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Sample records for advanced spray-dried inhalable

  1. Design and physicochemical characterization of advanced spray-dried tacrolimus multifunctional particles for inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Kuhn, Robert J; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design, develop, and optimize respirable tacrolimus microparticles and nanoparticles and multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic particles for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced at different pump rates by advanced spray-drying particle engineering design from organic solution in closed mode. In addition, multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic dry powder particles were prepared by co-dissolving tacrolimus and lung surfactant mimic phospholipids in methanol, followed by advanced co-spray-drying particle engineering design technology in closed mode. The lung surfactant mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-1-glycerol]. Laser diffraction particle sizing indicated that the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery, whereas scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology. Increasing the pump rate percent of tacrolimus solution resulted in a larger particle size. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicated that spray drying produced particles with higher amounts of amorphous phase. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry also confirmed the preservation of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state for all engineered respirable particles. Furthermore, it was observed in hot-stage micrographs that raw tacrolimus displayed a liquid crystal transition following the main phase transition, which is consistent with its interfacial properties. Water vapor uptake and lyotropic phase transitions in the solid state at varying levels of relative humidity were determined by gravimetric vapor sorption technique. Water content in the various powders was very low and well within the levels necessary

  2. Design and physicochemical characterization of advanced spray-dried tacrolimus multifunctional particles for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Kuhn, Robert J; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design, develop, and optimize respirable tacrolimus microparticles and nanoparticles and multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic particles for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced at different pump rates by advanced spray-drying particle engineering design from organic solution in closed mode. In addition, multifunctional tacrolimus lung surfactant mimic dry powder particles were prepared by co-dissolving tacrolimus and lung surfactant mimic phospholipids in methanol, followed by advanced co-spray-drying particle engineering design technology in closed mode. The lung surfactant mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-1-glycerol]. Laser diffraction particle sizing indicated that the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery, whereas scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology. Increasing the pump rate percent of tacrolimus solution resulted in a larger particle size. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry thermograms indicated that spray drying produced particles with higher amounts of amorphous phase. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry also confirmed the preservation of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state for all engineered respirable particles. Furthermore, it was observed in hot-stage micrographs that raw tacrolimus displayed a liquid crystal transition following the main phase transition, which is consistent with its interfacial properties. Water vapor uptake and lyotropic phase transitions in the solid state at varying levels of relative humidity were determined by gravimetric vapor sorption technique. Water content in the various powders was very low and well within the levels necessary

  3. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  4. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972

  5. Physicochemical characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of organic solution advanced spray-dried cyclosporine A multifunctional particles for dry powder inhalation aerosol delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Weifen; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    In this systematic and comprehensive study, inhalation powders of the polypeptide immunosuppressant drug – cyclosporine A – for lung delivery as dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were successfully designed, developed, and optimized. Several spray drying pump rates were rationally chosen. Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, Karl Fischer titration, laser size diffraction, and gravimetric vapor sorption. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using a next generation impactor with a Food and Drug Administration-approved DPI device. These DPIs displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance with high values in emitted dose, respirable fraction, and fine particle fraction. In addition, novel multifunctional inhalation aerosol powder formulations of cyclosporine A with lung surfactant-mimic phospholipids were also successfully designed and developed by advanced organic solution cospray drying in closed mode. The lung surfactantmimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-snglycero- 3-(phosphor-rac-1-glycerol). These cyclosporine A lung surfactant-mimic aerosol powder formulations were comprehensively characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state was preserved following advanced organic solution spray drying in closed mode. These novel multifunctional inhalation powders were optimized for DPI delivery with excellent aerosol dispersion performance and high aerosol performance parameters. PMID:23569375

  6. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Meenach, Samantha A; Vogt, Frederick G; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and chemical imaging confirmed the chemical homogeneity of the particles. The dry powder aerosol dispersion properties were evaluated using the Next Generation Impactor™ (NGI™) coupled with the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler device, where the mass median aerodynamic diameter from 2.6 to 4.3 μm with excellent aerosol dispersion performance, as exemplified by high values of emitted dose, fine particle fraction, and respirable fraction. Overall, it was determined that the pump rates defined in the

  7. Development of spray dried liposomal dry powder inhaler of Dapsone.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate practical feasibility of site specific pulmonary delivery of liposomal encapsulated Dapsone (DS) dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as an effective alternative in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) associated with immunocompromised patients. DS encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and resultant liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. DS nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by ultra centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different carriers like lactose, sucrose, and hydrolyzed gelatin, and 15% L-leucine as antiadherent. The resultant dispersion was spray dried and spray dried formulation were characterized to ascertain its performance. In vitro pulmonary deposition was assessed using Andersen Cascade Impactor as per USP. NLs were found to have average size of 137 +/- 15 nm, 95.17 +/- 3.43% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 0.8314 +/- 0.0827 mV. Hydrolyzed gelatin based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 7.9 +/- 1.1 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 75.6 +/- 1.6%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 2.3 +/- 0.1. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 16 h, and obeys Higuchi's Controlled Release model. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of DS encapsulated in NLs for site specific controlled and prolonged release behavior at the site of action and hence, may play a promising role in prevention of PCP. PMID:18446460

  8. Quality by design - Spray drying of insulin intended for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bjerregaard, Simon; Hovgaard, Lars; Havelund, Svend; van de Weert, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Quality by design (QBD) refers to a holistic approach towards drug development. Important parts of QBD include definition of final product performance and understanding of formulation and process parameters. Inhalation of proteins for systemic distribution requires specific product characteristics and a manufacturing process which produces the desired product. The objective of this study was to understand the spray drying process of insulin intended for pulmonary administration. In particular, the effects of process and formulation parameters on particle characteristics and insulin integrity were investigated. Design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis were used to identify important process parameters and correlations between particle characteristics. The independent parameters included the process parameters nozzle, feed, and drying air flow rate and drying air temperature along with the insulin concentration as a formulation parameter. The dependent variables included droplet size, geometric particle size, aerodynamic particle size, yield, density, tap density, moisture content, outlet temperature, morphology, and physical and chemical integrity. Principal component analysis was performed to find correlations between dependent and independent variables. Prediction equations were obtained for all dependent variables including both interaction and quadratic terms. Overall, the insulin concentration was found to be the most important parameter, followed by inlet drying air temperature and the nozzle gas flow rate. The insulin concentration mainly affected the particle size, yield and tap density, while the inlet drying air temperature mainly affected the moisture content. No change was observed in physical and chemical integrity of the insulin molecule. PMID:18755270

  9. Comparison of physical and inhalation properties of spray-dried and micronized terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Thi, Thanh Huong Hoang; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc; Flament, Marie-Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Terbutaline sulphate particles, for use in dry powder inhaler formulations, were prepared by spray-drying, using a Büchi 190 mini spray dryer. Spray-drying conditions were chosen to allow the production of spray-dried terbutaline sulphate with a size similar to micronized terbutaline sulphate, that is to say about 2.9 microm of volume mean diameter. The physical properties and in vitro inhalation behaviour of micronized and spray-dried terbutaline sulphate were compared. X-ray diffraction, DSC, SEM and laser size analysis were investigated. Spray-dying produced spherically shaped particles with amorphous structure. After blending with different lactoses, adhesion and aerodynamic properties were investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. The adhesion of terbutaline sulphate on the lactoses tested was lower in the case of the spray-dried drug. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was conducted using a twin stage impactor. The emitted doses and the fine particle doses were higher with the spray-dried terbutaline sulphate. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed that there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. There was a linear relationship between the adhesion characteristics and the fine particle dose. PMID:18504120

  10. In vitro biological activity of resveratrol using a novel inhalable resveratrol spray-dried formulation.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Valentina; Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Haghi, Mehra; Young, Paul M; Scalia, Santo; Traini, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare inhalable resveratrol by spray drying for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Resveratrol, with a spherical morphology and particle diameter less than 5 μm, was successfully manufactured. Fine particle fraction (FPF) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of spray-dried resveratrol was 39.9 ± 1.1% and 3.7 ± 0.1 μm, respectively, when assessed with an Andersen cascade impactor (ACI) at 60 l/min. The cytotoxicity results of resveratrol on Calu-3 revealed that the cells could tolerate high concentration of resveratrol (up to 160 μM). In addition, in transport experiments using Snapwells, it was observed that more than 80% of the deposited dry powder was transported across the Calu-3 cells to the basal chamber within four hours. The expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from Calu-3 induced with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were significantly reduced after treatment with spray-dried resveratrol. The antioxidant assay (radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide production) showed spray-dried resveratrol to possess an equivalent antioxidant property as compared to vitamin C. Results presented in this investigation suggested that resveratrol could potentially be developed as a dry powder for inhalation for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases like COPD. PMID:26117190

  11. Minimal amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine improve aerosol performance of spray-dried temocillin powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, Brieuc; Eloy, Pierre; Loira-Pastoriza, Cristina; Ucakar, Bernard; Sanogo, Abdoul Aziz; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; Vanbever, Rita

    2015-11-30

    Administration of antibiotics by inhalation can greatly improve drug targeting to the site of respiratory infections. In addition, dry powder inhalers are particularly convenient for the patients. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the interest of pulmonary temocillin delivery to reach high temocillin concentrations locally in the lungs as well as to prepare a spray-dried temocillin powder for inhalation using a minimal amount of generally recognized as safe excipients. Intratracheal instillation of a temocillin solution allowed to reach higher and more sustained drug concentrations in the lungs than intravenous injection in mice, although a 10-fold lower temocillin dose was delivered intratracheally than systemically. A spray-dried powder of pure temocillin presented a fine particle fraction of 9% of the dose loaded in the inhaler. However, the incorporation of 0.5% to 20% of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the powder increased the fine particle fraction 4- to 5-fold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that DPPC concentrated at the particle surface with its aliphatic chains laterally packed. The minimal amount of DPPC needed to improve the aerosol performance of temocillin supports the use of this excipient in the formulation of cohesive antibiotic powders for inhalation. PMID:26456267

  12. Formulation of inhalable lipid-based salbutamol sulfate microparticles by spray drying technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of salbutamol sulfate (SS) by the aid of solid lipid microparticles (SLmPs), composed of biocompatible phospholipids or cholesterol. Methods The SLmPs were prepared by using two different solvent systems (ethanol and water-ethanol) and lipid carriers (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol) with/without L-leucine in the spray drying process. The spray-dried microparticles were physically-mixed with coarse lactose monohydrate in order to make our final DPI formulations and were investigated in terms of physical characteristics as well as in vitro drug release profile and aerosolization behavior. Results We observed significant differences in the sizes, morphologies, and in vitro pulmonary depositions between the formulations. In particular, the SS-containing SLmPs prepared with water-ethanol (30:70 v/v) solution of DPPC and L-leucine which had then been blended with coarse lactose (1:9 w/w) exhibited the highest emitted dose (87.9%) and fine particle fraction (42.7%) among the formulations. In vitro drug release study indicated that despite of having a significant initial burst release for both cholesterol and DPPC-based microparticles, the remained drug released more slowly than the pure drug. Conclusion This study demonstrated the potential of using lipid carriers as well as L-leucine in DPI formulations of SS to improve its aerosolization behavior and retard the release profile of the drug. PMID:24919924

  13. Phospholipid-based pyrazinamide spray-dried inhalable powders for treating tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eedara, Basanth Babu; Tucker, Ian G; Das, Shyamal C

    2016-06-15

    Sterilization of necrotic granulomas containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis is difficult by oral and parenteral drug delivery of antitubercular drugs. Pulmonary delivery of these drugs should increase the concentration of drug in the granulomas and, thereby, improve the sterilization. The current study aimed to develop spray-dried (SD) powders composed of pyrazinamide, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine N-(carbonyl-methoxy polyethylene glycol-2000) (DSPE-PEG2k) and l-leucine to improve drug delivery to the deeper lung. Pyrazinamide SD powders with varying amounts of DPPC (5, 15 and 25% w/w) were produced using a BUCHI B-290 Mini Spray-Dryer. The powders were characterized physicochemically and for their aerosol dispersion performance using a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). All the SD powders had a narrow particle size distribution (1.29-4.26μm) with low residual moisture (<2%). Solid state characterization confirmed that the α-polymorphic crystalline pyrazinamide transformed into the γ-polymorphic form during spray-drying. SD pyrazinamide (PDDL0) without excipients showed very poor aerosolization with a fine particle fraction (FPF%) of 8.5±1.0%. However, the SD powder with 25% w/w DPPC (PDDL3) exhibited the best aerosolization with a FPF of 73.2±4.0%. Incorporating high amounts of DPPC improved aerosolization of SD powders; however further evaluation of the developed inhalation powders is necessary to determine their therapeutic potential for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:27091294

  14. The effect of process variables on the degradation and physical properties of spray dried insulin intended for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, Kristina; Claesson, Malin; Lilliehorn, Pontus; Lindén, Helena; Bäckström, Kjell

    2002-02-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of process variables on the degradation and physical properties of spray dried insulin intended for inhalation. A 2(4) full factorial experimentally designed study was performed to investigate the influence of the following independent spray drying variables: feed flow rate, nozzle gas flow rate, inlet air temperature and aspirator capacity (drying gas flow rate). Human insulin (biosynthetic and Ph.Eur. quality) was dissolved in distilled water to concentrations of 5 mg/ml. The solutions were spray dried in a Mini Spray Dryer Büchi and the dry powders produced were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, laser diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and weighing. The degradation of insulin was found to be affected mainly by the process variables that determine the outlet air temperature, i.e.: inlet air temperature, aspirator capacity and feed flow rate. The outlet air temperature should be kept below 120 degrees C to avoid degradation. A statistical optimization of the spray drying variables was performed, and found to recommend an experiment with an outlet air temperature of 61+/-4 degrees C. This experiment ought to generate a yield of 54+/-7% by weight of particles with a mass median diameter 2.9+/-0.4 microm, moisture content 3.9+/-0.5% by weight, content of high molecular weight proteins 0.3+/-0.1% by area, A-21 desamido insulin 0.3+/-0.05% by area and other insulin related compounds 0.3+/-0.1% by area. PMID:11897427

  15. Co-spray dried resveratrol and budesonide inhalation formulation for reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Valentina; Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Scalia, Santo

    2016-04-30

    Oxidative stress is instrumental in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Novel therapeutic strategies that target macrophages, based on the use of antioxidant compounds, could be explored to improve corticosteroid responses in COPD patients. In this study, inhalable microparticles containing budesonide (BD) and resveratrol (RES) were prepared and characterized. This approach was undertaken to develop a multi-drug inhalable formulation with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities for treatment of chronic lung diseases. The inhalable microparticles containing different ratios of BD and RES were prepared by spray drying. The physico-chemical properties of the formulations were characterized in terms of surface morphology, particle size, physical and thermal stability. Additionally, in vitro aerosol performances of these formulations were evaluated with the multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI) at 60 and 90 l/min, respectively. The cytotoxicity effect of the formulations was evaluated using rat alveolar macrophages. The biological responses of alveolar macrophages in terms of cytokine expressions, nitric oxide (NO) production and free radical scavenging activities were also tested. The co-spray dried (Co-SD) microparticles of all formulations exhibited morphologies appropriate for inhalation administration. Analysis of the deposition profiles showed an increase in aerosol performance proportional to BD concentration. Cell viability assay demonstrated that alveolar macrophages could tolerate a wide range of RES and BD concentrations. In addition, RES and BD were able to decrease the levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced alveolar macrophages. This study has successfully established the manufacture of Co-SD formulations of RES and BD with morphology and aerosol properties suitable for inhalation drug delivery, negligible in vitro toxicity and enhanced

  16. Formulation and characterization of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) for targeted pulmonary delivery via spray drying.

    PubMed

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Meenach, Samantha A; Arnold, Susanne M; Mansour, Heidi M; Hilt, J Zach

    2015-02-20

    Targeted pulmonary delivery facilitates the direct application of bioactive materials to the lungs in a controlled manner and provides an exciting platform for targeting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to the lungs. Iron oxide MNPs remotely heat in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) providing unique opportunities for therapeutic applications such as hyperthermia. In this study, spray drying was used to formulate magnetic nanocomposite microparticles (MnMs) consisting of iron oxide MNPs and d-mannitol. The physicochemical properties of these MnMs were evaluated and the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance of the dry powders was measured by the Next Generation Impactor(®). For all powders, the mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) was <5μm and deposition patterns revealed that MnMs could deposit throughout the lungs. Heating studies with a custom AMF showed that MNPs retain excellent thermal properties after spray drying into composite dry powders, with specific absorption ratios (SAR)>200W/g, and in vitro studies on a human lung cell line indicated moderate cytotoxicity of these materials. These inhalable composites present a class of materials with many potential applications and pose a promising approach for thermal treatment of the lungs through targeted pulmonary administration of MNPs. PMID:25542988

  17. Co-spray-dried mannitol-ciprofloxacin dry powder inhaler formulation for cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Adi, Handoko; Young, Paul M; Chan, Hak-Kim; Agus, Helen; Traini, Daniela

    2010-06-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of delivering a combination therapy, containing mannitol (a sugar alcohol with osmotic characteristics), and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (an antibacterial fluoroquinolone), as a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for inhalation. Single and combination powders were produced by spray drying ciprofloxacin and mannitol, from aqueous solution, at different ratios and under controlled conditions, as to obtain similar particle size distributions. Each formulation was characterised using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapour sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and colloidal force microscopy. The in vitro aerosol performance of each formulation was studied using an Aerolizer DPI device and a multi-stage liquid impinger (analysed using high performance liquid chromatography). In addition, a disk diffusion test was performed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of each formulation and starting materials. All formulations had similar particle size distributions, however, the morphology, thermal properties and moisture sorption was dependent on the relative percentages of each component. In general, the combination formulation containing 50% (w/w) mannitol appeared to have the best aerosol performance, good stability and lowest particle cohesion (as measured by colloid probe microscopy). Furthermore, of the formulations tested, mannitol did not appear to alter the effectiveness of the ciprofloxacin antimicrobial activity to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. The combination of co-spray-dried mannitol and ciprofloxacin from a DPI is an attractive approach to promote mucous clearance in the respiratory tract while simultaneously treating local chronic infection, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. PMID:20371286

  18. Stabilization of IgG1 in spray-dried powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Schüle, S; Schulz-Fademrecht, T; Garidel, P; Bechtold-Peters, K; Frieb, W

    2008-08-01

    The protein stabilizing capabilities of spray-dried IgG1/mannitol formulations were evaluated. The storage stability was tested at different residual moisture levels prepared by vacuum-drying or equilibration prior to storage. Vacuum-drying at 32 degrees C/0.1mbar for 24h reduced the moisture level below 1%, constituting an optimal basis for improved storage stability. The crystalline IgG1/mannitol powders with a weight ratio of 20/80 up to 40/60 failed to prevent the antibody aggregation as assessed by size exclusion chromatography during storage. Ratios of 60/40 up to 80/20 IgG1/mannitol provided superior stability of the antibody and the powders could be produced with high yields. The lower the residual moisture, the better was the stabilizing capability. An amount of 20% mannitol provided the best stabilization. Storage stability of 60/40, 70/30, and 80/20 IgG1/mannitol formulations over one year was adequate at 2-8 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Closed storage (sealed in vials) at 40 degrees C/75% RH and open storage at 25 degrees C/60% RH revealed that the stability still required optimization. The lower the protein content, the better was the powder flowability. The aerodynamic properties of powders spray-dried with 10% solids content were inadequate, as the particle size ranged between 5.1 and 7.2 microm and the fine particle fraction accounted for only 4-11%. Reduction of the solids content to 2.5% did improve the aerodynamic properties as the mass mean aerodynamic diameter was reduced to 3.6 microm and the fine particle fraction was increased to about 14%. The reduction of the solids content did not influence the storage stability significantly. Also spray-drying at higher temperatures had no significant impact on the storage stability, despite a higher tendency to form amorphous systems. In order to improve the storage stability and to maintain the good flowability of 70/30 IgG1/mannitol powder or to keep the storage stability but to improve the flowability

  19. Aerosolization characteristics of dry powder inhaler formulations for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application: effect of spray drying process conditions on aerosol performance.

    PubMed

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  20. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  1. Optimisation of spray-drying process variables for dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations of corticosteroid/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Marques, Helena; Almeida, Rita

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to develop and characterise a beclomethasone diproprionate:gamma-cyclodextrin (BDP:gamma-CYD) complex and to optimise the variables on the spray-drying process, in order to obtain a powder with the most suitable characteristics for lung delivery. The spray-dried powder--in a mass ratio of 2:5 (BDP:gamma-CYD)--was physically mixed with three carriers of different particle sizes and in different ratios. Particle-size distribution, shape and morphology, moisture content, and uniformity in BDP content of formulations were studied. In vitro aerolisation behaviour of the formulations was evaluated using the Rotahaler, and the performance was characterised based on the uniformity of emitted dose and aerodynamic particle-size distribution (respirable fraction (RF), as a percentage of nominal dose (RFN) and emitted dose (RFE)). The most suitable conditions for the preparation of BDP:gamma-CYD complexes were obtained with the solution flow of 5 ml/min, T(in) of 70 degrees C and T(out) of 50 degrees C. Statistically significant differences in the aerodynamic performances were obtained for formulations containing BDP:gamma-CYD complexes prepared using different solution flows and different T(in) (p<0.05). RFN and RFE vary in direct proportion with T(in), while an inverse relationship was observed for the solution flow. A direct correlation between the RFE and the T(out) was identified. Performance of the formulations was compared with an established commercial product (Beclotaide Rotacaps 100 microg) with improved performance of RF: formulations with respitose carrier attained RFN and RFE twofold greater, and formulations based on 63-90 microm fraction lactose and trehalose achieved a threefold improvement; also, all formulations showed that the percentage of dose of BDP deposited in the "oropharynx" compartment was reduced to half. PMID:19446024

  2. Dry powder inhaler formulation of high-payload antibiotic nanoparticle complex intended for bronchiectasis therapy: Spray drying versus spray freeze drying preparation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Teo, Jeanette; Chew, Jia Wei; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2016-02-29

    Inhaled nano-antibiotics have recently emerged as the promising bronchiectasis treatment attributed to the higher and more localized antibiotic exposure generated compared to native antibiotics. Antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly complexation with polysaccharides addresses the major drawbacks of existing nano-antibiotics by virtue of its high payload and cost-effective preparation. Herein we developed carrier-free dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of ciprofloxacin nanoplex by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). d-Mannitol and l-leucine were used as the drying adjuvant and aerosol dispersion enhancer, respectively. The DPI formulations were evaluated in vitro in terms of the (1) aerosolization efficiency, (2) aqueous reconstitution, (3) antibiotic release, and (4) antimicrobial activity against respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The SFD powders exhibited superior aerosolization efficiency to their SD counterparts in terms of emitted dose (92% versus 66%), fine particle fraction (29% versus 23%), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (3μm versus 6μm). The superior aerosolization efficiency of the SFD powders was attributed to their large and porous morphology and higher l-leucine content. While the SFD powders exhibited poorer aqueous reconstitution that might jeopardize their mucus penetrating ability, their antibiotic release profile and antimicrobial activity were not adversely affected. PMID:26757148

  3. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. PMID:26705850

  4. Preparation and characterisation of controlled release co-spray dried drug-polymer microparticles for inhalation 1: influence of polymer concentration on physical and in vitro characteristics.

    PubMed

    Salama, Rania; Hoe, Susan; Chan, Hak-Kim; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M

    2008-06-01

    A series of co-spray dried microparticles containing di-sodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA - 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% w/w, respectively), were prepared as potential controlled release (CR) viscous/gelling vehicles for drug delivery to the respiratory tract. The microparticles were characterised in terms of particle size, crystal structure, density, surface morphology, moisture sorption, surface energy and in vitro aerosolisation efficiency. The co-spray dried particles were amorphous in nature and had spherical geometry. High-resolution atomic force microscopy analysis of the surfaces of the DSCG/PVA suggested no significant differences in roughness between microparticles containing 30-90% w/w PVA (ANOVA, p<0.05), while no specific trend in either size or density was observed with respect to PVA concentration. In comparison, a linear decrease in the relative moisture sorption (R2=0.997) and concurrent increase in total surface free energy (R2=0.870) were observed as PVA concentration was increased. Furthermore a linear increase in the aerosolisation efficiency, measured by inertial impaction, was observed as PVA concentration was increased (R2=0.993). In addition, the increase in aerosolisation efficiency showed good correlation with equilibrium moisture content (R2=0.974) and surface energy measurement (R2=0.905). These relationships can be attributed to the complex interplay of particle forces at the contiguous interfaces in this particulate system. PMID:18226880

  5. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario. PMID:24720661

  6. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  7. Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sinsuebpol, Chutima; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. Methods The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. Results sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. Conclusion The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation. PMID:24039397

  8. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæderup Lindeløv, Jesper; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  9. Sustained delivery by leucine-modified chitosan spray-dried respirable powders.

    PubMed

    Learoyd, Tristan P; Burrows, Jane L; French, Eddie; Seville, Peter C

    2009-05-01

    The controlled co-delivery of multiple agents to the lung offers potential benefits to patients. This study investigated the preparation and characterisation of highly respirable spray-dried powders displaying the sustained release of two chemically distinct therapeutic agents. Spray-dried powders were produced from 30% (v/v) aqueous ethanol formulations that contained hydrophilic (terbutaline sulphate) and hydrophobic (beclometasone dipropionate) model drugs, chitosan (as a drug release modifier) and leucine (aerosolisation enhancer). The influence of chitosan molecular weight on spray-drying thermal efficiency, aerosol performance and drug release profile was investigated. Resultant powders were physically characterised: with in vitro aerosolisation performance and drug release profile investigated by the Multi-Stage Liquid Impinger and modified USP II dissolution apparatus, respectively. It was found that increased chitosan molecular weight gave increased spray-drying thermal efficiency. The powders generated were of a suitable size for inhalation-with emitted doses over 90% and fine particle fractions up to 72% of the loaded dose. Sustained drug release profiles were observed in dissolution tests for both agents: increased chitosan molecular weight associated with increased duration of drug release. The controlled co-delivery of hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities underlines the capability of spray drying to produce respirable particles with sustained release for delivery to the lung. PMID:19429272

  10. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  11. Spray-dried respirable powders containing bacteriophages for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Matinkhoo, Sadaf; Lynch, Karlene H; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2011-12-01

    Myoviridae bacteriophages were processed into a dry powder inhalable dosage form using a low-temperature spray-drying process. The phages were incorporated into microparticles consisting of trehalose, leucine, and optionally a third excipient (either a surfactant or casein sodium salt). The particles were designed to have high dispersibility and a respirable particle size, and to preserve the phages during processing. Bacteriophages KS4- M, KS14, and cocktails of phages ΦKZ/D3 and ΦKZ/D3/KS4-M were spray-dried with a processing loss ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 log pfu. The aerosol performance of the resulting dry powders as delivered from an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI) exceeded the performance of commercially available DPIs; the emitted mass and the in vitro total lung mass of the lead formulation were 82.7% and 69.7% of filled capsule mass, respectively. The total lung mass had a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-2.8 µm. The total in vitro lung doses of the phages, delivered from a single actuation of the inhaler, ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) pfu, levels that are expected to be efficacious in vivo. Spray drying of bacteriophages into a respirable dry powder was found to be feasible. PMID:22020816

  12. Preparation and characterisation of controlled release co-spray dried drug-polymer microparticles for inhalation 2: evaluation of in vitro release profiling methodologies for controlled release respiratory aerosols.

    PubMed

    Salama, Rania O; Traini, Daniela; Chan, Hak-Kim; Young, Paul M

    2008-09-01

    Three in vitro methodologies were evaluated as models for the analysis of drug release from controlled release (CR) microparticulates for inhalation. USP Apparatus 2 (dissolution model), USP Apparatus 4 (flow through model) and a modified Franz cell (diffusion model), were investigated using identical sink volumes and temperatures (1000 ml and 37 degrees C). Microparticulates containing DSCG and different percentages of PVA (0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%) were used as model CR formulations. Evaluation of the release profiles of DSCG from the modified PVA formulations, suggested that all data fitted a Weibull distribution model with R2 > or =0.942. Statistical analysis of the t(d) (time for 63.2% drug release) indicated that all methodologies could distinguish between microparticles that did or did not contain PVA (Students t-test, p<0.05). However, only the diffusion model could differentiate between samples containing different PVA percentages. Similar results were observed when analysing the data using similarity and difference factors. Furthermore, analysis of the release kinetic profiles for all samples suggested the data fitted the Higuchi diffusion model (R2 > or =0.862 for the diffusion methodology data set). Due to the relatively low water content in the respiratory tract and the lack of differentiation between formulations for USP Apparatus 2 and 4, it is concluded that the diffusion model is more applicable for the evaluation of CR inhalation medicines. PMID:18534832

  13. The preparation of steatite suspension for spray drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jirousek, L.; Spicak, K.

    1983-01-01

    Liquifying agents were investigated for preparation of highly concentrated steatite suspensions which are to be spray-dried. Organic additives for improving the molding properties and strength of green compacts are described. Demands on properties of the spray-dried granules are defined with regard to shrinkage of the molded compacts.

  14. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  15. Pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs using spray-dried lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mehta, Shuchi; Yadav, Shailendra; Singh, Sudheer K; Grobler, Anne; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Abhinav

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to develop lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for the combined pulmonary delivery of isoniazid (INH) and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP HCl). Drug-loaded LPNs were prepared by the double-emulsification solvent evaporation method using the three-factor three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimized formulation had a size of 111.81 ± 1.2 nm, PDI of 0.189 ± 1.4, and PDE of 63.64 ± 2.12% for INH-loaded LPN, and a size of 172.23 ± 2.31 nm, PDI of 0.169 ± 1.23, and PDE of 68.49 ± 2.54% for CIP HCl-loaded LPN. Drug release was found to be sustained and controlled at lower pH and followed the Peppas model. The in vitro uptake study in alveolar macrophage (AM) showed that uptake of the drugs was increased significantly if administered in the form of LPN. The stability study proved the applications of adding PLGA in LPN as the polymeric core, which leads to a much more stable product as compared to other novel drug delivery systems. Spray drying was done to produce an inhalable, dry, powdered form of drug-loaded LPN. The spray-dried (SD) powder was equally capable of producing nano-aggregates having morphology, density, flowability and reconstitutibility in the range ideal for inhaled drug delivery. The nano aggregates produced by spray drying manifested their aerosolization efficiency in terms of the higher emitted dose and fine particle fraction with lower mass median aerodynamic diameter. The in vivo study using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic approaches revealed that maximum internalization efficiency was achieved by delivering LPN in SD powdered forms by pulmonary route. PMID:26178768

  16. Low-voltage electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray drying of respirable particles.

    PubMed

    Lastow, Orest; Andersson, Jenny; Nilsson, Alexander; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is a widely used process to produce pharmaceutical powders. In traditional spray drying, the particle size distribution is wide and not well controlled. Using EHD atomization for spray drying offers a possibility to tailor the particle size and morphology. In conventional EHD spray drying, the generated particles are charged and need to be discharged to avoid Rayleigh breakup. Discharging adds complexity to the process and eliminates the possibility to collect the powder using an electric field. The present work describes a novel EHD spray drying setup based on a low-voltage nozzle. The low-voltage nozzle imparts moderate charge to the droplets, which makes discharging unnecessary. The charged particles can be controlled and collected by using an auxiliary electric field. The EHD spray dryer has been characterized in terms of particle size, particle morphology, process output, and yield. The size distribution of the generated particles is very narrow. Both porous and completely spherical particles can be produced. The yield of small-scale bench-top equipment was 20%, which is similar to the yield of a small-scale conventional spray dryer. The effective output with five nozzles was 75 mg/hr of dry powder. Because of the repelling forces associated with the unipolarly charged droplets, the number of nozzles can be increased without risking coalescence. PMID:17510889

  17. Roll compaction of mannitol: compactability study of crystalline and spray-dried grades.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carl Moritz; Pein, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-10

    Purpose of this project was to investigate the roll compaction behavior of various mannitol grades. Therefore, five spray-dried grades as well as unprocessed β-d-mannitol were roll compacted with different compaction forces. The resulting granules were characterized with regard to their particle size distribution, flow properties, and BET surface area and compressed to tablets. Granules of unprocessed mannitol, even when applying high compaction forces during dry granulation, were characterized by a high amount of fines (about 21%), a small surface area (0.83 m(2)/g), and solely fair flowability (ffc=7.2). Tablets revealed either high friability or insufficient disintegration behavior. However, the use of spray-dried mannitol led to better results. Granules showed improved flow properties and a reduced amount of fines. Robust tablets with low friability were produced. Within the various spray-dried grades huge differences concerning the compactability were observed. Large BET surface areas of the granules resulted in advanced tensile strengths of the tablets, but acceptable disintegration behavior was maintained. These findings are relevant for the development of mannitol based drug formulations, in particular (oro)dispersible tablets containing a low dose or poor flowing active pharmaceutical ingredient, where direct compression is inappropriate and a granulation process prior to tableting is mandatory. PMID:23742975

  18. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2014-01-01

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders. PMID:24662364

  19. Nutritional and rheological characterization of spray dried sweetpotato powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drying feasibility of sweetpotato puree is enhanced using alpha-amylase treatment to reduce puree viscosity and maltodextrin addition to facilitate drying. To better determine potential applications of powders produced with various levels of amylase and maltodextrin, nutrient composition and ...

  20. Consolidating nanoparticles in micron-sized granules using spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeløv, J. S.; Wahlberg, M.

    2011-07-01

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (SiO2, SiC, TiO2, CNT, Nanoclay and Hydroxyapatite) were spray dried to produce dry granulated products. The nanoparticles were consolidated in granules making them more convenient and safer to use in further processing compared to handling of nanopowders.

  1. Interest of cyclodextrins in spray-dried microparticles formulation for sustained pulmonary delivery of budesonide.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Gilles; Bigazzi, William; Wong, Nelson; Boschini, Frederic; de Tullio, Pascal; Piel, Geraldine; Cataldo, Didier; Evrard, Brigitte

    2015-11-30

    To achieve an efficient lung delivery and efficacy, both active ingredient aerosolisation properties and permeability through the lung need to be optimized. To overcome these challenges, the present studies aim to develop cyclodextrin-based spray-dried microparticles containing a therapeutic corticosteroid (budesonide) that could be used to control airway inflammation associated with asthma. The complexation between budesonide and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) has been investigated. Production of inhalation powders was carried out using a bi-fluid nozzle spray dryer and was optimized based on a design of experiments. Spray-dried microparticles display a specific "deflated-ball like shape" associated with an appropriate size for inhalation. Aerodynamic assessment show that the fine particle fraction was increased compared to a classical lactose-based budesonide formulation (44.05 vs 26.24%). Moreover, the budesonide permeability out of the lung was shown to be reduced in the presence of cyclodextrin complexes. The interest of this sustained budesonide release was evaluated in a mouse model of asthma. The anti-inflammatory effect was compared to a non-complexed budesonide formulation at the same concentration and attests the higher anti-inflammatory activity reach with the cyclodextrin-based formulation. This strategy could therefore be of particular interest for improving lung targeting while decreasing systemic side effects associated with high doses of corticosteroids. In conclusion, this works reports that cyclodextrins could be used in powder for inhalation, both for their abilities to improve active ingredient aerosolisation properties and further to their dissolution in lung fluid, to decrease permeability out of the lungs leading to an optimized activity profile. PMID:26410753

  2. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150 Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150 Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. Preparation of functional composite particles of salbutamol sulfate using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2008-03-01

    A previous study on spray-drying demonstrated that it could promote the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs using water-soluble polymers. Here, the preparation of composite particles of salbutamol sulfate (Sb) with water-insoluble polymers, such as Eudragit RS (RS) or Eudragit RL (RL) as a carrier, was examined. Despite the water insolubility of both polymers, the permeability of water was low in the former but high in the latter. We attempted to prepare controlled release composite particles by exploiting the characteristics of these carriers. The composite particles of the three components (Sb, RS, and RL) were prepared using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-dryer, and their physico-chemical and dissolution properties were compared with physical mixtures. Examination of particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray-drying process had atomized to several microns and were spherical. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that diffraction peaks and heat of fusion of Sb in the spray-dried samples decreased, indicating that the drug was amorphous and formed a solid dispersion. FT-IR analysis suggested that the amino group of Sb and a carbonyl group of the polymers formed a hydrogen bond. A dissolution test of Sb-RS-RL particles prepared using the 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying method showed that release rates were depressed significantly compared to the physical mixture at pH 1.2 and 6.8, and the depression was greater when RS was used instead of RL, presumably because of the permeability difference. The compression of these particles into tablets revealed that desirable controlled released dosage forms could be prepared. In addition, Sb was used to simulate an anti-asthmatic drug. For this an Andersen cascade impactor for dry powder inhalers was used to investigate delivery to the lungs. PMID:18310932

  5. Preparation and characterization of spray-dried oxidized cellulose microparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Kang, J; Yang, T

    2001-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of spray drying to produce microparticles of oxidized cellulose (OC), a biocompatible and bioresorbable polymer. OCs containing 7, 13, and 20 wt% carboxylic groups were converted into stable aqueous dispersions and then spray dried using a Yamoto G-32 spray dryer equipped with a standard fluid nozzle with an orifice of 406 microm. The following operating conditions were investigated: inlet temperature 140, 170, and 190 degrees C; feed rate 3, 6, and 9 mL/min; and atomization airpressure 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kg f/cm2. The amounts of OC used in feed were 1, 2.5, and 5%. OC microparticles produced under these conditions were shrunken spheres, ranging in size between 0.98+/-0.47 and 2.05+/-0.98 microm. The different operating conditions used had no significant effect on the size and shape of particles. The use of a water-soluble plasticizer (glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400, or polyethylene glycol 6000) in the dispersion yielded microparticles with a good sphericity and a smooth surface morphology, whereas no change in the shape or size of microparticles was noted with water-insoluble plasticizers, Triacetin and dibutyl phthalate. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses of spray-dried microparticles showed no change in the solid-state structure of OC. In conclusion, results show that OC can be converted into stable aqueous dispersions and used to produce microparticles by spray drying. PMID:11485186

  6. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration.

    PubMed

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rantanen, Jukka; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-11-01

    Delivery of drugs into or via the oral cavity offers some distinct advantages due to the easy access to the oral mucosa, fast onset of action, and avoidance of hepatic and intestinal degradation mechanisms. To overcome the effective removal mechanisms existing in this area, bioadhesive drug delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed and used for designing the microparticles. This way, novel microparticles with similar particle size distribution, high encapsulation efficiencies, and low moisture content were obtained independent of the chitosan:metformin ratio and the chitosan molecular weight. In conclusion, chitosan:metformin microparticles with significant bioadhesive properties on porcine buccal mucosa were developed. PMID:23774184

  7. Formation of monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Kathryn; Wu, Winston Duo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Wenjie; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a protocol to synthesize monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via a unique microfluidic jet spray-drying route is reported for the first time. The microparticles demonstrated highly ordered hexagonal mesostructures with surface areas ranging from ~900 up to 1500 m(2)/g and pore volumes from ~0.6 to 0.8 cm(3)/g. The particle size could be easily controlled from ~50 to 100 μm from the same diameter nozzle via changing the initial solute content, or changing the drying temperature. The ratio of the surfactant (CTAB) and silica (TEOS), and the amount of water in the precursor were found to affect the degree of ordering of mesopores by promoting either the self-assembly of the surfactant-silica micelles or the condensation of the silica as two competing processes in evaporation induced self-assembly. The drying rate and the curvature of particles also affected the self-assembly of the mesostructure. The particle mesostructure is not influenced by the inlet drying temperature in the range of 92-160 °C, with even a relatively low temperature of 92 °C producing highly ordered mesoporous microparticles. The spray-drying derived mesoporous silica microparticles, while of larger sizes and more rapidly synthesized, showed a comparable performance with the conventional mesoporous silica MCM-41 in controlled release of a dye, Rhodamine B, indicating that these spray dried microparticles could be used for the immobilisation and controlled release of small molecules. PMID:24461839

  8. Compare and contrast the effects of surfactants (PluronicF-127 and CremophorEL) and sugars (β-cyclodextrin and inulin) on properties of spray dried and crystallised lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita Rochdy; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Chaw, Cheng Shu; Moore, Adrian

    2013-07-16

    promising protectant of proteins. The improved stability of the spray dried and crystallised protein containing PluronicF-127 shows promise for delivery of proteins via inhalation (in a spray dried form which has particle size range suitable for inhalation as revealed by particle size analysis and SEM) and injectable routes (in spray dried and crystallised forms). The way excipients react with proteins is different in the case of spray drying and crystallisation techniques, hence the choice of the additives and the processing techniques play a great role in controlling protein properties, activity and stability as shown in this study. PMID:23712374

  9. Design of PLGA-based depot delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals prepared by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-02-10

    Currently, most of the approved protein and peptide-based medicines are delivered via conventional parenteral injection (intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous). A frequent dosing regimen is often necessary because of their short plasma half-lives, causing poor patient compliance (e.g. pain, abscess, etc.), side effects owing to typical peak-valley plasma concentration time profiles, and increased costs. Among many sustained-release formulations poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based depot microparticle systems may represent one of the most promising approaches to provide protein and peptide drugs with a steady pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile maintained for a long period. However, the development of PLGA-based microparticle systems is still impeded by lack of easy, fast, effective manufacturing technologies. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in spray drying, a one-step, continuous microencapsulation process, for manufacturing of PLGA-based depot microparticle systems with a focus on the recent efforts on understanding of the role of nozzle design in the microencapsulation of proteins/peptides, and the effect of critical solvent properties and process parameters on the critical quality attributes of the spray-dried microparticles. PMID:26688034

  10. Properties of Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Prepared by a Spray Drying Technique.

    PubMed

    Chow, Laurence C; Sun, Limin; Hockey, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    In previous studies nano sized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were prepared by solgel or precipitation methods, in which the products were washed by aqueous or non-aqueous liquids to remove impurities or undesired components. The washing is know to modify the surfaces of the cystalline particles. This study evaluated properties of nano HA materials prepared by a spray drying method in which the HA product was not exposed to any liquid after its formation. The spray drying apparatus consisted of a nozzle that sprayed an acidic calcium phosphate solution in the form of a fine mist into a stream of filtered air flowing through a heated glass column. The water and volatile acid were evaporated by the time the mist reached the end of the column, and the fine particles were collected by an electrostatic precipitator. Powder x ray diffraction patterns suggested the material was amorphous, exhibiting a single broad peak at 30.5° 2θ. However, high resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis showed that the particles, some of which were 5 nm in size, exhibited well ordered HA lattice fringes. Small area diffraction patterns were indicative of HA. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy showed patterns of typical of HA with small amounts of HPO4 (2-). The thermodynamic solubility product of the nano HA was 3.3 × 10(-94) compared to 1 × 10(-117) for macro scale crystalline HA. These results showed that a spray drying technique can be used to prepare nanometer sized crystalline HA that have significantly different physicochemical properties than those of its bulk-scale counterpart. PMID:27366633

  11. Properties of Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Prepared by a Spray Drying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Laurence C.; Sun, Limin; Hockey, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    In previous studies nano sized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were prepared by solgel or precipitation methods, in which the products were washed by aqueous or non-aqueous liquids to remove impurities or undesired components. The washing is know to modify the surfaces of the cystalline particles. This study evaluated properties of nano HA materials prepared by a spray drying method in which the HA product was not exposed to any liquid after its formation. The spray drying apparatus consisted of a nozzle that sprayed an acidic calcium phosphate solution in the form of a fine mist into a stream of filtered air flowing through a heated glass column. The water and volatile acid were evaporated by the time the mist reached the end of the column, and the fine particles were collected by an electrostatic precipitator. Powder x ray diffraction patterns suggested the material was amorphous, exhibiting a single broad peak at 30.5° 2θ. However, high resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis showed that the particles, some of which were 5 nm in size, exhibited well ordered HA lattice fringes. Small area diffraction patterns were indicative of HA. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy showed patterns of typical of HA with small amounts of HPO42−. The thermodynamic solubility product of the nano HA was 3.3 × 10−94 compared to 1 × 10−117 for macro scale crystalline HA. These results showed that a spray drying technique can be used to prepare nanometer sized crystalline HA that have significantly different physicochemical properties than those of its bulk-scale counterpart. PMID:27366633

  12. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. PMID:27451373

  13. Crystal coating via spray drying to improve powder tabletability.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Peeters, E; Van Snick, B; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2014-11-01

    A continuous crystal coating method was developed to improve both flowability and tabletability of powders. The method includes the introduction of solid, dry particles into an atomized spray during spray drying in order to coat and agglomerate individual particles. Paracetamol was used as a model drug as it exhibits poor flowability and high capping tendency upon compaction. The particle size enlargement and flowability were evaluated by the mean median particle size and flow index of the resulting powders. The crystal coating coprocessing method was successful for the production of powders containing 75% paracetamol with excellent tableting properties. However, the extent of agglomeration achieved during coprocessing was limited. Tablets compressed on a rotary tablet press in manual mode showed excellent compression properties without capping tendency. A formulation with 75% paracetamol, 5% PVP and 20% amorphous lactose yielded a tensile strength of 1.9 MPa at a compression pressure of 288 MPa. The friability of tablets compressed at 188 MPa was only 0.6%. The excellent tabletability of this formulation was attributed to the coating of paracetamol crystals with amorphous lactose and PVP through coprocessing and the presence of brittle and plastic components in the formulation. The coprocessing method was also successfully applied for the production of directly compressible lactose showing improved tensile strength and friability in comparison to a spray dried direct compression lactose grade. PMID:25445306

  14. Microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying using oleosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, S.; Ghebremedhin, M.; Zielbauer, B. I.; Knorr, D.; Vilgis, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    The food industry has discovered that oleosomes are beneficial as carriers of bioactive ingredients. Oleosomes are subcellular oil droplets typically found in plant seeds. Within seeds, they exist as pre-emulsified oil high in unsaturated fatty acids, stabilised by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins, called oleosins. Oleosins are anchored into the oil core with a hydrophobic domain, while the hydrophilic domains remain on the oleosome surface. To preserve the nutritional value of the oil and the function of oleosomes, microencapsulation by means of spray drying is a promising technique. For the microencapsulation of oleosomes, maltodextrin was used. To achieve a high oil encapsulation efficiency, optimal process parameters needed to be established. In order to better understand the mechanisms of drying behind powder formation and the associated powder properties, the findings obtained using different microscopic and spectroscopic measurements were correlated with each other. By doing this, it was found that spray drying of pure oleosome emulsions resulted in excessive component segregation and thus in a poor encapsulation efficiency. With the addition of maltodextrin, the oil encapsulation efficiency was significantly improved.

