft Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Tim; Bossard, John

    2010-01-01

    A gimballing spacecraft reaction-control-system thruster was developed that consists of a small hydrogen/oxygen-burning rocket engine integrated with a Canfield joint. (Named after its inventor, a Canfield joint is a special gimbal mount that is strong and stable yet allows a wide range of motion.) One especially notable aspect of the design of this thruster is integration, into both the stationary legs and the moving arms of the Canfield joint, of the passages through which the hydrogen and oxygen flow to the engine. The thruster was assembled and subjected to tests in which the engine was successfully fired both with and without motion in the Canfield joint.

  11. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the atmospheric Explorer satellite C and D. [quality control testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The capacity of the cells ranged from 6.6 to 7.6 ampere hours during the three capacity tests. No voltage requirements or limits were exceeded during any portion of the test. All cells recovered to a voltage in excess of 1.193 volts during the 24-hour open-circuit portion of the internal short test. All the cells reached a pressure of 20 psia before reaching the voltage limit of 1.550 volts during the pressure versus capacity test. The average ampere/hours in and voltages at this pressure were 9.1 and 1.513, respectively. All cells exhibited pressure decay in the range of 1 to 5 psia during the last 30 minutes of the 1-hour open circuit stand. Average capacity out was 7.2 ampere/hours.

  12. Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

  13. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Tri, T. O.; Packham, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  14. Simulation and ground testing with the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS), an active sensor system that provides near-range 6-degree-of-freedom sensor data, has been developed as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system for the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART). The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state imager to detect the light returned from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The development of the sensor, through initial prototypes, final prototypes, and three flight units, has required a great deal of testing at every phase, and the different types of testing, their effectiveness, and their results, are presented in this paper, focusing on the testing of the flight units. Testing has improved the sensor's performance.

  15. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  16. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill at the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.

  17. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Facilities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; Raymond V. Furstenau

    2007-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These different capabilities include passive sealed capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. The ATR has enhanced capabilities in experiment monitoring and control systems for instrumented and/or temperature controlled experiments. The control systems utilize feedback from thermocouples in the experiment to provide a custom blended flowing inert gas mixture to control the temperature in the experiments. Monitoring systems have also been utilized on the exhaust gas lines from the experiment to monitor different parameters, such as fission gases for fuel experiments, during irradiation. ATR’s unique control system provides axial flux profiles in the experiments, unperturbed by axially positioned control components, throughout each reactor operating cycle and over the duration of test programs requiring many years of irradiation. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 1.6 cm (0.625 inches) to 12.7 cm (5.0 inches) over an active core length of 122 cm (48.0 inches). Thermal and fast neutron fluxes can be adjusted radially across the core depending on the needs of individual test programs. This paper will discuss the different irradiation capabilities available and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. Examples of different experiments will also be discussed to demonstrate the use of the capabilities and facilities at ATR for performing irradiation experiments.

  18. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  19. The role of potential barrier formation in spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    The role of potential barrier formation in spacecraft charging at geosynchronous orbit is discussed. The evidence for, and understanding of, spacecraft charging and its hazards to spacecraft operation in the early 1970's are summarized. Theoretical and experimental advances which have changed the basic understanding of the role of barrier formation in charging phenomenology are described. Potential barriers are found to play a fundamental role in the dynamics of spacecraft charging. The consequences for structural and differential charging and for discharging are described.

  20. Safety of flight testing for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, Robert T.; Brown, Randall W.; Wiley, Larry L.

    1995-05-01

    The magnitude of requirements, specifications, testing, and liability associated with producing an item for military use has, no doubt, caused many potential helmet vendors to stay away from the military customer. This is a dilemma for the military as well as the vendors. This paper is an attempt to educate people on the requirements for one aspect of advanced helmet development. That aspect is the Safety-of-Flight requirement. Safety-of-Flight encompasses every aspect of flight to include preflight and post flight. Emergency egress, high-voltage containment, helmet fit, donning and doffing, windblast protection and other aspects of protection during ejection, comfort, aural protection, and compatibility with life support equipment are a few of the items that must be evaluated prior to flying in a multi-million dollar fighter. This paper will highlight the types of testing required with a short explanation of why this testing is necessary as well as what must be accomplished in order to pass the stated requirement.

  1. Database requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator project

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.

    1984-11-05

    The database requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) project are outlined. ATA is a state-of-the-art electron accelerator capable of producing energetic (50 million electron volt), high current (10,000 ampere), short pulse (70 billionths of a second) beams of electrons for a wide variety of applications. Databasing is required for two applications. First, the description of the configuration of facility itself requires an extended database. Second, experimental data gathered from the facility must be organized and managed to insure its full utilization. The two applications are intimately related since the acquisition and analysis of experimental data requires knowledge of the system configuration. This report reviews the needs of the ATA program and current implementation, intentions, and desires. These database applications have several unique aspects which are of interest and will be highlighted. The features desired in an ultimate database system are outlined. 3 references, 5 figures.