  15. Hierarchical Structure Formation of Nanoparticulate Spray-Dried Composite Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sabrina; Garnweitner, Georg; Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten; Schilde, Carsten

    2015-11-24

    The design of hierarchically structured nano- and microparticles of different sizes, porosities, surface areas, compositions, and internal structures from nanoparticle building blocks is important for new or enhanced application properties of high-quality products in a variety of industries. Spray-drying processes are well-suited for the design of hierarchical structures of multicomponent products. This structure design using various nanoparticles as building blocks is one of the most important challenges for the future to create products with optimized or completely new properties. Furthermore, the transfer of designed nanomaterials to large-scale products with favorable handling and processing can be achieved. The resultant aggregate structure depends on the utilized nanoparticle building blocks as well as on a large number of process and formulation parameters. In this study, structure formation and segregation phenomena during the spray drying process were investigated to enable the synthesis of tailor-made nanostructures with defined properties. Moreover, a theoretical model of this segregation and structure formation in nanosuspensions is presented using a discrete element method simulation. PMID:26505280

  16. Understanding the role of plasticisers in spray-dried starch.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A

    2013-09-12

    Amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were produced by compression moulding of solution spray-dried TPS powder and by direct solution casting. Oxidised potato starch was used as a feedstock for production of plasticised formulations containing glycerol or urea, or their combinations with maltodextrin (DE=19.1) as processing aid. The crystallinity index of freshly moulded films made from solution spray-dried powder was significantly lower than that for casted films. FTIR analysis showed that starch interacted in hydrogen bond formation with glycerol and urea plasticisers, reducing the glass transition temperature to 136 °C and 106 °C, respectively. Formulations containing maltodextrin did not show a Tg. Glycerol-plasticised and co-plasticised films immediately started to retrogradate in the presence of moisture, while urea based systems only showed slow recrystallization at the highest moisture exposure. In line with retrogradation behaviour, urea plasticised and co-plasticised films exhibited a more ductile behaviour, whereas glycerol based ones showed more brittle behaviour. PMID:23911487

  17. Clay as a matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2014-04-25

    Utilization of sugars (e.g. lactose, sucrose) as matrix formers for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions is associated with two drawbacks: (1) sugars are incapable of preventing agglomeration of drug nanoparticles (NPs) in the suspension state; and (2) the spray-dried sugars are usually amorphous and hygroscopic. This work aimed to apply a clay, montmorillonite (MMT) as an alternative matrix former for spray drying of drug nanosuspensions with fenofibrate (feno) as a model compound. Drug nanosuspensions were synthesized by liquid antisolvent precipitation with different amount of MMT followed by spray drying. It is found that MMT is able to reduce the agglomeration of drug nanoparticles in the suspension state, as observed from the gradual alleviation of the clogging with the increased clay during the spray drying. The spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders exhibited a much lower moisture sorption than spray-dried feno NPs/lactose powders as evidenced by the dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) analysis. The dissolution within 5 min for the spray-dried feno NPs/MMT powders at drug:MMT weight ratio of 1:3 was 81.4 ± 1.8% and the total dissolution within 60 min was 93.4 ± 0.9%. Our results demonstrate that MMT is a useful matrix former for preservation of the high dissolution rate of nanosized drug particles after drying. PMID:24560641

  18. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  19. Amorphous and nanostructured silica and aluminosilicate spray-dried microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, M.; Turcu, R. V. F.; Frentiu, B.; Tamasan, M.; Mocuta, H.; Ponta, O.; Simon, S.

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous silica and aluminosilicate microspheres with diameters in the 0.1-20 μm range were produced by spray drying method. SEM, TEM and AFM images showed the spherical shape of the obtained particles. Based on thermal analysis data, several heat treatments have been applied on the as-prepared samples in order to check the amorphous state stability of the microspheres and to develop nanosized crystalline phases. As-prepared microspheres remain amorphous up to 1400 °C. By calcination at 1400 °C, cristobalite type nanocrystals are developed on silica sample, while in aluminosilicate sample first are developed mullite type nanocrystals and only after prolonged treatment are developed also cristobalite type nanocrystals. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR results show that the local order around aluminum and silicon atoms strongly depend on the thermal history of the microspheres.

  20. Spray-Dried Multiscale Nano-biocomposites Containing Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick E; Muttil, Pavan; MacKenzie, Debra; Carnes, Eric C; Pelowitz, Jennifer; Mara, Nathan A; Mook, William M; Jett, Stephen D; Dunphy, Darren R; Timmins, Graham S; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2015-07-28

    Three-dimensional encapsulation of cells within nanostructured silica gels or matrices enables applications as diverse as biosensors, microbial fuel cells, artificial organs, and vaccines; it also allows the study of individual cell behaviors. Recent progress has improved the performance and flexibility of cellular encapsulation, yet there remains a need for robust scalable processes. Here, we report a spray-drying process enabling the large-scale production of functional nano-biocomposites (NBCs) containing living cells within ordered 3D lipid-silica nanostructures. The spray-drying process is demonstrated to work with multiple cell types and results in dry powders exhibiting a unique combination of properties including highly ordered 3D nanostructure, extended lipid fluidity, tunable macromorphologies and aerodynamic diameters, and unexpectedly high physical strength. Nanoindentation of the encasing nanostructure revealed a Young's modulus and hardness of 13 and 1.4 GPa, respectively. We hypothesized this high strength would prevent cell growth and force bacteria into viable but not culturable (VBNC) states. In concordance with the VBNC state, cellular ATP levels remained elevated even over eight months. However, their ability to undergo resuscitation and enter growth phase greatly decreased with time in the VBNC state. A quantitative method of determining resuscitation frequencies was developed and showed that, after 36 weeks in a NBC-induced VBNC, less than 1 in 10,000 cells underwent resuscitation. The NBC platform production of large quantities of VBNC cells is of interest for research in bacterial persistence and screening of drugs targeting such cells. NBCs may also enable long-term preservation of living cells for applications in cell-based sensing and the packaging and delivery of live-cell vaccines. PMID:26083188

  1. Formulation and process development of (recombinant human) deoxyribonuclease I as a powder for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Gerrit S; Ponsioen, Bart J; Hummel, Sylvia A; Sanders, Niek; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; de Boer, Anne H; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2009-01-01

    A formulation and process development study was performed to formulate recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I as a powder for inhalation. First, excipient compatibility (with bovine DNase as a model substance) was examined with a stability study at stressed conditions (60 and 85 degrees C) while monitoring for occurrence of the Maillard reaction. Next, powders for inhalation were prepared by spray drying and spray freeze drying. We found that spray drying with inulin as stabilizer resulted in the best powder for inhalation. Finally, an ex-vivo test with the spray dried rhDNase I/inulin powder significantly decreased elastic and viscous moduli of sputum from five cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:19552563

  2. Advantages and challenges of the spray-drying technology for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric carriers.

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Alejandro; Seremeta, Katia P

    2015-09-01

    Spray-drying is a rapid, continuous, cost-effective, reproducible and scalable process for the production of dry powders from a fluid material by atomization through an atomizer into a hot drying gas medium, usually air. Often spray-drying is considered only a dehydration process, though it also can be used for the encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds within different carriers without substantial thermal degradation, even of heat-sensitive substances due to fast drying (seconds or milliseconds) and relatively short exposure time to heat. The solid particles obtained present relatively narrow size distribution at the submicron-to-micron scale. Generally, the yield% of spray-drying at laboratory scale with conventional spray-dryers is not optimal (20-70%) due to the loss of product in the walls of the drying chamber and the low capacity of the cyclone to separate fine particles (<2 μm). Aiming to overcome this crucial drawback in early development stages, new devices that enable the production of submicron particles with high yield, even for small sample amounts, have been introduced into the market. This review describes the most outstanding advantages and challenges of the spray-drying method for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric particles and discusses the potential of this technique and the more advanced equipment to pave the way toward reproducible and scalable processes that are critical to the bench-to-bedside translation of innovative pharmaceutical products. PMID:26043877

  3. Characterization of Amorphous and Co-Amorphous Simvastatin Formulations Prepared by Spray Drying.

    PubMed

    Craye, Goedele; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rades, Thomas; Laitinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spray drying from aqueous solutions, using the surface-active agent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a solubilizer, was explored as a production method for co-amorphous simvastatin-lysine (SVS-LYS) at 1:1 molar mixtures, which previously have been observed to form a co-amorphous mixture upon ball milling. In addition, a spray-dried formulation of SVS without LYS was prepared. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that SLS coated the SVS and SVS-LYS particles upon spray drying. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that in the spray-dried formulations the remaining crystallinity originated from SLS only. The best dissolution properties and a "spring and parachute" effect were found for SVS spray-dried from a 5% SLS solution without LYS. Despite the presence of at least partially crystalline SLS in the mixtures, all the studied formulations were able to significantly extend the stability of amorphous SVS compared to previous co-amorphous formulations of SVS. The best stability (at least 12 months in dry conditions) was observed when SLS was spray-dried with SVS (and LYS). In conclusion, spray drying of SVS and LYS from aqueous surfactant solutions was able to produce formulations with improved physical stability for amorphous SVS. PMID:26633346

  4. Effect of storage conditions on compaction behavior of two grades of spray-dried lactose.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Faraj; Almaya, Ahmad; Aburub, Aktham

    2008-01-01

    In this work we examine the effect of storage conditions (moisture exposure) on the compression behavior of 2 grades of spray-dried lactose (Pharmatose DCL 11 and Pharmatose DCL 14) under 2 different circumstances. The first was to expose powder samples to moisture, then compress them. The second was to expose precompressed tablets to moisture. We clearly show that the effect of moisture exposure and amorphous content crystallization in spray-dried lactoses on compaction behavior depends on whether this moisture exposure takes place before or after compression. In addition, the impact of storage conditions depends on the grade of spray-dried lactose. PMID:18649218

  5. [Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanocomposite particles by premix membrane emulsification coupled with spray-drying method].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei; Pan, Lin-Mei; Li, Bo; Shi, Fei-Yan; Lu, Jin

    2014-11-01

    For effective inhalable dry-powder drug delivery, tetrandrine-PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomposite particles have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of nanoparticles and microparticles. The primary nanoparticles were prepared by using premix membrane emulsification method. To prepare second particles, they were spray dried. The final particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dry laser particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared analysis (IR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The average size of the primary particles was (337.5 ± 6.2) nm, while that second particles was (3.675 ± 0.16) μm which can be decomposed into primary nanoparticles in water. And the second particles were solid sphere-like with the drug dispersed as armorphous form in them. It is a reference for components delivery to lung in a new form. PMID:25757290

  6. Orange oil stability in spray dry delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Anandaraman; Veazey, Robert L; Schober, Amanda; Rada, Alison; Rong, Yunhong; van Sleeuwen, Rutger M T; Golding, Robert; Zhang, Suying; Normand, Valery

    2013-09-12

    The oxidation stability of orange oil flavours encapsulated in carbohydrate based spray dry delivery systems is assessed through accelerated shelf life testing, compatible with the physical state of the delivery system. It is demonstrated here that the oxidative shelf life stability is limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the carbohydrate matrix. Determination of the evolution of orange oil oxidation products with time and correlations with simple but accurate sensory data allows for prediction of absolute shelf life. The oxidative shelf life appears to be dependent only on the number average molecular weight of carbohydrates in the matrix and is not affected by the substitution of small sugars (e.g., maltose for sucrose). A maximum of 2 years shelf life at 25 °C is predicted if sugar dimers are the predominant species in the matrix. The drawback to extended oxidative stability is a low physical stability under humid conditions promoting local softening in the sample. Maltose, having low hygroscopicity, improves the physical stability compared to sucrose. The best compromise between physical (caking) and chemical (oxidation) stability is obtained for carbohydrate compositions with number average molecular weight of 560 g mol(-1) that do not contain sucrose (stability against oxidation: 20 months at 25 °C and stability against humidity: 50% RH at 25 °C). PMID:23911456

  7. Design of spray dried insulin microparticles to bypass deposition in the extrathoracic region and maximize total lung dose.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Rao, Nagaraja; Weers, Jeffry G; Huang, Daniel; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-25

    Inhaled drugs all too often deliver only a fraction of the emitted dose to the target lung site due to deposition in the extrathoracic region (i.e., mouth and throat), which can lead to increased variation in lung exposure, and in some instances increases in local and systemic side effects. For aerosol medications, improved targeting to the lungs may be achieved by tailoring the micromeritic properties of the particles (e.g., size, density, rugosity) to minimize deposition in the mouth-throat and maximize the total lung dose. This study evaluated a co-solvent spray drying approach to modulate particle morphology and dose delivery characteristics of engineered powder formulations of insulin microparticles. The binary co-solvent system studied included water as the primary solvent mixed with an organic co-solvent, e.g., ethanol. Factors such as the relative rate of evaporation of each component of a binary co-solvent mixture, and insulin solubility in each component were considered in selecting feedstock compositions. A water-ethanol co-solvent mixture with a composition range considered suitable for modulating particle shell formation during drying was selected for experimental investigation. An Alberta Idealized Throat model was used to evaluate the in vitro total lung dose of a series of spray dried insulin formulations engineered with different bulk powder properties and delivered with two prototype inhalers that fluidize and disperse powder using different principles. The in vitro total lung dose of insulin microparticles was improved and favored for powders with low bulk density and small primary particle size, with reduction of deposition in the extrathoracic region. The results demonstrated that a total lung dose >95% of the delivered dose can be achieved with engineered particles, indicating a high degree of lung targeting, almost completely bypassing deposition in the mouth-throat. PMID:27480399

  8. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of spray dried powders of two South Brazilian Passiflora species.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Flávio H; De-Paris, Fernanda; Petry, Raquel D; Quevedo, João; Ortega, George González; Gosmann, Grace; Schenkel, Eloir P

    2006-05-01

    The Passiflora extracts have been used in folk medicine because of its reputed sedative and anxiolytic properties. The present study aimed to compare the potential anxiolytic activity of two Passiflora spray-dried powders obtained from P. alata and P. edulis, known in Brazil as 'maracujá'. Male adult Swiss rats were treated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of spray-dried powders p.o. and anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the elevated plus-maze test. The spray-dried powders showed anxiolytic activity in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg. Our results support the potential anxiolytic effect of Passiflora spray-dried powders (P. alata and P. edulis). PMID:16619361

  9. A statistical approach to optimize the spray drying of starch particles: application to dry powder coating.

    PubMed

    Bilancetti, Luca; Poncelet, Denis; Loisel, Catherine; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp increase of coating efficiency value. PMID:20706878

  10. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared drug particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the spray dried microparticles was compared with spray-chilled microparticles, pure and recrystallized samples. Spray dried microparticles and spray chilled microparticles exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spray dried microparticle and spray chilled particles were improved compared with recrystallized and pure sample of piroxicam. Consequently, it was believed that spray drying of piroxicam is a useful tool to improve dissolution but not in case of spray chilling. This may be due to the degradation of drug or variations in the resonance structure or could be due to minor distortion of bond angles. Hence, this spray drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of piroxicam by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients. PMID:21589797

  12. Use of cheese whey for biomass production and spray drying of probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Lavari, Luisina; Páez, Roxana; Cuatrin, Alejandra; Reinheimer, Jorge; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The double use of cheese whey (culture medium and thermoprotectant for spray drying of lactobacilli) was explored in this study for adding value to this wastewater. In-house formulated broth (similar to MRS) and dairy media (cheese and ricotta whey and whey permeate) were assessed for their capacity to produce biomass of Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lb. rhamnosus 64 and Lb. gasseri 37. Simultaneously, spray drying of cheese whey-starch solution (without lactobacilli cells) was optimised using surface response methodology. Cell suspensions of the lactobacilli, produced in in house-formulated broth, were spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and viability monitored throughout the storage of powders for 2 months. Lb. rhamnosus 64 was able to grow satisfactorily in at least two of the in-house formulated culture media and in the dairy media assessed. It also performed well in spray drying. The performance of the other strains was less satisfactory. The growth capacity, the resistance to spray drying in cheese whey-starch solution and the negligible lost in viability during the storage (2 months), makes Lb. rhamnosus 64 a promising candidate for further technological studies for developing a probiotic dehydrated culture for foods, utilising wastewaters of the dairy industry (as growth substrate and protectant) and spray drying (a low-cost widely-available technology). PMID:24666842

  13. Spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures as buccal bioadhesive carriers.

    PubMed

    Ameye, D; Mus, D; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2005-09-14

    In the present study, spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures were evaluated as potential buccal bioadhesive tablets. Carbopol (C 974P) concentrations from 5 to 75% were tested. All spray-dried mixtures showed a comparable or better bioadhesive capacity compared to a reference formulation (DDWM/C 974P 95/5). The bioadhesive capacities of Amioca/Carbopol 974P mixtures were improved by spray-drying. All spray-dried mixtures showed significantly higher work of adhesion values compared to their equivalent physical mixtures. The influence of Carbopol concentration on the in vivo adhesion time of placebo tablets and in vitro miconazole nitrate release was tested. The ratio Amioca/C 974P 70/30 showed the longest in vivo adhesion time (24.5+/-8.5 h). Lower and higher C 974P concentrations had a shorter in vivo adhesion time. The mixtures containing between 15 and 30% C 974P could all sustain the in vitro miconazole nitrate release over 20 h. Again, lower and higher C 974P concentrations showed a faster in vitro miconazole release. The drug loading capacity of a spray-dried mixture containing 20% C 974P was investigated in vivo in dogs using testosterone as model drug. The spray-dried mixture could be loaded with 60% drug without loosing its in vivo bioadhesive and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:16019172

  14. Particle engineering of materials for oral inhalation by dry powder inhalers. II-Sodium cromoglicate.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lorraine M; Li, Jianhe; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-28

    Sodium cromoglicate is an antiasthmatic and antiallergenic drug used in inhalation therapy and commonly administered by a dry powder inhaler. In the present study we sought to examine the feasibility of producing nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) of this hydrophilic material by adaptation of a spray drying process previously applied to hydrophobic drugs, and to examine the physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of the spray dried particles in comparison to a commercial product. The storage stability of successfully prepared NPMPs was assessed under a number of conditions (4°C with dessicant, 25°C at 60% relative humidity and 25°C with dessicant). Spray dried sodium cromoglicate was amorphous in nature. NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate displayed superior aerodynamic properties resulting in improved in vitro drug deposition, as assessed by Andersen Cascade Impactor and twin impinger studies, in comparison to the commercial product, Intal. Deposition studies indicated that porosity and sphericity were important factors in improving deposition properties. The optimum solvent system for NPMP production was water:methanol:n-butyl acetate, as spherical NPMPs spray dried from this solvent system had a higher respirable fraction than non-spherical NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from methanol:n-butyl acetate), non-porous sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from water) and micronised sodium cromoglicate (Intal). While particle morphology was altered by storage at high humidity (60% RH) and in vitro deposition performance deteriorated, it was possible to maintain NPMP morphology and aerosolisation performance by storing the powder with dessicant. PMID:21129460

  15. L-Leucine as an excipient against moisture on in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Sun, Siping; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas; Tang, Patricia; Mao, Shirui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    L-Leucine (LL) has been widely used to enhance the dispersion performance of powders for inhalation. LL can also protect powders against moisture, but this effect is much less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LL could prevent moisture-induced deterioration in in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) was chosen as a model drug and different amounts of LL (2-40% w/w) were added to the formulation, with the aim to explore the relationship between powder dispersion, moisture protection and physicochemical properties of the powders. The powder formulations were prepared by spray drying of aqueous solutions containing known concentrations of DSCG and LL. The particle sizes were measured by laser diffraction. The physicochemical properties of fine particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). The surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performances were evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH), and 25°C for 24h. Spray-dried (SD) DSCG powders were amorphous and absorbed 30-45% (w/w) water at 70-80% RH, resulting in deterioration in the aerosolization performance of the powders. LL did not decrease the water uptake of DSCG powders, but it could significantly reduce the effect of moisture on aerosolization performances. This is due to enrichment of crystalline LL on the surface of the composite particles. The effect was directly related to the percentage of LL coverage on the surface of particles. Formulations having 61-73% (molar percent) of LL on the particle surface (which correspond to 10-20% (w

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  17. Dissolution enhancement of fenofibrate by micronization, cogrinding and spray-drying: comparison with commercial preparations.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Markus; Kunath, Klaus; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2008-02-01

    Several techniques were compared for improving the dissolution of fenofibrate, a poorly soluble drug. Particle size reduction was realized by jet milling (micronization; cogrinding with lactose, polyvinylpyrrolidone or sodium lauryl sulphate) and by media milling using a bead mill (nanosizing) with subsequent spray-drying. Solid state characterization by X-ray diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry verified the maintenance of the crystalline state of the drug after dry milling and its conversion to the amorphous state during spray-drying. Micronization of fenofibrate enhanced its dissolution rate in biorelevant media (8.2% in 30min) compared to crude material (1.3% in 30min). Coground mixtures of the drug increased the dissolution rate further (up to 20% in 30min). Supersaturated solutions were generated by nanosizing combined with spray-drying, this process converted fenofibrate to the amorphous state. Fenofibrate drug products commercially available on the German and French markets dissolved similarly to crude or micronized fenofibrate, but significantly slower than the coground or spray-dried fenofibrate mixtures. The results suggest that cogrinding and spray-drying are powerful techniques for the preparation of rapidly dissolving formulations of fenofibrate, and could potentially lead to improvements in the bioavailability of oral fenofibrate products. PMID:17574403

  18. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  19. Stabilisation of proteins via mixtures of amino acids during spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Ankur; Scherließ, Regina

    2014-03-10

    Biologicals are often formulated as solids in an effort to preserve stability which generally requires stabilising excipients for proper drying. The purpose of this study was to screen amino acids and their combinations for their stabilising effect on proteins during spray drying. Catalase, as model protein, was spray dried in 1+1 or 1+2 ratios with amino acids. Some amino acids namely arginine, glycine and histidine showed good retention of catalase functionality after spray drying and subsequent storage stress. A 1+1 combination of arginine and glycine in a 1+2 ratio with catalase resulted in a tremendously good stabilising effect. Storage at high temperature/humidity also showed beneficial effects of this combination. To evaluate whether this was a general principle, these findings were transferred to an antigenic protein of comparable size and supramolecular structure (haemagglutinin) as well as to a smaller enzyme (lysozyme). Upon spray drying with the combination of amino acids it could be shown that both proteins remain more stable especially after storage compared to the unprotected protein. The combination of arginine and glycine is tailored to the needs of protein stabilisation during spray drying and may hence be utilised in dry powder formulation of biomolecules with superior stability characteristics. PMID:24412336

  20. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    PubMed

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  1. Revealing facts behind spray dried solid dispersion technology used for solubility enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhavesh B.; Patel, Jayvadan K.; Chakraborty, Subhashis; Shukla, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Poor solubility and bioavailability of an existing or newly synthesized drug always pose challenge in the development of efficient pharmaceutical formulation. Numerous technologies can be used to improve the solubility and among them amorphous solid dispersion based spray drying technology can be successfully useful for development of product from lab scale to commercial scale with a wide range of powder characteristics. Current review deals with the importance of spray drying technology in drug delivery, basically for solubility and bioavailability enhancement. Role of additives, selection of polymer, effect of process and formulation parameters, scale up optimization, and IVIVC have been covered to gain the interest of readers about the technology. Design of experiment (DoE) to optimize the spray drying process has been covered in the review. A lot more research work is required to evaluate spray drying as a technology for screening the right polymer for solid dispersion, especially to overcome the issue related to drug re-crystallization and to achieve a stable product both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the recent FDA recommendation, the need of the hour is also to adopt Quality by Design approach in the manufacturing process to carefully optimize the spray drying technology for its smooth transfer from lab scale to commercial scale. PMID:27134535

  2. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  3. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  4. Sustained release of diltiazem HCl tableted after co-spray drying and physical mixing with PVAc and PVP.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoubi, Nizar; Al-Obaidi, Ghada; Tashtoush, Bassam; Malamataris, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    In this work, aqueous diltiazem HCl and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) solutions were mixed with Kollicoat SR 30D and spray dried to microparticles of different drug:excipient ratio and PVP content. Co-spray dried products and physical mixtures of drug, Kollidon SR and PVP were tableted. Spray drying process, co-spray dried products and compressibility/compactability of co-spray dried and physical mixtures, as well as drug release and water uptake of matrix-tablets was evaluated. Simple power equation fitted drug release and water uptake (R(2) > 0.909 and 0.938, respectively) and correlations between them were examined. Co-spray dried products with PVP content lower than in physical mixtures result in slower release, while at equal PVP content (19 and 29% w/w of excipient) in similar release (f2 > 50). Increase of PVP content increases release rate and co-spray drying might be an alternative, when physical mixing is inadequate. Co-spray dried products show better compressibility/compatibility but higher stickiness to the die-wall compared to physical mixtures. SEM observations and comparison of release and swelling showed that distribution of tableted component affects only the swelling, while PVP content for both co-spray dried and physical mixes is major reason for release alterations and an aid for drug release control. PMID:26035331

  5. Spray-dried solid dispersions of nifedipine and vinylcaprolactam/vinylacetate/PEG₆₀₀₀ for compacted oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Soulairol, Ian; Tarlier, Nicolas; Bataille, Bernard; Cacciaguerra, Thomas; Sharkawi, Tahmer

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate an alternative processing technology for a new polymeric solubilizer used mainly in hot melt extrusion. Poorly soluble nifedipine was co-processed through spray-drying with poly(vinyl caprolactam-co-vinyl acetate-co-ethylene glycol) (PVCVAEG) in different ratios. The resulting spray-dried powders were formulated and compacted into tablets forms. Spray drying produced reduced smooth spherical particles with PVCVAEG and more rough surfaces without PVCVAEG. Crystallinity of the co-processed nifedipine with the polymeric solubilizer was reduced. Plasticization of the polymeric solubilizer was observed with increasing drug content. Diffraction patterns in the small angle region as well as transmission electron microscopy showed results supporting phase separation throughout the spray dried particles of high drug content. Compaction with PVCVAEG improved cohesiveness of spray-dried compacts. Heckel modeling showed that deformation of PVCVAEG containing powders was more plastic compared than brittle nifedipine powders. Dissolution kinetics of all spray-dried samples was improved compared to original nifedipine crystals. Co-processed nifedipine with PVCVAEG did not show improved dissolution rate when compared to spray drying nifedipine alone. All though PVCVAEG is more commonly co-processed with drugs by hot melt extrusion to produce solid dispersions, the results show that it also can be processed by spray drying to produce solid dispersions. PVCVAEG improved compactibility of formulated spray dried powders. PMID:25579869

  6. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  7. Spray drying for preservation of erythrocytes: effect of atomization on hemolysis.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mary; Han, Xiao-Yue; Higgins, Adam Z

    2013-04-01

    Spray drying has the potential to enable storage of erythrocytes at room temperature in the dry state. The spray drying process involves atomization of a liquid into small droplets and drying of the droplets in a gas stream. In this short report, we focus on the atomization process. To decouple atomization from drying, erythrocyte suspensions were sprayed with a two-fluid atomizer nozzle using humid nitrogen as the atomizing gas. The median droplet size was less than 100 μm for all of the spray conditions investigated, indicating that the suspensions were successfully atomized. Hemolysis was significantly affected by the hematocrit of the erythrocyte suspension, the suspension flow rate, and the atomizing gas flow rate (p<0.01 in all cases). Under appropriate conditions, it was possible to achieve less than 2% hemolysis, suggesting that spray drying may be a feasible option for erythrocyte biopreservation. PMID:24845433

  8. Redispersible drug nanoparticles prepared without dispersant by electro-spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hwanki; Lee, Jonghwi

    2012-06-01

    The redispersibility of drug nanoparticles is critical in the formulation development of oral solid dosage forms from drug nanosuspensions. To address this issue, various drying techniques such as, spray drying, fluidized bed drying, etc. have been developed based on freeze drying. In this work, redispersible dried powders were successfully prepared from drug nanosuspensions without the use of dispersant by applying an electrical potential to the nozzle during the spray drying process. The applied voltage, not the concentration of the nanosuspension, was critical in determining the redispersibility. Despite the high electric field, the particle morphology and crystallinity were not dependent on the applied voltage, which suggests that the drug crystals were not damaged. This novel technique could broaden the applicability of spray drying technology and allow for novel formulations of drug nanoparticles. PMID:22010908

  9. Optimized Formulation of a Thermostable Spray-Dried Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Sugandha; Tumban, Ebenezer; Peabody, Julianne; Wafula, Denis; Peabody, David S; Chackerian, Bryce; Muttil, Pavan

    2016-05-01

    Existing vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) require continuous cold-chain storage. Previously, we developed a bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine for HPV infection, which elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies against diverse HPV types. Here, we formulated these VLPs into a thermostable dry powder using a multicomponent excipient system and by optimizing the spray-drying parameters using a half-factorial design approach. Dry-powder VLPs were stable after spray drying and after long-term storage at elevated temperatures. Immunization of mice with a single dose of reconstituted dry-powder VLPs that were stored at 37 °C for more than a year elicited high anti-L2 IgG antibody titers. Spray-dried thermostable, broadly protective L2 bacteriophage VLPs vaccine could be accessible to remote regions of the world (where ∼84% of cervical cancer patients reside) by eliminating the cold-chain requirement during transportation and storage. PMID:27019231

  10. Glycine crystallization during spray drying: the pH effect on salt and polymorphic forms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lian; Ng, Kingman

    2002-11-01

    Spray drying of aqueous solutions of glycine revealed a strong pH effect on the salt and polymorphic forms of the resulting powders. Adjusting pH by aqueous HCl or NaOH between 1.7 and 10.0 caused the glycine solutions to crystallize as two polymorphs (alpha and gamma) of the neutral glycine ((+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2) (-)) and as three salts (diglycine HCl, (+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2) (-). (+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2)H. C1(-); glycine HCl, (+)H(3)NCH(2)CO(2)H. C1(-); and sodium glycinate, H(2)NCH(2)CO(2) (-). Na(+)). Although alpha-glycine crystallized from solutions without pH adjustment (pH 6.2), changing the pH to 4.0 and 8.0 caused gamma-glycine to crystallize as the preferred polymorph. This phenomenon is attributed to the pH effect on the dimeric growth unit of alpha-glycine. The formation of alpha-glycine by spray drying solutions of neutral glycine contrasts the outcome of freeze drying, which yields beta-glycine. Because gamma-glycine is thermodynamically more stable than alpha-glycine, the crystallization of gamma-glycine by pH adjustment provides a way to improve the physical stability of glycine-containing formulations. Spray drying at low pH yielded various mixtures of neutral glycine and its HCl salts: pH 3.0, gamma-glycine and diglycine HCl; pH 2.0, diglycine HCl; and pH 1.7 (the natural pH of glycine HCl), diglycine HCl (major component) and glycine HCl (minor component). Spray drying glycine HCl solutions (pH 1.7) yielded the same diglycine HCl/glycine HCl mixture as did spray drying neutral glycine solutions acidified to pH 1.7. Obtaining diglycine HCl by spray drying glycine HCl solutions indicates a 50% loss of HCl during processing. The extent of HCl loss could be altered by changing the inlet temperature of the spray drier. Spray drying glycine solutions at pH 9.0 and 10.0 gave predominantly gamma-glycine and an additional crystalline product, possibly sodium glycinate. The glycine powders spray dried at different pH had different particle morphologies and sizes, which

  11. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968

  12. Properties of chitosan microencapsulated orange oil prepared by spray-drying and its stability to detergents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fragrance encapsulated in small particles of less than 20 µm diameter is preferred for use in textiles. In this study, aromatic orange oil was emulsified in a continuous phase of chitosan and spray-dried to produce microcapsules. The most effective combination of emulsifiers, ratio of chitosan to oi...

  13. Effect of vegetable proteins on physical characteristics of spray-dried tomato powders.

    PubMed

    Tontul, Ismail; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Ceren; Karacan, Merve

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of different vegetable proteins (pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate and zein from maize) at two different ratios (1% and 5%) on product yield and physical properties of spray-dried pulpy tomato juice was investigated. Additionally, these proteins were compared with whey protein concentrate which has a superior effect on spray dried products at the same concentrations. Additionally, plain tomato juice was also spray dried for comparison with vegetable proteins. The product yield of the tomato powders dried with the vegetable proteins was lower than with the whey protein concentrate. Among vegetable proteins, the highest product yield was produced with 1% soy protein isolate. In all products, there was a slight colour difference between the reconstituted tomato powders and the raw tomato juice, which indicated that pulpy tomato juice can be spray dried with minor colour change. All powders had unique free-flowing properties estimated as Carr index and Hausner ratio due to their large particles. PMID:26860489

  14. Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

    2006-10-01

    An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the α/( α+ β) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is α-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the α/ β mixed phase with smaller amounts of α-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the α/ β mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and α-lactose monohydrate and β-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 θ=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as α-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 θ=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, α-lactose monohydrate and β-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

  15. Influence of surface modification on structure formation and micromechanical properties of spray-dried silica aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sabrina; Lindenau, Maylin; Michel, Stephanie; Garnweitner, Georg; Schilde, Carsten

    2016-02-15

    Spray drying processes were utilized for the production of hierarchical materials with defined structures. The structure formation during the spray drying process and the micromechanical properties of the obtained aggregates depend on the particle-particle interactions, the primary particle size and morphology as well as the process parameters of the spray drying process. Hence, the effect of different primary particle systems prepared as stable dispersions with various surface modifications were investigated on the colloidal structure formation and the micromechanical properties of silica particles as model aggregates and compared to theoretical considerations. The obtained results show that the structure formation of aggregates during the spray drying process for stable suspensions is almost independent on the functional groups present at the particle surface. Further, the mechanical properties of these aggregates differ considerably with the content of the bound ligand. This allows the defined adjustment of the aggregate properties, such as the strength and surface properties, as well as the formation of defined hierarchical aggregate structures. PMID:26619128

  16. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60 °C, 20 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20 °C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold. PMID:25977043

  17. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form. PMID:24236997

  18. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  19. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  20. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  1. Effect of emulsification and spray-drying microencapsulation on the antilisterial activity of transcinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Lejmi, Raja; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Dumas, Emilie; Degraeve, Pascal; Thanh, Mai Le; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Spray-dried redispersible transcinnamaldehyde (TC)-in-water emulsions were prepared in order to preserve its antibacterial activity; 5% (w/w) TC emulsions were first obtained with a rotor-stator homogeniser in the presence of either soybean lecithin or sodium caseinate as emulsifiers. These emulsions were mixed with a 30% (w/w) maltodextrin solution before feeding a spray-dryer. The antibacterial activity of TC alone, TC emulsions with and without maltodextrin before and after spray-drying were assayed by monitoring the growth at 30 °C of Listeria innocua in their presence and in their absence (control). Whatever the emulsifier used, antilisterial activity of TC was increased following its emulsification. However, reconstituted spray-dried emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate had a higher antibacterial activity suggesting that they better resisted to spray-drying. This was consistent with observation that microencapsulation efficiencies were 27.6% and 78.7% for emulsions stabilised by lecithin and sodium caseinate, respectively. PMID:26398167

  2. Triboelectrification of spray-dried lactose prepared from different feedstock concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, O E; Carter, P A; Rowley, G; Merrifield, D R

    2000-01-01

    Powder systems may acquire electrostatic charge during various pharmaceutical processing operations and may give rise to difficulties in handling and powder flow, mainly due to adhesion/cohesion effects. We have investigated the electrostatic charging of spray-dried lactose prepared from different feedstock concentrations using a laboratory spray-dryer. Triboelectrification of the spray-dried lactose samples was effected through contact with the stainless steel surface of either a mixing vessel or a cyclone separator. Results from both techniques showed differences in charge accumulation and particle-steel adhesion between the spray-dried lactose samples. As the feedstock concentration used to produce the spray-dried lactose was increased in the range 10-50% w/v, the mean charge on the lactose decreased from -20.8 to -1.3 nC g(-1) and -54.9 to -4.1 nC g(-1) for the mixing vessel and cyclone separator, respectively, with a corresponding decrease in adhesion. In addition, as the feedstock concentration was increased from 10 to 50% w/v, decreases were obtained in surface area values (1.06 to 0.56 m2 g(-1)), pore diameter (198.7 to 83.5 microm) and pore volume (1.09 to 0.75 cm3 g(-1)), and together with differences in crystal form correlated with the charge and adhesion results. The results suggested that the feedstock concentration could have a considerable influence on the charging and adhesional properties of spray-dried lactose. This may have relevance during pharmaceutical processing and manufacturing operations. PMID:10716598

  3. Retention of Polyphenolic Species in Spray-Dried Blackberry Extract Using Mannitol as a Thermoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Joshua A.; Repko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of these studies was to determine if a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi Corporation, New Castle, DE, USA) could be used to prepare blackberry extract powders containing mannitol as a thermoprotectant without extensively degrading anthocyanins and polyphenols in the resulting powders. Three blackberry puree extract samples were each prepared by sonication of puree in 30/70% ethanol/water containing 0.003% HCl. Blackberry puree extract sample 1 (S1) contained no mannitol, while blackberry puree extract sample 2 (S2) contained 3.0:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract, and blackberry puree extract sample 3 (S3) contained 6.3:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract. The levels of anthocyanins and polyphenols in reconstituted spray-dried powders produced from S1–S3 were compared to solutions of S1–S3 that were held at 4°C as controls. All extract samples could be spray-dried using the Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290. S1, with no mannitol, showed a 30.8% decrease in anthocyanins and a 24.1% decrease in polyphenols following spray-drying. However, S2 had a reduction in anthocyanins of only 13.8%, while polyphenols were reduced by only 6.1%. S3, with a ratio of mannitol to berry extract of 6.3:1, exhibited a 12.5% decrease in anthocyanins while the decrease in polyphenols after spray-drying was not statistically significant (P=.16). Collectively, these data indicate that a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 is a suitable platform for producing stable berry extract powders, and that mannitol is a suitable thermoprotectant that facilitates retention of thermosensitive polyphenolic species in berry extracts during spray-drying. PMID:24892214

  4. The impact of atomization on the surface composition of spray-dried milk droplets.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Martin; Gengenbach, Thomas; Woo, Meng Wai; Selomulya, Cordelia

    2016-04-01

    The dominant presence of fat at the surface of spray-dried milk powders has been widely reported in the literature and described as resulting in unfavourable powder properties. The mechanism(s) causing this phenomenon are yet to be clearly identified. A systematic investigation of the component distribution in atomized droplets and spray-dried particles consisting of model milk systems with different fat contents demonstrated that atomization strongly influences the final surface composition. Cryogenic flash-freezing of uniform droplets from a microfluidic jet nozzle directly after atomization helped to distinguish the influence of the atomization stage from the drying stage. It was confirmed that the overrepresentation of fat on the surface is independent of the atomization technique, including a pressure-swirl single-fluid spray nozzle and a pilot-scale rotary disk spray dryer commonly used in industry. It is proposed that during the atomization stage a disintegration mechanism along the oil-water interface of the fat globules causes the surface predominance of fat. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements detected the outermost fat layer and some adjacent protein present on both atomized droplets and spray-dried particles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy gave a qualitative insight into the protein and fat distribution throughout the cross-sections, and confirmed the presence of a fat film along the particle surface. The film remained on the surface in the subsequent drying stage, while protein accumulated underneath, driven by diffusion. The results demonstrated that atomization induces component segregation and fat-rich surfaces in spray-dried milk powders, and thus these cannot be prevented by adjusting the spray drying conditions. PMID:26803667

  5. Improved dissolution of an insoluble drug using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Tagawa, Maya; Hoshi, Noboru; Ogura, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2004-09-01

    A solid dispersion of the drug can be made using a polymer carrier to improve solubility. Generally, drugs become amorphized when solid dispersion is formed using a polymer carrier. In such high energy conditions, the solubility of the drug molecule is increased. We previously prepared solid dispersion using a spray-drying technique and reported its solubility and crystallinity. In this study, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was used as the carrier, and tolubutamide was the model drug, which is water-insoluble. Solubility was evaluated by preparing a solid dispersion using a newly developed 4-fluid nozzle spray dryer. Observation of particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray drying were atomized to several microns, and they had also become spherical. Assessment of the crystallinity of the spray-dried particles by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the tolbutamide had been amorphized, forming a solid dispersion. The apparent release rate constant K of the drug from the spray-dried particles was 4 to 6 times faster than the original drug in pH 1.2, and it was also 1.5 to 1.9 times faster than the original drug in pH 6.8. The 70% release time (T(70)) of the drug from the spray-dried particles was 20 to 30 times faster than the original drug in pH 1.2 solution as well as 2 to 3 times faster than the original drug in pH 6.8 solution. Pharmaceutical preparations prepared in this way using the 4-fluid nozzle system spray dryer formed composite particles, resulting in a remarkably improved dissolution rates of the drug. PMID:15340191

  6. A Review of Methods for Evaluating Particle Stability in Suspension Based Pressurized Metered Dose Inhalers.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in particle engineering techniques, such as spray drying, freeze drying and supercritical fluid precipitation, have greatly enhanced the ability to control the structure, morphology, and solid state phase of inhalable sized particles (1 - 5 µm) for formulation in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). To optimize the properties of these engineered particles for formulation in hydrofluoroalkane propellants (HFA 134a / 227) it is necessary to measure both bulk and individual particle properties before, after, and during formulation. This review examines established and recently developed methods for evaluating a variety of particle properties including but not limited to size, surface and internal morphology, chemical composition, and solid state phase. Novel methods for evaluating particle physical and chemical stability directly in propellant or similar environments are also discussed. PMID:26290200

  7. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition. PMID:19021798

  8. Activity of spray-dried microparticles containing pomegranate peel extract against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Endo, Eliana Harue; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2012-01-01

    Pomegranate has attracted interest from researchers because of its chemical composition and biological properties. It possesses strong antioxidant activity, with potential health benefits, and also antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to produce microparticles containing pomegranate extract by the spray-drying technique, utilizing alginate or chitosan as encapsulating agents. Characterization and antifungal assays were carried out. Production yields were about 40% for alginate microparticles and 41% for chitosan. Mean diameters were 2.45 µm and 2.80 µm, and encapsulation efficiencies were 81.9% and 74.7% for alginate and chitosan microparticles, respectively. The spray-drying process preserved the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These results could be useful for developing dosage forms for treating candidiasis, and should be further investigated in in vivo models. PMID:22922280

  9. Research on spray-dried lithium titanate as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhaoyin; Gu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shahua; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Zuxiang; Yamamoto, Osamu

    Li 4Ti 5O 12 has been considered as a promising electrode material for lithium secondary batteries. In this work a spray drying process was developed to prepare porous and spherical Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders with Li 2CO 3 and rutile type TiO 2 as precursors and PVB as forming agent of pores. The experimental results showed that porous and spherical morphology of the spray-dried powders was maintained during the sintering and the subsequent heat treatment. The oxygen atmosphere was demonstrated important to the electrochemical performance of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. However, overtime heat treatment would result in superfluous loss of lithium content and therefore led to obvious decrease of charge and discharge capacities.

  10. Functional properties and stability of spray-dried pigments from Bordo grape (Vitis labrusca) winemaking pomace.

    PubMed

    Souza, Volnei Brito de; Fujita, Alice; Thomazini, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Roberto; Lucon, João Francisco; Genovese, Maria Inés; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen Sílvia

    2014-12-01

    The stability of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, the antioxidant capacity, the antimicrobial activity and the capacity to inhibit arginase from Leishmania were evaluated in spray-dried powders from Bordo grape winemaking pomace extract. The pigments were produced using maltodextrin as the carrier agent at concentrations varying from 10% to 30% and air entrance temperatures varying from 130 to 170°C. A sample of freeze-dried extract without the carrier was also evaluated. The anthocyanins in the spray-dried samples showed good stability during storage, better than the freeze-dried and liquid extracts. The samples were capable of inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes and showed high inhibitory capacity against the enzyme arginase from Leishmania. These results provide evidence that Bordo grapes from the winemaking process have the potential to be used as natural pigments with functional properties. PMID:24996348

  11. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  12. Inhibition of Recrystallization of Amorphous Lactose in Nanocomposites Formed by Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Alderborn, Göran; Mahlin, Denny

    2015-11-01

    This study aims at investigating the recrystallization of amorphous lactose in nanocomposites. In particular, the focus is on the influence of the nano- to micrometer length scale nanofiller arrangement on the amorphous to crystalline transition. Further, the relative significance of formulation composition and manufacturing process parameters for the properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Nanocomposites of amorphous lactose and fumed silica were produced by co-spray-drying. Solid-state transformation of the lactose was studied at 43%, 84%, and 94% relative humidity using X-ray powder diffraction and microcalorimetry. Design of experiments was used to analyze spray-drying process parameters and nanocomposite composition as factors influencing the time to 50% recrystallization. The spray-drying process parameters showed no significant influence. However, the recrystallization of the lactose in the nanocomposites was affected by the composition (fraction silica). The recrystallization rate constant decreased as a function of silica content. The lowered recrystallization rate of the lactose in the nanocomposites could be explained by three mechanisms: (1) separation of the amorphous lactose into discrete compartments on a micrometer length scale (compartmentalization), (2) lowered molecular mobility caused by molecular interactions between the lactose molecules and the surface of the silica (rigidification), and/or (3) intraparticle confinement of the amorphous lactose. PMID:26182904

  13. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature. PMID:25477639

  14. Ilex paraguariensis Pellets from a Spray-Dried Extract: Development, Characterization, and Stability.

    PubMed

    Yatsu, Francini K J; Borghetti, Greice S; Magalhães, Fagner; Ferraz, Humberto G; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown the potential use of Ilex paraguariensis in developing products with the aim to protect biological systems against oxidative stress-mediated damages. In the same way, technological studies have demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining dry products, by spray-drying process, from aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis in laboratory. The present work was designed to develop pellets by extrusion/spheronization process, from an I. paraguariensis spray-dried powder. The pellets were characterized with respect to their chemical, physical, and technological properties, and the thermal and the photostability of the main polyphenol constituents were investigated. The pellets exhibited adequate size, shape, and high process yield (78.7%), as well as a good recovery of the total polyphenols (>95%) and a good dissolution in water (89.44 to 100.05%). The polyphenols were stable against light when conditioned in amber glass bottles; unstable against heat when the samples were conditioned either in open glass bottles or in hermetically sealed glass bottles and demonstrated to be hygroscopic and sensible to the temperature, especially when stored in permeable flasks. These findings pointed to the relevance of reducing the residual moisture content of pellets as well as of conditioning them in opaque humidity tight packages under low temperatures. The feasibility of obtaining pellets from an I. paraguariensis spray-dried powder using extrusion/spheronization technique was, for the first time, demonstrated. This finding represents a novelty for the herbal products in both pharmaceutical and food fields. PMID:26162976

  15. Tablets and minitablets prepared from spray-dried SMEDDS containing naproxen.

    PubMed

    Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar Pobirk, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-11-10

    The purpose of this study was to compare different solidification techniques (i.e., adsorption technique, spray-drying process, high-shear granulation, fluid-bed granulation) for preparing solid SMEDDS powders by using solid carriers identified as appropriate and to produce a single (tablets) or multiunit (minitablets) solid dosage form based on prepared solid SMEDDS loaded with naproxen in a dissolved (6% w/w) or supersaturated (18% w/w) state. Among the solidification techniques and carriers tested, the powders produced using the spray-drying process and maltodextrin (MD) as a carrier exhibited the best self-microemulsifying properties, comparable with liquid SMEDDS. Furthermore, DoE (Design of Experiments) showed that pressure at the nozzle and pump speed (regulating feed flow rate) applied during spray drying had a major and significant influence on self-microemulsifying properties (mean droplet size and PDI) of the solid SMEDDS prepared. Furthermore, it was shown that compression of solid SMEDDS into (mini) tablets influences its self-microemulsifying properties in a negative direction. This resulted in lowering the dissolution profile of naproxen from tablets and minitablets in comparison with liquid and solid SMEDDS. However, all compressed SMEDDS formulations still had considerable influence on the dissolution profile and solubility enhancement of naproxen. PMID:26341323

  16. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined. PMID:25940040

  17. Spray-dried voriconazole-cyclodextrin complexes: solubility, dissolution rate and chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Miletic, Tijana; Kyriakos, Kachrimanis; Graovac, Adrijana; Ibric, Svetlana

    2013-10-15

    The present work investigates the effect of complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and 2-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-O-MBCD), on voriconazole solubility, dissolution rate and chemical stability. Drug-cyclodextrin complexes were prepared as aqueous solutions, which were spray-dried, and their properties were compared to wet ground samples and physical mixtures. DSC analysis revealed absence of crystalline voriconazole from spray-dried complexes. FTIR spectroscopy indicated changes in the H-bonding network of the hydroxyl groups of cyclodextrin following drug inclusion. Dissolution rate of voriconazole was significantly higher from spray-dried complexes with either cyclodextrin in comparison with free drug, physical mixtures, or wet ground mixtures. However, two degradation impurities were found in aged samples, with slightly higher impurity level with HPBCD. Performed solubility studies suggested that 2-O-MBCD is more efficient solubilizer. Molecular docking simulations showed a difference in the 1:1 binding affinities and sites, with HPBCD surprisingly forming complexes of much lower energy, thus suggesting a multiple rather than a 1:1 complexation. PMID:23987325

  18. Improvements in the production of Yb:YAG transparent ceramic materials: Spray drying optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serantoni, Marina; Piancastelli, Andreana; Costa, Anna Luisa; Esposito, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Spray drying parameters have been optimized for the preparation of granulated stoichiometric mixture of oxides. These oxides are used in the production of Yb:YAG laser grade ceramic materials by reactive sintering. The selected compositions were Yb0.294Y2.706Al5O12 and Yb0.03Y2.97Al5O12, i.e. YAG doped with 9.8 and 1.0 at% of Yb with respect to the overall Y + Yb amount. The influence of solid content, drying medium flux, temperature and aspiration rate of the spray drying process on the transparency of the sintered materials has been evaluated. Sintering was conducted under high vacuum and clean atmosphere in the temperature range of 1650-1735 °C and with a soaking time of 16 h. SEM analysis of the microstructure of granulated powders and sintered materials, as well as the transmittance measurement, were used as tools to guide the selection of the best spray drying parameters.

  19. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Donadel, Karina; Felisberto, Marcos D V; Laranjeira, Mauro C M

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP) were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2). The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction). The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure. PMID:19488622

  20. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. PMID:27523619

  1. Effects of spray drying and size reduction of edible bird's nest on in-vitro digestibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Masitah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of spray drying and size reduction of edible bird's nest (EBN) on in-vitro digestibility respectively. Sample prepared were EBN microparticulates; 710 µm (EBN710), 300 µm (EBN300) and 38 µm (EBN38), EBN spray died (EBNSD) and raw EBN (EBNraw) as control. Protein content and solubility were determined before the samples being subjected to in-vitro digestibility. Protein content of EBN710 (55.37±0.269%), EBN300 (56.57±0.163%) EBN38 (56.77±0.021%) and EBNraw (55.46±0.269%) was not significantly different (p>0.05) but EBNSD (60.33b+0.346%) was the highest (p<0.05). Solubility results showed that EBNSD had the highest solubility (94.38±1.24%) in water significantly (p<0.05) compared to EBNraw (16.01±0.231%), EBN710 (21.89+0.41%), EBN300 (22.52+0.072%) and EBN38 (27.51±0.321%). Digestibility of EBN300 (88.43±0.95%) was higher (p<0.05) compared to EBNSD (85.23±0.27%). However, treatment of microparticulates and spray drying were not significantly different with EBNraw (85.38±1.12%). Digestibility of EBN microparticulates and spray dried powder were all lower (p<0.05) than casein (98.36+0.95%). Lower EBN digestibility could be due to the nature of EBN protein as glycoprotein. Proteolytic (tryptic) digestion of native glycoprotein is often incomplete due to ste aric hindrance from the presence of bulky oligosaccharides.

  2. Production of microparticles of molinate degrading biocatalysts using the spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana R; Sousa, Vera M; Estevinho, Berta N; Leite, José P; Moreira, Nuno F F; Gales, Luís; Rocha, Fernando; Nunes, Olga C

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the capability of mixed culture DC1 to mineralize the thiocarbamate herbicide molinate through the activity of molinate hydrolase (MolA). Because liquid suspensions are not compatible with long-term storage and are not easy to handle when bioremediation strategies are envisaged, in this study spray drying was evaluated as a cost-effective method to store and transport these molinate biocatalysts. Microparticles of mixed culture DC1 (DC1) and of cell free crude extracts containing MolA (MA) were obtained without any carrier polymer, and with calcium alginate (CA) or modified chitosan (MCt) as immobilizing agents. All the DC1 microparticles showed high molinate degrading activity upon storage for 6 months, or after 9 additions of ∼0.4 mM molinate over 1 month. The DC1-MCt microparticles were those with the highest survival rate and lowest heterogeneity. For MA microparticles, only MA-MCt degraded molinate. However, its Vmax was only 1.4% of that of the fresh cell free extract (non spray dried). The feasibility of using the DC1-MCt and MA-MCt microparticles in bioaugmentation processes was assessed in river water microcosms, using mass (g):volume (L) ratios of 1:13 and 1:0.25, respectively. Both type of microparticles removed ∼65-75% of the initial 1.5 mg L(-1) molinate, after 7 days of incubation. However, only DC1-MCt microparticles were able to degrade this environmental concentration of molinate without disturbing the native bacterial community. These results suggest that spray drying can be successfully used to produce DC1-MCt microparticles to remediate molinate polluted sites through a bioaugmentation strategy. PMID:27421102

  3. Scalable synthesis of mesoporous titania microspheres via spray-drying method.

    PubMed

    Pal, Manas; Wan, Li; Zhu, Yongheng; Liu, Yupu; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wenjun; Li, Yuhui; Zheng, Gengfeng; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-10-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 has several potential applications due to its unique electronic and optical properties, although its structures and morphologies are typically difficult to tune because of its uncontrollable and fast sol-gel reaction. In this study we have coupled the template-directed-sol-gel-chemistry with the low-cost, scalable, and environmentally benign aerosol (spray-drying) one-pot preparation technique for the fabrication of hierarchically mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2-x microspheres in a large scale. Parameters during the pre-hydrolysis and spray-drying treatment were varied to successfully control the bead diameter, morphology, monodispersity, surface area and pore size for improving their effectiveness for better application. Unlike to the previous aerosol synthetic approaches, where mainly quite a high temperature gradient with the strict control of spray-drying precursor concentration is implied, our strategy is lying on comparatively low drying temperature with an additional post-ultrasonication (further hydrolysis and condensation) route of the pre-calcined TiO2 samples. As-synthesized mesoporous microspheres have a size distribution from 500nm to 5μm, specific surface areas ranging from 150 to 162m(2)g(-1) and mean pore sizes of several nanometers (4-6nm). Further Fe3O4@mesoporous TiO2-x microspheres were observed to show remarkable selective phosphopeptide-enrichment activity which might have significant importance in disease diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27388128

  4. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: formulation development.

    PubMed

    Myrdal, Paul B; Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are a long-standing method to treat diseases of the lung, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MDIs rely on the driving force of the propellant, which comprises the bulk of the MDI formulation, to atomize droplets containing drug and excipients, which ideally should deposit in the lungs. During the phase out of chlorofluorocarbon propellants and the introduction of more environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane propellants, many improvements were made to the methods of formulating for MDI drug delivery along with a greater understanding of formulation variables on product performance. This review presents a survey of challenges associated with formulating MDIs as solution or suspension products with one or more drugs, while considering the physicochemical properties of various excipients and how the addition of these excipients may impact overall product performance of the MDI. Propellants, volatile and nonvolatile cosolvents, surfactants, polymers, suspension stabilizers, and bulking agents are among the variety of excipients discussed in this review article. Furthermore, other formulation approaches, such as engineered excipient and drug-excipient particles, to deliver multiple drugs from a single MDI are also evaluated. PMID:24452499

  5. Properties of copper-detonation nanodiamond composites obtained by spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, E. S.; Kidalov, S. V.; Sokolov, V. V.; Klimov, G. G.; Puguang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructural copper-detonation nanodiamond (DND) composites have been obtained by the method of spray drying. The technological process consists in spraying and drying a mixture of an aqueous copper salt solution and DND suspension, followed by thermal treatment in a reductive atmosphere. The DND content in copper powder was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 mass %. The average DND particle size in suspension was 4-6 nm. Copper-DND nanocomposite powders consist of nearly spherical particles with average size within 20-30 μm. Composition and structure of obtained materials have been studied.

  6. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: hardware development.

    PubMed

    Stein, Stephen W; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P David; Myrdal, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering valve capable of delivering a consistent amount of drug with each dose delivered, an actuator mouthpiece that atomizes the formulation and serves as a conduit to deliver the aerosol to the patient, and often an indicating mechanism that provides information to the patient on the number of doses remaining. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of MDI hardware and includes discussion of enhancements made to the device's core subsystems. In addition, technologies that aid the correct use of MDIs will be discussed. These include spacers, valved holding chambers, and breath-actuated devices. Many of the improvements discussed in this article increase the ability of MDI systems to meet regulatory specifications. Innovations that enhance the functionality of MDIs continue to be balanced by the fact that a key advantage of MDI systems is their low cost per dose. The expansion of the health care market in developing countries and the increased focus on health care costs in many developed countries will ensure that MDIs remain a cost-effective crucial delivery system for treating pulmonary conditions for many years to come. PMID:24357110

  7. Optimization of the Büchi B-90 spray drying process using central composite design for preparation of solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10 μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages. PMID:26070248

  8. Critical processing parameters of carbon dioxide spray drying for the production of dried protein formulations: A study with myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Jiskoot, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental insight into protein destabilization induced by supercritical CO2 spray drying processing parameters. Myoglobin was used as a model protein (5mg/ml with 50mg/ml trehalose in 10mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.2). The solution was exposed to sub- and supercritical CO2 conditions (65-130bar and 25-50°C), and CO2 spray drying under those conditions. The heme binding of myoglobin was determined by UV/Vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, while myoglobin aggregation was studied by using size-exclusion chromatography and flow imaging microscopy. It was found that pressure and temperature alone did not influence myoglobin's integrity. However, when pressurized CO2 was introduced into myoglobin solutions at any condition, the pH of the myoglobin formulation shifted to about 5 (measured after depressurization), resulting in heme binding destabilization and aggregation of myoglobin. When exposed to CO2, these degradation processes were enhanced by increasing temperature. Heme binding destabilization and myoglobin aggregation were also seen after CO2 spray drying, and to a greater extent. Moreover, the CO2 spray drying induced the partial loss of heme. In conclusion, pressurized CO2 destabilizes the myoglobin, leading to heme loss and protein aggregation upon spray drying. PMID:27080205

  9. Simultaneous Polymerization and Polypeptide Particle Production via Reactive Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Lidija; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-09-12

    A method for producing polypeptide particles via in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides during spray-drying has been developed. This method was enabled by the development of a fast and robust synthetic pathway to polypeptides using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides. The polymerizations finished within 5 s and proved to be very tolerant toward impurities such as amino acid salts and water. The formed particles were prepared by mixing the monomer, N-carboxyanhydride of l-glutamic acid benzyl ester (NCAGlu) and the initiator (DBU) during the atomization process in the spray-dryer and were spherical with a size of ∼1 μm. This method combines two steps; making it a straightforward process that facilitates the production of polypeptide particles. Hence, it furthers the use of spray-drying and polypeptide particles in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27445061

  10. Spray-dried amorphous isomalt and melibiose, two potential protein-stabilizing excipients.

    PubMed

    Lipiäinen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Räikkönen, Heikki; Juppo, Anne

    2016-08-20

    The possibility of producing amorphous isomalt and melibiose by spray drying was studied. The impact of process parameters on yield and solid-state stability was compared to sucrose and trehalose. All powders remained amorphous during 2-3 weeks. Processing was challenging due to powder stickiness. Low-temperature and low-humidity drying processes generally performed best. Most isomalt and sucrose powder was retrieved when using 60°C inlet temperature, 800L/h atomizing rate, 1.4ml/min feed rate, 15% concentration and 100% aspirator rate, giving 42-43°C outlet temperature. Isomalt was the most problematic, because it had the lowest Tg and became sticky very easily, therefore process parameters needed to be precisely balanced. There was more freedom in designing processes for melibiose but best yields were obtained with low-temperature (50°C inlet temperature, 800L/h atomizing rate, 4.9ml/min feed rate, 10% concentration and 100% aspirator, 39°C outlet temperature). Trehalose was different in that higher temperatures resulted in better yields. Yet, trehalose generally contained the highest moisture contents. The possibility to produce amorphous isomalt and melibiose at low-temperature process conditions makes them promising considering spray drying applications for heat-sensitive proteins. Melibiose is a better candidate than isomalt because of easier processability and superior solid-state stability. PMID:27321131

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Different Sized Spray-Dried Crystalline Itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Jog, Rajan; Shen, Jie; Zolnik, Banu; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Burgess, Diane J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to formulate and optimize different sized liquid and solid nanocrystalline formulations and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performance to determine the effect of particle size on the oral bioavailability of solid nanocrystalline formulations. Nanotechnology is a promising approach to solve the problem of poor oral bioavailability of Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II/IV compounds. However, the highly exposed surface area of nanocrystals and hence their high Gibb's free energy poses a great challenge to nanocrystalline suspension stabilization. In this study, stabilization was achieved by preparing spray-dried nanocrystalline powders. A design of experiment approach was utilized to optimize the nanocrystalline suspensions/powders. On the basis of drug solubility studies, polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 KDa and sodium lauryl sulfate were selected for wet milling processing. Mannitol was chosen as the auxiliary excipient for spray-drying processing. In vitro dissolution utilizing a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus II showed superior release profiles for both liquid and nanocrystalline powder formulations compared with coarse-sized and unmilled formulations. Significantly, the oral bioavailability of nanocrystalline formulations with particle size of 280 nm was more than 20 times that of the unmilled formulation, whereas the nanocrystalline formulation with particle size of 750 nm showed only a 2.8 times increase in bioavailability compared with the unmilled formulation. PMID:25195539

  12. Cyclodextrin as membrane protectant in spray-drying and freeze-drying of PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, Gert; Beijnen, Jos H; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2012-11-15

    In this study it was investigated whether hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is able to stabilize the liposomal membranes during drying of long circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomes, as compared to the disaccharides trehalose and sucrose. PEGylated liposomes loaded with prednisolone disodium phosphate (PLP) were dried by spray-drying or freeze-drying. The dried powders were tested on their residual moisture content, glass transition temperature and amorphous character. Upon reconstitution the liposomal size, size distribution and drug retention were determined and the results were compared to the characteristics of the formulation solution before drying. In contrast to the disaccharides, HPβCD stabilizes the liposomal membranes of the PEGylated liposomes during the drying process of both spray drying and freeze-drying when present in a lipid:carbohydrate ratio of 1:6 (w/w). The resulting powder can be stored at room temperature. No changes in size and size distribution were seen upon reconstitution of the HPβCD containing formulations. Drying resulted in a minimal leaking of PLP from the liposomes. Its relatively high [Formula: see text] and T(g) of HPβCD, as compared to the disaccharides, make HPβCD an excellent membrane protectant for dry PEGylated liposomal formulations. PMID:22960501

  13. Influence of microencapsulation and spray drying on the viability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition. PMID:18646401

  14. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. PMID:25172729

  15. Diversity in Robustness of Lactococcus lactis Strains during Heat Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Spray Drying Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Annereinou R.; Setyawati, Meily C.; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Alkema, Wynand; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested 39 Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from diverse habitats for their robustness under heat and oxidative stress, demonstrating high diversity in survival (up to 4 log units). Strains with an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype generally displayed more-robust phenotypes than strains with an L. lactis subsp. cremoris phenotype, whereas the habitat from which the strains had been isolated did not appear to influence stress survival. Comparison of the stress survival phenotypes with already available comparative genomic data sets revealed that the absence or presence of specific genes, including genes encoding a GntR family transcriptional regulator, a manganese ABC transporter permease, a cellobiose phosphotransferase system (PTS) component, the FtsY protein, and hypothetical proteins, was associated with heat or oxidative stress survival. Finally, 14 selected strains also displayed diversity in survival after spray drying, ranging from 20% survival for the most robust strains, which appears acceptable for industrial application, to 0.1% survival for the least-tolerant strains. The high and low levels of survival upon spray drying correlated clearly with the combined robustness under heat and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate the relevance of screening culture collections for robustness under heat and oxidative stress on top of the typical screening for acidifying and flavor-forming properties. PMID:24212574

  16. Development and characterisation of metformin loaded spray dried Bora rice microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemanta Kumar; Mohapatra, Jadavesh; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Bora rice, a glutinous rice, is grown in Assam (a north eastern state of India) and is used traditionally for various purposes. The rationale of this study was to prepare and to assess Metformin loaded mucoadhesive spray dried microspheres using locally grown Bora rice powder. Metformin loaded microspheres were prepared using Bora rice and sodium alginate by spray drying method. For the study of the consequence of parameters of spray drier on the properties of microspheres, parameters such as aspirator flow rate, temperature, feed flow rate and concentration of the spray solution were changed. The in-vitro release properties were also studied. Almost spherical microspheres were obtained with significant swelling and mucoadhesivity. Dissolution study was carried out in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 7 hrs. It was also noted to possess good mucoadhesive in such a way that about 90% of microspheres remained adherent on the surface of intestinal mucosa of pig skin. The total amount of drug released from microspheres after 7 hr. was 80%. The release of drug was not affected by the changes in parameters but was affected when sodium alginate concentration was changed. It was observed that microsphere properties changed as the parameters were changed. Smaller particles were obtained when the concentration of the spray solution, aspirator flow rate, the temperature difference between inlet and outlet and feed flow rate were lower. PMID:23261723

  17. In Situ Cross-Linking of Stimuli-Responsive Hemicellulose Microgels during Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking during spray drying offers the potential for green fabrication of microgels with a rapid stimuli response and good blood compatibility and provides a platform for stimuli-responsive hemicellulose microgels (SRHMGs). The cross-linking reaction occurs rapidly in situ at elevated temperature during spray drying, enabling the production of microgels in a large scale within a few minutes. The SRHMGs with an average size range of ∼1–4 μm contain O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan as a matrix and poly(acrylic acid), aniline pentamer (AP), and iron as functional additives, which are responsive to external changes in pH, electrochemical stimuli, magnetic field, or dual-stimuli. The surface morphologies, chemical compositions, charge, pH, and mechanical properties of these smart microgels were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, IR, zeta potential measurements, pH evaluation, and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, respectively. Different oxidation states were observed when AP was introduced, as confirmed by UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Systematic blood compatibility evaluations revealed that the SRHMGs have good blood compatibility. This bottom-up strategy to synthesize SRHMGs enables a new route to the production of smart microgels for biomedical applications. PMID:25630464

  18. Spray Drying of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Flavonoids Extract: Optimization and Physicochemical, Morphological, and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Guangzhi; Li, Nianghui; Yin, Yanyan; Zhu, Baojun; Chen, Meiling; Huang, Ruqiang

    2014-01-01

    The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs) were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%), high solubility (92.35%), and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm3). DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying (P > 0.05) and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities. PMID:26904629

  19. Tailored crumpling and unfolding of spray-dried pristine graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviz, Dorsa; Das, Sriya; Irin, Fahmida; Green, Micah

    2015-03-01

    3D Crumpled graphene was directly obtained from aqueous dispersions of pristine graphene using an industrially scalable spray drying technique. Capillary forces during the water evaporation induced the crumpling of nanosheets to multi-faced dimpled morphology. For the first time, the transition of 2D graphene nanosheets to a 3D crumpled morphology was directly observed inside the spray dryer. Graphene oxide (GO) was spray dried using the same procedure; however, their highly wrinkled final morphology was different than the crumpled pristine graphene nanosheets. The degree of crumpling of the nanosheets was controlled by changing the dimensionless ratio of evaporation rate to diffusion rate. Crumpled particles were redispersed into various solvents to evaluate their morphological changes as a response to rewetting. Crumpled GO nanosheets remained crumpled as a response to hydration, while the pristine graphene nanosheets unfolding behavior was solvent-dependent. This study holds significance for both fundamental understanding of the origins of nanosheets crumpling and also for the use of crumpled nanosheets for further material processing.

  20. Microencapsulation of Nigella sativa oleoresin by spray drying for food and nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Edris, Amr E; Kalemba, Danuta; Adamiec, Janusz; Piątkowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Oleoresin of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) was obtained from the seeds using hexane extraction at room temperature. The oleoresin was emulsified in an aqueous solution containing gum Arabic/maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) and then encapsulated in powder form by spray drying. The characteristics of the obtained powder including moisture content, bulk density, wettability, morphology, encapsulation efficiency were evaluated. The effect of the spray drying on the chemical composition of the volatile oil fraction of N. sativa oleoresin was also evaluated using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis. Results indicated that the encapsulation efficiency of the whole oleoresin in the powder can range from 84.2±1.5% to 96.2±0.2% depending on the conditions of extracting the surface oil from the powder. On the other hand the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile oil fraction was 86.2% ±4.7. The formulated N. sativa L. oleoresin powder can be used in the fortification of processed food and nutraceuticals. PMID:26988509

  1. Enhancing graphene oxide reinforcing potential in composites by combined latex compounding and spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yingyan; Zhang, Shubai; Zhang, Dandan; Chan, Tung W.; Liu, Li

    2014-04-01

    A new strategy was developed to prepare graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with highly exfoliated GO sheets and strong interfaces. In particular, GO/SBR microparticles, in which exfoliated GO sheets (with a thickness of ˜1 nm and diameter of tens of nanometers) are trapped in a well-dispersed state throughout the SBR matrix, were made by a combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method. Subsequently, a chemical bridge between GO and rubber matrix through KH550 and Si69 was built during vulcanization, and the interfacial strength of the cured GO/SBR composite was remarkably improved. Due to the highly exfoliated structure and the strong interface, the GO/SBR composite exhibited 7.8 times higher modulus at 300% strain and 6.4 times higher tensile strength compared with cured pure SBR. The combined latex-compounding and spray-drying method presented here is feasible and water-mediated and has great potential for industrial applications.

  2. [Optimization of spraying dry technology of Biqiu ranules ethanol extract by Box-Behnken response surface method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Li-li; Hu, Jun-hua; Wu, Yun; Chao, En-xiang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    With inlet temperature, specific gravity, feeding speed as independent variables, the comprehensive evaluating indexes of content of schisandrin and arctiin as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation. Based on establishing the mathematical relationship between the comprehensive evaluating indexes and respective variables, Box-Benhnken central composite test and response surface analysis method was employed to optimize the spray drying technology of Biqiu granules ethanol extract. The optimal drying parameter was as follows: the inlet temperature was 175 degrees C, the specific gravity was 1.10, feeding speed was 32 r x min(-1). Under these conditions, the comprehensive evaluating indexes of spraying dry processes was 92.68, which was close to the model prediction. The spraying dry technology of Biqiu granules ethanol extract optimized by response surface methodology was accurate and feasible, which provided theoretical experiment basis for the industrialization production. PMID:26983204

  3. Silver Nanoparticles in SiO2 Microspheres - Preparation by Spray Drying and Use as Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Mahltig, Boris; Haufe, Helfried; Muschter, Kerstin; Fischer, Anja; Kim, Young Hwan; Gutmann, Emanuel; Reibold, Marianne; Meyer, Dirk Carl; Textor, Torsten; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Young Soo

    2010-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 particles of micrometer size are prepared using spray drying. The spray drying is performed with a SiO2 sol (solvent water:ethanol 4: 1) containing SiO2 and silver particles of nanometer size. During spray drying the SiO2 nanoparticles aggregate to SiO2 microspheres whereas the silver particles exhibit only a small tendency of aggregation and keep their nanometer size. However under special conditions also the formation of crystalline silver rods is observed. The antibacterial activity of the resulting Ag/SiO2 powders is determined against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Because of this antibacterial acitivity and the fact that the powder of SiO2 microspheres exhibits a good dispersibility, such materials have an immense potential to be used as antimicrobial additive in processes like master batch or fiber production. PMID:24061743

  4. Advances in Inhalation Gas Dosimetry for Derivation of a Reference Concentration (RfC) and Use in Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This status report provides a review of advances in the state of the science for interspecies inhalation gas dosimetry related to extrathoracic (ET) or upper respiratory tract (URT), tracheobronchial (TB), pulmonary (PU), and extrarespiratory (systemic, SYS) effects.

  5. Measurement of thermal characteristics of spray-dried milk and juice blend.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hanan S; Abu Shelaibi, A A; Laleye, L C; Ismail, I A

    2009-01-01

    Blended concentrated grape/peach (G/P) juice 60% total soluble solids (TSS) with condensed whole cow milk 40% TSS (1.5:8.5) was spray dried using a pilot-scale spray drier FT 80 at feeding pressure 7,000 Pa, at chamber temperature 180 degrees C and at chamber pressure -110 Pa. The glass transition state of blended G/P juice-milk powder, three pure sugars (glucose, sucrose and lactose) and casein were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetry showed that G/P juice-milk powder is a glassy material. The glass transition temperature of blended G/P juice-milk powder at 0.248 water activity was 42 degrees C, compared with commercial full milk powder (control) of 29 degrees C at 0.334 at water activity (a(w)). PMID:19468952

  6. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior. PMID:23044149

  7. NANOPARTICLES. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator.

    PubMed

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O; Brenner, Michael P; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-08-28

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules. PMID:26315432

  8. On the spray-drying deposition of TiO 2 photocatalytic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunova-Bujnova, M.; Todorovska, R.; Milanova, M.; Kralchevska, R.; Todorovsky, D.

    2009-11-01

    The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 films deposited on different substrates by the spray-drying method using suspensions of commercially available TiO 2 (Degussa P25 or Tronox) as starting material was studied. The influence of the type of the initial TiO 2, preparation conditions (temperature of the substrate during the film deposition, temperature of the post-deposition annealing), substrate material (glass, fused silica, stainless steel and graphite), the presence of additives in the spraying suspension (polyethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and acetylacetone) and its sonication before spraying on the morphology, size of crystallites and phase composition (rutile/anatase ratio) was studied. Optimal conditions for spray deposition of the films are suggested.

  9. Porous TiO₂ nanowire microsphere constructed by spray drying and its electrochemical lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunju; Hu, Tian; Shu, Kangying; Chen, Da; Tian, Guanglei

    2014-02-01

    Porous TiO2 nanowire microspheres with greatly decreasing agglomeration were successfully prepared by spray drying of hydrothermal reaction suspension, followed by calcination at 350°C. The as-obtained nanowire microspheres with TiO2-B structure reach an initial discharge capacity 210 mAh g(-1) with an irreversible capacity 25 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 20 mA g(-1). For the 450°C-calcined one with anatase TiO2 crystal structure, the initial discharge capacity is 245 mAh g(-1) but with a much higher irreversible capacity of 80 mAh g(-1). The hierarchical porous structure in the 350°C-calcined TiO2 nanowire microspheres collapsed at 450°C, annihilating the main benefit of nanostructuring. PMID:24302642

  10. Physicochemical aspects involved in methotrexate release kinetics from biodegradable spray-dried chitosan microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Philippe C.; Oliveira, Alice R.; Pedrosa, Matheus F. Fernandes; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio

    2015-06-01

    Spray dried methotrexate (MTX) loaded chitosan microparticles were prepared using different drug/copolymer ratios (9%, 18%, 27% and 45% w/w). The physicochemical aspects were assessed in order to select particles that were able to induce a sustained drug release effect. Particles were successfully produced which exhibited desired physicochemical aspects such as spherical shape and high drug loading. XRD and FT-IR analysis demonstrated that drug is not bound to copolymer and is only homogeneously dispersed in an amorphous state into polymeric matrix. Even the particles with higher drug loading levels presented a sustained drug release profile, which were mathematically modeled using adjusted Higuchi model. The drug release occurred predominantly with drug dissolution and diffusion through swollen polymeric matrix, with the slowest release occurring with particles containing 9% of drug, demonstrating an interesting and promising drug delivery system for MTX.

  11. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.

  12. Characterization of the spray drying behaviour of emulsions containing oil droplets with a structured interface.

    PubMed

    Serfert, Y; Schröder, J; Mescher, A; Laackmann, J; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Gaukel, V; Schuchmann, H P; Walzel, P; Moritz, H-U; Drusch, S; Schwarz, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the process of atomization and drying of layer-by-layer emulsions containing lecithin (single layer emulsion) and lecithin/chitosan (bilayer emulsion) and the oxidative stability of the microcapsules during storage. For this purpose, the analysis of the emulsion spray droplet size during two-fluid nozzle and rotary atomization was carried out to identify suitable process parameters. The drying behaviour of single and bilayer emulsions was investigated by calculation of the volume flow density during single-droplet drying during acoustic levitation. In spray-dried solid particles, the oxidative stability in the single layer microcapsules was higher than in the bilayer microcapsules. This was partly attributed to lower microencapsulation efficiency in the bilayer microcapsules compared to the single layer microcapsules. Furthermore, it could be shown, that excess chitosan in the bulk carrier matrix affects the free volume elements and thus oxygen diffusion. PMID:23088319

  13. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Passador, F. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Pessan, L. A. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  14. Relationship between surface concentration of L-leucine and bulk powder properties in spray dried formulations.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Tan, Geoffrey; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John; Rowles, Matthew R; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V

    2015-08-01

    The amino acid L-leucine has been demonstrated to act as a lubricant and improve the dispersibility of otherwise cohesive fine particles. It was hypothesized that optimum surface L-leucine concentration is necessary to achieve optimal surface and bulk powder properties. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was spray dried with different concentration of L-leucine and the change in surface composition of the formulations was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The formulations were also subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis in order to understand the relationship between surface concentration and solid-state properties of L-leucine. In addition, the morphology, surface energy and bulk cohesion of spray dried formulations were also assessed to understand the relation between surface L-leucine concentration and surface and bulk properties. The surface concentration of L-leucine increased with higher feed concentrations and plateaued at about 10% L-leucine. Higher surface L-leucine concentration also resulted in the formation of larger L-leucine crystals and not much change in crystal size was noted above 10% L-leucine. A change in surface morphology of particles from spherical to increasingly corrugated was also observed with increasing surface l-leucine concentration. Specific collapsed/folded over particles were only seen in formulations with 10% or higher l-leucine feed concentration suggesting a change in particle surface formation process. In addition, bulk cohesion also reduced and approached a minimum with 10% L-leucine concentration. Thus, the surface concentration of L-leucine governs particle formation and optimum surface L-leucine concentration results in optimum surface and bulk powder properties. PMID:26007290

  15. Encapsulation of mixtures of tuna oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in a spray dried powder formulation.

    PubMed

    Sanguansri, Luz; Day, Li; Shen, Zhiping; Fagan, Peter; Weerakkody, Rangika; Cheng, Li Jiang; Rusli, Jenny; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent. There was 84-86% remaining EPA, 85-87% remaining DHA, 85% remaining tributyrin and 94-96% remaining resveratrol after 18 months at 25 °C storage of the spray dried emulsions using Encapsulant matrix 1 across all formulations. In comparison, there was 83-87% remaining EPA and 84-89% remaining DHA, 80-82% remaining tributyrin, and 81-100% remaining resveratrol across all formulations with Encapsulant matrix 2. In vitro studies showed that on sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, <5% tuna oil was found as triglycerides, but all the tributyrin had been lipolysed. The presence of diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in the in vitro digests suggested that lipolysis of tuna oil had occurred. The type of matrix used for encapsulating the bioactives had little effect on the lipolysis of the oils but affected the amount of solvent extractable resveratrol. The ability of delivering mixtures of bioactives within one formulation was demonstrated. PMID:24121865

  16. Ultrasonic atomization for spray drying: a versatile technique for the preparation of protein loaded biodegradable microspheres.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Kissel, T

    1999-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BDA) loaded microspheres with a spherical shape and smooth surface structure were successfully prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) using an ultrasonic nozzle installed in a Niro laboratory spray dryer. Process and formulation parameters were investigated with respect to their influence on microsphere characteristics, such as particle size, loading capacity, and release properties. Preparation of microspheres in yields of more than 50% was achieved using an ultrasonic atomizer connected to a stream of carrier air. Microsphere characteristics could be modified by changing several technological parameters. An increased polymer concentration of the feed generated larger particles with a significantly reduced initial release of the protein. Moreover, microspheres with a smooth surface structure were obtained from the organic polymer solution with the highest viscosity. Microparticles with a low BSA loading showed a large central cavity surrounded by a thin polymer layer in scanning electron microspheres. A high protein loading led to an enlargement of the shell layer, or even to dense particles without any cavities. A continuous in vitro release pattern of BSA was obtained from the particles with low protein loading. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the microspheres before and after lyophilization did not differ from those of the BSA loaded particles prepared by spray drying with a rotary atomizer. Analysis of the polymer by gel permeation chromatography indicated that ultrasonication had no effect on polymer molecular weight. Molecular weight and polydispersity of the pure polymer, placebo microspheres prepared by spray drying, and placebo microspheres prepared using the ultrasonic nozzle were in the same range. In conclusion, ultrasonic atomization represents a versatile and reliable technique for the production of protein loaded biodegradable microspheres without inducing a degradation of the polymer matrix. Particle characteristics

  17. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, B. R.; Passador, F. R.; Pessan, L. A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH4) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  18. Physical and Nutritional Properties of Catfish Roe Spray Dried Protein Powder and its Application in an Emulsion System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble spray dried protein powder (CRP) was made from catfish roe and its physical and nutritional properties evaluated. An emulsion system (CRPE) was developed using CRP and rheological properties compared with two commercial mayonnaises (RME and RVE). CRP contained 67 % protein, 4.5% moisture, ...

  19. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  20. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    PubMed

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC. PMID:26243954

  1. Effect of spray drying on the sensory and physical properties of hydrolysed casein using gum arabic as the carrier.

    PubMed

    Subtil, S F; Rocha-Selmi, G A; Thomazini, M; Trindade, M A; Netto, F M; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2014-09-01

    This study was aimed at spray drying hydrolysed casein using gum Arabic as the carrier agent, in order to decrease the bitter taste. Three formulations with differing proportions of hydrolysed casein: gum Arabic (10:90, 20:80 and 30:70) were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, dispersibility in water and in oil, particle size and distribution, particle morphology, thermal behaviour (DSC) and bitter taste by a trained sensory panel using a paired-comparison test (free samples vs. spray dried samples). The proportion of hydrolysed casein did not affect the morphology of the microspheres. The spray drying process increased product stability and modified the dissolution time, but had no effect on the ability of the material to dissolve in either water or oil. The sensory tests showed that the spray drying process using gum Arabic as the carrier was efficient in attenuating or masking the bitter taste of the hydrolysed casein. PMID:25190858

  2. First in-situ SAXS studies of the mesostructuration of spherical silica and titania particles during spray-drying process.