  2. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  3. Development of an Advanced Respirator Fit-Test Headform

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Michael S.; Zhuang, Ziqing; Hanson, David; Heimbuch, Brian K.; McDonald, Michael J.; Palmiero, Andrew J.; Shaffer, Ronald E.; Harnish, Delbert; Husband, Michael; Wander, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Improved respirator test headforms are needed to measure the fit of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for protection studies against viable airborne particles. A Static (i.e., non-moving, non-speaking) Advanced Headform (StAH) was developed for evaluating the fit of N95 FFRs. The StAH was developed based on the anthropometric dimensions of a digital headform reported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and has a silicone polymer skin with defined local tissue thicknesses. Quantitative fit factor evaluations were performed on seven N95 FFR models of various sizes and designs. Donnings were performed with and without a pre-test leak checking method. For each method, four replicate FFR samples of each of the seven models were tested with two donnings per replicate, resulting in a total of 56 tests per donning method. Each fit factor evaluation was comprised of three 86-sec exercises: “Normal Breathing” (NB, 11.2 liters per min (lpm)), “Deep Breathing” (DB, 20.4 lpm), then NB again. A fit factor for each exercise and an overall test fit factor were obtained. Analysis of variance methods were used to identify statistical differences among fit factors (analyzed as logarithms) for different FFR models, exercises, and testing methods. For each FFR model and for each testing method, the NB and DB fit factor data were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Significant differences were seen in the overall exercise fit factor data for the two donning methods among all FFR models (pooled data) and in the overall exercise fit factor data for the two testing methods within certain models. Utilization of the leak checking method improved the rate of obtaining overall exercise fit factors ≥100. The FFR models, which are expected to achieve overall fit factors ≥ 100 on human subjects, achieved overall exercise fit factors ≥ 100 on the StAH. Further research is needed to evaluate the correlation of FFRs fitted on the StAH to

  4. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  5. Modeling of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of modeling of spacecraft charging are discussed: statistical models, parametric models, and physical models. Local time dependence of circuit upset for DoD and communication satellites, and electron current to a sphere with an assumed Debye potential distribution are presented. Four regions were involved in spacecraft charging: (1) undisturbed plasma, (2) plasma sheath region, (3) spacecraft surface, and (4) spacecraft equivalent circuit.

  6. Testing of Gas Reactor Materials and Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has long been involved in testing gas reactor materials, and has developed facilities well suited for providing the right conditions and environment for gas reactor tests. This paper discusses the different types of irradiation hardware that have been utilized in past ATR irradiation tests of gas reactor materials. The new Gas Test Loop facility currently being developed for the ATR is discussed and the different approaches being considered in the design of the facility. The different options for an irradiation experiment such as active versus passive temperature control, neutron spectrum tailoring, and different types of lead experiment sweep gas monitors are also discussed. The paper is then concluded with examples of different past and present gas reactor material and fuel irradiations.

  7. TESTING OF GAS REACTOR MATERIALS AND FUEL IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.B.

    2004-10-06

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has long been involved in testing gas reactor materials, and has developed facilities well suited for providing the right conditions and environment for gas reactor tests. This paper discusses the different types of irradiation hardware that have been utilized in past ATR irradiation tests of gas reactor materials. The new Gas Test Loop facility currently being developed for the ATR is discussed and the different approaches being considered in the design of the facility. The different options for an irradiation experiment such as active versus passive temperature control, neutron spectrum tailoring, and different types of lead experiment sweep gas monitors are also discussed. The paper is then concluded with examples of different past and present gas reactor material and fuel irradiations.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor - A National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford J. Stanley

    2008-05-01

    The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected nuclear research reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The unique serpentine configuration of the fuel elements creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) and nine flux traps. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 additional irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. There are also 34 low-flux irradiation positions in the irradiation tanks outside the core reflector tank. The ATR is designed to provide a test environment for the evaluation of the effects of intense radiation (neutron and gamma). Due to the unique serpentine core design each of the five lobes can be operated at different powers and controlled independently. Options exist for the individual test trains and assemblies to be either cooled by the ATR coolant (i.e., exposed to ATR coolant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and neutron flux) or to be installed in their own independent test loops where such parameters as temperature, pressure, flow rate, neutron flux, and energy can be controlled per experimenter specifications. The full-power maximum thermal neutron flux is ~1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec with a maximum fast flux of ~5.0 x1014 n/cm2-sec. The Advanced Test Reactor, now a National Scientific User Facility, is a versatile tool in which a variety of nuclear reactor, nuclear physics, reactor fuel, and structural material irradiation experiments can be conducted. The cumulative effects of years of irradiation in a normal power reactor can be duplicated in a few weeks or months in the ATR due to its unique design, power density, and operating flexibility.