    PubMed

    Boissiere, C; Grosso, D; Amenitsch, H; Gibaud, A; Coupé, A; Baccile, N; Sanchez, C

    2003-11-21

    Meso-organisation of SiO2 and TiO2 particles prepared by spray drying have been for the first time analysed through in-situ SAXS. Both processing and chemical parameters are critical to obtain meso-organised spheres. PMID:14651110

  3. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  4. Evaluation of excipients for enhanced thermal stabilization of a human type 5 adenoviral vector through spray drying.

    PubMed

    LeClair, Daniel A; Cranston, Emily D; Xing, Zhou; Thompson, Michael R

    2016-06-15

    We have produced a thermally stable recombinant human type 5 adenoviral vector (AdHu5) through spray drying with three excipient formulations (l-leucine, lactose/trehalose and mannitol/dextran). Spray drying leads to immobilization of the viral vector which is believed to prevent viral protein unfolding, aggregation and inactivation. The spray dried powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titrations, and X-ray diffraction to identify the effects of temperature and atmospheric moisture on the immobilizing matrix. Thermal stability of the viral vector was confirmed in vitro by infection of A549 lung epithelial cells. Mannitol/dextran powders showed the greatest improvement in thermal stability with almost no viral activity loss after storage at 20°C for 90days (0.7±0.3 log TCID50) which is a significant improvement over the current -80°C storage protocol. Furthermore, viral activity was retained over short term exposure (72h) to temperatures as high as 55°C. Conversely, all powders exhibited activity loss when subjected to moisture due to amplified molecular motion of the matrix. Overall, a straightforward method ideal for the production of thermally stable vaccines has been demonstrated through spray drying AdHu5 with a blend of mannitol and dextran and storing the powder under low humidity conditions. PMID:27130366

  5. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  6. Effect of Galacto-Oligosaccharides: Maltodextrin Matrices on the Recovery of Lactobacillus plantarum after Spray-Drying

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Natalia; Gerbino, Esteban; Golowczyc, Marina A.; Schebor, Carolina; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Tymczyszyn, E. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this work maltodextrins were added to commercial galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) in a 1:1 ratio and their thermophysical characteristics were analyzed. GOS:MD solutions were then used as matrices during spray-drying of Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114. The obtained powders were equilibrated at different relative humidities (RH) and stored at 5 and 20°C for 12 weeks, or at 30°C for 6 weeks. The Tgs of GOS:MD matrices were about 20–30°C higher than those of GOS at RH within 11 and 52%. A linear relation between the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and T-Tg parameter was observed for GOS:MD matrices equilibrated at 11, 22, 33, and 44% RH at 5, 20, and 30°C. Spray-drying of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114 in GOS:MD matrices allowed the recovery of 93% microorganisms. In contrast, only 64% microorganisms were recovered when no GOS were included in the dehydration medium. Survival of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114 during storage showed the best performance for bacteria stored at 5°C. In a further step, the slopes of the linear regressions provided information about the rate of microbial inactivation for each storage condition (k values). This information can be useful to calculate the shelf-life of spray-dried starters stored at different temperatures and RH. Using GOS:MD matrices as a dehydration medium enhanced the recovery of L. plantarum CIDCA 83114 after spray-drying. This strategy allowed for the first time the spray-drying stabilization of a potentially probiotic strain in the presence of GOS. PMID:27199918

  7. STATUS REPORT: EVIDENCE BASED ADVANCES IN INHALATION DOSIMETRY FOR GASES WITH EFFECTS IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT AND IN THE BODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the status of specific inhalation dosimetry procedures for gases as outlined in U.S. EPA’s 1994 Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Applications of Inhalation Dosimetry (U.S. EPA 1994) and reviews recent scientific advances in...

  8. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    Off-flavors in whey protein negatively influence consumer acceptance of whey protein ingredient applications. Clear acidic beverages are a common application of whey protein, and recent studies have demonstrated that beverage processing steps, including acidification, enhance off-flavor production from whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preacidification of liquid ultrafiltered whey protein concentrate (WPC) before spray drying on flavor of dried WPC. Two experiments were performed to achieve the objective. In both experiments, Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 mg/kg of hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain liquid WPC that was 13% solids (wt/wt) and 80% protein on a solids basis. In experiment 1, the liquid retentate was then acidified using a blend of phosphoric and citric acids to the following pH values: no acidification (control; pH 6.5), pH 5.5, or pH 3.5. The UF permeate was used to normalize the protein concentration of each treatment. The retentates were then spray dried. In experiment 2, 150 μg/kg of deuterated hexanal (D₁₂-hexanal) was added to each treatment, followed by acidification and spray drying. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Flavor properties of the spray-dried WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses in experiment 1 and by instrumental analysis in experiment 2. Preacidification to pH 3.5 resulted in decreased cardboard flavor and aroma intensities and an increase in soapy flavor, with decreased concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide compared with spray drying at pH 6.5 or 5.5. Adjustment to pH 5.5 before spray drying increased cabbage flavor and increased concentrations of nonanal at evaluation pH values of 3.5 and 5.5 and dimethyl trisulfide at all evaluation pH values. In general, the flavor effects of preacidification were consistent regardless of the pH to

  9. Characterization of scandia doped pressed cathode fabricated by spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuntao; Wang, Jinshu; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yiman; Zhou, Meiling

    2011-10-01

    Scandia doped pressed cathode was prepared by a new method of spray drying combined with two-step hydrogen reduction process. The Sc 2O 3 and barium-calcium aluminate co-doped powders have sub-micrometer size in the range of 0.1-1 μm and scandium oxide and barium-calcium aluminate are distributed evenly in the powders. The cathodes sintered by powder metallurgy at 1600 °C b have a smooth surface and sub-micrometer grain structure with homogeneous distribution of scandium, barium, calcium and aluminum which are dispersed over and among the tungsten grains. This cathode has good emission, e.g., the current density of this cathode reaches 31.50 A/cm 2 at 850 °C b. After proper activation, the cathode surface is covered by a Ba-Sc-O active substances layer with a preferable atomic ratio, leading to its good emission property. The evaporation activation energy of SDP cathode with 4.58 eV is the highest among the Ba-W, M-type and SDP cathodes, and the average evaporation velocity vt of SDP cathode with 1.28 × 10 -8 g cm -2 s -1 at 1150 °C b is the lowest one.

  10. Development and characterization of spray dried microparticles for pulmonary delivery of antifungal drug.

    PubMed

    Mathpal, Divita; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life threatening fungal infection mainly caused by Aspergillus species. Available treatment strategy against pulmonary aspergillosis is having very limited applicability, due to its toxicity and low circulation half-life. Pulmonary drug delivery is one of the strategies that can minimize these pitfalls. In the present study, polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles of amphotericin B were prepared by spray drying technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and stearylamine with oleic acid respectively. Formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro release studies, uptake analysis and in-vivo bio distribution studies. Developed polymeric and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were found in submicron size (600-700nm) and spherical in shape. Studies suggested that NLCs have better entrapment efficiency (77.1±5.5 %) as compared to HPMC carrier (71.28±5.22 %). Both formulations provided sustained drug release (HPMC, 82.05% releases up to 32 hrs and NLC, 88.2 % up to 40 hrs) and reduced dose dumping that may be helpful to reduce the toxicity and improve patient compliance. In-vitro antifungal studies suggested that stearylamine formulations exhibited better antifungal activity over control and HPMC formulations. Pharmacokinetic and organ distribution studies also support our hypothesis i.e. localized drug delivery for prolong period, improving the therapeutic effectiveness of the encapsulated drug against pulmonary aspergillosis. Studies suggested that drug delivery by pulmonary route is beneficial for local action in lungs. PMID:25808185

  11. Microencapsulation by spray-drying of bioactive compounds extracted from blackberry (rubus fruticosus).

    PubMed

    Rigon, Renata Trindade; Zapata Noreña, Caciano P

    2016-03-01

    Blackberry aqueous extract acidified with 2 % citric acid was spray-dried using gum Arabic (GA) and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents at concentrations of 10 and 15 % and temperatures of 140 to 160 °C. All powders presented high solubility, ranging from 88.2 to 97.4 %, and the encapsulation conditions did not significantly affect the hygroscopicity. The powders produced with gum Arabic showed higher brightness than those with polydextrose. The anthocyanins retention in the microcapsules was 878.32 to 1300.83 mg/100 g, and the phenolics was 2106.56 to 2429.22 mg (GAE)/100 g. The antioxidant activity was quantified according to DDPH and ABTS methods, with values ​​ranging from 31.28 to 40.26 % and 27 to 45.15 %, respectively. The microscopy showed spherical particles for both encapsulating agents, and smooth surface with some concavities with the gum Arabic, and smooth or slightly rough surface when using polydextrose. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a high correlation between the color parameters, L*, a*, b*, Hue, Chroma and browning index (BI), which were also strongly correlated with anthocyanins. Phenolic presented correlation with DPPH and ABTS values. The results showed that the best encapsulation condition was atomization at 140 °C and 15 % gum Arabic. PMID:27570276

  12. The physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Laovachirasuwan, Pornpun; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Srijesdaruk, Voranuch; Chitropas, Padungkwan; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-06-15

    Glutinous rice starch (GRS) is a biopolymer used widely in the food industry but not at all in the pharmaceutical industry. There are several ways to modify this biopolymer. Physical modification is simple and cheap because it requires no chemicals or biological agents. The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch (SGRS) produced from pregelatinized GRS. The surface morphology changed from an irregular to concave spherical shape as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SGRS was almost amorphous as determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The water molecules became linked through hydrogen bonds to the exposed hydroxyl group of amorphous SGRS as determined by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Then, SGRS formed a colloid gel matrix with water and developed a highly viscous gelatinous form as determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a stress control type rheometer. In addition, SGRS can swell and produce a gelatinous surface barrier like a hydrophilic matrix biopolymer which controls drug release. Therefore, a novel application of SGRS is as a sustained release modifier for direct compression tablets in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20307959

  13. Encapsulation performance of proteins and traditional materials for spray dried flavors.

    PubMed

    Charve, Joséphine; Reineccius, Gary A

    2009-03-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of selected proteins as alternative materials for flavor encapsulation by spray drying. Two traditional materials (gum acacia and modified starch) and three proteins (sodium caseinate, whey and soy protein isolates) were used at different infeed solid levels; test compounds included (R)-(+)-limonene and three alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes ((E)-2-hexenal, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, citral). The primary criteria for performance were flavor retention during drying and protection against losses during storage. Limonene oxidation and nonenzymatic browning were investigated as two possible deterioration routes. Overall, higher infeed solids improved retention during drying and limited flavor losses (aldehydes and limonene) during storage in traditional materials only. The materials giving the highest flavor retention during drying were gum acacia (94%), modified starch (88%) and whey protein isolate (87%). Gum acacia provided the highest retention of aldehydes during storage (37 to 58%) after 28 days at 40 degrees C but did not afford good protection against limonene oxidation. Oppositely, protein materials effectively limited limonene oxidation (>70% retained). Nonenzymatic browning was observed for all powders prepared with proteins, especially whey protein isolate, whereas no browning occurred with traditional materials. PMID:19231860

  14. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis. PMID:23737670

  15. Spray-drying performance of a bench-top spray dryer for protein aerosol powder preparation.

    PubMed

    Maa, Y F; Nguyen, P A; Sit, K; Hsu, C C

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this work was to improve a bench-top spray dryer's efficiency in both production recovery and throughput for preparing protein aerosol powders. A Büchi mini-spray dryer was used to prepare the powders of recombinant humanized anti-IgE antibody. The resulting powder's physical properties such as particle size, residual moisture, and morphology, along with its recovery and production rate was the basis of this development work. Mass balance suggests that approximately 10-20% of powder was lost in the exhaust air, consisting primarily of particles less than 2 micrometer. Also, significant loss (20-30%) occurred in the cyclone. Attempts were made to improve product recovery in the receiving vessel using dual-cyclone configurations, different cyclone designs, cyclones with anti-static treatment, and different receiver designs. System modifications such as replacing the original bag-filter unit with a vacuum system effectively reduced drying air flow resistance, allowing the protein to be dried at a lower inlet air temperature and the production scale to be increased. We concluded that the modified spray-drying system is advantageous over the original bench-top spray dryer. This improvement will be beneficial to early-stage research and development involving high-valued protein powders. PMID:10099432

  16. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining nitriding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Hua; Duan, Xinglong; Dong, Xuebin

    2008-09-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ( λex=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 °C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature.

  17. Comparison of properties of tablets and energy profile of compaction of two spray-dried lactoses.

    PubMed

    Muzíková, Jitka; Sináglová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    The paper compared two spray-dried lactoses Flowlac 100 and SuperTab 14SD from the standpoint of tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets, the effect of an addition of the lubricant magnesium stearate and silicified microcrystalline cellulose on these properties, and also from the standpoint of the energy profile of compression. The comparison of the values was performed at the compression force of 15 kN. The strength of tablets was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increase in the concentration of magnesium stearate did not decrease tablet strength. Prosolv SMCC 90 increased the strength of tablets and made it equal for both lactoses, but it also increased the sensitivity to the added lubricant. The disintegration time of tablets was shorter in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increased concentration of magnesium stearate prolonged it, and an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 shortened it and made it equal for both lactoses. From the energy standpoint, the maximal energy was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 increased it and again made it equal for both lactoses. The differences in the values of the maximal energy were primarily due to the values of the energy for friction and the energy accumulated by the tablet after compression, and there was no marked difference in the values of the energy of decompression. SuperTab 14SD showed a higher plasticity than Flowlac 100. PMID:23610968

  18. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor. PMID:25771045

  19. A novel approach to crystallisation of nanodispersible microparticles by spray drying for improved tabletability.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Adamczyk, Bożena; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2012-10-15

    High-dose API powders which are to be tableted by direct compression should have high compactibility and compressibility. This note reports on a novel approach to the manufacture of crystalline powders intended for direct compaction with improved compactibility and compressibility properties. The poorly compactable API, chlorothiazide, was spray dried from a water/acetone solvent mix producing additive-free nanocrystalline microparticles (NCMPs) of median particle size 3.5 μm. Tablets compacted from NCMPs had tensile strengths ranging from 0.5 to 4.6 MPa (compared to 0.6-0.9 MPa for tablets of micronised CTZ) at compression forces ranging from 6 kN to 13 kN. NCMP tablets also had high porosities (34-20%) and large specific surface areas (4.4-4.8m(2)/g). The time taken for tablets made of NCMPs to erode was not statistically longer (p>0.05) than for tablets made of micronised CTZ. Fragmentation of NCMPs on compression was observed. The volume fraction of particles below 1 μm present in the suspension recovered after erosion of NCMP tablets was 34.8±3.43%, while no nanosized particles were detected in the slurry after erosion of compacted micronised CTZ. PMID:22710254

  20. Characterization and performance assessment of solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion and spray drying process.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anjali M; Dudhedia, Mayur S; Patel, Ashwinkumar D; Raikes, Michelle S

    2013-11-30

    The present study investigated effect of manufacturing methods such as hot melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying (SD) on physicochemical properties, manufacturability, physical stability and product performance of solid dispersion. Solid dispersions of compound X and PVP VA64 (1:2) when prepared by SD and HME process were amorphous by polarized light microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry analyses with a single glass transition temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopic analyses revealed similar molecular level interactions between compound X and PVP VA64 as evident by overlapping FT-IR and FT Raman spectra in SD and HME solid dispersions. The compactibility, tabletability, disintegration and dissolution performance were similar for solid dispersions prepared by both processing techniques. Differences in material properties such as surface area, morphological structure, powder densities, and flow characteristics were observed between SD and HME solid dispersion. The SD solid dispersion was physically less stable compared to HME solid dispersion under accelerated stability conditions. Findings from this study suggest that similar product performance could be obtained if the molecular properties of the solid dispersion processed by two different techniques are similar. However differences in material properties might affect the physical stability of the solid dispersions. PMID:24013161

  1. Evaporation of multi-component mixtures and shell formation in spray dried droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Pedro; Duarte, Íris; Porfirio, Tiago; Temtem, Márcio

    2015-11-01

    Drug particles where the active pharmaceutical ingredient (APIs) is dispersed in a polymer matrix forming an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is a commonly used strategy to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble APIs. However, the formation and stability of an amorphous solid dispersion depends on the polymer/API combination and process conditions to generate it. The focus of the present work is to further develop a numerical tool to predict the formation of ASDs by spray drying solutions of different polymer/API combinations. Specifically, the evaporation of a multi-component droplet is coupled with a diffusion law within the droplet that minimizes the Gibbs free energy of the polymer/API/solvents system, following the Flory-Huggins model. Prior to the shell formation, the evaporation of the solvents is modelled following the simplified approach proposed by Abramzon & Sirignano (1989) which accounts for the varying relative velocity between the droplet and the drying gas. After shell formation, the diffusion of the solvents across the porous shell starkly modifies the evaporative dynamics.

  2. Accelerated ketoprofen release from spray-dried polymeric particles: importance of phase transitions and excipient distribution.

    PubMed

    Gue, Emilie; Muschert, Susanne; Willart, Jean-Francois; Danede, Florence; Delcourt-Debruyne, Elisabeth; Descamps, Marc; Siepmann, Juergen

    2015-05-01

    HPMC-, PVPVA- and PVP-based microparticles loaded with 30% ketoprofen were prepared by spray drying suspensions or solutions in various water:ethanol blends. The inlet temperature, drying gas and feed flow rates were varied. The resulting differences in the ketoprofen release rates in 0.1 M HCl could be explained based on X-ray diffraction, mDSC, SEM and particle size analysis. Importantly, long term stable drug release could be provided, being much faster than: (i) drug release from a commercial reference product, (ii) the respective physical drug:polymer mixtures, as well as (iii) the dissolution of ketoprofen powder as received. In addition, highly supersaturated release media were obtained, which did not show any sign for re-crystallization during the observation period. Surprisingly, spraying suspensions resulted in larger microparticles exhibiting faster drug release compared to spraying solutions, which resulted in smaller particles exhibiting slower drug release. These effects could be explained based on the physico-chemical characteristics of the systems. PMID:24766587

  3. Analysis of co-spray-dried meloxicam-mannitol systems containing crystalline microcomposites.

    PubMed

    Pomázi, Anita; Ambrus, Rita; Sipos, Péter; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2011-09-10

    The crystal size, form, wettability and rate of dissolution of a drug are factors limiting its nasal or pulmonary administration. The aim of this work was to achieve an ideal crystal habit, good wettability and the rapid release of meloxicam (MEL), a poorly water-soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The structures of MEL and the carrier-based systems were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology were investigated by laser diffraction and SEM analyses. The novelty of this work was the use of a co-spray-drying technique, which resulted in mannitol-based crystalline microcomposites (1-6 μm) containing MEL microcrystals (1-5 μm). The particle size and form of the MEL microcrystals were adjusted by a top-down method. The presence of mannitol (with a MEL:mannitol mass ratio of 1:1) with additives ensured the homogeneous distribution of MEL in the microcomposites with good wettability and rapid release (100% MEL within 5 min). PMID:21652159

  4. Modelling drug degradation in a spray dried polymer dispersion using a modified Arrhenius equation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Adele; Ferreira, Ana P; Banks, Elizabeth; Skeene, Kirsty; Clarke, Graham; Nicholson, Sarah; Rawlinson-Malone, Clare

    2015-01-15

    The Pharmaceutical industry is increasingly utilizing amorphous technologies to overcome solubility challenges. A common approach is the use of drug in polymer dispersions to prevent recrystallization of the amorphous drug. Understanding the factors affecting chemical and physical degradation of the drug within these complex systems, e.g., temperature and relative humidity, is an important step in the selection of a lead formulation, and development of appropriate packaging/storage control strategies. The Arrhenius equation has been used as the basis of a number of models to predict the chemical stability of formulated product. In this work, we investigate the increase in chemical degradation seen for one particular spray dried dispersion formulation using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS). Samples, prepared using polymers with different substitution levels, were placed on storage for 6 months under a range of different temperature and relative humidity conditions and the degradant level monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While the data clearly illustrates the impact of temperature and relative humidity on the degradant levels detected, it also highlighted that these terms do not account for all the variability in the data. An extension of the Arrhenius equation to include a term for the polymer chemistry, specifically the degree of succinoyl substitution on the polymer backbone, was shown to improve the fit of the model to the data. PMID:25450477

  5. Comparison of spray drying, electroblowing and electrospinning for preparation of Eudragit E and itraconazole solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sóti, Péter Lajos; Bocz, Katalin; Pataki, Hajnalka; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Attila; Verreck, Geert; Kiss, Éva; Fekete, Pál; Vigh, Tamás; Wagner, István; Nagy, Zsombor K; Marosi, György

    2015-10-15

    Three solvent based methods: spray drying (SD), electrospinning (ES) and air-assisted electrospinning (electroblowing; EB) were used to prepare solid dispersions of itraconazole and Eudragit E. Samples with the same API/polymer ratios were prepared in order to make the three technologies comparable. The structure and morphology of solid dispersions were identified by scanning electron microscopy and solid phase analytical methods such as, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman chemical mapping. Moreover, the residual organic solvents of the solid products were determined by static headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy measurements and the wettability of samples was characterized by contact angle measurement. The pharmaceutical performance of the three dispersion type, evaluated by dissolution tests, proved to be very similar. According to XRPD and DSC analyses, made after the production, all the solid dispersions were free of any API crystal clusters but about 10 wt% drug crystallinity was observed after three months of storage in the case of the SD samples in contrast to the samples produced by ES and EB in which the polymer matrix preserved the API in amorphous state. PMID:26241751

  6. Spray Drying Tenofovir Loaded Mucoadhesive and pH-Sensitive Microspheres Intended for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chi; Agrahari, Vivek; Murowchick, James B.; Oyler, Nathan A.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop spray dried mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive microspheres (MS) based on polymethacrylate salt intended for vaginal delivery of tenofovir (a model HIV microbicide) and assess their critical biological responses. Methods The formulation variables and process parameters are screened and optimized using a 24-1 fractional factorial design. The MS are characterized for size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, Carr’s index, drug loading, in vitro release, cytotoxicity, inflammatory responses and mucoadhesion. Results The optimal MS formulation has an average size of 4.73 µm, Zeta potential of −26.3 mV, 68.9% yield, encapsulation efficiency of 88.7%, Carr’s index of 28.3 and drug loading of 2% (w/w). The MS formulation can release 90% of its payload in the presence of simulated human semen. At a concentration of 1 mg/ml, the MS are noncytotoxic to vaginal endocervical/epithelial cells and Lactobacillus crispatus when compared to control media. There is also no statistically significant level of inflammatory cytokine (IL1-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10) release triggered by MS. The mucoadhesive property of MS formulation is 2-fold higher than that of 1% HEC gel formulation. Conclusion These data suggest the promise of using such MS as an alternative controlled microbicide delivery template by intravaginal route for HIV prevention. PMID:23274788

  7. Bench-Scale Development of Fluidized-Bed Spray-Dried Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Successful development of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for removal of reduced sulfur species (such as H{sub 2}S and COS) from coal-derived fuel gas streams at high=temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) conditions is a key to commercialization of the integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Among the various available coal-to-electricity pathways, IGCC power plants have the most potential with high thermal efficiency, simple system configuration, low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and other contaminants, modular design, and low capital cost. Due to these advantages, the power plants of the 21st century are projected to utilize IGCC technology worldwide. Sorbents developed for sulfur removal are primarily zinc oxide-based inorganic materials, because of their ability to reduce fuel gas sulfur level to a few parts-per-million (ppm). This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. Specific objectives are to develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{mu}m particle size range for transport reactor applications using semicommercial- to full commercial-scale spray dryers, to transfer sorbent production technology to private sector, and to provide technical support for Sierra Pacific`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and METC`s hot-gas desulfurization process development unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  8. Preparation and recrystallization behavior of spray-dried co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Andreas; Radi, Lydia; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2016-07-01

    To improve the dissolution properties and the physical stability of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients, small molecule stabilizing agents may be added to prepare co-amorphous systems. The objective of the study was to investigate if spray-drying allows the preparation of co-amorphous drug-drug systems such as naproxen-indomethacin and to examine the influence of the process conditions on the resulting initial sample crystallinity and the recrystallization behavior of the drug(s). For this purpose, the process parameters inlet temperature and pump feed rate were varied according to a 2(2) factorial design and the obtained samples were analyzed with X-ray powder diffractometry and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of the data revealed that the preparation of fully amorphous samples could be achieved depending on the process conditions. The resulting recrystallization behavior of the samples, such as the total recrystallization rate, the individual recrystallization rates of naproxen and indomethacin as well as the polymorphic form of indomethacin that was formed were influenced by these process conditions. For initially amorphous samples, it was found that naproxen and indomethacin recrystallized almost simultaneously, which supports the theory of formation of drug-drug heterodimers in the co-amorphous phase. PMID:27130786

  9. Sodium and Lithium Storage Properties of Spray-Dried Molybdenum Disulfide-Graphene Hierarchical Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Seng, Kuok Hau; Guo, Zaiping; Du, Aijun; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-07-01

    Developing nano/micro-structures which can effectively upgrade the intriguing properties of electrode materials for energy storage devices is always a key research topic. Ultrathin nanosheets were proved to be one of the potential nanostructures due to their high specific surface area, good active contact areas and porous channels. Herein, we report a unique hierarchical micro-spherical morphology of well-stacked and completely miscible molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets and graphene sheets, were successfully synthesized via a simple and industrial scale spray-drying technique to take the advantages of both MoS2 and graphene in terms of their high practical capacity values and high electronic conductivity, respectively. Computational studies were performed to understand the interfacial behaviour of MoS2 and graphene, which proves high stability of the composite with high interfacial binding energy (-2.02 eV) among them. Further, the lithium and sodium storage properties have been tested and reveal excellent cyclic stability over 250 and 500 cycles, respectively, with the highest initial capacity values of 1300 mAh g-1 and 640 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1.

  10. Deposition of nanostructured YSZ coating from spray-dried particles with no heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Ytrria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticle agglomerates were fabricated by a spray dry method and were directly sprayed using atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) with a current of 300 A and 500 A. A commercially supplied nanostructured YSZ powder (sintered) was also sprayed under the same conditions for comparison. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope (OM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to characterize the feedstock powder and coatings. Weibull plots were used to analyze the performance of the nanostructured coatings. The lower 300 A operating current resulted in a higher portion of nanostructure retention at the expense of coating quality. An approximate 10% increase in porosity and a noticeable decrease in grain size (∼104 nm) were obtained by spraying non-heat treated agglomerates with a 500 A current. The thermal conductivity (400-600 °C) was evaluated using the one-dimensional, steady state Fourier's law of heat conduction. Next, lower thermal conductivity (∼1.3 W m-1 K-1 at 600 °C) was identified in coatings engineered at 500 A from agglomerated powder with no heat treatment.

  11. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    PubMed Central

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis. PMID:23737670

  12. Sodium and Lithium Storage Properties of Spray-Dried Molybdenum Disulfide-Graphene Hierarchical Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Sujith; Seng, Kuok Hau; Guo, Zaiping; Du, Aijun; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-01-01

    Developing nano/micro-structures which can effectively upgrade the intriguing properties of electrode materials for energy storage devices is always a key research topic. Ultrathin nanosheets were proved to be one of the potential nanostructures due to their high specific surface area, good active contact areas and porous channels. Herein, we report a unique hierarchical micro-spherical morphology of well-stacked and completely miscible molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets and graphene sheets, were successfully synthesized via a simple and industrial scale spray-drying technique to take the advantages of both MoS2 and graphene in terms of their high practical capacity values and high electronic conductivity, respectively. Computational studies were performed to understand the interfacial behaviour of MoS2 and graphene, which proves high stability of the composite with high interfacial binding energy (−2.02 eV) among them. Further, the lithium and sodium storage properties have been tested and reveal excellent cyclic stability over 250 and 500 cycles, respectively, with the highest initial capacity values of 1300 mAh g−1 and 640 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1. PMID:26173985

  13. Self-dispersible nanocrystals of albendazole produced by high pressure homogenization and spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alejandro Javier; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Allemandi, Daniel; Palma, Santiago Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of human or animal infections. Although ABZ has shown a high efficacy for repeated doses in monogastric mammals, its low aqueous solubility leads to erratic bioavailability. The aim of this work was to optimize a procedure in order to obtain ABZ self-dispersible nanocrystals (SDNC) by combining high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray-drying (SD). The material thus obtained was characterized and the variables affecting both the HPH and SD processes were studied. As expected, the homogenizing pressure and number of cycles influenced the final particle size, while the stabilizer concentration had a strong impact on SD output and redispersion of powders upon contact with water. ABZ SDNC were successfully obtained with high process yield and redispersibility. The characteristic peaks of ABZ were clearly identified in the X-ray patterns of the processed samples. A noticeable increase in the dissolution rate was observed in the aqueous environment. PMID:26856301

  14. Influence of different combinations of wall materials on the microencapsulation of jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis) by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Santana, Audirene A; Cano-Higuita, Diana M; de Oliveira, Rafael A; Telis, Vânia R N

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study the spray drying of jussara pulp using ternary mixtures of gum Arabic (GA) and modified starch (MS) together with either whey protein concentrate (WPC) or soy protein isolate (SPI), as the carrier agents. Two experimental mixture designs and triangular response surfaces were used to evaluate the effects of the mixtures on the responses for powders formulated with GA:MS:WPC and GA:MS:SPI, respectively. The spray drying process was selected for each carrier agent mixture, aiming to maximum the process yield (PY), solubility (S), retention of total anthocyanins (RTA) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). It was shown that the ternary formulations showed higher PY, S and RTA than the pure and binary formulations, as well as good results for EE and a low moisture content, showing that the use of GA and MS together with either WPC or SPI provide better microencapsulation of the jussara pulp. PMID:27374499

  15. Preparation of high emissivity NiCr2O4 powders with a spinel structure by spray drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Min, Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Qi; Ye, Wei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Spray-drying was used to produce the high emissivity NiCr2O4 powders with a spinel structure. Preliminary investigations focused on fabricating the high emissivity powders for infrared radiation coatings and finding the relationship between microstructure and emissivity. The NiCr2O4 powders were characterized for composition, microstructure, and infrared emissivity by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared radiant instrument, and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis show that the appropriate baking temperature for NiCr2O4 powder preparation is about 1200°C. The emissivity measurement and FT-IR spectra show that, because of the special spinel structure, the NiCr2O4 powders have a high emissivity about 0.91. Spray-drying is a suitable method to produce the high emissivity ceramic powders.

  16. Plasma spray coating of spray-dried Cr2O3/wt.% TiO2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. K.; Lee, D. W.; Ha, G. H.

    2001-03-01

    An agglomerated Cr2O3/wt.%TiO2 powder has been fabricated by the spray drying process under different parameters. The spray-dried powder has well-agglomerated particles of spherical shape. In the conditions of the high slurry feed rate and low binder concentration in the slurry, the powder has large cavities inside some particles and ruggedness over their surface. The optimum plasma spray feed rate has been found by examining the spraying behavior of the powder and melted state of particles. The plasma spray coating has been performed under different process variables such as spraying distance and plasma power. These parameters strongly affect the characteristics of the coated layer: microstructure, hardness, and bond strength.

  17. Effect on the nasal bioavailability of co-processing drug and bioadhesive carrier via spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Vervaet, C; Foreman, P; Adriaensens, P; Carleer, R; Remon, J P

    2009-09-01

    A mucoadhesive combination of a maize starch (Amioca, mainly consisting of amylopectine) and a cross-linked acrylic acid-based polymer (Carbopol 974P) was spray-dried with metoprolol tartrate (used as model molecule) in order to develop a powder suitable for nasal drug delivery via a one-step manufacturing process. The bioavailability of metoprolol tartrate after nasal administration of this powder to rabbits was compared with powders manufactured via other procedures: (a) freeze-drying of a dispersion prepared using the co-spray-dried powder, (b) freeze-drying of a dispersion prepared using a physical mixture of drug and mucoadhesive polymers. After co-processing via spray-drying a low bioavailability (BA 10.8+/-2.3%) was obtained, whereas manufacturing procedures based on freeze-drying yielded a higher BA: 37.9+/-12.8% using the co-processed powder and 73.6+/-24.9% using the physical mixture. The higher bioavailability was due to the deprotonation of poly(acrylic acid) during neutralisation of the dispersion prior to freeze-drying. This induced repulsion of the ionised carboxyl groups and a lower interaction between poly(acrylic acid) and starch, creating a less compact matrix upon hydration of the polymer and allowing an easier escape of metoprolol tartrate from the matrix. This study showed that co-processing of a mucoadhesive Amioca/Carbopol 974P formulation with metoprolol tartrate via co-spray-drying did not provide any added value towards the bioavailability of the drug after nasal administration of the mucoadhesive powder. PMID:19539738

  18. Hydrogels containing redispersible spray-dried melatonin-loaded nanocapsules: a formulation for transdermal-controlled delivery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% (w/v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation. PMID:22587614

  19. Spray dried double emulsions containing procyanidin-rich extracts produced by premix membrane emulsification: effect of interfacial composition.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Rikkert; Güell, Carme; Ferrando, Montserrat

    2015-07-01

    Spray drying of procyanidin-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions produced by premix membrane emulsification (ME) enabled to produce microcapsules containing procyanidins. The interface of the emulsion droplets prior to spray drying was stabilized with several hydrophilic emulsifiers (whey protein (WPI), WPI-carboxylmethyl cellulose, WPI-gum Arabic, and WPI-chitosan). Their effect on procyanidin encapsulation efficiency, water activity, moisture and oil content, and microcapsule size distribution was investigated. Furthermore, the microstructure and droplet size distribution of redispersed microcapsules were analyzed. Although premix ME produced W1/O/W2 emulsions with a narrow droplet size distribution regardless the hydrophilic emulsifier (main peak of droplet size distribution around 9 μm), microcapsules after spray drying and double emulsions after redispersion showed profound differences in sizes depending on the interfacial composition. WPI-CMC stabilized microcapsules not only showed the highest procyanidin content (5.3 g kg(-1)) but also gave the narrowest particle size distribution with the lowest particle size for both microcapsules and the corresponding emulsions after rehydration (7.7 and 9.9 μm respectively). PMID:25704709

  20. Solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drug by solid phospholipid dispersions: Spray drying versus freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Ibisogly, Asiye; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2015-12-30

    The poor aqueous solubility of BCS Class II drugs represents a major challenge for oral dosage form development. Using celecoxib (CXB) as model drug, the current study adopted a novel solid phospholipid nanoparticle (SPLN) approach and compared the effect of two commonly used industrial manufacturing methods, spray- and freeze-drying, on the solubility and dissolution enhancement of CXB. CXB was formulated with Phospholipoid E80 (PL) and trehalose at different CXB:PL:trehalose ratios, of which 1:10:16 was the optimal formulation. Spherical amorphous SPLNs with average diameters <1μm were produced by spray-drying; while amorphous 'matrix'-like structures of solid PL dispersion with larger particle sizes were prepared by freeze-drying. Formulations from both methods significantly enhanced the dissolution rates, apparent solubility, and molecularly dissolved concentration of CXB in phosphate buffer (PBS, pH 6.5) and in biorelevant fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF, pH 6.5) (p<0.05). While similar dissolution rates were found, the spray-dried SPLNs had a larger enhancement in apparent solubility (29- to 132-fold) as well as molecular solubility (18-fold) of CXB at equilibrium (p<0.05). The strong capability of the spray-dried SPLNs to attain 'true' supersaturation state makes them a promising approach for bioavailability enhancement of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:26468038

  1. Extracellular β-fructofuranosidase from Fusarium graminearum: stability of the spray-dried enzyme in the presence of different carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Heloísa Bressan; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used for various biotechnological applications; however, enzyme stabilization remains a challenge for industries and needs to be considered. This study describes the effects of spray-drying conditions on the activity and stability of β-fructofuranosidase from Fusarium graminearum. The extracellular enzyme β-fructofuranosidase was spray dried in the presence of stabilizers, including starch (Capsul) (SC), microcrystalline cellulose (MC), trehalose (TR), lactose (LC) and β-cyclodextrin (CD). In the presence of TR (2% w/v), the enzymatic activity was fully retained. After 1 year of storage, 74% of the enzymatic activity was maintained with the CD stabilizer (10% w/v). The residual activity was maintained as high as 80% for 1 h at 70°C when MC, SC and CD (5% w/v) stabilizers were used. Spray drying with carbohydrates was effective in stabilizing the F. graminearum β-fructofuranosidase, improved enzymatic properties compared to the soluble enzyme and demonstrated a potential use in future biotechnology applications. PMID:23489014

  2. Agglomerated oral dosage forms of artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin spray-dried primary microparticles showing increased dissolution rate and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Anna Giulia; Magosso, Enrico; Colombo, Gaia; Sonvico, Fabio; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Yuen, Kah Hay; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Artemisinin, a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, presents a low and erratic bioavailability upon oral administration. The aim of this work was to study an agglomerated powder dosage form for oral administration of artemisinin based on the artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin primary microparticles. These primary microparticles were prepared by spray-drying a water-methanol solution of artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin. β-Cyclodextrin in spray-dried microparticles increased artemisinin water apparent solubility approximately sixfold. The thermal analysis evidenced a reduction in the enthalpy value associated with drug melting, due to the decrease in drug crystallinity. The latter was also evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, while (13)C-NMR analysis indicated the partial complexation with β-cyclodextrin. Agglomerates obtained by sieve vibration of spray-dried artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin primary microparticles exhibited free flowing and close packing properties compared with the non-flowing microparticulate powder. The in vitro dissolution rate determination of artemisinin from the agglomerates showed that in 10 min about 70% of drug was released from the agglomerates, whereas less than 10% of artemisinin was dissolved from raw material powder. Oral administration of agglomerates in rats yielded higher artemisinin plasma levels compared to those of pure drug. In the case of the agglomerated powder, a 3.2-fold increase in drug fraction absorbed was obtained. PMID:23703233

  3. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. PMID:20659510

  4. Hydrogels containing redispersible spray-dried melatonin-loaded nanocapsules: a formulation for transdermal-controlled delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Cristiane RD; Durli, Taís L.; Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Raffin, Renata P.; Bender, Eduardo A.; Beck, Ruy CR; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Guterres, Sílvia S.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal system for controlled delivery of melatonin combining three strategies: nanoencapsulation of melatonin, drying of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules, and incorporation of nanocapsules in a hydrophilic gel. Nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were spray-dried using water-soluble excipients. In vitro drug release profiles were evaluated by the dialysis bag method, and skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz cells with porcine skin as the membrane. The use of 10% ( w/ v) water-soluble excipients (lactose or maltodextrin) as spray-drying adjuvants furnished redispersible powders (redispersibility index approximately 1.0) suitable for incorporation into hydrogels. All formulations showed a better controlled in vitro release of melatonin compared with the melatonin solution. The best controlled release results were achieved with hydrogels prepared with dried nanocapsules (hydrogels > redispersed dried nanocapsules > nanocapsule suspension > melatonin solution). The skin permeation studies demonstrated a significant modulation of the transdermal melatonin permeation for hydrogels prepared with redispersible nanocapsules. In this way, the additive effect of the different approaches used in this study (nanoencapsulation, spray-drying, and preparation of semisolid dosage forms) allows not only the control of melatonin release, but also transdermal permeation.

  5. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. PMID:26213075

  6. Impact of surfactants on the crystallization of aqueous suspensions of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersion spray dried particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Ormes, James D; Higgins, John D; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions are frequently prepared by spray drying. It is important that the resultant spray dried particles do not crystallize during formulation, storage, and upon administration. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the impact of surfactants on the crystallization of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), suspended in aqueous media. Solid dispersions of celecoxib with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate were manufactured by spray drying, and aqueous suspensions were prepared by adding the particles to acidified media containing various surfactants. Nucleation induction times were evaluated for celecoxib in the presence and absence of surfactants. The impact of the surfactants on drug and polymer leaching from the solid dispersion particles was also evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Polysorbate 80 were found to promote crystallization from the ASD suspensions, while other surfactants including sodium taurocholate and Triton X100 were found to inhibit crystallization. The promotion or inhibition of crystallization was found to be related to the impact of the surfactant on the nucleation behavior of celecoxib, as well as the tendency to promote leaching of the drug from the ASD particle into the suspending medium. It was concluded that surfactant choice is critical to avoid failure of amorphous solid dispersions through crystallization of the drug. PMID:25569461

  7. Synthesis of Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} ceramic pigments by spray drying

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubenova, T. Stoyanova Matteucci, F.; Costa, A.L.; Dondi, M.; Ocana, M.

    2009-04-02

    Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} was synthesized by spray drying and conventional ceramic method in order to assess its potential as ceramic pigment. The evolution of the phase composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analyses (DTA-TGA-EGA). Powder morphology and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and colorimetric analysis (CIE Lab). Results proved that spray drying is an efficient procedure to prepare highly reactive pigment precursors. The spray-dried powders consist of hollow spherical particles with aggregate size in the 1-10 {mu}m range, developing a brown coloration. Optical spectra reveal the occurrence of Cr(III) and Cr(IV), both responsible for the brown color of this pigment. The former occupies the octahedral site of titanite, in substitution of Ti(IV), while the latter is located at the tetrahedral site, where replaces Si(IV)

  8. Effects of dietary spray-dried egg on growth performance and health of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Che, T M; Liu, Y; Soares, J A; Harmon, B G; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient contributions and physiological health benefits of spray-dried egg (SDE) containing only unfertilized eggs as a protein source in nursery pig diets. In all experiments, all diets were formulated to the same ME and Lys content, and each pen within a block (by BW) housed the same number of barrows and gilts. In Exp. 1 and 2 (168 and 140 pigs, respectively; 5 kg BW; 16 d old; 14 replicates/experiment), conducted at a university farm, treatments were with or without 5% SDE in a nursery control diet, which included antibiotics and zinc oxide. Pigs were fed for 10 d after weaning to measure ADG, ADFI, and G:F. The SDE increased (P < 0.05) ADG (Exp. 1: 243 vs. 204 g/d; Exp. 2: 204 vs. 181 g/d) and ADFI (Exp. 1: 236 vs. 204 g/d; Exp. 2: 263 vs. 253 g/d) compared with the control diet but did not affect G:F. In Exp. 3 (1,008 pigs; 5.2 kg BW; 20 d old; 12 replicates/treatment), conducted at a commercial farm, treatments were in a factorial arrangement of with or without SDE and high or low spray-dried plasma (SDP) in nursery diets, which included antibiotics and zinc oxide. Pigs were fed for 6 wk using a 4-phase feeding program (phases of 1, 1, 2, and 2 wk, respectively) with declining diet complexity to measure ADG, ADFI, G:F, removal rate (mortality plus morbidity), and frequency of medical treatments per pen and day (MED). The diets with the SDE increased (P < 0.05) ADFI during phase 1 only (180 vs. 164 g/d) compared with the diets without the SDE but did not affect growth performance during any other phases. The diets with SDE reduced MED during phase 1 (0.75% vs. 1.35%; P < 0.05) and the overall period (0.84% vs. 1.01%; P = 0.062) compared with the diets without the SDE but did not affect removal rate. In Exp. 4 (160 pigs; 6.7 kg BW; 21 d old; 10 replicates/treatment), conducted at a university farm to determine whether SDE can replace SDP, treatments were in a factorial arrangement of with or without SDP or SDE

  9. The effect of vehicle on physical properties and aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromoglycate microparticles spray dried alone or with L-leucine.

    PubMed

    Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Barghi, Mohammadali; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromogycate (DSCG), using spray drying technique. The effect of vehicle on the drug particle properties was investigated. L-leucine was selected as a natural antiadherent amino acid to improve the deagglomeration of DSCG particles. Spray dried samples of DSCG alone or with L-leucine were prepared from water and ethanol under the same conditions. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, helium densitometer, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The in vitro deposition was determined, using an Andersen cascade impactor with a Spinhaler at a flow rate of 60 l/min. An amorphous form of the drug was obtained when water was used. However, crystal transformation of original DSCG in the presence of ethanol during spray drying resulted in production of elongated particles. These particles exhibited improved aerodynamic properties, compared to the amorphous and commercial materials. Significant differences in fine particle fraction were observed using the two vehicles. Co-spray drying of DSCG and L-leucine improved the deposition profiles of the drug. These results indicated that the change in crystal structure of DSCG during spray drying process was susceptible to the nature of the vehicle. A crystalline form of DSCG with good aerodynamic properties was achieved during spray drying process. In addition, the processing of DSCG with L-leucine in a single step using ethanol resulted in an improvement in dispersion properties of the drug particles. PMID:15488683

  10. Innovative oral spray-dried Idebenone systems to improve patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Lauro, M R; Carbone, C; Sansone, F; Ruozi, B; Chillemi, R; Sciuto, S; Aquino, R P; Puglisi, G

    2016-07-01

    Idebenone is a high permeable drug with very slight water solubility that affects the dissolution rate in the biological fluids, causing an irregular and limited in vivo absorption after oral administration. Moreover, it is marketed in Europe as tablets equivalent to 150 mg, with the consequent administration of multiple dose of solid unit to obtain the correct dose, a deterrent for the patients' compliance. According to these considerations, our goal was to develop spray-dried microparticles using a soluble β-cyclodextrin (CD) polymer and an enhancer of dissolution rate, such as carboxymethyl cellulose, to obtain a formulation easily dosable and soluble in water. The complex in solution was evaluated by phase solubility studies and the Idebenone/CD molar ratio selected was 1:1. According to Higuchi and Connors, adding carboxymethyl cellulose, a Bs-type profile was obtained. This result was due to the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose that competes with the CD in forming Idebenone microsystems, reducing of 10-fold the formulation bulk. UV-Vis absorption, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism showed the formation of the CD/Idebenone inclusion complex confirmed also by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence microscope (FM). The water solubility data and the in vitro dissolution tests performed in simulated gastric fluid, showed an increase of the drug water interaction due to the presence of the CD and carboxymethyl cellulose, both able to improve drug wettability, water solubility and dissolution rate. This approach seems to be suitable to produce microsystems which are able to enhance the in vivo absorption of Idebenone after oral administration and to increase the patient compliance. PMID:26556126

  11. Formulation Development, Process Optimization, and In Vitro Characterization of Spray-Dried Lansoprazole Enteric Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of enteric microparticles of lansoprazole in a single step by employing the spray drying technique and studies the effects of variegated formulation/process variables on entrapment efficiency and in vitro gastric resistance. Preliminary trials were undertaken to optimize the type of Eudragit and its various levels. Further trials included the incorporation of plasticizer triethyl citrate and combinations of other polymers with Eudragit S 100. Finally, various process parameters were varied to investigate their effects on microparticle properties. The results revealed Eudragit S 100 as the paramount polymer giving the highest gastric resistance in comparison to Eudragit L 100-55 and L 100 due to its higher pH threshold and its polymeric backbone. Incorporation of plasticizer not only influenced entrapment efficiency, but diminished gastric resistance severely. On the contrary, polymeric combinations reduced entrapment efficiency for both sodium alginate and glyceryl behenate, but significantly influenced gastric resistance for only sodium alginate and not for glyceryl behenate. The optimized process parameters were comprised of an inlet temperature of 150°C, atomizing air pressure of 2 kg/cm2, feed solution concentration of 6% w/w, feed solution spray rate of 3 ml/min, and aspirator volume of 90%. The SEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape morphologies. The DSC and PXRD study divulged the amorphous nature of the drug. Regarding stability, the product was found to be stable under 3 months of accelerated and long-term stability conditions as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. Thus, the technique offers a simple means to generate polymeric enteric microparticles that are ready to formulate and can be directly filled into hard gelatin capsules. PMID:27222612

  12. Impact of different spray-drying conditions on the viability of wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Maria; Troianiello, Gabriele Danilo; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Raffaele; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Spray-drying (SD) is widely considered a suitable method to preserve microorganisms, but data regarding yeasts are still scanty. In this study, the effect of growing media, process variables and carriers over viability of a wild wine Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae LM52 was evaluated. For biomass production, the strain was grown (batch and fed-batch fermentation) in a synthetic, as well as in a beet sugar molasses based-medium. Drying of cells resuspended in several combinations of soluble starch and maltose was performed at different inlet and outlet temperatures. Under the best conditions-suspension in soluble starch plus maltose couplet to inlet and outlet temperatures of 110 and 55 °C, respectively-the loss of viability of S. cerevisiae LM52 was 0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.5 ± 0.2 Log c.f.u. g(-1) for synthetic and molasses-based medium, respectively. Similar results were obtained when S. cerevisiae strains Zymoflore F15 and EC1118, isolated from commercial active dry yeast (ADY), were tested. Moreover, powders retained a high vitality and showed good fermentation performances up to 6 month of storage, at both 4 and -20 °C. Finally, fermentation performances of different kinds of dried formulates (SD and ADY) compared with fresh cultures did not show significant differences. The procedure proposed allowed a small-scale production of yeast in continuous operation with relatively simple equipment, and may thus represent a rapid response-on-demand for the production of autochthonous yeasts for local wine-making. PMID:26712628

  13. Protein micro and nanoencapsulation within glycol-chitosan/Ca²+/alginate matrix by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Erdinc, B; Neufeld, R J

    2011-06-01

    Encapsulation of therapeutic peptides and proteins into polymeric micro and nanoparticulates has been proposed as a strategy to overcome limitations to oral protein administration. Particles having diameter less than 5 µm are able to be taken up by the M cells of Peyer's patches found in intestinal mucosa. Current formulation methodologies involve organic solvents and several time consuming steps. In this study, spray drying was investigated to produce protein loaded micro/nanoparticles, as it offers the potential for single step operation, producing dry active-loaded particles within the micro to nano-range. Spherical, smooth surfaced particles were produced from alginate/protein feed solutions. The effect of operational parameters on particle properties such as recovery, residual activity and particle size was studied using subtilisin as model protein. Particle recovery depended on the inlet temperature of the drying air, and mean particle size ranged from 2.2 to 4.5 µm, affected by the feed rate and the alginate concentration in the feed solution. Increase in alginate:protein ratio increased protein stability. Presence of 0.2 g trehalose/g particle increased the residual activity up to 90%. Glycol-chitosan-Ca(2+)alginate particles were produced in a single step operation, with resulting mean diameter of 3.5 μm. Particles showed fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA)-protein entrapment with increasing concentration toward the particle surface. Similar, limited release profiles of BSA, subtilisin and lysozyme were observed in gastric simulation, with ultimate full release of the proteins in gastrointestinal simulation. PMID:21449696

  14. Formulation Development, Process Optimization, and In Vitro Characterization of Spray-Dried Lansoprazole Enteric Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of enteric microparticles of lansoprazole in a single step by employing the spray drying technique and studies the effects of variegated formulation/process variables on entrapment efficiency and in vitro gastric resistance. Preliminary trials were undertaken to optimize the type of Eudragit and its various levels. Further trials included the incorporation of plasticizer triethyl citrate and combinations of other polymers with Eudragit S 100. Finally, various process parameters were varied to investigate their effects on microparticle properties. The results revealed Eudragit S 100 as the paramount polymer giving the highest gastric resistance in comparison to Eudragit L 100-55 and L 100 due to its higher pH threshold and its polymeric backbone. Incorporation of plasticizer not only influenced entrapment efficiency, but diminished gastric resistance severely. On the contrary, polymeric combinations reduced entrapment efficiency for both sodium alginate and glyceryl behenate, but significantly influenced gastric resistance for only sodium alginate and not for glyceryl behenate. The optimized process parameters were comprised of an inlet temperature of 150°C, atomizing air pressure of 2 kg/cm(2), feed solution concentration of 6% w/w, feed solution spray rate of 3 ml/min, and aspirator volume of 90%. The SEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape morphologies. The DSC and PXRD study divulged the amorphous nature of the drug. Regarding stability, the product was found to be stable under 3 months of accelerated and long-term stability conditions as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. Thus, the technique offers a simple means to generate polymeric enteric microparticles that are ready to formulate and can be directly filled into hard gelatin capsules. PMID:27222612

  15. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving flurbiprofen and esomeprazole solid dispersion using spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Roshan; Tran, Tuan Hiep; Kim, Sung Yub; Woo, Kyu Bong; Choi, Yong Joo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-04-11

    We aimed to develop an immediate-release flurbiprofen (FLU) and esomeprazole (ESO) combination formulation with enhanced gastric aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Aqueous solubility can be enhanced by formulating solid dispersions (SDs) with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-K30 hydrophilic carrier, using spray-drying technique. Aqueous and gastric pH dissolution can be achieved by macro-environmental pH modulation using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as the alkaline buffer. FLU/ESO-loaded SDs (FLU/ESO-SDs) significantly improved aqueous solubility of both drugs, compared to each drug powder. Dissolution studies in gastric pH and water were compared with the microenvironmental pH modulated formulations. The optimized FLU/ESO-SD powder formulation consisted of FLU/ESO/PVP-K30/sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a weight ratio 1:0.22:1.5:0.3, filled in the inner capsule. The outer capsule consisted of NaHCO3 and Mg(OH)2, which created the macro-environmental pH modulation. Increased aqueous and gastric pH dissolution of FLU and ESO from the SD was attributed to the alkaline buffer effects and most importantly, to drug transformation from crystalline to amorphous SD powder, clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thus, the combined FLU and ESO SD powder can be effectively delivered as an immediate-release formulation using the macro-environmental pH modulation concept. PMID:26899979

  16. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  17. Development of dry powder inhaler formulation loaded with alendronate solid lipid nanoparticles: solid-state characterization and aerosol dispersion performance.

    PubMed

    Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Alendronate sodium is a bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and acts as a specific inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Inhalable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of the alendronate were successfully designed and developed by spray-dried and co-spray dried inhalable mannitol from aqueous solution. Emulsification technique using a simple homogenization method was used for preparation of SLNs. In vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug was studied using a Next Generation Impactor at 60 L/min following the methodology described in the European and United States Pharmacopeias. The Carr's Index, Hausner ratio and angle of repose were calculated as suitable criteria for estimation of the flow behavior of solids. Scanning electron microscopy showed spherical particle morphology of the respirable particles. The proposed spray-dried nanoparticulate-on-microparticles dry powders displayed good aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers with high values in emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. These results indicate that this novel inhalable spray-dried nanoparticulate-on-microparticles aerosol platform has great potential in systemic delivery of the drug. PMID:25220930

  18. Evaluation of the Microcentrifuge Dissolution Method as a Tool for Spray-Dried Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Benjamin; Li, Jinjiang; Wang, Yahong

    2016-03-01

    Although using spray-dried dispersions (SDDs) to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble compounds has become a common practice in supporting the early phases of clinical studies, their performance evaluation, whether in solid dosage forms or alone, still presents significant challenges. A microcentrifuge dissolution method has been reported to quickly assess the dissolution performance of SDDs. While the microcentrifuge dissolution method has been used in the SDD community, there is still a need to understand the mechanisms about the molecular species present in supernatant after centrifugation, the molecular nature of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), as well as the impact of experimental conditions. In this paper, we aim to assess the effect of API and polymer properties on the dissolution behavior of SDDs along with centrifuging parameters, and for this, two poorly water-soluble compounds (indomethacin and ketoconazole) and two commonly used polymers in the pharmaceutical industry (PVP and HPMC-AS) were chosen to prepare SDDs. A typical microcentrifuge dissolution procedure as reported in the publication (Curatolo et al., Pharm Res 26:1419-1431, 2009) was followed. In addition, after separation of the supernatant from precipitation, some of the samples were filtered through filters of various sizes to investigate the particulate nature (particle size) of the supernatant. Furthermore, the centrifuge speed was varied to study sedimentation of API, SDD, or polymer particles. The results indicated that for the SDDs of four drug-polymer pairs, microcentrifuge dissolution exhibited varied behaviors, depending on the polymer and the drug used. The SDDs of indomethacin with either PVP or HPMC-AS showed a reproducible dissolution with minimum variability even after filtration and subjecting to varied centrifugation speed, suggesting that the supernatant behaved solution-like. However, ketoconazole-PVP and ketoconazole-HPMC-AS SDDs displayed a

  19. Lactation feed disappearance and weaning to estrus interval for sows fed spray-dried plasma.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, J D; Boyd, R D; Campbell, J M; Russell, L E; Moser, R L; Wilson, M E

    2007-12-01

    Four experiments involving 265, 410, 894, and 554 sows (Exp. 1 to 4, respectively) were conducted to determine the effect of spray-dried plasma (SDP) at 0 or 0.25% (Exp. 1 and 2) and 0 or 0.50% (Exp. 3 and 4) in lactation diets on average daily feed disappearance (FD), sum of sow BW, fetal and placental loss from d 110 gestation to weaning (SWL), litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, and average days from weaning to first estrus (WEI). Experiments 1, 3, and 4 were conducted during summer months, and Exp. 2 was conducted during fall to winter months. Experiment 1 used only parity 1 and parity 2 sows and Exp. 4 used only mature (>2 parities) sows, whereas Exp. 2 and 3 used all parity groups. Sows fed SDP in Exp. 1 had increased (P < 0.01) FD and a tendency for reduced (P = 0.06) SWL and WEI (P = 0.06). Sows fed SDP in Exp. 2 had a tendency for increased (P = 0.09) sow BW at weaning and reduced (P = 0.09) SWL, whereas other variables were not different between diets. Parity 1 and 2 sows fed SDP in Exp. 3 had increased (P < 0.01) FD, but mature sows fed SDP had reduced (P = 0.02) FD. Pig survival and litter size at weaning for all parity groups was not different between diets. The WEI for parity 1 sows fed SDP was reduced (P = 0.02) and tended to be reduced (P = 0.10) for mature sows fed SDP, but was not different between diets for parity 2 sows. More parity 1 sows fed SDP were detected (P = 0.01) in estrus 4 to 6 d after weaning, and fewer were detected (P < 0.01) in estrus 6 d after weaning compared with control parity 1 sows. In Exp. 4, FD was reduced (P < 0.01) for mature sows fed SDP; however, litter weight and average pig BW at weaning was increased (P < 0.01) with more (P < 0.01) marketable pigs (pig BW > 3.6 kg) weaned per litter. Relatively low dietary levels of SDP (0.25 to 0.50%) fed to parity 1 sows farrowed during summer months increased lactation FD and reduced WEI. Mature sows fed SDP during summer months consumed less lactation feed without

  20. High drug load, stable, manufacturable and bioavailable fenofibrate formulations in mesoporous silica: a comparison of spray drying versus solvent impregnation methods.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shiqi; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Ng, Wai Kiong; Liu, Xueming; Chia, Leonard S O; Irwan, Anastasia W; Tan, Reginald; Nowak, Steven A; Marsh, Kennan; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of drugs in mesoporous silica using co-spray drying process has been recently explored as potential industrial method. However, the impact of spray drying on manufacturability, physiochemical stability and bioavailability in relation to conventional drug load processes are yet to be fully investigated. Using a 2(3) factorial design, this study aims to investigate the effect of drug-loading process (co-spray drying and solvent impregnation), mesoporous silica pore size (SBA-15, 6.5 nm and MCM-41, 2.5 nm) and percentage drug load (30% w/w and 50% w/w) on material properties, crystallinity, physicochemical stability, release profiles and bioavailability of fenofibrate (FEN) loaded into mesoporous silica. From the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images, powder X-ray diffraction and Differential scanning calorimetry measurements, it is indicated that the co-spray drying process was able to load up to 50% (w/w) FEN in amorphous form onto the mesoporous silica as compared to the 30% (w/w) for solvent impregnation. The in vitro dissolution rate of the co-spray dried formulations was also significantly (p = 0.044) better than solvent impregnated formulations at the same drug loading. Six-month accelerated stability test at 40 °C/75 RH in open dish indicated excellent physical and chemical stability of formulations prepared by both methods. The amorphous state of FEN and the enhanced dissolution profiles were well preserved, and very low levels of degradation were detected after storage. The dog data for the three selected co-spray-dried formulations revealed multiple fold increment in FEN bioavailability compared to the reference crystalline FEN. These results validate the viability of co-spray-dried mesoporous silica formulations with high amorphous drug load as potential drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:24853963

  1. Optimization, physicochemical characterization and in vivo assessment of spray dried emulsion: A step toward bioavailability augmentation and gastric toxicity minimization.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Mohammed M; Alwattar, Jana K; Elmaradny, Hoda A

    2015-12-30

    The limited solubility of BCS class II drugs diminishes their dissolution and thus reduces their bioavailability. Our aim in this study was to develop and optimize a spray dried emulsion containing indomethacin as a model for Class II drugs, Labrasol®/Transuctol® mixture as the oily phase, and maltodextrin as a solid carrier. The optimization was carried out using a 2(3) full factorial design based on two independent variables, the percentage of carrier and concentration of Poloxamer® 188. The effect of the studied parameters on the spray dried yield, loading efficiency and in vitro release were thoroughly investigated. Furthermore, physicochemical characterization of the optimized formulation was performed. In vivo bioavailability, ulcerogenic capability and histopathological features were assessed. The results obtained pointed out that poloxamer 188 concentration in the formulation was the predominant factor affecting the dissolution release, whereas the drug loading was driven by the carrier concentration added. Moreover, the yield demonstrated a drawback by increasing both independent variables studied. The optimized formulation presented a complete release within two minutes thus suggesting an immediate release pattern as well, the formulation revealed to be uniform spherical particles with an average size of 7.5μm entrapping the drug in its molecular state as demonstrated by the DSC and FTIR studies. The in vivo evaluation, demonstrated a 10-fold enhancement in bioavailability of the optimized formulation, with absence of ulcerogenic side effect compared to the marketed product. The results provided an evidence for the significance of spray dried emulsion as a leading strategy for improving the solubility and enhancing the bioavailability of class II drugs. PMID:26561726

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Celecoxib Dispersions in Soluplus®: Comparison of Spray Drying and Conventional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Homayouni, Alireza; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with characterization of dispersions of a poorly water-soluble drug, celecoxib (CLX) in polyvinyl caprolactame–polyvinyl acetate–polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus® (SOL)) prepared by different techniques. Dispersions of CLX in SOL at different ratios (2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6) were prepared by spray drying, conventional solvent evaporation and melting methods. The solid states of samples were characterized using particle size measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRPD, DSC and FT-IR. The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to predict the Tg of samples and the possibility of interaction between CLX and SOL. The solubility and dissolution rate of all samples were determined. Stability of samples was studied at ambient conditions for a period of 12 months. DSC and XRPD analyses confirmed amorphous state of drug in samples. Surprisingly dispersions of CLX:SOL with the ratio of 2:1 and 1:1 showed slower dissolution rate than CLX while other samples showed higher dissolution rate. At 1:2 ratio the spray dried samples exhibited higher dissolution rate than corresponding samples prepared by other methods. However at higher SOL content (1:4 and 1:6), samples prepared by different methods showed similar dissolution profiles. The stability studies showed that there were no remarkable changes in the dissolution profiles and solid state of the drug after 12 months storage at ambient conditions. It was concluded that SOL was a proper carrier to enhance the dissolution rate of CLX. At high SOL ratios the method of preparation of dispersed samples had no effect on dissolution rate, whilst at low SOL content spray drying was more efficient method. PMID:25561910

  3. Lecithin/TPGS-based spray-dried self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems: In vitro pulmonary deposition and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Rania A H; Osman, Rihab

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the present work was to develop a new solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for the pulmonary delivery of the poorly water-soluble anti-cancer drug atorvastatin (AVT). Microemulsion (ME) was first developed using isopropyl myristate (IPM), a combination of 2 biocompatible surfactants: lecithin/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) and ethanol as co-surfactant. Two types of lecithin with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) contents were compared. Phase diagram, physico-chemical characterization and stability studies were used to investigate ME region. Solid SMEDDS were then prepared by spray-drying the selected ME using a combination of carriers composed of sugars, leucine as dispersibility enhancer with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Yield, flow properties, particle size and in vitro pulmonary deposition were used to characterize the spray-dried powders. Reconstituted MEs were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size and size distribution. In vitro cytotoxicity study was undertaken on lung cancer cell line for the selected MEs and SD-SMEDDS formulae. Results showed that the most satisfactory MEs properties were obtained with 1:3 lecithin/TPGS, 1:1 lecithin/oil and 1:1 surfactant/co-surfactant ratios. A larger ME area was obtained with lecithin containing 100% PC compared to the less expensive lecithin containing 20% PC. By manipulating spray drying parameters, carrier composition and ratio of ME lipids to carrier, microparticles with more than 70% of respirable fraction could be prepared. The ME was efficiently recovered in simulated lung fluid even after removal of alcohol. The concurrent delivery of AVT with TPGS in solid SMEDDS greatly enhanced the cytotoxic activity on lung cancer cells. PMID:25772421

  4. Quercetin/beta-cyclodextrin solid complexes prepared in aqueous solution followed by spray-drying or by physical mixture.

    PubMed

    Borghetti, Greice S; Lula, Ivana S; Sinisterra, Ruben D; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the influence of operating conditions (temperature, stirring time, and excess amount of quercetin) on the complexation of quercetin with beta-cyclodextrin using a 2(3) factorial design. The highest aqueous solubility of quercetin was reached under the conditions 37 degrees C/24 h/6 mM of quercetin. The stoichiometric ratio (1:1) and the apparent stability constant (Ks = 230 M(-1)) of the quercetin/beta-cyclodextrin complex were determined using phase-solubility diagrams. The semi-industrial production of a 1:1 quercetin/beta-cyclodextrin solid complex was carried out in aqueous solution followed by spray-drying. Although the yield of the spray-drying process was adequate (77%), the solid complex presented low concentration of quercetin (0.14%, w/w) and, thus, low complexation efficiency. The enhancement of aqueous solubility of quercetin using this method was limited to 4.6-fold in the presence of 15 mM of beta-cyclodextrin. Subsequently, an inclusion complex was prepared via physical mixture of quercetin with beta-cyclodextrin (molar ratio of 1:1 and quercetin concentration of 23% (w/w)) and characterized using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The enhancement of aqueous solubility of quercetin using this method was 2.2-fold, similar to that found in the complex prepared in aqueous solution before the spray-drying process (2.5-fold at a molar ratio of 1:1, i.e., 6 mM of quercetin and 6 mM of beta-cyclodextrin). PMID:19280349

  5. Improvement of aripiprazole solubility by complexation with (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin using spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, Tijana; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Graovac, Adrijana; Djuric, Zorica; Ibric, Svetlana

    2012-06-01

    Due to the fact that the number of new poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients is increasing, it is important to investigate the possibilities of improvement of their solubility in order to obtain a final pharmaceutical formulation with enhanced bioavailability. One of the strategies to increase drug solubility is the inclusion of the APIs in cyclodextrins. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of aripiprazole solubility improvement by inclusion in (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and simultaneous manipulation of pH of the medium and addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Aripiprazole-HPBCD complexes were prepared by spray drying aqueous drug-HPBCD solutions, and their properties were compared with those prepared by solvent-drop co-grinding and physical mixing. The obtained powders were characterized by thermoanalytical methods (TGA and DSC), FTIR spectroscopy, their dissolution properties were assessed, while the binding of aripiprazole into the cavity of HPBCD was studied by molecular docking simulations. The solubilization capacity was found to be dependent on pH as well as the buffer solution's ionic composition. The presence of PVP in the formulation could affect the solubilization capacity significantly, but further experimentation is required before its effect is fully understood. On the basis of solubility studies, the drug/HPBCD stoichiometry was found to be 1:3. The spray-dried products were free of crystalline aripiprazole, they possessed higher solubility and dissolution rate, and were stable enough over a prolonged period of storage. Spray drying of cyclodextrin solutions proved to be an appropriate and efficient technique for the preparation of highly soluble inclusion compounds of aripiprazole and HPBCD. PMID:22535520

  6. Particle design using a 4-fluid-nozzle spray-drying technique for sustained release of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2006-07-01

    We prepared matrix particles of acetaminophen (Act) with chitosan (Cht) as a carrier using a newly developed 4-fluid-nozzle spray dryer. Cht dissolves in acid solutions and forms a gel, but it does not dissolve in alkaline solutions. Therefore, we tested the preparation of controlled release matrix particles using the characteristics of this carrier. Act and Cht mixtures in prescribed ratios were dissolved in an acid solution. We evaluated the matrix particles by preparing a solid dispersion using a 4-fluid-nozzle spray dryer. Observation of the particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray drying process had atomized to several microns, and that they had become spherical. We investigated the physicochemical properties of the matrix particles by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dissolution rate analyses with a view to clarifying the effects of crystallinity on the dissolution rate. The powder X-ray diffraction peaks and the heat of the Act fusion in the spray-dried samples decreased with the increase of the carrier content, indicating that the drug was amorphous. These results indicate that the system formed a solid dispersion. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction between the drug and carrier using FT-IR analysis. The FT-IR spectroscopy for the Act solid dispersions suggested that the Act carboxyl group and the Cht amino group formed a hydrogen bond. In addition, the measurement results of the 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR, indicated that a hydrogen bond had been formed between the Act carbonyl group and the Cht amino group. In the Act-Cht system, the 4-fluid-nozzle spray-dried preparation with a mixing ratio of 1 : 5 obtained a sustained release preparation in all pH test solutions. PMID:16819209

  7. Development of a novel dry powder inhalation formulation for the delivery of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate.

    PubMed

    Simon, Alice; Amaro, Maria Inês; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Healy, Anne Marie; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare engineered particles of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) and to characterize the physicochemical and aerodynamic properties, in comparison to a lactose carrier formulation (LCF). Microparticles were prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing RHT with and without the incorporation of l-leucine (Leu), using a spray dryer. Dry powder inhaler formulations prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction particle sizing, ATR-FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, bulk and tapped density, dynamic vapour sorption and in vitro aerosol deposition behaviour using a next generation impactor. The smooth-surfaced spherical morphology of the spray dried microparticles was altered by adding Leu, resulting in particles becoming increasingly wrinkled with increasing Leu. Powders presented low densities. The glass transition temperature was sufficiently high (>90°C) to suggest good stability at room temperature. As Leu content increased, spray dried powders presented lower residual solvent content, lower particle size, higher fine particle fraction (FPF<5μm), and lower mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). The LCF showed a lower FPF and higher MMAD, relative to the spray dried formulations containing more than 10% Leu. Spray dried RHT powders presented better aerodynamic properties, constituting a potential drug delivery system for oral inhalation. PMID:26836711

  8. Dry powder cationic lipopolymeric nanomicelle inhalation for targeted delivery of antitubercular drug to alveolar macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Vadakkan, Mithun Varghese; Annapoorna, K; Sivakumar, KC; Mundayoor, Sathish; Kumar, GS Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Excipients having self-assembling properties are less explored in the field of dry powder inhalation (DPI) technology. An amphiphilic lipopolymer system was developed using stearic acid (SA) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) (1800 Dalton), at different proportions by covalent conjugation. A molecular dynamic (MD) simulation tool was employed for predicting the carrier behavior in a polar in vivo condition. The structural characterization was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The physical nature of the lipopolymer was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Determination of zeta potential and diameter of the micelles showed existence of cationic particles in the nano size range when a lower number of primary amino groups of BPEI was grafted with SA. The rifampicin (RIF)-loaded lipopolymer was also formulated further into spray-dried microparticles. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies revealed that the RIF API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) exists as molecular dispersion in spray-dried microparticles. Topological analysis of the spray-dried nanomicelle was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A large population of the drug-carrying particles were found to be under the inhalable size range (fine particle fraction 67.88% ± 3%). In vitro drug release kinetics from spray-dried nanomicelles were carried out at lung fluid pH. PMID:23990716

  9. Influences of process and formulation parameters on powder flow properties and immunogenicity of spray dried polymer particles entrapping recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A.

    PubMed

    Anish, Chakkumkal; Upadhyay, Arun K; Sehgal, Devinder; Panda, Amulya Kumar

    2014-05-15

    Particle size, antigen load and its release characteristic are the three the main attributes of polymer particles based vaccine delivery systems. The present studies focus on the formulation of spray dried polylactide microparticles entrapping pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Influence of process variables during polymer particle formation were optimized by using half-factorial design. Feed rate and atomization pressure during spray drying were found to be the most important parameters for achieving uniform size particles. Spray drying of preformed particles from different stages of solvent evaporation method resulted in formation of particle having different porosity and protein release profile. Presence of polyvinyl alcohol in the external aqueous phase not only contributed towards regulating the size of particles but also influenced the burst release of protein from particles. Polymer particles entrapping PspA elicited robust IgG responses both in mice and in rats. Antigen load in microparticles correlated with the antibody titer indicating the maintenance of protein integrity during particle formation using spray drying. Both, process engineering and formulation parameters during spray drying influenced the particles in terms of size, load and antigen release characteristics. PMID:24631054

  10. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective effect on ethanol-mediated liver damage of spray dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, SweeKeong; Liang, Woon San; Beh, Boon Kee; Mohamad, NurulElyani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina is a strong natural antioxidant that possessed various medicinal properties. In this study, the spray-dried water extract of V. amygdalina was evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect against alcoholic-mediated liver damage. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of spray-dried V. amygdalina water extract were determined. Liver enzyme profiles, liver antioxidant level and nitric oxide level were evaluated in alcohol-induced liver injured mice or co-supplement with spray-dried V. amydalina. Water extract of spray-dried V. amygalina that contained phenolic content of 24.8±1.5 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content of 25.7±1.3 mg/g catechin equivalent was able to inhibit 50% of xanthine and tyrosinase oxidation at 170 μg/ml and 2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, extracts at both 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight were able to reduce the levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase (AST), triglyceride and total bilirubin content inthe alcohol-mediated liver injury in mice. Furthermore, it also helped to increase levels of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduce the levels of Nitric oxide (NO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of the treated mice. These resultssuggestedthat water extract of spray-dried V. amygdalina exhibited liver protective effect, which could be contributed by its antioxidant properties. PMID:25553678

  11. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Swai, Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Hilonga, Askwar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. PMID:25489238

  12. Spray drying method for large-scale and high-performance silicon negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Tae Hoon; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured silicon electrodes have shown great potential as lithium ion battery anodes because they can address capacity fading mechanisms originating from large volume changes of silicon alloys while delivering extraordinarily large gravimetric capacities. Nonetheless, synthesis of well-defined silicon nanostructures in an industrially adaptable scale still remains as a challenge. Herein, we adopt an industrially established spray drying process to enable scalable synthesis of silicon-carbon composite particles in which silicon nanoparticles are embedded in porous carbon particles. The void space existing in the porous carbon accommodates the volume expansion of silicon and thus addresses the chronic fading mechanisms of silicon anodes. The composite electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, such as 1956 mAh/g at 0.05C rate and 91% capacity retention after 150 cycles. Moreover, the spray drying method requires only 2 s for the formation of each particle and allows a production capability of ~10 g/h even with an ultrasonic-based lab-scale equipment. This investigation suggests that established industrial processes could be adaptable to the production of battery active materials that require sophisticated nanostructures as well as large quantity syntheses. PMID:23537321

  13. Preparation of sustained-release coated particles by novel microencapsulation method using three-fluid nozzle spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2014-01-23

    We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method. PMID:24036163

  14. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based spray-dried microparticles for the delivery of clindamycin phosphate to periodontal pockets.

    PubMed

    Kilicarslan, Muge; Gumustas, Mehmet; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Baykara, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable spray-dried chitosan microparticles loaded with clindamycin phosphate (CDP) were formulated to deliver drugs locally into the periodontal pocket. The effects of spray dryer conditions, drug/polymer ratio, and added amounts of glutaraldehyde (GA) solution on the characterization of microparticles were investigated by determining process yield, encapsulation efficiency, particle size and size distribution, surface morphology, drug release, release kinetics, thermal analysis, and antimicrobial efficacy of formulations. Burst release was obtained for all formulations due to the water solubility of the drug, but the increased amount of chitosan decreased the drug release rates. Microparticles with a more wrinkled surface were obtained by increasing the amount of the drug. Incorporation efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained for all preparation conditions. The addition of GA caused higher viscosity of the chitosan solution, leading to larger particles with more spherical and smooth surface characteristics. However, the increased GA amount did not significantly influence the drug release. The data obtained from in vitro release experiments were best fitted to the Weibull and Higuchi models. The amorphous nature of the drug-loaded microparticles was detected by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermographs. A delayed drug release of more than one week could be obtained by loading the drug into the chitosan microparticles. Antimicrobial efficacy studies reflected a positive drug release profile. These results indicate that spray-dried clindamycin-loaded microparticles with sustained antimicrobial efficacy appear to be a promising periodontal therapy for drug delivery into the periodontal pocket. PMID:23947602

  15. A spray-drying strategy for synthesis of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks and their assembly into hollow superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Imaz, Inhar; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Maspoch, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are among the most attractive porous materials known today. Their miniaturization to the nanoscale—into nanoMOFs—is expected to serve myriad applications from drug delivery to membranes, to open up novel avenues to more traditional storage and catalysis applications, and to enable the creation of sophisticated superstructures. Here, we report the use of spray-drying as a versatile methodology to assemble nanoMOFs, yielding spherical hollow superstructures with diameters smaller than 5 µm. This strategy conceptually mimics the emulsions used by chemists to confine the synthesis of materials, but does not require secondary immiscible solvents or surfactants. We demonstrate that the resulting spherical, hollow superstructures can be processed into stable colloids, whose disassembly by sonication affords discrete, homogeneous nanoMOFs. This spray-drying strategy enables the construction of multicomponent MOF superstructures, and the encapsulation of guest species within these superstructures. We anticipate that this will provide new routes to capsules, reactors and composite materials.

  16. Surelease or organic solution of ethylcellulose in preparation of sustained release theophylline micromatrices or matrices using spray drying technique.

    PubMed

    Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi; Sedighi, Samira; Sadeghi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated ethylcellulose (EC) in two forms in preparation of sustained release theophylline microparticles using spray drying. Spray dried (SD) samples at different drug:polymer ratios were prepared using Surelease (SDaq) or organic solutions of ethylcellulose (SDor). Properties of particles (yield, particle morphology, size distribution and release profiles) were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) studies were performed to track polymorphic changes and/or drug polymer interactions. SD samples were compressed and crushing strengths and release profiles were determined. The yields were in the range of 55-70%. The SD samples were nearly spherical with numerous fine particles attached to their surfaces. The SDor samples showed the smallest particle size. No polymorphism or drug-polymer interaction was observed. Uncompressed SDaq samples showed inadequate sustained release of drug compared to SDor samples. Surelease content did not affect drug release from SDaq samples. Tablets prepared from SDaq were softer and showed some plasticity, while those prepared from SDor exhibited higher crushing strengths. Tablets prepared from SDaq showed sustained release properties while the release of drug from compressed SDor samples were too slow. Overall Surelease was unable to sustain release of theophylline from SDaq microparticles, however, in compacted form showed more appropriate drug release than compacted SDor. PMID:24286215

  17. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mlalila, Nichrous; Swai, Hulda; Kalombo, Lonji; Hilonga, Askwar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. PMID:25489238

  18. Technological Characterization and Stability of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. Aquifoliaceae (Maté) Spray-Dried Powder

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, Francini K.J.; Borghetti, Greice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present work was designed to produce an Ilex paraguariensis spray-dried powder (SDP), in semi-industrial scale, in order to characterize its technological and chemical properties as well as to evaluate the thermal stability and photostability of the main polyphenol constituents. The yield of the spray-drying process was satisfactory (67%). The resulting SDP showed to be a material presenting spherical particles with a mean size of 19.6 μm, smooth surface, and good flow properties. The four polyphenol compounds previously reported for the species—neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and rutin—were identified. Regarding the photostability test, the polyphenols present in the SDP proved to be stable against ultraviolet C radiation for 48 hours, independently of the packaging material. In the thermal stability test, the polyphenols were demonstrated to be hygroscopic and responsive to temperature (40°C) under an atmosphere of high relative humidity (75%) for 4 months, especially when the SDP was conditioned in permeable flasks. These findings demonstrate that heat and residual moisture content play an important role in the stability of the polyphenols and reinforce the relevance of conditioning SDP in humid tight packages under low temperatures. PMID:21370969

  19. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Na; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Yong; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 μm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. PMID:26347257

  20. Pharmaceutical development of an oral tablet formulation containing a spray dried amorphous solid dispersion of docetaxel or paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Emilia; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2016-09-25

    Previously, it was shown in Phase I clinical trials that solubility-limited oral absorption of docetaxel and paclitaxel can be drastically improved with a freeze dried solid dispersion (fdSD). These formulations, however, are unfavorable for further clinical research because of limitations in amorphicity of SD and scalability of the production process. To resolve this, a spray drying method for an SD (spSD) containing docetaxel or paclitaxel and subsequently drug products were developed. Highest saturation solubility (Smax), precipitation onset time (Tprecip), amorphicity, purity, residual solvents, yield/efficiency and powder flow of spSDs were studied. Drug products were monitored for purity/content and dissolution during 24 months at +15-25°C. Docetaxel spSD Smax was equal to that of fdSD but Tprecip was 3 times longer. Paclitaxel spSD Smax was 30% increased but Tprecip was equal to fdSD. spSDs were fully amorphous, >99% pure, <5% residual solvents, mean batch yield was 100g and 84%. spSDs had poor powder flow characteristics, which could not be resolved by changing settings, but by using 75% lactose as diluent. The drug product was a tablet with docetaxel or paclitaxel spSD and was stable for at least 24 months. Spray drying is feasible for the production of SD of docetaxel or paclitaxel for upcoming clinical trials. PMID:27480397

  1. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    PubMed

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. PMID:26868567

  2. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: Technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion☆

    PubMed Central

    Yonekura, Lina; Sun, Han; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated sodium alginate, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as co-encapsulants for spray dried Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 by assessing their impact on cell viability and physicochemical properties of the dried powders, viability over 35 days of storage at 25 °C and survival after simulated digestion. Fibres were added to a control carrier medium containing whey protein concentrate, d-glucose and maltodextrin. Sodium alginate and HPMC did not affect cell viability but chitosan reduced viable counts in spray dried powders, as compared to the control. Although chitosan caused large losses of viability during spray-drying, these losses were counteracted by the excellent storage stability compared to control, sodium alginate and HPMC, and the overall effect became positive after the 35-day storage. Chitosan also improved survival rates in simulated GI conditions, however no single fibre could improve L. acidophilus NCIMB 701748 viability in all steps from production through storage and digestion. PMID:24748900

  3. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %. PMID:24665070

  4. Effects of spray-dried animal plasma in milk replacers or additives containing serum and oligosaccharides on growth and health of calves.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Kost, C J; Wolfe, T A

    2002-02-01

    The effects of spray-dried animal plasma in milk replacer without or with the addition of additives containing fructooligosaccharides and spray-dried serum on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves was measured in two 56-d experiments. In experiment 1, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 20% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma for 42 d and 30 to 60 g/d of additives containing whey protein concentrate or bovine serum for the first 15 d. Commercial calf starter was available from d 29, and water was available at all times. In experiment 2, 120 calves were fed milk replacer containing 0 or 16% of crude protein as spray-dried bovine plasma with 0 or 30 to 60 g/d of additive containing bovine serum for the first 15 d. Additive containing bovine serum also contained fructooligosaccharides, whey, and vitamin/mineral premix. In experiment 1, calves fed additive containing bovine serum tended to have fewer days with diarrhea, lower use of electrolytes, and improved BW gain from d 29 to 56. The addition of spray-dried bovine plasma to milk replacer did not influence any parameter measured. In experiment 2, calves fed additive containing bovine serum or milk replacer containing spray-dried bovine plasma had lower mortality (4.4 vs. 20%) and tended to have improved fecal scores and fewer days with scours. Antibiotic use was lower when calves were fed the additive. Indices of enteric health (incidence of scours and treatment with antibiotics and electrolytes) were improved when plasma was added to milk replacer throughout the milk feeding period or as an additive during the first 15 d of the milk feeding period, when calves were most susceptible to enteric pathogens. The addition of spray-dried animal plasma to milk replacer or the addition of additive containing spray-dried bovine serum and oligosaccharides may be a useful adjunct to animal management during periods of stress. PMID:11913702

  5. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  6. Particle design of three-component system for sustained release using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2006-11-01

    We prepared composite particles of acetaminophen (Act) with chitosan (Cht) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) as a carrier using a newly developed 4-fluid nozzle spray-dryer. Cht dissolves in acid solutions and forms a gel, but it is insoluble in alkaline solutions. On the other hand, HPMCP is insoluble in acid solutions, but it dissolves in alkaline solutions. Therefore, we tested a preparation of controlled release composite particles using the characteristics of these carriers. Act and Cht mixtures in prescribed ratios were dissolved in an acid solution. Composite particles of Act and HPMCP in prescribed ratios were dissolved in alkaline solutions. We evaluated the composite particles of the three components (Act, Cht, and HPMCP) by preparing solid dispersions using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-dryer. Observation of particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray-drying process had atomized to several microns and had all become spherical. We investigated the physical properties of the composite particles by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dissolution rate analysis to clarify the effects of crystallinity on the dissolution rate. Powder X-ray diffraction peaks and the heat of fusion of Act in the spray-dried samples decreased in proportion to the carrier content, indicating that the drug was amorphous. These results indicate that the Act-Cht-HPMCP system formed a solid dispersion. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction between the drug and the carrier using FT-IR analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy of the Act solid dispersions suggested that the Act carbonyl and Cht amino groups formed a hydrogen bond. On the other hand, interaction by hydrogen bond was observed between the carbonyl group of HPMCP with the amino group of Act. In the three-component Act-Cht-HPMCP system, the 4-fluid nozzle spray-dried preparation with a mixing ratio of 1 : 2.5 : 2.5 obtained sustained

  7. Preparation of naproxen-ethyl cellulose microparticles by spray-drying technique and their application to textile materials.