  9. Low Temperature Life-cycle Testing of a Lithium-ion Battery for Low-earth-orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2004-01-01

    A flight-qualified, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery developed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 lander is undergoing life-testing at low temperature under a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) profile to assess its capability to provide long term energy storage for aerospace missions. NASA has embarked upon an ambitious course to return humans to the moon by 2015-2020 in preparation for robotic and human exploration of Mars and robotic exploration of the moons of outer planets. Li-ion batteries are excellent candidates to provide power and energy storage for multiple aspects of these missions due to their low specific energy, low energy density, and excellent low temperature performance. Laboratory testing of Li-ion technology is necessary in order to assess lifetime, characterize multi-cell battery-level performance under aerospace conditions, and to gauge safety aspects of the technology. Life-cycle testing provides an opportunity to examine battery-level performance and the dynamics of individual cells in the stack over the entire life of the battery. Data generated through this testing will be critical to establish confidence in the technology for its widespread use in manned and unmanned mission. This paper discusses the performance of the 28 volt, 25 ampere-hour battery through 6000 LEO cycles, which corresponds to one year on LEO orbit. Testing is being performed at 0 C and 40% depth-of-discharge. Individual cell behaviors and their effect on the performance of the battery are described. Capacity, impedance, energy efficiency and end-of-discharge voltage at 1000 cycle intervals are reported. Results from this life-testing will help contribute to the database on battery-level performance of aerospace Li-ion batteries and low temperature cycling under LEO conditions.

  10. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  11. Results of a laboratory experiment that tests rotating unbalanced-mass devices for scanning gimbaled payloads and free-flying spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Polites, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Rotating unbalanced-mass (RUM) devices are a new way to scan space-based, balloon-borne, and ground-based gimbaled payloads, like x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes. They can also be used to scan free-flying spacecraft. Circular scans, linear scans, and raster scans can be generated. A pair of RUM devices generates the basic scan motion and an auxiliary control system using torque motors, control moment gyros, or reaction wheels keeps the scan centered on the target and produces some complementary motion for raster scanning. Previous analyses and simulation results show that this approach offers significant power savings compared to scanning only with the auxiliary control system, especially with large payloads and high scan frequencies. However, these claims have never been proven until now. This paper describes a laboratory experiment which tests the concept of scanning a gimbaled payload with RUM devices. A description of the experiment is given and test results that prove the concept are presented. The test results are compared with those from a computer simulation model of the experiment and the differences are discussed.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  13. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reppucci, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the second in a series of semi-annual reports that describe the technology areas being advanced under this contract and the progress achieved to date. The last technology report concentrated on the spacecraft. This report places greater emphasis on the payloads. White papers by several of the payload providers are attached. These are HSI, UCB, PRKE, and CAFE. This report covers the period from January 1995 through June 1995.

  14. Low Temperature Life-Cycle Testing of a Lithium-Ion Battery for Low-Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2006-01-01

    A flight-qualified, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery developed for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Landeris undergoing life-testing at low temperature under a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) profile to assess its capability to provide long term energy storage for aerospace missions. NASA has embarked upon an ambitious course to return humans to the moon by 2015-2020 in preparation for robotic and human exploration of Mars and robotic exploration of the moons of outer planets. Li-ion batteries are excellent candidates to provide power and energy storage for multiple aspects of these missions due to their high specific energy, high energy density, and excellent low temperature performance. Laboratory testing of Li-ion technology is necessary in order to assess lifetime, characterize multi-cell battery-level performance under aerospace conditions, and to gauge safety aspects of the technology. Life-cycle testing provides an opportunity to examine battery-level performance and the dynamics of individual cells in the stack over the entire life of the battery. Data generated through this testing will be critical to establish confidence in the technology for its widespread use in manned and unmanned missions.

  15. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furstenau, R.V.; Ingrahm, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA and is owned and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The ATR is operated for the US DOE by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies. In recent years, prime irradiation space in the ATR has been made available for use by customers having irradiation service needs in addition to the reactor`s principal user, the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. To enhance the reactor`s capabilities, the US DOE has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and temperature control for up to 28 experiments. The ATR-ITV will have the flexibility to simultaneously support a variety of experiments requiring fast, thermal or mixed spectrum neutron environments. Temperature control is accomplished by varying the thermal conductivity across a gas gap established between the experiment specimen capsule wall and the experiment `in-pile tube (IPT)` inside diameter. Thermal conductivity is adjusted by alternating the control gas mixture ratio of two gases with different thermal conductivities.

  16. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  17. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  18. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating

  19. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate ('dynamic fatigue') testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rate in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  20. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.