    PubMed

    Arici, Mesut; Topbas, Ozlem; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Ertan, Gokhan; Sariisik, Merih; Ozturk, Cihat

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new textile-based drug delivery system containing naproxen (NAP) microparticles and to evaluate the potential of the system as the carrier of NAP for topical delivery. Microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using an aqueous ethyl cellulose dispersion. The drug content and entrapment efficiency, particle size and distribution, particle morphology and in vitro drug release characteristics of microparticles were optimized for the application of microparticles onto the textile fabrics. Microparticles had spherical shape in the range of 10-15 μm and a narrow particle size distribution. NAP encapsulated in microparticles was in the amorphous or partially crystalline nature. Microparticles were tightly fixed onto the textile fabrics. In vitro drug release exhibited biphasic release profile with an initial burst followed by a very slow release. Skin permeation profiles were observed to follow near zero-order release kinetics. PMID:24861324

  8. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage.

    PubMed

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, Jurate; Venskutonis, Rimantas P

    2007-04-18

    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies of peppermint EO were higher for all n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSAN)-modified starches as compared to those of hydrolyzed starches (dextrins). The compositions of pure, emulsified, and encapsulated peppermint EOs in different matrices were quite similar; however, some changes in the percentages of some individual compounds were observed. Larger differences in the compositions of surface oils from various encapsulation products were obtained. Flavor components were released at different rates by each of the encapsulated products. The aroma binding capacity of different modified starch matrices to lock EO droplets depends on the water activity, and the leakage of aromas from encapsulated powder products during storage increased with increasing water activity. PMID:17381102

  9. Study of the Effect of Dillenia indica Fruit Mucilage on the Properties of Metformin Hydrochloride Loaded Spray Dried Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemanta Kumar; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2014-01-01

    Natural materials are preferred over synthetic counterparts because of their biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The present work was proposed to utilize mucilage from natural source for the development of controlled release formulation of metformin hydrochloride. Natural mucilaginous substance extracted from Dillenia indica L. (DI) fruit was used in fabricating controlled release microspheres. The microspheres were prepared by spray drying method under different formulation parameters. The prepared microspheres were studied for particle size, drug excipient compatibility, particle shape and surface morphologies, drug entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesivity, and in vitro drug release properties. The prepared microspheres exhibited mucoadhesive properties and demonstrated controlled release of metformin hydrochloride. The study reveals that the natural materials can be used for formulation of controlled release microspheres and would provide ample opportunities for further study. PMID:27379337

  10. Optimization of Microencapsulation of Fish Oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin Mixtures by Spray Drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. PMID:26087831

  11. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous LiFePO 4/C microsphere by spray drying assisted template method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Zhang, Jingjie; Yang, Yanfeng; Song, Guangzhi

    Mesoporous LiFePO 4/C microsphere was successfully prepared by spray drying assisted template method (SDATM) with citric acid as a template. This material has an average pore size of 50 nm and gives large specific surface area (32.2 m 2 g -1) with evenly distributed carbon (4.3 wt.%). It is also easy to bring into contact with electrolyte, facilitate the electric and lithium ion diffusion. It presents large reversible capacity of 158.8 mAh g -1 at C/10, even high rate capacity of 59.7 mAh g -1 at 20 C, and excellent capacity retention rate closed to 95.5% after various current densities.

  12. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  13. Preparation of lithium-rich layered oxide micro-spheres using a slurry spray-drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mengyan; Guo, Shaoshuai; Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Congxiao; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-08-01

    0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 microspheres are prepared by a slurry spray-drying process (SD-LLO) with subsequent heat treatment. SEM images show that the SD-LLO microspheres are composed of nano-size primary particles. These particles are quite different from conventional LLO microspheres, which are composed of micron-scale plate-like primary particles prepared by a co-precipitation method (CP-LLO). The SD-LLO material experiences a smaller voltage drop during cycling than CP-LLO when used as cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that the smaller voltage drop of SD-LLO can be attributed to a more homogeneous distribution of transition metals.

  14. Study of release kinetics of small and high molecular weight substances dispersed into spray-dried ethylcellulose microspheres.

    PubMed

    Grattard, Nicolas; Pernin, Marc; Marty, Bernard; Roudaut, Gaëlle; Champion, Dominique; Le Meste, Martine

    2002-12-01

    Spray-dried ethylcellulose microspheres were used as matrices for the encapsulation of a fungal lactase and/or small paramagnetic probes (Tempol or Tempo). Their dissolution in water was studied. Kinetics fitted with the model Q = kt(n) of Korsemeyer et al. [Int. J. Pharm. 15 (1983) 25] exhibited a non-Fickian diffusion. The calculated diffusional exponent (n) values were near 0.26 whatever the encapsulated probes. The release rates (k) were only slightly different for paramagnetic probes and lactase. This result indicated that the probes' release mechanisms are not diffusion controlled. Other factors such as matrix porosity and probe solubility in the matrix and in water could influence the probes' release rate. PMID:12468216

  15. Influence of spray drying and dispersing agent on surface and dissolution properties of griseofulvin micro and nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhaval A; Patel, Manan; Murdande, Sharad B; Dave, Rutesh H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose for the current research is to compare and evaluate physiochemical properties of spray-dried (SD) microcrystals (MCs), nanocrystals (NCs), and nanocrystals with a dispersion agent (NCm) from a poorly soluble compound. The characterization was carried out by performing size and surface analysis, interfacial tension (at particle moisture interface), and in-vitro drug dissolution rate experiments. Nanosuspensions were prepared by media milling and were spray-dried. The SD powders that were obtained were characterized morphologically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and Flowchem. Solid-state characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the identification of the crystalline nature of all the SD powders. The powders were characterized for their redispersion tendency in the water and in pH 1.2. Significant differences in redispersion were noted for both the NCs in both dissolution media. The interfacial tension for particle moisture interface was determined by applying the BET (Braunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation to the vapor sorption data. No significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed between MCs and NCs; however, a significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed for NCm at both 25 °C and 35 °C temperatures. The difference in interfacial tension and redispersion behavior can be attributed to a difference in the wetting tendency for all the SD powders. The dissolution studies were carried out under sink and under non-sink conditions. The non-sink dissolution approach was found suitable for quantification of the dissolution rate enhancement, and also for providing the rank order to the SD formulations. PMID:27080146

  16. A study of the differences between two amorphous spray-dried samples of cefditoren pivoxil which exhibited different physical stabilities.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Masato; Buckton, Graham

    2005-01-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the reasons for the difference in physical stability of two amorphous cefditoren pivoxil samples that had been prepared using spray drying at inlet-air temperatures of 40 degrees C (SD-A) and 100 degrees C (SD-B). The two samples appeared amorphous by powder X-ray diffraction and had indistinguishable glass transition temperatures. Despite the fact that glass transition is often regarded as an indicator of the stability of amorphous forms, crystallisation was observed for SD-A, but not for SD-B, during storage at 60 degrees C and 81% relative humidity (RH). Gravimetric water sorption data demonstrated very similar water sorption until high RH values, at which point SD-A sorbed more water than did SD-B. The values of the dispersive, acidic (K(A)) and basic (K(D)) components of surface energy of the spray-dried samples were obtained using inverse gas chromatography (IGC), in the dry state and after equilibration with different RH environments. The data showed that the two amorphous samples had different surface properties and that the effect of sorbed water on these samples was also different. It is concluded that the two samples did not have long-range order, but had differences in the orientation of molecules at the surface, which were significant enough to alter the stability when the samples were stressed with water vapour and high temperature storage. IGC proved a valuable tool with which to study changes in the surface properties of amorphous materials. PMID:15652196

  17. Aerodynamic properties, solubility and in vitro antibacterial efficacy of dry powders prepared by spray drying: Clarithromycin versus its hydrochloride salt.

    PubMed

    Manniello, Michele Dario; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Porta, Amalia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Russo, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic therapy for a direct administration to the lung in cystic fibrosis patients has to provide suitable availability, possibly in the lower respiratory tract, characterized by the presence of thick secretions. One of the crucial steps in the therapeutic management of the respiratory disease could be the drug solubilization directly in this site of action. The aim of the study was to prepare respirable powders of clarithromycin, while improving drug aqueous solubility. With this aim, several batches of micronized particles were prepared by spray drying different feed solutions, varying the solvent composition (water/isopropyl alcohol ratio), the drug concentration and pH of the liquid feeds. Particle size distribution of raw materials and engineered particles was determined using a light-scattering laser granulometer while particle morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro deposition of the micronized clarithromycin powders was evaluated by means of a Single-Stage Glass Impinger using the RS01 model7 by Plastiape® as device for the aerosolization. Solubility measurements of raw and spray-dried (SD) drug were carried out at 37°C in phosphate buffer (0.05M, pH 6.8). Results indicate that morphology and aerodynamic properties of SD particles were strongly influenced by organic solvent concentration and pH of the liquid feeds processed, both modifying drug solubility. Spherical particles and crystals were obtained at higher pH and lower organic solvent content, while wrinkled particles with very interesting aerodynamic properties and higher drug solubility were obtained at lower pH values. Thanks to a fine tuning of the process parameters and liquid feed composition, we produced SD powders with good aerodynamic properties, without using any excipients. Furthermore, SD powders of clarithromycin hydrochloric salt showed higher activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, compared to clarithromycin raw material. PMID:27106605

  18. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate to treat cough in advanced lung cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, M.; Porta, C.; Gualtieri, G.; Nastasi, G.; Tinelli, C.

    1996-01-01

    C-fibres probably represent the common final pathway in both ACE inhibitors and neoplastic cough. A recent report demonstrated that inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE inhibitors' cough; this effect might be due to the suppression of afferent unmyelinated C-fibres. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled sodium cromoglycate might also be effective in lung cancer patients who presented with irritative neoplastic cough. Twenty non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients complaining of cough resistant to conventional treatment were randomised to receive, in a double-blind trial, either inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo. Patients recorded cough severity daily, before and during treatment, on a 0 to 4 scale. The efficacy of treatment was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric measures, comparing the intergroup differences in the measures of summary of symptom scores calculated in each patient before and after treatment. We report that inhaled sodium cromoglycate can reduce cough, also in NSCLC patients and that such reduction, observed in all patients treated, is statistically significant (P < 0.001). Inhaled sodium cromoglycate appears to be a cost-effective and safe treatment for lung cancer-related cough. PMID:8688342

  19. Method of creating starch-like ultra-fine rice flour and effect of spray drying on formation of free fatty acid.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour from long, medium, and short grain cultivars were processed by passing a 32% rice flour slurry through a microfluidizer at 100 MPa, and spray dryer at three different outlet temperatures, OT (50°C, 80°C, and 115°C). Spray drying conditions were controlled by the flow-rate of the slurry ...

  20. Application of a novel 3-fluid nozzle spray drying process for the microencapsulation of therapeutic agents using incompatible drug-polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Tara; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 3-fluid concentric nozzle (3-N) spray drying process for the microencapsulation of omeprazole sodium (OME) using Eudragit L100 (EL100). Feed solutions containing OME and/or EL100 in ethanol were assessed visually for OME stability. Addition of OME solution to EL100 solution resulted in precipitation of OME followed by degradation of OME reflected by a colour change from colourless to purple and brown. This was related to the low pH of 2.8 of the EL100 solution at which OME is unstable. Precipitation and progressive discoloration of the 2-fluid nozzle (2-N) feed solution was observed over the spray drying time course. In contrast, 3-N solutions of EL100 or OME in ethanol were stable over the spray drying period. Microparticles prepared using either nozzle showed similar characteristics and outer morphology however the internal morphology was different. DSC showed a homogenous matrix of drug and polymer for 2-N microparticles while 3-N microparticles had defined drug and polymer regions distributed as core and coat. The results of this study demonstrate that the novel 3-N spray drying process can allow the microencapsulation of a drug using an incompatible polymer and maintain the drug and polymer in separate regions of the microparticles. PMID:24170510

  1. Inhibition of the spontaneous polymorphic transition of pyrazinamide γ form at room temperature by co-spray drying with 1,3-dimethylurea.

    PubMed

    Baaklini, G; Dupray, V; Coquerel, G

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of excipients to induce the crystallization of a specific polymorphic form of pyrazinamide (PZA) and more interestingly, to block the irreversible solid-solid transition of the metastable forms of the PZA to the stable form at room temperature. We outline an experimental protocol for the production of a structurally pure γ form of PZA by means of spray drying. Without any particular treatment, phase transition to δ form was detected after 14 days of storage under ambient conditions. In order to prevent this irreversible phase transition, different excipients were co-spray dried with PZA. By co-spray drying 5% in mass of 1,3-dimethylurea (DMU) with PZA, we noticed its ability in preventing phase transitions and thus to maintain PZA under its γ form up to 12 months of storage at room temperature. Raman spectroscopy evidenced how DMU crystals surround particles of γ PZA which suggest that DMU might interact with the surface of PZA particles, thus blocking the phase transition. On the other hand, the co-spray drying of PZA with the polymerpolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) resulted in the crystallization of δ form of PZA. The physical mixture was intact over 12 months of storage at room temperature. PMID:25556055

  2. IMPACT OF GLUTAMINE AND SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, SMALL INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY, AND IMMUNE RESPONSES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K88+ CHALLENGED WEANED PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 40 barrows (5.32 +/- 0.3 kg) weaned at 17 +/- 2 days of age were used to investigate the effects of feeding glutamine (GLN) and spray-dried plasma (SDP) diets on E. coli K88+ LT/STb**+ challenged pigs. Pigs were allotted in a RCBD to four dietary treatments which included: positive contr...

  3. Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid: Formulation, in vitro cytoprotection and in vivo anti-platelet effect.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto; Borsato, Débora Maria; Almeida, Martinha Antunes; Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2016-07-01

    This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. PMID:27127059

  4. Spray-dried solid dispersions containing ferulic acid: comparative analysis of three carriers, in vitro dissolution, antioxidant potential and in vivo anti-platelet effect.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto; Borsato, Débora Maria; Almeida, Martinha Antunes; Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias; Zawadzki, Sônia Faria; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2016-11-01

    This article aimed to improve the relative solubility and dissolution rate of ferulic acid (FA) by the use of spray-dried solid dispersions (SDs) in order to ensure its in vitro antioxidant potential and to enhance its in vivo anti-platelet effect. These SDs were prepared by spray-drying at 10 and 20% of drug concentration using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP-K30), polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and poloxamer-188 (PLX-188) as carriers. SDs and physical mixtures (PM) were characterized by SEM, XRPD, FTIR spectroscopy and TGA analysis. Spray-dried SDs containing FA were successfully obtained. Relative solubility of FA was improved with increasing carrier concentration. PVP-K30 and PEG 6000 formulations showed suitable drug content values close to 100%, whereas PLX-188 presented mean values between 70 and 90%. Agglomerates were observed depending on the carrier used. XRPD patterns and thermograms indicated that spray-drying led to drug amorphization and provided appropriate thermal stability, respectively. FTIR spectra demonstrated no remarkable interaction between carrier and drug for PEG 6000 and PLX-188 SDs. PVP-K30 formulations had changes in FTIR spectra, which denoted intermolecular O-H•••O = C bonds. Spray-dried SDs played an important role in enhancing dissolution rate of FA when compared to pure drug. The free radical-scavenging assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of PEG 6000 10% SDs was kept. This formulation also provided a statistically increased in vivo anti-platelet effect compared to pure drug. In summary, these formulations enhanced relative solubility and dissolution rate of FA and chosen formulation demonstrated suitable in vitro antioxidant activity and improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. PMID:27032626

  5. Development and Characterization of Sodium Hyaluronate Microparticle-Based Sustained Release Formulation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Prepared by Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun J; Kim, Chan W

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a sodium hyaluronate microparticle-based sustained release formulation of recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH) prepared by spray-drying. Compared to freeze-drying, spray-dried SR-rhGH showed not only prolonged release profiles but also better particle property and injectability. The results of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that no aggregate was detected, and dimer was just about 2% and also did not increase with increase of inlet temperature up to 150 °C. Meanwhile, the results of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that related proteins increased slightly from 4.6% at 100 °C to 6.3% at 150 °C. Thermal mapping test proved that product temperature did not become high to cause protein degradation during spray-drying because thermal energy was used for the evaporation of surface moisture of droplets. The structural characterization by peptide mapping, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and circular dichroism revealed that the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of rhGH in SR-rhGH were highly comparable to those of reference somatropin materials. The biological characterization by rat weight gain and cell proliferation assays provided that bioactivity of SR-rhGH was equivalent to that of native hGH. These data establish that spray-dried SR-rhGH is highly stable by preserving intact rhGH and hyaluronate microparticle-based formulation by spray-drying can be an alternative delivery system for proteins. PMID:26869423

  6. Dietary spray-dried chicken plasma improves intestinal barrier function and modulates immune status in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Zheng, P; Yu, B; He, J; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Wang, J X; Luo, J Q; Huang, Z Q; Cheng, G X; Chen, D W

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of spray-dried chicken plasma (SDCP) as a replacement for spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on serum biochemistry, intestinal barrier function, immune parameters, and the expression of intestinal development-related genes in weaning pigs. One hundred and forty-four 25-d-old weaning piglets with BW of 6.43 ± 0.39 kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) CON (basal diet; control), 2) SDPP (containing 5% SDPP), 3) SDPP + SDCP (containing 2.5% SDPP and 2.5% SDCP), and 4) SDCP (containing 5% SDCP). After a 28-d trial, 6 pigs from each treatment were randomly selected to collect serum and intestinal samples. On d 14 after the initiation of the trial, pigs in the SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP groups had an increase ( < 0.05) in serum concentrations of total protein and IgG and a decrease ( < 0.05) in activities of alanine aminotransferase and diamine oxidase compared with the CON group. In the jejunum, supplementation with SDPP and SDCP reduced ( < 0.05) the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and upregulated ( < 0.05) the mRNA levels of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2), occludin (OCLN), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2), and IGF-1 compared with the CON group. In the ileum, feeding SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP decreased ( < 0.05) the concentrations of TNF-α and secretory IgA (sIgA) and upregulated ( < 0.05) the mRNA levels of claudin 1 (CLDN-1) and TLR2 compared with feeding CON. However, there were no differences among the SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP groups. Furthermore, supplementation with SDCP reduced ( < 0.05) the concentration of IL-10 and upregulated ( < 0.05) the mRNA levels of GLP-2, mucin 2 (MUC2), and trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) in the ileum compared with feeding CON. Collectively, the current results indicate that dietary addition of SDCP has a beneficial influence on the health condition of weaning pigs

  7. Spray-dried chicken plasma improves intestinal digestive function and regulates intestinal selected microflora in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, D W; Yu, B; He, J; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Wang, J X; Luo, J Q; Huang, Z Q; Cheng, G X; Zheng, P

    2015-06-01

    One hundred forty-four 25-d-old weaning piglets with BW of 6.43 ± 0.39 kg were used in a 28-d trail to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of spray-dried chicken plasma (SDCP) as a replacement for spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, small intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and microflora. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) CON (control; a basal diet), 2) SDPP (containing 5% SDPP), 3) SDPP + SDCP (containing 2.5% SDPP and 2.5% SDCP), and 4) SDCP (containing 5% SDCP). Six pigs from each treatment were randomly selected to collect serum and intestinal samples. Compared with the CON group, both the SDPP and the SDPP + SDCP groups improved final BW of pigs (P < 0.05), but there were no differences among the SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP groups. From d 1 to 14 and d 15 to 28, pigs fed the SDPP and SDPP + SDCP diets had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the CON diet. During the overall period, both ADG and ADFI of pigs in the SDPP and SDPP + SDCP groups were improved (P < 0.05) compared with pigs in the CON group. Furthermore, pigs fed diets containing SDPP or SDCP had a greater (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, ether extract, Ca, and ash and less (P < 0.05) incidence of diarrhea than pigs fed the CON diet. However, no differences were observed for ATTD and diarrhea incidence between the SDPP and SDCP groups. Compared with the CON group, duodenal villus height and the ratio of villi to crypt were increased (P < 0.05) in the SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP groups and jejunal crypt depth was decreased in the SDPP + SDCP and SDCP groups (P < 0.05). Pigs in the SDPP group had greater (P < 0.05) activities of amylase, maltase, and trypsin than pigs in the CON group. However, no significant differences were observed between the SDCP and SDPP groups. Additionally, inclusion of SDCP in diet decreased (P < 0.05) the population of Escherichia coli

  8. Advances in Inhalation Dosimetry Models and Methods for Occupational Risk Assessment and Exposure Limit Derivation

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Eileen D.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Morris, John B.; Jarabek, Annie M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and practical guide to occupational health professionals concerning the derivation and use of dose estimates in risk assessment for development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for inhaled substances. Dosimetry is the study and practice of measuring or estimating the internal dose of a substance in individuals or a population. Dosimetry thus provides an essential link to understanding the relationship between an external exposure and a biological response. Use of dosimetry principles and tools can improve the accuracy of risk assessment, and reduce the uncertainty, by providing reliable estimates of the internal dose at the target tissue. This is accomplished through specific measurement data or predictive models, when available, or the use of basic dosimetry principles for broad classes of materials. Accurate dose estimation is essential not only for dose-response assessment, but also for interspecies extrapolation and for risk characterization at given exposures. Inhalation dosimetry is the focus of this paper since it is a major route of exposure in the workplace. Practical examples of dose estimation and OEL derivation are provided for inhaled gases and particulates. PMID:26551218

  9. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

    2002-09-19

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.

  10. Influence of sub-lethal stresses on the survival of lactic acid bacteria after spray-drying in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, J; Borges, S; Teixeira, P

    2015-12-01

    The demand for new functional non-dairy based products makes the production of a probiotic orange juice powder an encouraging challenge. However, during drying process and storage, loss of viability of the dried probiotic cultures can occur, since the cells are exposed to various stresses. The influence of sub-lethal conditions of temperature, acidic pH and hydrogen peroxide on the viability of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2 and Lactobacillus plantarum 299v during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions was investigated. At the end of storage, the survival of both microorganisms through simulated gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) conditions was also determined. The viability of cells previously exposed to each stress was not affected by the drying process. However, during 180 days of storage at room temperature, unlike P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, survival of L. plantarum 299v was enhanced by prior exposure to sub-lethal conditions. Previous exposure to sub-lethal stresses of each microorganism did not improve their viability after passage through simulated GIT. Nevertheless, as cellular inactivation during 180 days of storage was low, both microorganisms were present in numbers of ca. 10(7) cfu/mL at the end of GIT. This is an indication that both bacteria are good candidates for use in the development of an orange juice powder with functional characteristics. PMID:26338119

  11. Ex vivo human trabecular bone model for biocompatibility evaluation of calcium phosphate composites modified with spray dried biodegradable microspheres.

    PubMed

    Schnieders, Julia; Gbureck, Uwe; Germershaus, Oliver; Kratz, Marita; Jones, David B; Kissel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to study the suitability of the ex-vivo human trabecular bone bioreactor ZetOS to test the biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement composites modified with spray dried, drug loaded microspheres. We hypothesized, that this bone bioreactor could be a promising alternative to in vivo assessment of biocompatibility in living human bone over a defined time period. Composites consisting of tetracycline loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres and calcium phosphate bone cement, were inserted into in vitro cultured human femora head trabecular bone and incubated over 30 days at 37°C in the incubation system. Different biocompatibility parameters, such as lactate dehydrogenase activity, alkaline phosphatase release and the expression of relevant cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were measured in the incubation medium. No significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and lactate dehydrogenase activity were measured compared to control samples. Tetracycline was released from the microspheres, delivered and incorporated into newly formed bone. In this study we demonstrated that ex vivo biocompatibility testing using human trabecular bone in a bioreactor is a potential alternative to animal experiments since bone metabolism is still maintained in a physiological environment ex vivo. PMID:23568426

  12. Characterization of naproxen-loaded solid SMEDDSs prepared by spray drying: the effect of the polysaccharide carrier and naproxen concentration.

    PubMed

    Čerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Vrečer, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare solid SMEDDS (sSMEDDS) particles produced by spray-drying using maltodextrin (MD), hypromellose (HPMC), and a combination of the two as a solid carrier. Naproxen (NPX) as the model drug was dissolved (at 6% concentration) or partially suspended (at 18% concentration) in a liquid SMEDDS composed of Miglyol(®) 812, Peceol™, Gelucire(®) 44/14, and Solutol(®) HS 15. Among the sSMEDDSs tested, the MD-based sSMEDDSs (with a granular, smooth-surfaced, microspherical appearance) preserved the self-microemulsifying properties of liquid SMEDDSs and exhibited dissolution profiles similar to those of liquid SMEDDSs, irrespective of the concentration of NPX. In contrast, HPMC-based sSMEDDSs (irregular-shaped microparticles) exhibited slightly prolonged release times due to the polymeric nature of the carrier. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Raman mapping analysis confirmed molecularly dissolved NPX (at 6% of drug loading), whereas at 18% NPX loading drug is partially molecularly dissolved and partially in the crystalline state. PMID:25772420

  13. The effect of NaCl on the rheological properties of suspension containing spray dried starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ai-min; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-jun; Adhikari, Benu

    2012-11-01

    The effect of NaCl on the rheological properties of suspensions containing spray dried starch nanoparticles produced through high pressure homogenization and emulsion cross-linking technique was studied. Rheological properties such as continuous shear viscosity, viscoelasticity and creep-recovery were measured. NaCl (5-20%, w/w) was found to lower viscosity quite significantly (p<0.05), enhance the heat stability and weaken their gelling behavior compared to starch-only suspension. NaCl reduced both the storage and loss moduli of suspension within the frequency range (0.1-10 rads/s) studied. However, NaCl brought higher speed of reduction on the storage modulus than on the loss modulus, which resulted into large increase in loss angle. The creep-recovery behavior of suspension was affected by NaCl and the recovery rate was highest (86%) at 15% NaCl. The Cross, the Power law and the Burger's models followed the experimental viscosity, storage and loss moduli, and creep-recovery data well with R(2)>0.97. PMID:22944412

  14. Quality evaluation of peony seed oil spray-dried in different combinations of wall materials during encapsulation and storage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Wang, Shu-Jie; Tu, Zong-Cai; Wang, Hui; Li, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Tao; Su, Ting; Li, Cui

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of peony seed oil microencapsulated by spray drying during encapsulation and storage. Four different combinations of gum arabic (GA), corn syrup (CS), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (CAS) were used to encapsulate peony seed oil. The best encapsulation efficiency was obtained for CAS/CS followed by the CAS/GA/CS combination with the encapsulation ratio of 93.71 and 92.80 %, respectively, while the lowest encapsulation efficiency was obtained for WPC/GA/CS (85.96 %). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the particles were spherical in shape and did not exhibit apparent cracks or fissures, and gum arabic was uniformly distributed across the wall of the microcapsules. Oxidative stability study indicated that the CAS/GA/CS combination presented the best protection against lipid oxidation and the smallest loss of polyunsaturated fatty acid content among all of the formulas as measured by gas chromatography. Therefore, CAS/GA/CS could be promising materials encapsulate peony seed oil with high encapsulation efficiency and minimal lipid oxidation. PMID:27478215

  15. One-step spray-dried polyelectrolyte microparticles enhance the antigen cross-presentation capacity of porcine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Devriendt, Bert; Baert, Kim; Dierendonck, Marijke; Favoreel, Herman; De Koker, Stefaan; Remon, Jean Paul; De Geest, Bruno G; Cox, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Vaccination is regarded as the most efficient and cost-effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Vaccine design nowadays focuses on the implementation of safer recombinant subunit vaccines. However, these recombinant subunit antigens are often poor immunogens and several strategies are currently under investigation to enhance their immunogenicity. The encapsulation of antigens in biodegradable microparticulate delivery systems seems a promising strategy to boost their immunogenicity. Here, we evaluate the capacity of polyelectrolyte complex microparticles (PECMs), fabricated by single step spray-drying, to deliver antigens to porcine dendritic cells and how these particles affect the functional maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). As clinically relevant model antigen F4 fimbriae, a bacterial adhesin purified from a porcine-specific enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain was chosen. The resulting antigen-loaded PECMs are efficiently internalised by porcine monocyte-derived DCs. F4 fimbriae-loaded PECMs (F4-PECMs) enhanced CD40 and CD25 surface expression by DCs and this phenotypical maturation correlated with an increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β. More importantly, F4-PECMs enhance both the T cell stimulatory and antigen presentation capacity of DCs. Moreover, PECMs efficiently promoted the CD8(+) T cell stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells, indicating an enhanced ability to cross-present the encapsulated antigens. These results could accelerate the development of veterinary and human subunit vaccines based on polyelectrolyte complex microparticles to induce protective immunity against a variety of extra- and intracellular pathogens. PMID:23207327

  16. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Raafat, K.; Samy, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6 h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685

  17. The synthesis and optical property of solid-state-prepared YAG:Ce phosphor by a spray-drying method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-M.; Cheng, C.-C.; Huang, C.-Y.

    2009-05-06

    Ce{sup 3+}-activated yttrium aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce, YAG:Ce) powder as luminescent phosphor was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The phase identification, microstructure and photoluminescent properties of the products were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), absorption spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. Spherical phosphor particle is considered better than irregular-shaped particle to improve PL property and application, so this phosphor was granulated into a sphere-like shape by a spray-drying device. After calcinating at 1500 deg. C for 0, 4, and 8 h, the product was identified as YAG and CeO{sub 2} phases. The CeO{sub 2} phase content is decreased by increasing the calcination time or decreasing the Ce{sup 3+} doping content. The product showed higher emission intensity resulted from more Ce{sup 3+} content and larger grain size. The product with CeO{sub 2} was found to have lower emission intensity. This paper presents the crystal structures of Rietveld refinement results of powder XRD data.

  18. Electrochemical properties of MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders prepared via spray drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kyung Min; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-11-01

    Spherical micron-sized MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders are successfully prepared by post-treating the spray-dried precursor powders. Dextrin, which is used as the carbon source material, plays a key role in the preparation of the composite powders with regular morphologies; the bare MnS and MnO powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin have irregular morphologies. The MnS-C composite powders prepared from the spray solution containing 17 g L-1 of dextrin have mixed crystal structures of α- and γ-MnS phases. These powders exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of their MnS and MnO-C counterparts. For example, at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, the MnO-C powders have a 100th-cycle discharge capacity of 321 mA h g-1; the corresponding discharge capacities of the MnS powders prepared from spray solutions containing 0, 17, and 50 g L-1 of dextrin are 501, 786, and 636 mA h g-1, respectively.

  19. Application of X-ray microtomography for the characterisation of hollow polymer-stabilised spray dried amorphous dispersion particles.

    PubMed

    Gamble, John F; Terada, Masako; Holzner, Christian; Lavery, Leah; Nicholson, Sarah J; Timmins, Peter; Tobyn, Mike

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of X-ray microtomography to obtain information relating to powder characteristics such as wall thickness and solid volume fraction for hollow, polymer-stabilised spray dried dispersion (SDD) particles. SDDs of varying particle properties, with respect to shell wall thickness and degree of particle collapse, were utilised to assess the capability of the approach. The results demonstrate that the approach can provide insight into the morphological characteristics of these hollow particles, and thereby a means to understand/predict the processability and performance characteristics of the bulk material. Quantitative assessments of particle wall thickness, particle/void volume and thereby solid volume fraction were also demonstrated to be achievable. The analysis was also shown to be able to qualitatively assess the impact of the drying rate on the morphological nature of the particle surfaces, thus providing further insight into the final particle shape. The approach demonstrated a practical means to access potentially important particle characteristics for SDD materials which, in addition to the standard bulk powder measurements such as particle size and bulk density, may enable a better understanding of such materials, and their impact on downstream processability and dosage form performance. PMID:27262271

  20. Improved stability and controlled release of CLA with spray-dried microcapsules of OSA-modified starch and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    He, Huizi; Hong, Yan; Gu, Zhengbiao; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this investigation was to improve the stability of CLA and to allow for its controlled release by encapsulating it with combinations of octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and xanthan gum (XG) in three ratios (OSA/XG: 60/1, 80/1, and 100/1, w/w). The wall material was examined using FTIR and TGA. The microcapsules were characterized by laser particle size analysis (LPS) and SEM. Oxidation of the microcapsules was monitored by headspace method. The results revealed that microcapsules created with an OSA/XG ratio of 60/1 provided superior protection to CLA against oxidation. When CLA-microcapsules were subjected to conditions simulating those in the human gastrointestinal system, 12.1%-50.1% of the CLA was released. CLA encapsulation in spray-dried microcapsules of OSA/XG appears to be an effective technique that provides good protection against oxidation and could be useful in the targeted delivery of functional lipids or other bioactive components to the small intestine. PMID:27178930

  1. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. R. V.; Azzolini, A. E. C. S.; Martinez, M. L. L.; Souza, C. R. F.; Lucisano-Valim, Y. M.; Oliveira, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  2. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation. PMID:26471673

  3. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)☆

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  4. Laboratory and field tests of spray-dried and granular formulations of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer.

    PubMed

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M

    2006-09-01

    Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. The formulations were prepared using biodegradable polymers such as modified corn starch as an encapsulating agent, gelatin as an adherent, powdered sugarcane as a feeding stimulant and a Bt var. kurstaki GM-34 strain from a non-sugarcane region as the active ingredient. The spore-crystal complex of this strain was mixed at three different concentrations (30, 70 and 100 g kg(-1)) with the other ingredients. The blends were prepared as spray-dried and granular formulations, and then submitted to laboratory tests with two day old larvae of D. saccharalis and field tests in sugarcane crops with natural sugarcane borer infestation. Spray-dried formulations in laboratory bioassays caused mortality near 100% with all three concentrations, and granular formulations caused mortality around 84%. The field tests showed that spray-dried formulations at 70 and 100 g kg(-1) concentrations were as effective as a commercial bioinsectide (Lepinox), while granular formulations were ineffective. PMID:16786544

  5. Phytase production by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm: characterization of enzymatic activity after spray drying in presence of carbohydrates and nonconventional adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandez; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-02-28

    Microbial phytases are enzymes with biotechnological interest for the feed industry. In this article, the effect of spray-drying conditions on the stability and activity of extracellular phytase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus biofilm is described. The phytase was spray-dried in the presence of starch, corn meal (>150 μm), soy bean meal (SB), corn meal (<150 μm) (CM), and maltodextrin as drying adjuvants. The residual enzyme activity after drying ranged from 10.7% to 60.4%, with SB and CM standing out as stabilizing agents. Water concentration and residual enzyme activity were determined in obtained powders as a function of the drying condition. When exposed to different pH values, the SB and CM products were stable, with residual activity above 50% in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 for 60 min. The use of CM as drying adjuvant promoted the best retention of enzymatic activity compared with SB. Spray drying of the R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase using different drying adjuvants showed interesting results, being quite feasible with regards their biotechnological applications, especially for poultry diets. PMID:24196167

  6. An investigation into the effect of spray drying temperature and atomizing conditions on miscibility, physical stability, and performance of naproxen-PVP K 25 solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Amrit; Loyson, Yves; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigates the effect of changing spray drying temperature (40°C-120°C) and/or atomizing airflow rate (AR; 5-15 L/min) on the phase structure, physical stability, and performance of spray-dried naproxen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K 25 amorphous solid dispersions. The modulated differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total internal reflectance-Fourier transform infrared, and powder X-ray diffractometry (pXRD) studies revealed that higher inlet temperature (IT) or atomization airflow leads to the formation of amorphous-phase-separated dispersions with higher strongly H-bonded and free PVP fractions, whereas that prepared with the lowest IT was more homogeneous. The dispersion prepared with the lowest atomization AR showed trace crystallinity. Upon exposure to 75% relative humidity (RH) for 3 weeks, the phase-separated dispersions generated by spray drying at higher temperature or higher atomization airflow retained relatively higher amorphous drug fraction compared with those prepared at slow evaporation conditions. The humidity-controlled pXRD analysis at 98% RH showed that the dispersion prepared with highest atomization AR displayed the slowest kinetics of recrystallization. The molecular-level changes occurring during recrystallization at 98% RH was elucidated by spectroscopic monitoring at the same humidity. The rate and extent of the drug dissolution was the highest for dispersions prepared at the highest atomizing AR and the lowest for that prepared with the slowest atomizing condition. PMID:23359268

  7. Absorption improvement of tranilast by forming highly soluble nano-size composite structures associated with α-glucosyl rutin via spray drying.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideyuki; Fujimori, Miki; Suzuki, Hiroki; Kadota, Kazunori; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Onoue, Satomi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2015-05-01

    Tranilast (TL) composite particles with α-glucosyl rutin (Rutin-G) were developed to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of TL. Composite formulation of TL/Rutin-G was prepared using the spray-drying method, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated with respect to the morphology, particle size distribution, solubility and crystallinity. The nanostructure formation of Rutin-G was characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy when Rutin-G or TL/Rutin-G spray-dried particles (SDPs) were introduced into water. A pharmacokinetic study was also performed to assess the improvement of oral absorption in rats. TL/Rutin-G SDPs were spherical particles with a diameter of 5.5μm. Even in the acidic condition, the remarkable improvement in solubility of TL was achieved, as evidenced by a 32.2-fold increase in solubility compared with untreated TL. The median size of Rutin-G nanostructures in water was 2nm. The formation of Rutin-G nanostructures and their drug inclusion properties may enhance the solubility and dissolution behavior of TL. A drastic increase was found in the exposure of TL in rats, with an increase in Cmax and AUC values of 114- and 36.4-fold, respectively, compared with those of untreated TL. These findings indicated that a TL formulation spray-dried with Rutin-G could enhance its solubility and absorption and thus its therapeutic properties. PMID:25725261

  8. Spray dried microspheres based on chitosan: A promising new carrier for intranasal administration of polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 for prevention of ovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alejandra Graciela; Quinteros, Daniela Alejandra; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Palma, Santiago Daniel; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto; Ghersi, Giselle; Zylberman, Vanesa; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto; Estein, Silvia Marcela

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that parenteral immunization with polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 induced a strong immune response and conferred protection against Brucella ovis in rams. This work describes the development of a novel formulation strategy for the delivery of BLSOmp31 in the nasal mucosa. Chitosan microparticles were prepared by spray-drying technology processes and recombinant chimera BLSOmp31 was loaded by passive adsorption onto chitosan microspheres, which were characterized by means of the evaluation of size, zeta potential, morphology, and loading and release rate of BLSOmp31. The mucoadhesive properties of microspheres were evaluated by studying the interaction between microparticles and mucin. The antigen BLSOmp31 integrity was investigated by SDS-PAGE. The yield of production of spray-drying process was 68.95%. Microspheres had a good sphericity, 1-10 μm of particle size and had a positive charge. The loading capacity was found to be 45.19%. The initial fast release of BLSOmp31 from chitosan microparticles was 60%. The BLSOmp31 integrity was not affected by passive adsorption (ionic interaction). The amount of mucin adsorbed on the surface of CMs-BLSOmp31 was lower than on the surface of blank CMs at neutral pH. In vivo studies were carried out in rams. Intranasal immunization induced systemic and local antibodies. In conclusion, the use of BLSOmp31-loaded chitosan spray-drying microspheres offers a promising way for nasal mucosal vaccination in sheep against brucellosis. PMID:26952451

  9. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability. PMID:26633352

  10. Carrier-free combination for dry powder inhalation of antibiotics in the treatment of lung infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pilcer, Gabrielle; De Bueger, Véronique; Traina, Karl; Traore, Hamidou; Sebti, Thami; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2013-07-15

    The aim of the study was to develop an efficient combination antibiotic formulation containing tobramycin and clarithromycin as a dry powder for inhalation. A carrier-free formulation of the two drugs was produced by spray-drying and characterised for its aerodynamic behaviour by impaction tests with an NGI and release profiles. The particle size distribution, morphological evaluation and crystallinity state were determined by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. Drug deposition profiles were similar for the two antibiotics, which has a synergistic effect, allowing them to reach the target simultaneously at the expected dose. The release profiles show that tobramycin and clarithromycin should probably dissolve without any difficulties in vivo in the lung as 95% of tobramycin and 57% of clarithromycin mass dissolved in 10min for the spray-dried formulation. The FPF increased from 35% and 31% for the physical blend for tobramycin and clarithromycin, respectively, to 65% and 63% for the spray-dried formulation. The spray-dried formulation shows particularly high deposition results, even at sub-optimal inspiratory flow rates, and therefore, represents an attractive alternative in the local treatment of lung infection such as in cystic fibrosis. PMID:23643509

  11. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  12. Inhalable chitosan nanoparticles as antitubercular drug carriers for an effective treatment of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize spray dried inhalable chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) for sustained delivery of anti-tubercular drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), to the lungs. CNPs were prepared by ionic gelation technique followed spray drying. Results showed that the CNPs obtained had a smooth spherical shape with an average size of 230 ± 4.5 nm, with a poly dispersity index of 0.180 ± 0.021. Both drugs, were detected in various organs (lungs, liver, spleen and kidney) until 24 h post nebulization. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of a single dose of drug-loaded CNPs suggested that they are more effective against the mycobacterium than free drugs. PMID:25682840

  13. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment. PMID:27145163

  14. Early Life Dietary Spray Dried Plasma Influences Immunological and Intestinal Injury Responses to Later Life Salmonella Typhimurium Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, P.E.; D’Costa, S.; Edwards, L.L.; Milloway, M.; Susick, E.; Borst, L.B.; Thakur, S.; Campbell, J.M.; Crenshaw, J.D.; Polo, J.; Moeser, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that early life environmental influences, including nutrition and stress, impact long-term health outcomes and disease susceptibility. The objective of the current study was to determine whether dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) fed during the first 2 weeks post-weaning (PW) influences subsequent immunological and intestinal injury responses to S. Typhimurium challenge. Thirty two piglets (16–17 d of age) were weaned onto nursery diets containing 0% SDP, 2.5% SDP (fed for 7 d PW), or 5% SDP (for 14 d PW) and were then fed control diets (without SDP), for the remainder of the experiment. At 34 d PW (50 d of age), pigs were challenged with 3×109 cfu S. Typhimurium. A control group (non-challenged) that was fed 0% SDP in the nursery was included. At 2 d post-challenge, distal ileum was harvested for measurement of inflammatory, histological, and intestinal physiological parameters. S. Typhimurium challenge induced elevated ileal histological scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-8, and TNF, and increased intestinal permeability (indicated by reduced transepithelial voltage (PD) and elevated FD4 flux rates). Compared with S. Typhimurium-challenged controls (0% SDP), pigs fed 5% SDP-14 d exhibited reduced ileal histological scores, MPO, IL-8, and FD4 flux rates. Pigs fed 5% SDP-14 d in the nursery exhibited increased levels of plasma and ileal TNFα in response to challenge, compared with other treatments. These results indicate that inclusion of SDP into PW diets can have influence subsequent immunological responses and intestinal injury induced by later life S. Typhimurium challenge. PMID:25671331

  15. Spray-dried high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch: impact of α-amylase on drug-release profile.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Teresa; Zaraa, Sarra; Leclair, Grégoire

    2016-11-01

    Spray-dried high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (SD HASCA) is a promising pharmaceutical excipient for sustained-release (SR) matrix tablets produced by direct compression. The presence of α-amylase in the gastrointestinal tract and the variations of the gastric residence time of non-disintegrating dosage forms may affect the presystemic metabolism of this excipient and, consequently, the drug-release profile from formulations produced with SD HASCA. In this study, the influence of α-amylase and the residence time in acidic conditions on the drug-release profile was evaluated for a once-daily acetaminophen formulation (Acetaminophen SR) and a once-daily tramadol hydrochloride formulation (Tramadol SR). Both formulations were based on SD HASCA. α-Amylase concentrations ranging from 0 IU/L to 20000 IU/L did not significantly affect the drug-release profiles of acetaminophen and tramadol hydrochloride from SD HASCA tablets (f2 > 50) for all but only one of the studied conditions (f2 = 47). Moreover, the drug-release properties from both SD HASCA formulations were not significantly different when the residence time in acidic medium was 1 h or 3 h. An increase in α-amylase concentration led to an increase in the importance of polymer erosion as the main mechanism of drug-release instead of drug diffusion, for both formulations and both residence times, even if release profiles remained comparable. As such, it is expected that α-amylase concentration and residence time in the stomach will not clinically affect the performance of both SD HASCA SR formulations, even if the mechanism of release itself may be affected. PMID:27109692

  16. Preparation of co-spray dried cushioning agent containing stearic acid for protecting pellet coatings when compressed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Xu, De Sheng; Li, Min; Liu, Li; Heng, Paul

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the applicability of stearic acid as a co-adjuvant in cushioning agent formulated to prevent coat damage when compressing coated pellets. The co-processed and physical blended fillers were prepared by spray drying and physically blending, respectively, with filler ingredients consisting of stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, fully gelatinized starch, and corn starch. Pellets containing drug were produced by coating onto non-pariels a drug layer of metformin followed by a sustained-release layer. Drug release from tablets composed of co-processed or physical blended fillers (0, 1, 5, and 10% stearic acid levels) and coated drug containing pellets were analyzed using similarity factor F2. Under the same force and the stearic acid level, co-processed fillers produced pellet containing tablets which showed higher F2 or t50 values and tensile strengths as well as lower yield pressures as compared with tablets containing physical blended fillers. It was shown that the destructive degree of pellet coating was significantly reduced after being co-processed by homogenization and the incorporation of stearic acid in the cushioning agents, as shown by the improved F2 and t50 values. In addition, disintegrate times of tablets containing co-processed agents decreased despite the hydrophobic stearic acid. In conclusion, the inclusion of stearic acid in co-processed cushioning agents was effective at protecting compacted coated pellets from compression-induced damage without compromising disintegratability. The findings could serve as a step towards resolving the technical challenges of balancing the drug release profiles, tablet tensile strength, and disintegration time of compacting coated pellets into multi-particulate-sustained release tablets. PMID:26289006

  17. Advances in biologically based models for respiratory tract uptake of inhaled volatiles.

    PubMed

    Medinsky, M A; Kimbell, J S; Morris, J B; Gerde, P; Overton, J H

    1993-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for volatile organic chemicals typically describe the respiratory tract as a single compartment in which chemicals in the alveolar air space and the arterial blood are in instantaneous equilibrium. These models also assume that the distribution of chemical in the air-stream is uniform throughout the respiratory tract and that uptake is significant only in the alveolar region. A functional role for the upper respiratory tract in the uptake of volatile chemicals has been largely ignored. While these models have worked well for chemicals with low aqueous solubility in biological fluids, systemic uptake of highly soluble volatiles is overestimated. Thus, there is a significant effort to describe the critical determinants for uptake of soluble chemicals and to formulate models with more biologically relevant descriptions of respiratory tract structure and function. Investigators have addressed this problem from several viewpoints. Airflow patterns in the respiratory tract, regional metabolism, diffusion-dependent uptake, and the cyclic nature of respiration are now being incorporated into current models. Use of dosimetric models that incorporate relevant biology for inhaled chemicals will ultimately result in more meaningful human risk assessments. PMID:8504900

  18. Spray drying of drug-swellable dispersant suspensions for preparation of fast-dissolving, high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Azad, Mohammad; Arteaga, Colby; Abdelmalek, Beshoy; Davé, Rajesh; Bilgili, Ecevit

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug can be improved by preparing a drug nanosuspension and subsequently drying it into nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs). Unfortunately, drug nanoparticles aggregate during milling and drying, causing incomplete recovery and slow dissolution. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of various classes of dispersants on drug dissolution from drug NCMPs, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via high drug nanoparticle loaded, surfactant-free NCMPs. Precursor suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) nanoparticles in the presence of various dispersants were prepared via wet stirred media milling and spray dried to form the NCMPs. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as a base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Two swellable crosslinked polymers, croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG), and a conventional soluble matrix former, Mannitol, were used in addition to HPC. Besides being used as-received, CCS was also wet co-milled with GF for two different durations to examine the impact of CCS particle size. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV spectroscopy, NCMP redispersion and dissolution tests were used for characterization. The results show that incorporation of CCS/SSG, preferably wet-milled to a wide particle size distribution, into the spray-dried NCMPs resulted in fast release and dispersion of drug nanoparticle clusters. The swellable dispersants were superior to Mannitol in dissolution enhancement, and could achieve fast release comparable to SDS, demonstrating the feasibility of spray drying to prepare high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites. PMID:25347144

  19. Compressional behavior of a mixture of granules containing high load of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract and granules of adjuvants: comparison between eccentric and rotary tablet machines.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Bárbara; Bica, Vinicius Claudino; Ruppenthal, Lisias Rafael; Volpato, Maria Ramos; Petrovick, Pedro Ros

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the compressional behavior of granules containing high load of a Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract in eccentric (ETM) and rotary (RTM) tablet presses. Tablets were constituted by spray-dried extract granules (SDEG, 92%), excipient granules (EXCG, 7.92%), and magnesium stearate (0.08%). SDEG was obtained by dry granulation and EXCG, composed of microcrystalline cellulose (62.9%) and sodium starch glycolate (37.1%), by wet granulation. Particle size distribution was fixed between 0.250 and 0.850 mm. Tablets did not evidence any mechanical failures, such as lamination or capping, or anomalous weight variation in either tablet machine types. Upper and lower tablet surface photomicrographs from ETM and RTM tablets showed differences in porosity and texture. Different RTM speeds suggested the visco-plastic behavior of the formulation, since, by slowing down rotation speeds, the tensile strength of the tablets increased significantly, but the porosity and disintegration time were not affected. Tablets produced in RTM showed lower friability and porosity than ETM tablets, which did not reflect on higher tensile strength. The EXCG distribution at upper and lower surfaces from ETM and RTM tablets was quantified by image analysis and evaluated through statistical methods. Spray-dried extract release was not influenced by the type of equipment or operational conditions to which the compacts were submitted. Construction and operation differences between both tablet presses influenced the final product, since tablets with similar tensile strength, made by distinct tablet machines, exhibited different quality parameters. PMID:19662537

  20. Design and initial operation of the Spray Dry FGD system at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.; Arello, J.; Fortune, O.; Puska, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the design issues, design decisions, start-up, and early operation of a Spray Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (SDFGD) system which went into operation at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 in May 1983. This fortyfour (44) megawatt unit consisting of a rotary atomizer reactor, reverse air fabric filter, lime preparation, and reagent recycle system was engineered in the 1980-82 time period utilizing pilot plant and prototype industrial system results as a design basis. Initial operation has been uneventful with performance results in the expected ranges.

  1. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotube/ZnO nanocrystalline aggregates hybrids by spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. S.; Cao, S. Y.; Zeng, B.; Ning, X. T.; Liu, T. G.; Chen, X. H.; Xiao, Y.; Yu, W. W.

    2014-05-01

    The novel 3D graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/ZnO nanocrystalline aggregate (GR/MWNTs/ZnO) hybrids were prepared by a spray drying method, and their adsorption and photocatalytic degradation for methyl orange (MO) were studied. Experimental results show that the synthetic GR/MWNTs/ZnO nanohybrids exhibited very strong adsorption capacity and high photocatalytic activity for MO. The maximum adsorption capacity of GR/MWNTs/ZnO sample reached 106.2 mg/g, and the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO nanocrystallines was improved about one time by GR/MWNTs hybrids.

  2. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  3. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g−1, respectively, at a current density of 2 A g−1. The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones. PMID:27033088

  4. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P < 0.01) than in the other protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P < 0.01) than those offered FM and DPS. AP decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts in the cecum. DPS decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase compared with SPE. In conclusion, AP and SPE are competitive with traditional animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. PMID:25827306

  5. Trehalose limits BSA aggregation in spray-dried formulations at high temperatures: implications in preparing polymer implants for long-term protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Karthikan; Wood, Joseph; Tran, Benjamin; Patapoff, Thomas W; Nivaggioli, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Polymer implants are promising systems for sustained release applications but their utility for protein delivery has been hindered because of concerns over drug stability at elevated temperatures required for processing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model, we have assessed whether proteins can be formulated for processing at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the effect of trehalose and histidine-HCl buffer on BSA stability in a spray-dried formulation has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 80°C to 110°C. When both the sugar and buffer are present, aggregation is suppressed even when exposed to 100°C, the extrusion temperature of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), a bioresorbable polymer. Estimation of aggregation rate constants (k) indicate that though both trehalose and histidine-HCl buffer contribute to BSA stability, the effect because of trehalose alone is more pronounced. BSA-loaded PLGA implants were prepared using hot-melt extrusion process and in vitro release was conducted in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C. Comparison of drug released from implants prepared using four different formulations confirmed that maximal release was achieved from the formulation in which BSA was least aggregated. These studies demonstrate that when trehalose and histidine-HCl buffer are included in spray-dried formulations, BSA stability is maintained both during processing at 100°C and long-term residence within implants. PMID:23754501

  6. Preparation and Analysis of Co-precipitated, Biodegradable Poly-(Lactide-co-Glycolide) and Polyethylene Glycol Microspheres Prepared by Spray Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javiya, Curie

    Biodegradable poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based microspheres are commonly used for numerous clinical applications. PEG is a widely used polymer due to its hydrophilic, biocompatible, and nontoxic nature. In this study, different blends of PLGA/PEG microspheres were prepared using a spray drying technique. The microspheres were spherical with maximum yield found to be 60.3% and average particle size in the range of 2.4 to 3.1 microm. Under the spray drying processing conditions, the polymers showed full miscibility slightly below 15% w/w and partial miscibility up to 20% w/w of PEG in the blended microspheres. At higher temperatures, PLGA and PEG were miscible in all proportions used for the blended microspheres. Blending 10% w/w PEG in PLGA membranes showed significant reduction in attachment of macrophages compared to PLGA membranes. The in-vitro response of macrophage towards the miscible blends of PLGA/PEG microspheres was further characterized. Results showed some reduction in macrophage viability and activation, however, significant effects with PLGA/PEG microspheres were not observed.

  7. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  8. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. PMID:27596397

  9. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-04-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g‑1, respectively, at a current density of 2 A g‑1. The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones.

  10. Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion for Template-Free, Kilogram-Scale Production of SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres via Spray Drying System.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-01-01

    A commercially applicable and simple process for the preparation of aggregation-free metal oxide hollow nanospheres is developed by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to a large-scale spray drying process. The precursor powders prepared by spray drying are transformed into homogeneous metal oxide hollow nanospheres through a simple post-treatment process. Aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres are selected as the first target material for lithium ion storage applications. Amorphous carbon microspheres with uniformly dispersed Sn metal nanopowder are prepared in the first step of the post-treatment process under a reducing atmosphere. The post-treatment of the Sn-C composite powder at 500 °C under an air atmosphere produces carbon- and aggregation-free SnO2 hollow nanospheres through nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The hollow and filled SnO2 nanopowders exhibit different cycling performances, with their discharge capacities after 300 cycles being 643 and 280 mA h g(-1), respectively, at a current density of 2 A g(-1). The SnO2 hollow nanospheres with high structural stability exhibit superior cycling and rate performances for lithium ion storage compared to the filled ones. PMID:27033088

  11. Effect of salmon protein hydrolysate and spray-dried plasma protein on growth performance of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J L; Naranjo, V D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments, each consisting of 2 trials, were conducted to determine the effect of salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) fed during the first week postweaning and their subsequent effect on the growth performance of weanling pigs. Pigs were fed in a 3-phase feeding program with durations of 7 d for phase 1 in both Exp. 1 and 2; 14 or 15 d for phase 2 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; and 7 or 8 d for phase 3 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed only during phase 1, whereas the same diet was fed to all pigs in phases 2 and 3. Pigs were blocked by initial BW and sex, and littermates were balanced across treatments. Data from the 2 trials within each experiment were combined and analyzed together; no treatment × trial interactions (P > 0.10) were observed. In Exp. 1, a total of 324 weanling pigs (10 replications of 5 or 6 pigs per pen) with an average initial BW of 6.4 ± 1.3 kg were assigned to 1) a control diet with no SPH or SDPP, 2) 1.5% SPH, 3) 3.0% SPH, 4) 1.5% SDPP, 5) 3.0% SDPP, or 6) 1.5% SPH + 1.5% SDPP. Experiment 2 was similar to Exp. 1, but red blood cells were removed from all diets to reduce diet complexity. In Exp. 2, weanling pigs (n = 320, 14 replications of 5 or 6 pigs per pen) with an average initial BW of 5.4 ± 1.2 kg were assigned to 1) a control diet with no SPH or SDPP, 2) 1.5% SPH, 3) 1.5% SDPP, or 4) 1.5% SPH + 1.5% SDPP. Three batches of SPH were used, and each batch was analyzed for AA composition. In Exp. 1, the inclusion of SDPP or SPH during phase 1 did not affect (P > 0.10) ADG, ADFI, or G:F compared with those of pigs fed the control diet. No carryover effects on growth performance were observed in any of the subsequent phases. Overall, G:F was greater (P = 0.08) in pigs fed the 1.5% diets compared with those fed the 3.0% diets. In Exp. 2, no differences (P > 0.10) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among pigs fed the SPH or SDPP diets compared with those of pigs fed the

  12. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  13. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  14. Preparation, characterization and pulmonary pharmacokinetics of a new inhalable zanamivir dry powder.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xingshi; Yang, Yang; Xie, Xiangyang; Yu, Fanglin; Yang, Yanfang; Yang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Tao; Mei, Xingguo

    2016-07-01

    This work describes a new dry powder for inhalation containing zanamivir, which is less hygroscopic than Relenza®. The powders were prepared via a spray-drying technique using mannitol as the carrier. A 5(3) central composite design was used to optimize the formulations. The final optimized powders, characterized with an angle of repose 37.48°, an aerodynamic diameter of 2.346 μm and in vitro deposition of 58.54%, were obtained by using the predicted variable values. Relenza® absorbed a significant amount of water at 66%, 75% and 85% relative humidity (RH; weight changes of approximately 1.38%, 2.18% and 3.72%, respectively). In contrast, the weight change for the zanamivir dry powder inhalation (DPI) was negligible when the RH was increased to 66%. The in vivo potential for the optimized powders was studied further in rats via the endotracheal administration of an 8.4 mg/kg dose. The bioavailability was 116% relative to Relenza®. Fluorescence imaging monitored the zanamivir dry powder inhalers in rats. The results indicated that the zanamivir DPIs were effectively delivered to the lung. These results indicate that the spray-dried zanamivir DPIs were promising for pulmonary delivery. PMID:26066037

  15. Spray-dried plasma promotes growth, modulates the activity of antioxidant defenses, and enhances the immune status of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Skalli, A; Campbell, J; Solovyev, M M; Rodríguez, C; Dias, J; Polo, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial animal byproduct meals, including nonruminant blood meal and blood products, represent the largest and largely untapped safe source of animal protein available within the international market for the aquafeed industry. Spray-dried blood and spray-dried plasma (SDP) proteins have long been recognized as high-quality feed ingredients for farmed animals. In this study, we evaluated the inclusion of SDP from porcine blood (SDPP) in growing diets for gilthead sea bream. Three isonitrogenous (CP = 51.2%) and isolipidic (fat = 12.4%) diets manufactured by cold extrusion (0.8 to 1.5 mm pellet size) were prepared by substituting high-quality fish meal with 0, 3, and 6% SDPP. The diets were tested for a period of 60 d at 22°C with 4 replicates each (400-L cylindroconical tanks, 150 fish per tank, and initial density = 0.5 kg/m(3)). The SDPP inclusion in diets for gilthead sea bream fingerlings were evaluated in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, histological organization of the intestinal mucosa, activity of oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the intestine, and nonspecific serum immune parameters (lysozyme and bactericidal activity). Results from this study indicated that dietary SDPP promoted fish growth in terms of BW and length; fish fed 3% SDPP were 10.5% heavier (P < 0.05) than those fed the control diet. Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood modulated the activity of the antioxidative defenses in the intestine (P < 0.05) and increased the density of goblet cells in the intestine (P < 0.05) and benefited the host by providing an effective immune barrier against gut pathogenic microbiota. The nonspecific serum immune response in fish fed diets with SDPP was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish fed the control diet. These results indicated that the inclusion of SDPP in gilthead sea bream feed could be beneficial for the fish by enhancing intestinal and serum innate immune

  16. Development of a novel mucosal vaccine against strangles by supercritical enhanced atomization spray-drying of Streptococcus equi extracts and evaluation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel A; Figueiredo, Lara; Padrela, Luís; Cadete, Ana; Tiago, João; Matos, Henrique A; Gomes de Azevedo, Edmundo; Florindo, Helena F; Gonçalves, Lídia M D; Almeida, António J

    2012-10-01

    Strangles is an extremely contagious and sometimes deadly disease of the Equidae. The development of an effective vaccine should constitute an important asset to eradicate this worldwide infectious disease. In this work, we address the development of a mucosal vaccine by using a Supercritical Enhanced Atomization (SEA) spray-drying technique. Aqueous solutions containing the Streptococcus equi extracts and chitosan were converted into nanospheres with no use of organic solvents. The immune response in a mouse model showed that the nanospheres induced a well-balanced Th1 and Th2 response characterized by a unitary ratio between the concentrations of IgG2a and IgG1, together with IgA production. This strategy revealed to be an effective alternative for immunization against S. equi, and therefore, it may constitute a feasible option for production of a strangles vaccine. PMID:22841882

  17. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  18. Stable photoluminescence of zinc oxide quantum dots in silica nanoparticles matrix prepared by the combined sol{endash}gel and spray drying method

    SciTech Connect

    Mikrajuddin; Iskandar, F.; Okuyama, K.; Shi, F. G.

    2001-06-01

    A sol{endash}gel method was employed to produce a zinc oxide (ZnO) colloid consisting of ZnO nanocrystalline particles with an average diameter of {similar_to}3 nm, and subsequently mixed with a silica (SiO{sub 2}) colloid. The mixture was finally spray dried to form a powder nanocomposite. It was found that the green photoluminescence (PL) exhibited by the composite was very stable: the intensity, position, and shape do not change even after being aged over 30 days. Thus, the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite has a much improved PL stability over ZnO colloids, which is often found to undergo a significant redshift even after aging over a few days. Our results are expected to have significant technological implications. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Facile Sol-Gel/Spray-Drying Synthesis of Interweaved Si@TiO2&CNTs Hybrid Microsphere as Superior Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiyun; Hou, Xianhua; Li, Yana; Ru, Qiang; Qin, Haiqing; Hu, Shejun

    2016-07-01

    A unique intertwined structure of silicon-based composite (Si@TiO2&CNTs) has been synthesized by sol-gel and spray drying methods. The Si@TiO2&CNTs is mainly composed of three kinds of materials:the prepared nanosilicon particles, TiO2, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A layer of TiO2 particles is found effective for enhancing the electrical conductivity and structure stability of the silicon particles. Additionally, the twisted CNTs are beneficial to build a better conductive network, consequently improving the anode working conditions when the cell is charged or discharged. As a lithium ion battery anode, a specific capacity of approximately 1521 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles is obtained.

  20. Sodium-ion storage properties of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide composite powders prepared by a spray drying process and the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. D.; Cho, J. S.; Kang, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the 150th cycle of the nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders prepared by sulfidation of the Ni/rGO composite and nickel acetate/GO composite powders at a current density of 0.3 A g-1 are 449 and 363 mA h g-1, respectively; their capacity retentions, calculated from the tenth cycle, are 100 and 87%. The nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO composite powders possess structural stability over repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes, and also show excellent rate performance for Na-ion storage.Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the

  1. Physicochemical evaluation of PVP-thiazide diuretic interactions in co-spray-dried composites--analysis of glass transition composition relationships.

    PubMed

    Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible interactions in the solid state between the thiazide diuretics: bendroflumethiazide (BFMT), hydroflumethiazide (HFMT) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) following processing. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) of a range of binary co-spray-dried PVP-thiazide composites were determined and compared to the predictions of the Gordon-Taylor, Fox, Couchman-Karasz, Kwei and Schneider equations. The solid composites of the thiazide diuretics and PVP were prepared by a spray drying technique. Properties of composites were determined with the use of helium pycnometry and FTIR spectroscopy. For many systems studied the experimentally detected T(g)s exhibited large positive deviations when compared with the values predicted by the Gordon-Taylor, Fox and Couchman-Karasz equations. The data was better fitted by the Schneider equation consistent with a drug-polymer interaction. FTIR analysis revealed that strong hydrogen bonding between the sulphonamide groups of the thiazide diuretics and the PVP molecule was responsible for the increase in the T(g)s. Additionally, in the case of BFMT-PVP composites, an interaction between the phenyl group and polymer ring was apparent. Glass transition-composition behaviour for amorphous drug-PVP composites deviated from the predictions of the commonly used Gordon-Taylor equation. Deviations were consistent with interactions between the components in the amorphous mixtures. The Schneider equation may be successfully applied to fit the Tg-composition profiles obtained, where other models fail to give good predictions. PMID:15784345

  2. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe D; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 10(5.2 ± 0.12) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  3. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E.; Campbell, Joy M.; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 105.2±0.12 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  4. Characterization of a new inhalable thymopentin formulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing

    2009-06-22

    The present work describes a new dry powder containing thymopentin (TP5) suitable for inhalation. A total of 21 dry powders were produced by co-spray drying TP5 with lactose or mannitol as a bulking agent, leucine as a dispersibility enhancer and poloxamer 188 as a drug stabilizer. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, thermogravimetry, Twin Stage Impactor and HPLC were performed to characterize the manufactured powders. The results revealed that formulation compositions greatly influenced the physical characteristics of the powders, such as the angle of repose, tapped density, particle size and aerodynamic diameter which, in turn, affected their aerodynamic behavior. A higher loading of leucine in the formulations (>63% by dry weight) improved the aerosolization properties of the powders by producing aerodynamically lighter particles. The optimum formulation, which had a tapped density of 0.31 g/cm(3), an aerodynamic diameter of 1.9 microm and an in vitro deposition of 45%, was obtained by combining TP5/mannitol/leucine in the ratio of 10/18/72. In addition, it was interesting to find that poloxamer 188 had a significant impact on improving the powder flowability rather than stabilizing TP5. In conclusion, the chosen composition promises an enhanced aerosol performance for the new TP5 inhalation formulation, suitable for deep lung deposition. PMID:19443146

  5. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  6. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  7. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled ... the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in the capsules. Never try to inhale them ...

  8. [Recent progress of dry powder inhalation of proteins and peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie-yu; Zhang, Lan; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-07-01

    To provide theoretical and practical basis for the successful formulation design of physically-mixed inhalation dry powder of proteins and peptides, related references were collected, analyzed and summarized. In this review drug micronization technology and commonly used carriers for inhalation dry powder preparation were introduced. For proteins and peptides, supercritical fluid technology and spray-drying are more suitable because of their capabilities of keeping drug activity. Being approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration, lactose has been extensively used as carriers in many inhalation products. Formulation and process factors influencing drug deposition in the lung, including carrier properties, drug-carrier ratio, blending order, mixing methods, mixing time and the interaction between drug and carrier, were elucidated. The size, shape and surface properties of carries all influence the interaction between drug and carrier. Besides, influence of micromeritic properties of the dry powder, such as particle size, shape, density, flowability, charge, dispersibility and hygroscopicity, on drug deposition in the lung was elaborated. Among these particle size plays the most crucial role in particle deposition in the lung. Moreover, based on the mechanisms of powder dispersity, some strategies to improve drug lung deposition were put forward, such as adding carrier fines, adding adhesive-controlling materials and reprocessing micronized drug. In order to design physically-mixed inhalation dry powder for proteins and peptides with high lung deposition, it is essential to study drug-carriers interactions systematically and illustrate the potential influence of formulation, process parameters and micromeritic properties of the powder. PMID:26552141

  9. Development and characterization of spray-dried porous nanoaggregates for pulmonary delivery of anti-tubercular drugs.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ranjot; Garg, Tarun; Malik, Basant; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Gupta, Pushpa; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis, MTB or tubercle bacillus (TB) is a lethal, infectious disease mainly caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, guar gum-based porous nanoaggregates were formulated by precipitation technique with two frontline antitubercular drugs, i.e. isoniazid and rifampicin. The formulations were optimized on the basis of various evaluation parameters such as morphology, density, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimized formulations were administered by inhalable route to Wistar rats for the evaluation of drugs in different organs (lungs, liver and kidneys). High drug encapsulation efficiency was achieved in guar gum porous nanoaggregates, ranging from 50% to 60%. A single pulmonary dose resulted in therapeutic drug concentrations of 30%-50% in the lungs and in other organs (less than 5%) for 24 h. From this study, we can conclude that delivering drugs through pulmonary route is advantageous for local action in lungs. Furthermore, the formulation showed sustained drug release pattern, which could be beneficial for reducing the drug dose or frequency of dosing, thus helpful in improving patient compliance. PMID:24870203

  10. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  11. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  12. Development and validation of a stability indicative HPLC-PDA method for kaurenoic acid in spray dried extracts of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Fucina, Giovana; Block, Luciana Catia; Baccarin, Thaisa; Ribeiro, Thiago Ruiz Gutierrez; Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Silva, Ruth Meri Lucinda; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé

    2012-11-15

    A gradient stability indicative HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for assay of the marker kaurenoic acid (KA) in spray dried extract of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski. The marker, and another unidentified polar component, were separated on a Luna Phenomenex C(18) column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:acidified water pH 3.0 with phosphoric acid, in a gradient run of 40 min; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), 35 °C, using wavelengths of 210 and 338 nm. The method was linear over a KA concentration range of 4.5-30.0 μg mL(-1), without interference of the herbal matrix on the linearity of the method. The RSD% values for the intra- and inter-day precision studies were <2.0 and <8.0% for inter-laboratorial study. The method showed excellent KA recovery (99.0%). The LOQ value was found to be 1.13 μg mL(-1) and the method proved to be robust for small, deliberate changes in temperature and pH of the mobile phase with RSD%<2.5% for the KA assay. A forced degradation study of S. trilobata dried extract was conducted under conditions of visible light (1.200.000 l×h(-1)) and UV (200 Whm(-2)) irradiation, acid (0.5 mol L(-1) HCl, 30 min), basic (1 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2 h) and oxidative (30% H(2)O(2), 4h) hydrolysis, in order to develop a gradient stability-indicating LC-UV method for KA quantification, the selected marker, and also to detect the major polar components of the extract, under investigation. The KA contents remaining after these stress conditions were 72.3, 70.0, 97.6, 65.8 and 87.0%, respectively. The alkaline conditions resulted in higher degradation for the unknown polar components of the extract, without interference of supplementary peaks at the retention time of the KA. This method can be used for the KA assay and qualitative analysis of polar components in stability study of spray dried extracts of S. trilobata, for subsequent use in the quality control of dosage forms. PMID:23158359

  13. The effects of liquid versus spray-dried Laminaria digitata extract on selected bacterial groups in the piglet gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota.

    PubMed

    Murphya, Padraigin; Dal Bello, Fabio; O'Doherty, John; Arendt, Elke K; Sweeney, Torres; Coffey, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of supplementing animal feed with a liquid and spray-dried fucoidan and laminarin extract, derived from the seaweed Laminaria digitata on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the communities of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and enterobacteria were evaluated. Twenty four piglets were fed one of three diets over a 21-day period to determine the effect that each had on the bacterial communities. The dietary treatments were as follows; (1) control diet, (2) control diet plus spray-dried formulation of laminarin fucoidan (L/F-SD) extract, (3) control diet plus a liquid formulation of (L/F-WS) extract. Control diet consisted of wheat, soya bean meal, soya oil and a vitamin and mineral mixture. The L/F-SD and L/F-WS supplemented diets had equal proportion of 500 ppm laminarin and fucoidan. At the end of the 21 day feeding period all animals were sacrificed and samples were collected from the ileum, caecum and colon. Counts were determined for Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and enterobacteria. Plate count analysis revealed that the L/F-SD diet caused a statistically significant 1.5 log and 2 log increases in the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts of ileum samples respectively. A greater difference was observed with the L/F-WS diet in that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increased by 2 log and 3 log respectively. Alterations in the Lactobacillus species composition of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using specific PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE profiles indicated that Lactobacillus species richness decreased along the gastrointestinal tract i.e. the number of dominant species detected in the colon was less than those detected in the ileum and caecum irrespective of the diet consumed. Consumption of both the L/F-SD and L/F-WS diets resulted in a richer Lactobacillus species composition in the ileum, with the L/F-SD diet being associated the emergence of Lactobacillus

  14. Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Panizzon, Gean Pier; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

    2014-01-01

    The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE) by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2) and 1:3 (MP3) SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications. PMID:25494200

  15. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on pasting, rheological and viscoelastic properties of milk-barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) blends meant for spray drying.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Arun; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Simha, H V Vikram; Nath, B Surendra

    2016-10-01

    The influence of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on the pasting properties of barnyard millet was studied using a rheometer. The effects of blending hydrolyzed barnyard millet wort with milk at different ratios (0:1, 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2) on flow and viscoelastic behavior were investigated. From the pasting curves, it was evident that enzymatically-hydrolyzed starch did not exhibit typical pasting characteristics expected of normal starch. The Herschel-Bulkley model fitted well to the flow behaviour data, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.942 to 0.988. All milk-wort blends demonstrated varying degree of shear thinning with flow behavior index (n) ranging from 0.252 to 0.647. Stress-strain data revealed that 1:1 blend of milk to wort had the highest storage modulus (7.09-20.06Pa) and an elastically-dominant behavior (phase angle <45°) over the tested frequency range. The crossover point of G' and G" shifted to higher frequencies with increasing wort content. From the flow and viscoelastic behavior, it was concluded that the 1:1 blend of milk to wort would have least phase separation and better flowability during spray drying. PMID:27296446

  16. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. PMID:26300306

  17. Influence of heat treatment on spray-dried mixtures of Amioca starch and Carbopol 974P used as carriers for nasal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Pringels, E; Foreman, P; Adriaensens, P; Carleer, R; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2009-08-13

    A mucoadhesive spray-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) powder underwent different heat treatments in order to induce cross-linking between the functional groups of starch (Amioca) and poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol 974P). After heat treatment the water-absorbing capacity, viscosity and elasticity of the mucoadhesive powder increased. NMR analysis in combination with FT-IR indicated that heat treatment induced a low degree of cross-linking between the polymers. Nasal administration of Amioca/Carbopol 974P powders without heat treatment resulted in an absolute bioavailability in rabbits of 8.2+/-3.0% for insulin. Due to the difference in water-absorbing capacity (which opened the tight junctions of the nasal mucosa), elasticity and plasticity (which reduced mucociliairy clearance and prolonged residence time) heat treatment at 120 degrees C improved the bioavailability: 26.4+/-21.9, 36.5+/-11.0 and 19.3+/-17.3% after heat treatment during 30 min, 1 h and 4 h, respectively. Heat treatment at 60 degrees C was less efficient. This study demonstrated that the nasal insulin absorption improved via heat treatment of the Amioca/Carbopol 974P powder (prior to the addition of insulin). The bioavailability-enhancing effect of a 1 h heat treatment at 120 degrees C was confirmed using the same polymer matrix in combination with different drugs (salmon calcitonin, human growth hormone and metoprolol tartrate). PMID:19477256

  18. Spray-dried powders of starch and crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) as carriers for nasal delivery of inactivated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Schotsaert, M; Libert, C; Pringels, E; Vervaet, C; Foreman, P; Saelens, X; Remon, J P

    2009-02-18

    Mucosal vaccination has several advantages over parenteral vaccination. In this study, viscosity-enhancing mucosal delivery systems for the induction of an adaptive immune response against viral antigen were investigated. Powder formulations based on spray-dried mixtures of starch (Amioca)/poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol 974P) in different ratios were used as carriers of the viral antigen. A comparison of these formulations for intranasal delivery of heat-inactivated influenza virus combined with LTR192G adjuvant was made in vivo in a rabbit model. Individual rabbit sera were tested for seroconversion against hemagglutinin (HA), the major surface antigen of influenza. The powder vaccine formulations were able to induce systemic anti-HA IgG responses. The presence of Carbopol 974P improved the kinetics of the immune responses and the level of IgG titers in a dose-dependent way which was correlated with moderately irritating capacities of the formulation. In contrast, mucosal IgA responses were not detected. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the use of bioadhesive carriers based on Amioca starch and poly(acrylic acid) facilitates the induction of a systemic anti-HA antibody response after intranasal vaccination with a whole virus influenza vaccine. PMID:19114075

  19. Preparation of Chitosan and Water-Soluble Chitosan Microspheres via Spray-Drying Method to Lower Blood Lipids in Rats Fed with High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Hu, Yin-Ming; Wan, Shuo; Su, Zheng-Quan

    2013-01-01

    This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of the chitosan (CTS) and water-soluble chitosan (WSC) microspheres on plasma lipids in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high-fat diets. CTS microspheres and WSC microspheres were prepared by the spray-drying technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the microspheres were nearly spherical in shape. The mean size of CTS microspheres was 4.07 μm (varying from 1.50 to 7.21 μm) and of WSC microspheres was 2.00 μm (varying from 0.85 to 3.58 μm). The rats were classified into eight groups (n = 8) and were fed with high-fat diets for two weeks to establish the hyperlipidemic condition and were then treated with CTS microspheres and WSC microspheres, CTS and WSC for four weeks. The results showed that CTS and WSC microspheres reduced blood lipids and plasma viscosity and increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels significantly. This study is the first report of the lipid-lowering effects of CTS and WSC microspheres. CTS and WSC microspheres were found to be more effective in improving hyperlipidemia in rats than common CTS and WSC. PMID:23429200

  20. Facile spray-drying/pyrolysis synthesis of core-shell structure graphite/silicon-porous carbon composite as a superior anode for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Hou, Xianhua; Sha, Yujing; Wang, Jie; Hu, Shejun; Liu, Xiang; Shao, Zongping

    2014-02-01

    A silicon/graphite/amorphous carbon (Si/C) composite with a low silicon content in a core-shell structure has been easily synthesized using a simple method based on spray drying in combination with a subsequent pyrolysis process; natural graphite serves as the core, and silicon nanoparticles, which filled in the porous carbon matrix formed from the pyrolysis of citric acid and pitch precursors, serve as the shell. The combination of the core-shell structure for the composite and porous carbon-coating layer accommodates the large volume change of the silicon during the lithium intercalation/extraction process, thus stabilizing the electrode structure during discharge/charge cycles. As an anode material, the as-obtained Si/C composite demonstrates high capacity and excellent cycle stability. An initial specific discharge capacity of approximately 723.8 mAh g-1 and a reversible specific capacity of approximately 600 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a constant density of 100 mA g-1 are reached, about two times the values for graphite. Due to the simple synthesis process and the excellent performance of the resulted electrode, great commercial potential is envisioned.

  1. Li EXCESS Li4+xTi5-xO12-δ/C COMPOSITE USING SPRAY-DRYING METHOD AND ITS ELECTRODE PROPERTIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Norio; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Ui, Koichi; Kumagai, Naoaki

    2012-03-01

    We have prepared a lithium excess carbon composite material, Li4+xTi5-xO12-δ/C (LTO/C), using various amounts of sucrose as a carbon source by the spray-drying method. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. The prepared material had the Li4Ti5O12 phase including 3.9-18.4 wt.% carbon. Transmission electron microscopy images and the selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern showed that the prepared materials consisted of a carbon nanonetwork in the LTO/C composite. The charge-discharge cycling tests were carried out using the R2032 coin-type cell under the following conditions; 1.2-3.0 V, 0.1 C-10 C (1 C = 175 mA g-1), 25°C. Based on the electrochemical results, the electrode performance of the prepared material was improved with increasing amounts of residual carbon, in particular, LTO/C including 6.2 wt.% residual carbon exhibited the best electrode performance of 156 mAh g-1 at 1 C during 50 cyclings when compared to the other materials.

  2. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli. PMID:24773334

  3. Preparation of Chitosan and Water-Soluble Chitosan Microspheres via Spray-Drying Method to Lower Blood Lipids in Rats Fed with High-Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Hu, Yin-Ming; Wan, Shuo; Su, Zheng-Quan

    2013-01-01

    This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of the chitosan (CTS) and water-soluble chitosan (WSC) microspheres on plasma lipids in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high-fat diets. CTS microspheres and WSC microspheres were prepared by the spray-drying technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the microspheres were nearly spherical in shape. The mean size of CTS microspheres was 4.07 μm (varying from 1.50 to 7.21 μm) and of WSC microspheres was 2.00 μm (varying from 0.85 to 3.58 μm). The rats were classified into eight groups (n = 8) and were fed with high-fat diets for two weeks to establish the hyperlipidemic condition and were then treated with CTS microspheres and WSC microspheres, CTS and WSC for four weeks. The results showed that CTS and WSC microspheres reduced blood lipids and plasma viscosity and increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels significantly. This study is the first report of the lipid-lowering effects of CTS and WSC microspheres. CTS and WSC microspheres were found to be more effective in improving hyperlipidemia in rats than common CTS and WSC. PMID:23429200

  4. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  5. Development of an Inhaled Dry-Powder Formulation of Tobramycin Using PulmoSphere™ Technology

    PubMed Central

    Weers, Jeffry; Heuerding, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At present, the only approved inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotics for chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are nebulized solutions. However, prolonged administration and cleaning times, high administration frequency, and cumbersome delivery technologies with nebulizers add to the high treatment burden in this patient population. PulmoSphere™ technology is an emulsion-based spray-drying process that enables the production of light porous particle, dry-powder formulations, which exhibit improved flow and dispersion from passive dry powder inhalers. This review explores the fundamental characteristics of PulmoSphere technology, focusing on the development of a dry powder formulation of tobramycin for the treatment of chronic pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection in CF patients. This dry powder formulation provides substantially improved intrapulmonary deposition efficiency, faster delivery, and more convenient administration over nebulized formulations. The availability of more efficient and convenient treatment options may improve treatment compliance, and thereby therapeutic outcomes in CF. PMID:21395432

  6. Electrochemical properties of micron-sized, spherical, meso- and macro-porous Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders prepared by a two-step spray drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-04-01

    Micron-sized, spherical, meso- and macro-porous Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders were prepared via a simple two-step spray drying process. The CoO-carbon composite powders, in which homogeneous mixing of the metal oxide and carbon components was achieved using the first spray drying process, were wet milled to produce the slurry for the second spray drying process. Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders with mean particle sizes of 4.4 and 4.7 μm were respectively obtained by spray-drying the slurry after post-treatment at 400 °C under air and nitrogen atmospheres. Meso- and macro-pores were uniformly distributed inside the Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders. The CoO-carbon composite powders exhibited discharge capacities of 882 and 855 mA h g-1 at a high constant current density of 1400 mA g-1 for the 2nd and 100th cycles. The discharge capacities of the Co3O4 powders at the 2nd and 100th cycles were 970 and 644 mA h g-1. With stepwise increment in the current density from 500 to 5000 mA g-1, the discharge capacities of the CoO-carbon composite powders decreased slightly from 985 to 698 mA h g-1. The superior rate and cycling performances of the CoO-carbon composite powders are ascribed to their meso- and macro-porous structures and carbon components.Micron-sized, spherical, meso- and macro-porous Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders were prepared via a simple two-step spray drying process. The CoO-carbon composite powders, in which homogeneous mixing of the metal oxide and carbon components was achieved using the first spray drying process, were wet milled to produce the slurry for the second spray drying process. Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders with mean particle sizes of 4.4 and 4.7 μm were respectively obtained by spray-drying the slurry after post-treatment at 400 °C under air and nitrogen atmospheres. Meso- and macro-pores were uniformly distributed inside the Co3O4 and CoO-carbon composite powders. The CoO-carbon composite powders

  7. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually used ... to your doctor.Before you use your insulin oral inhaler the first time, read the written instructions ...

  8. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  9. A review of factors affecting electrostatic charging of pharmaceuticals and adhesive mixtures for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem

    2016-04-30

    Pharmaceutical powders are typically insulators consisting of relatively small particles and thus they usually exhibit significant electrostatic charging behaviours. In the inhalation field, the measurement of electrostatic charge is an imperative stage during pharmaceutical formulation development. The electrostatic charge is affected by the interplay of many factors. This article reviews the factors affecting the electrostatic charging of pharmaceutical powders with a focus on dry powder inhalations. The influences of particle resistivity, size distribution, shape distribution, surface roughness, polymorphic form and hygroscopicity, as well as the effects of moisture uptake, environmental conditions, pharmaceutical processing (i.e., milling, sieving, spray drying and blending), and storage on the electrostatic charge behaviours of pharmaceuticals, with focus on inhalation powders, were reviewed. The influence of electrostatic charge on the performance of dry powder inhaler formulations in terms of drug content homogeneity, the passage of drug through the inhaler device, drug-carrier adhesion/detachment, and drug deposition on the respiratory airways were discussed. The understanding gained is crucial to improving the safety, quality, and efficiency of the pharmaceutical inhalation products. PMID:26836710

  10. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  11. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  12. Effects of spray-dried porcine plasma and plant extracts on intestinal morphology and on leukocyte cell subsets of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Nofrarías, M; Manzanilla, E G; Pujols, J; Gibert, X; Majó, N; Segalés, J; Gasa, J

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of a 6% spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) and a plant extracts mixture (XT; 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin) on the productive performance, intestinal morphology, and leukocyte cell subsets of early-weaned pigs compared with a control group. Morphometry of the jejunum, ileum, and colon, and immune cell analysis of blood, ileocolic lymph node (LN), and ileal Peyer's patches were done in 24 weaned pigs (20 +/- 2 d) at 19 or 21 d postweaning. Although SDPP and XT treatments did not increase ADG or ADFI, SDPP improved the G:F ratio (P = 0.024) compared with the control group. Dietary SDPP reduced the percentages of blood monocytes (P = 0.006) and macrophages in ileal Peyer's patches and LN (P = 0.04), of B lymphocytes (P = 0.04) and gammadelta+ T cells in LN (P = 0.009), and of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P = 0.026) as well as the density of lamina propria cells in the colon (P < 0.01). Dietary XT reduced intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers in jejunum (P = 0.034) and the percentages of blood cytotoxic cells (P = 0.07) and B lymphocytes in LN (P = 0.03); however, XT increased blood monocytes (P = 0.038) and the density of lamina propria lymphocytes in the colon (P = 0.003). These results indicate that dietary SDPP and plant extracts can affect intestinal morphology and immune cell subsets of gut tissues and blood in weaned pigs. Furthermore, the effects of SDPP suggest lower activation of the immune system of the piglets. PMID:16971575

  13. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in full- and low-sodium frankfurters at 4, 7, or 10°C using spray-dried mixtures of organic acid salts.

    PubMed

    Sansawat, Thanikarn; Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Xu, Yanyang; Hessell, Gerald W; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice B; Tempelman, Robert; Kang, Iksoon

    2013-09-01

    In meat processing, powdered ingredients are preferred to liquids because of ease of handling, mixing, and storing. This study was conducted to assess Listeria monocytogenes inhibition and the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of frankfurters that were prepared with organic acid salts as spray-dried powders (sodium lactate-sodium acetate, sodium lactate-sodium acetate-sodium diacetate, and potassium acetate-potassium diacetate) or liquids (sodium lactate, sodium lactate-sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and potassium lactate-sodium diacetate). Full-sodium (1.8% salt) and low-sodium (1.0% salt) frankfurters were prepared according to 10 and 5 different formulations (n = 3), respectively, and were dip inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (∼4 log CFU/g). Populations of Listeria and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quantified during storage at 4, 7, and 10°C for up to 90 days. Four powder and two liquid full-sodium formulations and one powder low-sodium formulation, all of which contained diacetate except for 1% sodium lactate-sodium acetate powder, completely inhibited Listeria growth at 4°C. However, Listeria grew in full-sodium formulations at 10°C and in low-sodium formulations at 7 and 10°C except for the formulation containing 0.8% potassium acetate-0.2% potassium diacetate powder. All formulations were similar in terms of water activity, cooking yield, moisture, and protein content. Sodium content and pH were affected by the concentrations of sodium and diacetate, respectively. Frankfurter appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the formulation, except for flavor and overall acceptability of the low-sodium formulation containing potassium acetate-potassium diacetate. Based on these findings, cosprayed powders appear to be a viable alternative to current liquid inhibitors for control of Listeria in processed meats. PMID:23992500

  14. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus RNA Present in Commercial Spray-Dried Porcine Plasma Is Not Infectious to Naïve Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Gerber, Priscilla F.; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus emerged in North America in April 2013 and has since been identified in 30 U.S. States, Canada and Mexico. The rapid spread of PEDV has raised concerns about the role of feed and particularly pork-by-product components such as spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in PEDV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of PEDV RNA present in commercial SDPP. Specifically, 40 3-week-old PEDV naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. At day post inoculation (dpi) 0, NEG-CONTROL pigs were sham-inoculated, PEDV-CONTROL pigs received cell culture propagated PEDV, and SDPP-CONTROL pigs were switched to a diet with 5% SDPP containing 5.1±0.1 log10 PEDV RNA copies/g. To evaluate a potential positive effect of anti-PEDV antibodies in SDPP on PEDV challenge, four days prior to PEDV challenge the pigs in the SDPP-PEDV group were switched to and remained on a 5% SDPP diet through dpi 28. Another group, EGG-PEDV, was orally administered a commercial egg-derived liquid PEDV globulin product from dpi -4 through 6. All PEDV-CONTROL pigs began shedding PEDV in feces by dpi 3 and seroconverted between dpi 7 and 14, whereas pigs in NEG-CONTROL and SDPP-CONTROL groups remained PEDV RNA negative and did not seroconvert to PEDV for the study duration. This indicates no evidence of infectivity of the PEDV RNA in the SDPP lot utilized. Furthermore, under the study conditions SDPP or egg-derived liquid PEDV globulin addition did not significantly alter PEDV-shedding or overall disease course after experimental challenge. PMID:25116479

  15. Effect of dietary inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma on performance, some physiological and immunological response of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella sofia.

    PubMed

    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in broiler chickens under Salmonella sofia disease challenge. The experiment comprised five starter diets: positive control (no supplement), diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (IFA; salinomycin 0.05% + zinc bacitracin 0.033%) and diets supplemented with SDPP at 10 or 20 g/kg diet. All four of these groups were challenged with S. sofia, while a fifth group was unchallenged and used as the negative control. The experimental diets were fed to 14 days; then, the birds were switched to commercial-type grower and finisher diets. Oral inoculation of the challenged groups with S. sofia occurred on day 8, 10 and 12. Body weight was significantly higher in the birds fed diets containing IFA and SDPP than in the challenged control group, but it was only significant in starter and grower phases. In general, there was an improvement in the weights of the immune-related organs, but it was only significant for the weight of the bursa of SDPP-fed birds at 13 days. At day 13, blood potassium content was lower and the concentrations of IgG and IgM tended to be lower in the birds fed on low-SDPP starter diets than those of the other groups. There were significant differences in the concentration of lactic acid in the ileum and acetic acid, formic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid in the caeca. Inclusion of SDPP to the starter diets of broiler chicks had positive effects on broiler performance, immunity and gut health during exposure to highly pathogenic conditions. PMID:26613960

  16. Dry Powder Formulation of Plasmid DNA and siRNA for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Michael Y T; Lam, Jenny K W

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid therapeutics has huge potential for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory diseases. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are the two most widely investigated nucleic acids for therapeutic development. However, efficient and safe delivery of nucleic acids is still a major hurdle in translating nucleic acid therapy into clinical practice. For the treatment of respiratory diseases, administration via inhalation is the most direct and effective way to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids to the lungs. Although liquid aerosol formulation is investigated in most of the studies, it is not desirable in terms of maintaining the stability of nucleic acid especially during long-term storage. This problem could be circumvented by formulating the therapeutic nucleic acids into dry powder for inhalation, and should be considered as the future direction of developing inhalable nucleic acids. In this review, the three major particle engineering methods investigated for the preparation of inhalable pDNA and siRNA formulations, including spray drying (SD), spray freeze drying (SFD) and supercritical fluid (SFC) drying, are discussed and compared. Moreover, common assessment methods and the challenges of evaluating the biological activities of inhalable nucleic acid powders are also reviewed. PMID:26290202

  17. Determination of low levels of amorphous content in inhalation grade lactose by moisture sorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Vollenbroek, Jasper; Hebbink, Gerald A; Ziffels, Susanne; Steckel, Hartwig

    2010-08-16

    Alpha-lactose monohydrate is widely used as an excipient in dry powder inhalers, and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the drug delivery. Due to the processing, low levels of amorphous lactose could be present in the blends. Varying amounts could have a strong effect on the efficiency of drug delivery of the powder blends. Therefore, the accurate measurement of low levels of amorphous lactose content is very important. A new method was developed to measure the amorphous content, based on dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). In contrast to the traditional re-crystallization approach of amorphous lactose, the new method is based on moisture sorption isotherms. Moisture sorption isotherms of blends of crystalline alpha-lactose and freeze-dried or spray-dried amorphous lactose were measured. By fitting the data with a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) isotherm, a linear correlation was found between measured and actual amorphous content for the whole range of 0.1-100%. Differences between freeze-dried and spray-dried lactose, due to different molecular arrangements, could be removed by a preconditioning the samples at 35% RH prior to the isotherm measurement. It was shown that accurate determination of very low concentrations of amorphous lactose content is possible using moisture sorption isotherm analyses. PMID:20493937

  18. Influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yachao; Yu, Chaoqun; Meng, Kangkang; Tang, Xing

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) dry powder inhalation (DPI) characteristics and aerosolization properties. Spray-dried samples of AH, AH/leucine, and AH/leucine/mannitol were prepared from their corresponding water solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and the AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Following spray-drying, the resulting powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, tapped density, and angle of repose measurements, and the aerosolization performance was determined using a twin-stage liquid impinger. AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) obtained by cospray-drying improved the AH aerosolization properties. The AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) preparation exhibited the following properties: 62.34% yield, 0.34 g/cm(3) tap density, 2.71 microm d(ae), 33.45 degrees angle of repose, and 30.93% respirable fraction. The influence of the preparation process on DPI characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:18800258

  19. Tetracycline-HCl-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres prepared by a spray drying technique: influence of gamma-irradiation on radical formation and polymer degradation.

    PubMed

    Bittner, B; Mäder, K; Kroll, C; Borchert, H H; Kissel, T

    1999-05-01

    Tetracycline-HCl (TCH)-loaded microspheres were prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by spray drying. The drug was incorporated in the polymer matrix either in solid state or as w/o emulsion. The spin probe 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) and the spin trap tert-butyl-phenyl-nitrone (PBN) were co-encapsulated into the TCH-loaded and placebo particles. We investigated the effects of gamma-irradiation on the formation of free radicals in polymer and drug and the mechanism of chain scission after sterilization. Gamma-Irradiation was performed at 26.9 and 54.9 kGy using a 60Co source. The microspheres were characterized especially with respect to the formation of radicals and in vitro polymer degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for characterization of the microspheres. Using EPR spectroscopy, we successfully detected gamma-irradiation induced free radicals within the TCH-loaded microspheres, while unloaded PLGA did not contain radicals under the same conditions. The relatively low glass transition temperature of the poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (37-39 degrees C) seems to favor subsequent reactions of free radicals due to the high mobility of the polymeric chains. Because of the high melting point of TCH (214 degrees C), the radicals can only be stabilized in drug loaded microspheres. In order to determine the mechanism of polymer degradation after exposure to gamma-rays, the spin trap PBN and the spin probe TEMPOL were encapsulated in the microspheres. gamma-Irradiation of microspheres containing PBN resulted in the formation of a lipophilic spin adduct, indicating that a polymeric radical was generated by random chain scission. Polymer degradation by an unzipping mechanism would have

  20. Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations and adjuvants as solar protectants for the granulovirus of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L).

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Behle, R W

    2006-10-01

    Commercial formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus (CpGV) are limited by their short residual activity under orchard conditions in the Pacific Northwest. We evaluated spray-dried lignin-encapsulated formulations of CpGV for improved solar stability based on laboratory bioassays with a solar simulator and in field tests in an infested apple orchard. In laboratory tests, aqueous lignin formulations containing a high dosage of 3 x 10(10) occlusion bodies (OB)/L, with and without the additives titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and sugar, provided significant solar protection of virus, i.e., mortality of codling moth exposed to lignin formulations that had been irradiated with 9.36 x 10(6) joules/m(2) was 92-94%, compared with 66-67% from a glycerin-stabilized product (Cyd-X) or suspension of pure unformulated virus at the same rates. By comparison, a lower dosage of the lignin formulation (3 x 10(8)OB/L) did not provide significant solar protection. Equivalent dosage-dependent patterns in solar protection were observed in further tests with the lignin formulation, when an intermediate (3 x 10(9)OB/L) as well as the low dosage provided no solar protection. Equivalent rates of a blank lignin formulation (containing no virus) did not affect larval mortality, suggesting a protective effect of the lignin on the virus at the high rate. The use of several spray adjuvants, 'NuFilm-17' and 'Organic Biolink' (sticker-spreaders at 0.06% v/v), 'Raynox' (sunburn protectant at 5% v/v), and 'Trilogy'(neem oil at 1% v/v) did not provide solar protection of a commercial CpGV preparation in laboratory tests. In season long orchard tests (Golden Delicious), the lignin formulation of CpGV applied at 6.57 x 10(12)OB/ha did not significantly improve control of codling moth or protection of fruit compared with Cyd-X at equivalent rates. Our studies show that lignin-based CpGV formulations provided solar protection at relatively high virus dosages. The testing of lignin

  1. Tailored Antibiotic Combination Powders for Inhaled Rotational Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Ng, Wai Kiong; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Reginald B H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory lung infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are on a global upsurge and have very grim clinical outcomes. Their MDR profile makes therapeutic options extremely limited. Although a highly toxic antibiotic, colistin, is favored today as a "last-line" therapeutic against these hard-to-treat MDR pathogens, it is fast losing its effectiveness. This work therefore seeks to identify and tailor-make useful combination regimens (that are potentially rotatable and synergistic) as attractive alternative strategies to address the rising rates of drug resistance. Three potentially rotatable ternary dry powder inhaler constructs (each involving colistin and 2 other different-classed antibiotics chosen from rifampicin, meropenem, and tigecycline) were identified (with distinct complementary killing mechanisms), coformulated via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance using a Next-Generation Impactor and tested for their efficacies against a number of MDR pathogens. The powder particles were of respirable size (d50, 3.1 ± 0.3 μm-3.4 ± 0.1 μm) and predominantly crumpled in morphology. When dispersed via a model dry powder inhaler (Aerolizer(®)) at 60 L/min, the powders showed concomitant in vitro deposition with fine particle fractions of ∼53%-70%. All formulations were successfully tested in the laboratory to be highly effective against the MDR pathogens. In addition, a favorable synergistic interaction was detected across all 3 formulations when tested against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27019964

  2. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  3. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  4. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  5. Development of an inhaled controlled release voriconazole dry powder formulation for the treatment of respiratory fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit; Haghi, Mehra; Loo, Ching-Yee; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-06-01

    The present research aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of voriconazole (VRZ) for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The developed formulations were studied for their in vitro release profile, aerosol, and physicochemical properties as well as interactions with lung epithelia in terms of toxicity and transport/uptake. VRZ and VRZ loaded poly lactide microparticles (VLM) were prepared by aqueous/organic cosolvent and organic spray drying, respectively. Powders were characterized using laser diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and electron microscopy. Aerosol performance was evaluated using an RS01 dry powder inhaler and in vitro cascade impaction. Uptake across Calu-3 lung epithelia was studied, using aerosol deposition of the powder onto cells cultured in an air interface configuration, and compared to dissolution using a conventional dialysis membrane. Additionally, toxicity of VRZ and VLM and the potential impact of transmembrane proteins on uptake were investigated. The particle size and the aerosol performance of spray-dried VRZ and VLM were suitable for inhalation purposes. VRZ exhibited a median volume diameter of 4.52 ± 0.07 μm while VLM exhibited 2.40 ± 0.05 μm. Spray-dried VRZ was crystalline and VLM amorphous as evaluated by DSC and XRPD, and both powders exhibited low moisture sorption between 0 and 90% RH (<1.2% w/w) by DVS. The fine particle fraction (FPF) (% aerosol <5 μm) for the VRZ was 20.86 ± 1.98% while the VLM showed significantly improved performance (p < 0.01) with an FPF of 43.56 ± 0.13%. Both VRZ and VLM were not cytotoxic over a VRZ concentration range of 1.2 nM to 30 μM, and the VLM particles exhibited a sustained release over 48 h after being deposited on the Calu-3 cell line or via conventional dialysis-based dissolution measurements. Lastly, VRZ exhibited polarized transport across epithelia with

  6. Cationic, amphiphilic dextran nanomicellar clusters as an excipient for dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Vadakkan, Mithun Varghese; Binil Raj, S S; Kartha, Chandrasekharan C; Vinod Kumar, G S

    2015-09-01

    Effective delivery of drugs to alveoli in a controlled manner using hydrophobic polymers as carriers has already been reported. Preclinical studies revealed that toxicity and hydrophobicity are related to each other in pulmonary delivery. Here, we are reporting a chemically modified dextran having amphiphilicity and cationicity achieved by controlled grafting of stearyl amine. Two proportions of lipopolymers were synthesized and physico-chemical characterization was carried out. In vivo evaluation of sub-acute toxicity of the synthesized lipopolymer in Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out for three months. This was followed by a histological evaluation of the sacrificed animal's lung. Further, the synthesized lipopolymer was formulated with drug (Rifampicin) loaded inhalable microparticles through spray drying. The final drug formulation was tested for toxicity and proinflammatory responses in human cell lines. Dose deposition efficiency of the formulation was determined using Anderson Cascade Impactor. PMID:26013041

  7. The influence of feedstock and process variables on the encapsulation of drug suspensions by spray-drying in fast drying regime: the case of novel antitubercular drug–palladium complex containing polymeric microparticles.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Stefano; Palazzo, Francesco; Di Michele, Alessandro; Schoubben, Aurelie; Blasi, Paolo; Ricci, Maurizio

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the effect of feedstock properties and process variables on the characteristics of antitubercular drug–palladium (Pd) containing poly(lactic) acid (PLA) microparticles (MP) obtained by spray-drying of noncolloidal particle dispersions in fast drying regime. Two different systems were compared: capreomycin–Pd (C–Pd) and ofloxacin–Pd (Ofx–Pd) dispersions in acetonitrile PLA solution. Particle size, dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM–energy dispersive X-ray, and spectrophotometric methods were used for MP characterization. C–Pd-loaded MP were optimized preliminarily by experimental design and compared with Ofx–Pd-loaded MP investigated in our previous work. Morphology of feedstock particles had a dominant role in determining MP morphology. The Charlesworth and Marshall theory was used to explain such behavior. The smaller and homogeneous C–Pd microparticulates favored MP inflation and buckling by forming a thick and nonporous shell. A percolation effect was proposed for the larger and irregular Ofx–Pd particles that produced smaller MP with a more porous shell. Increasing feedstock concentration led to higher particle loss. A tentative descriptive scheme of MP formation according to feedstock particle arrangement was proposed. This work suggested that spray-drying of drug dispersions should carefully consider the morphology of feedstock particles as a major parameter influencing final MP properties. PMID:24765655

  8. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Ko, You Na; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk-shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350 °C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell and filled powders post-treated at 450 °C at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) were 1226 and 993 mA h g(-1), respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk-shell and filled structures post-treated at 450 °C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g(-1), respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure. PMID:25168407

  9. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Ko, You Na; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 yolk–shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk–shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350°C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk–shell and filled powders post-treated at 450°C at a current density of 500 mA g−1 were 1226 and 993 mA h g−1, respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk–shell and filled structures post-treated at 450°C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g−1, respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk–shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure. PMID:25168407

  10. Morphology and electrochemical performance of Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 cathode material by a slurry spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Gu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shahua

    The spherical Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 powders with appropriate porosity, small particle size and good particle size distribution were successfully prepared by a slurry spray drying method. The Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, ICP, BET, EIS and galvanostatic charge/discharge testing. The material calcined at 950 °C had the best electrochemical performance. Its initial discharge capacity was 188.9 mAh g -1 at the discharge rate of 0.2 C (32 mA g -1), and retained 91.4% of the capacity on going from 0.2 to 4 C rate. From the EIS result, it was found that the favorable electrochemical performance of the Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 cathode material was primarily attributed to the particular morphology formed by the spray drying process which was favorable for the charge transfer during the deintercalation and intercalation cycling.

  11. Enhancement of the power factor of [Bi 1.68Ca 2O 4] RS[CoO 2] 1.69 - Ag composites prepared by the spray-drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Murias, B.; Muguerra, H.; Traianidis, M.; Henrist, C.; Vertruyen, B.; Cloots, R.

    2010-08-01

    [Bi 1.68Ca 2O 4] RS[CoO 2] 1.69 (BCCO) sample and Ag-BCCO composites (with 10, 20 or 30 wt% Ag) have been prepared by the spray-drying technique and uniaxially/isostatically packed. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the Ag particles are well distributed in the BCCO cobaltite matrix at low Ag contents. The Ag particles have an important effect on densification and grain orientation of the samples, with a direct impact on their electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity is higher for the uniaxial samples and increases with the Ag content up to 20% in weight, while the Seebeck coefficient is hardly affected. These features induce an improvement of the power factor, reaching a maximum value of 2.2 μW K -2 cm -1 at ˜1050 K for the uniaxial sample with 20 wt% Ag. Our results suggest that the spray-drying technique is a promising method to obtain composites with a well-dispersed secondary phase.

  12. Electrochemical properties of yolk-shell structured ZnFe2O4 powders prepared by a simple spray drying process as anode material for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Ko, You Na; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-08-01

    ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk-shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350°C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell and filled powders post-treated at 450°C at a current density of 500 mA g-1 were 1226 and 993 mA h g-1, respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk-shell and filled structures post-treated at 450°C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g-1, respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure.

  13. Efficacy of dietary spray dried plasma protein to mitigate the negative effects on performance of pigs fed diets with corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J D; Polo, J; Kim, S W

    2014-09-01

    The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during

  14. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  15. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  16. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  17. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should ... plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each ...

  18. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  19. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  20. Can low-dose combination products for inhalation be formulated in single crystalline particles?

    PubMed

    Kumon, Michiko; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Adi, Handoko; Heng, Desmond; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-04-16

    This study aims to produce and test the performance of novel crystalline respirable particles containing two low-dose active ingredients and mannitol. This technique overcomes the usual requirement of blending with lactose carriers in formulating combination inhalation products. Ternary powders were produced by co-spray drying solutions containing an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA), and mannitol as a crystalline excipient. Two formulations comprising widely used ICS and LABA were studied: budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate/mannitol (B/F/M-SD) and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate/mannitol (F/S/M-SD). Various physicochemical properties of the powders were analyzed. Aerosol performance was evaluated by dispersing each powder from an Aerolizer at 60 and 100 L/min into a Next Generation Impactor. We obtained partially hollow spherical particles (volume median diameters of 2 microm) with drug-enriched surfaces. Both formulations contained alpha-mannitol, and the ICSs were crystalline. The content of each drug component in the powder was found to conform to the theoretical dose. The ternary powders generated high fine particle fractions (>50% of the loaded dose), with concomitant drug deposition on the impactor stages. The aerosol performance of B/F/M-SD was maintained after storage over silica gel at 22 degrees C for 11 weeks. In conclusion, co-spray dried particles of ICS/LABA/M-SD were largely crystalline, stable and showed excellent aerosol performance. They may provide an attractive alternative strategy to develop combination products without lactose blends. PMID:20172026

  1. Fabrication of nanocomposite particles using a two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle for use in an inhaled curcumin formulation.

    PubMed

    Taki, Moeko; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Fukushige, Kaori; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2016-09-10

    A unique two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle is useful for producing nanocomposite particles (microparticles containing drug nanoparticles) in one step. The nanocomposite particles can prevent nanoparticle aggregation. Curcumin has many reported pharmacological effects. Curcumin was entrapped in mannitol microparticles using a spray dryer coupled with a two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle to prepare "curcumin nanocomposite particles" and the application of these particles for inhalation formulations was investigated. Spray drying conditions (flow rate, concentration and inlet temperature) affected the size of both the resulting curcumin nanocomposite particles and the curcumin nanoparticles in the nanocomposite particles. The aerosol performance of the curcumin nanocomposite particles changed depending on the spray drying conditions and several conditions provided better deposition compared with the curcumin original powder. The curcumin nanocomposite particles showed an improved dissolution profile of curcumin compared with the original powder. Furthermore, the curcumin nanocomposite particles showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared with the curcumin original powder towards three cancer cell lines. Curcumin nanocomposite particles containing curcumin nanoparticles show promise as an inhalation formulation for treating lung-related diseases including cancer. PMID:27374204

  2. A novel inhaled multi-pronged attack against respiratory bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Zhao, Yanli; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Li Teng; Tan, Reginald B H

    2015-04-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a common clinical feature of many severe respiratory diseases, and when complicated by a recalcitrant bacterial infection, the whole treatment regimen thereby becomes more challenging and protracted. The accumulation of thickened mucus secretions in the lower airways provides a nutrient-rich breeding ground for bacteria that promotes their growth and limits the ease of effective eradication. Unfortunately, no direct-inhaled dry powder formulation to treat these respiratory mucoid infections more effectively is available commercially. This work therefore seeks to develop a highly-efficacious ternary dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP), gatifloxacin hydrochloride (GAT) and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB)) capable of delivering a novel multi-pronged attack (synergy, quorum quenching and mucociliary clearance) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common respiratory bacteria found in mucoid infections. The powders were prepared via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance via a multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI) and tested for their efficacies in bacteria-spiked artificial sputum medium (ASM). The optimized particles were of respirable-size (d50 of ∼1.61±0.03μm) and slightly corrugated. When dispersed via an Aerolizer® inhaler at 60L/min, the powder showed concomitant in vitro deposition, minimal capsule, device and throat retention, and highly promising and uniform fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of ∼64-69%, which was a vast improvement over the singly-delivered actives. Favourably, when tested on bacteria-spiked ASM, the optimized ternary formulation (with AMB) was more effective at killing bacteria (i.e. faster rate of killing) than just the synergistic antibiotics alone (binary formulation; without AMB). In conclusion, a ternary antibiotic-(non-antibiotic) DPI formulation involving a unique multi-pronged attack mechanism was successfully pioneered and optimized for mucoid

  3. Effects of feeding a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation on feedlot performance, feeding behavior, carcass characteristics, rumenitis, and blood gas profile of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Millen, D D; Pacheco, R D L; DiLorenzo, N; Martins, C L; Marino, C T; Bastos, J P S T; Mariani, T M; Barducci, R S; Sarti, L M N; DiCostanzo, A; Rodrigues, P H M; Arrigoni, M D B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing monensin (MON) with a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP) against several ruminal microorganisms on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, feeding behavior, blood gas profile, and the rumenitis incidence of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls. The study was designed as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, replicated 6 times (4 bulls per pen and a total of 24 pens), in which bulls ( = 48) of each biotype were fed diets containing either MON fed at 300 mg/d or PAP fed at 3 g/d. No significant feed additive main effects were observed for ADG ( = 0.27), G:F ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.99), or dressing percentage ( = 0.80). However, bulls receiving PAP had greater DMI ( = 0.02) and larger ( = 0.02) final LM area as well as greater ( < 0.01) blood concentrations of bicarbonate and base excess in the extracellular fluid than bulls receiving MON. Brangus bulls had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and DMI expressed in kilograms, final BW, heavier HCW, and larger initial and final LM area than Nellore bulls. However, Nellore bulls had greater daily DMI fluctuation ( < 0.01), expressed as a percentage, and greater incidence of rumenitis ( = 0.05) than Brangus bulls. In addition, Brangus bulls had greater ( < 0.01) DMI per meal and also presented lower ( < 0.01) DM and NDF rumination rates when compared with Nellore bulls. Significant interactions ( < 0.05) between biotype and feed additive were observed for SFA, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), MUFA, and PUFA concentrations in adipose tissues. When Nellore bulls were fed PAP, fat had greater ( < 0.05) SFA and PUFA contents but less ( < 0.01) UFA and MUFA than Nellore bulls receiving MON. For Brangus bulls, MON led to greater ( < 0.05) SFA and PUFA and less ( < 0.05) UFA and MUFA than Brangus bulls fed PAP. Feeding a spray-dried PAP led to similar feedlot performance compared with that when feeding MON. Spray-dried

  4. Inhalable microparticles of nitric oxide donors induce phagosome maturation and kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rahul Kumar; Agrawal, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mohan, Mradul; Gupta, Anuradha; Gupta, Pushpa; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Misra, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro, but gaseous NO is difficult to administer to patients. We evaluated the consequences of intracellular delivery of NO using inhalable microparticles (MP) containing NO donors. MP containing 10% w/w of NO donors alone, or in addition to 25% each of isoniazid (INH) and rifabutin (RFB) in a polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) matrix were prepared by spray drying. THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Mtb H37Rv were exposed to MP or soluble NO donors. Phagosome-lysosome fusion (PLF) and bacterial killing were monitored. Colony forming units (cfu) in lungs and spleen of mice infected with a low-dose aerosol and administered inhalations of MP were enumerated. Bacterial DNA in these tissues was estimated by real-time PCR. In vitro studies indicated a bacteriostatic effect of NO donors despite significant enhancement of PLF. Daily inhalation of MP containing 10% diethylenetriamine nitric oxide adduct (DETA/NO) alone reduced log10 cfu in the lungs from 6.1 to 4.4 at the highest dose in four weeks, but did not significantly affect cfu in the spleen. Inhalations of MP containing DETA/NO in combination with INH and RFB significantly (P < 10(-5), ANOVA) reduced cfu in lungs and spleens by 4 log. Gross morphology and histology of the lungs and spleen indicated that inhaled particles were well-tolerated. Inhalable MP containing NO donors need further investigation as an adjunct to standard anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:23562366

  5. Multi-breath dry powder inhaler for delivery of cohesive powders in the treatment of bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Salama, Rania O; Zhu, Bing; Phillips, Gary; Crapper, John; Chan, Hak-Kim; Traini, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    A series of co-engineered macrolide-mannitol particles were successfully prepared using azithromycin (AZ) as a model drug. The formulation was designed to target local inflammation and bacterial colonization, via the macrolide component, while the mannitol acted as mucolytic and taste-masking agent. The engineered particles were evaluated in terms of their physico-chemical properties and aerosol performance when delivered via a novel high-payload dry powder Orbital(™) inhaler device that operates via multiple inhalation manoeuvres. All formulations prepared were of suitable size for inhalation drug delivery and contained a mixture of amorphous AZ with crystalline mannitol. A co-spray dried formulation containing 200 mg of 50:50 w/w AZ: mannitol had 57.6% ± 7.6% delivery efficiency with a fine particle fraction (≤6.8 µm) of the emitted aerosol cloud being 80.4% ± 1.1%, with minimal throat deposition (5.3 ± 0.9%). Subsequently, it can be concluded that the use of this device in combination with the co-engineered macrolide-mannitol therapy may provide a means of treating bronchiectasis. PMID:24811055

  6. Heat-Stable Dry Powder Oxytocin Formulations for Delivery by Oral Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Karine; Curley, Kieran; Guarneri, Joseph; Adamo, Benoit; Laurenzi, Brendan; Grant, Marshall; Offord, Robin; Kraft, Kelly; Leone-Bay, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this work, heat stable dry powders of oxytocin (OT) suitable for delivery by oral inhalation were prepared. The OT dry powders were prepared by spray drying using excipients chosen to promote OT stability including trehalose, isoleucine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, citrate (sodium citrate and citric acid), and zinc salts (zinc chloride and zinc citrate). Characterization by laser diffraction indicated that the OT dry powders had a median particle size of 2 μm, making them suitable for delivery by inhalation. Aerodynamic performance upon discharge from proprietary dry powder inhalers was evaluated by Andersen cascade impaction (ACI) and in an anatomically correct airway (ACA) model, and confirmed that the powders had excellent aerodynamic performance, with respirable fractions up to 77% (ACI, 30 L/min). Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the powders were amorphous (X-ray diffraction) with high glass transition temperature (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), suggesting the potential for stabilization of the OT in a glassy amorphous matrix. OT assay and impurity profile were conducted by reverse phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after storage up to 32 weeks at 40°C/75%RH. Analysis demonstrated that OT dry powders containing a mixture of citrate and zinc salts retained more than 90% of initial assay after 32 weeks storage and showed significant reduction in dimers and trisulfide formation (up to threefold reduction compared to control). PMID:25776985

  7. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... stop the pieces of capsule from reaching your mouth as you inhale the medication. Very tiny pieces ...

  8. Synergistic combination dry powders for inhaled antimicrobial therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2013-06-01

    Combination products play an important role in medicine as they offer improved clinical effectiveness, enhanced patient adherence, and reduced administrative costs. In combination antimicrobial therapy, the desired outcome is to extend the antimicrobial spectrum and to achieve a possible synergistic effect. However, adverse antagonistic species may sometimes emerge from such combinations, leading to treatment failure. Therefore, it is crucial to screen the drug candidates for compatibility and possible antagonistic interactions. This work aims to develop a novel synergistic dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for antimicrobial combination therapy via the pulmonary route. Binary and ternary combinations were prepared via spray drying on a BUCHI® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. All powders were within the respirable size range, and were consisted of spherical particles that were slightly corrugated. The powers yielded fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of over 40% when dispersed using an Aerolizer® DPI at 60 L/min. Time-kill studies carried out against common respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii at 1x the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) over 24 hours revealed no antagonistic behavior for both combinations. While the interactions were generally found to be indifferent, a favorable synergistic effect was detected in the binary combination when it was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

  9. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management. PMID:17761725

  10. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to use flunisolide at around the same times every ... acting medication than usual.Each canister of flunisolide aerosol is designed to provide 60 or 120 inhalations, ...

  11. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya

    2013-12-01

    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran. PMID

  12. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  13. Design and evaluation of inhalable chitosan-modified poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomposite particles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingshi; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kurashima, Homare; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Toyokazu; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2012-08-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate two types of chitosan-modified poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocomposite particles containing salmon calcitonin for pulmonary delivery, which were obtained using spray drying fluidized bed granulation (Agglomaster™) and dry powder coating techniques (Mechanofusion™), respectively. The physicochemical properties, pulmonary distribution, pulmonary clearance rate as well as in vivo hypocalcemia actions of the two types of nanocomposite particles were investigated. As indicated by scanning electron micrographs, soft matrix nanocomposite particles and soft ordered nanocomposite particles were produced by Agglomaster™ and Mechanofusion™, respectively. Both forms of chitosan-modified PLGA nanocomposite particles exhibited a high inhalation efficiency, i.e. more than 50% of the two types of nanocomposite particles could be deposited in the deep lung of male Wistar rats. However, the chitosan-modified PLGA nanocomposite particles designed by Agglomaster™ exhibited superior properties to those obtained by Mechanofusion™ with respect to the redispersibility of fine particles in aqueous liquid, the pulmonary retention time and pharmacological effects. In addition, compared with non-modified PLGA nanocomposite particles, the chitosan-modified PLGA nanocomposite particles obtained by Agglomaster™ exhibited enhanced pulmonary absorption of salmon calcitonin via the lung. The findings in this study suggest that the spray drying fluidized bed granulation technique is superior to the dry powder coating technique for producing chitosan-modified dry powder formulations containing salmon calcitonin for inhalation. This can be attributed to the avoidance of aggregation of chitosan-modified PLGA nanocomposite particles when using Agglomaster™ rather than Mechanofusion™. PMID:22683651

  14. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% +/- 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 +/- 0.8 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 +/- 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 +/- 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi's Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  15. Combined inhaled salbutamol and mannitol therapy for mucus hyper-secretion in pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Ballerin, Giulia; Morgan, Lucy; Buddle, Lachlan; Scalia, Santo; Young, Paul M

    2014-03-01

    This study focuses on the co-engineering of salbutamol sulphate (SS), a common bronchodilator, and mannitol (MA), a mucolytic, as a potential combination therapy for mucus hypersecretion. This combination was chosen to have a synergic effect on the airways: the SS will act on the β2-receptor for relaxation of smooth muscle and enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, whilst mannitol will improve the fluidity of mucus, consequently enhancing its clearance from the lung. A series of co-spray-dried samples, containing therapeutically relevant doses of SS and MA, were prepared. The physico-chemical characteristics of the formulations were evaluated in terms of size distribution, morphology, thermal and moisture response and aerosol performance. Additionally, the formulations were evaluated for their effects on cell viability and transport across air interface Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells, contractibility effects on bronchial smooth muscle cells and cilia beat activity using ciliated nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The formulations demonstrated size distributions and aerosol performance suitable for inhalation therapy. Transport studies revealed that the MA component of the formulation enhanced penetration of SS across the complex mucus layer and the lung epithelia cells. Furthermore, the formulation in the ratios of SS 10(-6) and MA 10(-3) M gave a significant increase in cilia beat frequency whilst simultaneously preventing smooth muscle contraction associated with mannitol administration. These studies have established that co-spray dried combination formulations of MA and SS can be successfully prepared with limited toxicity, good aerosol performance and the ability to increase ciliary beat frequency for improving the mucociliary clearance in patients suffering from hyper-secretory diseases, whilst simultaneously acting on the underlying smooth muscle. PMID:24431080

  16. Rifapentine-Proliposomes for Inhalation: In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Patil-Gadhe, Arpana A.; Kyadarkunte, Abhay Y.; Pereira, Michael; Jejurikar, Gauri; Patole, Milind S.; Risbud, Arun; Pokharkar, Varsha B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) treatment suffers from the limitation of hepatic metabolism leading insufficient concentration of antitubercular (anti-TB) drugs in alveolar macrophage which harbors Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Targeted aerosol delivery of antituberculous drug to lung is efficient for treating local lung TB infection. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate rifapentine (RPT) loaded proliposomal dry powder for inhalation (RLDPI) for anti-TBactivity and cytotoxicity in vitro. In vivo toxicity study was also undertaken in Wistar rats to determine safe concentration of RLDPI for administration. Materials and Methods: Anti-TB activity of developed RLDPI was assessed using drug susceptibility testing (DST) on Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) method. In vitro cytotoxicity was performed in A549 cell lines and IC50 values were used to compare the cytotoxicity of formulation with pure RPT. In vivo repeated dose toxicity study was undertaken using Wistar rats at three different doses for 28-days by intratracheal insufflations method. Results: The results of DST study revealed sensitivity of tubercle bacteria to RLDPI at concentration equivalent to 10 μg/mL of RPT. This study confirmed anti-TB potential of RPT in spray-dried RLDPI, though the spray drying method is reported to reduce activity of drugs. Cytotoxicity study in A549 cells demonstrated that RPT when encapsulated in liposomes as RLDPI was safe to cells as compared to pure RPT. In vivo toxicity study revealed that RPT in the form of RLDPI was safe at 1 and 5 mg/kg dose. However, mortality was seen at higher dose (10 mg/kg), possibly because of liver and kidney damage. Conclusion: Thus, these studies demonstrated safety of RLDPI for the treatment of pulmonary TB. PMID:25948966

  17. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: Preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% ± 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 ± 0.8 μm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 ± 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 ± 0.1 μm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 ± 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi’s Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  18. Aggregated Nanotransfersomal Dry Powder Inhalation of Itraconazole for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour Aghdam, Mehdi; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Local therapy is a valuable and strategic approach in the treatment of lung associated diseases and dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations play the key role in this plan. Transfersome has been introduced as a novel biocompatible vesicular system with potential for administration in pulmonary drug delivery. The present study was designed to prepare Itraconazole-loaded nanotrantransfersomal DPI formulation. Methods: Itraconazole-loaded nanotransfersomes with three different types of surfactant in varying concentrations were prepared and characterized in the point of particle size distribution and morphology by laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The optimized transferosomal formulations were co-spray dried with mannitol and the aerosolization efficiency and aerodynamic properties of dry powders were determined by next generation impactor using a validated HPLC technique. Results: The volume mean diameter of optimized nanotransfersomal formulation with lecithin:Span® 60 in the ratio of 90:10 was 171 nm with narrow size distribution pattern which increased up to 518 nm after drug loading. Different types of surfactant did not influence the particle size significantly. SEM images confirmed the formation of aggregated nanoparticles in the suitable range (1-5 µm) for the pulmonary drug delivery. Aerosolization evaluation of co-spray dried formulations with different amounts of mannitol indicated that 2:1 ratio of mannitol:transfersome (w:w) showed the best aerosolization efficiency (fine particle fraction (FPF)=37%). Increasing of mannitol significantly decreased the FPF of the optimized formulations. Conclusion: The results of this study was introduced the potential application of nanotransfersomes in the formulation of DPIs for lung delivery of various drugs. PMID:27123418

  19. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  20. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of lipidic carriers and fillers for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Sebti, Thami; Amighi, Karim

    2006-05-01

    The present study relates to compositions of solid lipidic microparticles (SLmP), composed of biocompatible phospholipids and cholesterol, and their use as carriers or as fillers delivering drugs directly to the lungs via a dry powder inhaler (DPI). SLmP were obtained by spray-drying and were formulated as lipidic matrices entrapping budesonide or as physical blends (drug carrier). They were developed in order to improve the delivery of the active drug by the pulmonary route. The SLmP were evaluated for their physical characteristics and in vitro deposition measurements were performed using the Multi-stage Liquid Impinger (MsLI). The Pulmicort Turbuhaler DPI (AstraZeneca) was used as a comparator product. The SLmP appeared to be spherical low-density material characterized by a smooth surface. The mass median diameters (D(0.5)), and the volume mean diameters (D[4,3]) were tiny and ranged from 1.7 to 3.1 microm and from 2.0 to 3.9 microm, respectively. The SLmP formulations, delivered by the Cyclohaler inhaler, were found to emit a fine particle dose (FPD) of 93-113 microg, which is very promising comparing to the FPD (68 microg) delivered by the Pulmicort Turbuhaler. PMID:16380243

  1. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  2. Corticosteroid inhalation in the treatment of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Munasir, Z; Knol, K

    1990-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are a dramatic advance in the therapy of chronic asthma. Corticosteroid inhalation therapy in children offers the same advantages over oral medication as in adults. Inhaled corticosteroids have better effects compared with other prophylactic antiasthma therapy such as theophylline, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen. However, it is obvious that inhaled corticosteroids are not completely free of side effects, both topical and systemic such as suppression of HPA, growth retardation, osteoporosis, cataract formation, blood count and immunoglobulin changes, oropharyngeal candidiasis and dysphonia. Recently, many clinicians have been using this effective and save treatment more freely and for longterm administration. PMID:2077473

  3. Formulation of pH responsive peptides as inhalable dry powders for pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wanling; Kwok, Philip C.L.; Chow, Michael Y.T.; Tang, Patricia; Mason, A. James; Chan, Hak-Kim; Lam, Jenny. K.W.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the latter remaining effective even in the presence of lung surfactant containing bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), making this class of peptides attractive candidates for delivering nucleic acids to lung tissues. To further assess the suitability of pH responsive peptides for pulmonary delivery by inhalation, dry powder formulations of pH responsive peptides and plasmid DNA, with mannitol as carrier, were produced by either spray drying (SD) or spray freeze drying (SFD). The properties of the two types of powders were characterised and compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), next generation impaction (NGI), gel retardation and in vitro transfection via a twin-stage impinger (TSI) following aerosolisation by a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™). Although the aerodynamic performance and transfection efficacy of both powders were good, the overall performance revealed SD powders to have a number of advantages over SFD powders and are the more effective formulation with potential for efficient nucleic acid delivery through inhalation. PMID:23702276

  4. Diagnosis and management of inhalation injury: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick F; Buehner, Michelle F; Wood, Leslie A; Boyer, Nathan L; Driscoll, Ian R; Lundy, Jonathan B; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Chung, Kevin K

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review recent advances made in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of inhalation injury. Historically, the diagnosis of inhalation injury has relied on nonspecific clinical exam findings and bronchoscopic evidence. The development of a grading system and the use of modalities such as chest computed tomography may allow for a more nuanced evaluation of inhalation injury and enhanced ability to prognosticate. Supportive respiratory care remains essential in managing inhalation injury. Adjuncts still lacking definitive evidence of efficacy include bronchodilators, mucolytic agents, inhaled anticoagulants, nonconventional ventilator modes, prone positioning, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Recent research focusing on molecular mechanisms involved in inhalation injury has increased the number of potential therapies. PMID:26507130

  5. Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 Microspheres by Salt-Assisted Spray Drying for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ruan, Dianbo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-05-01

    Microsized, spherical, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based composites as electrode materials exhibit improved tap density and electrochemical properties. In this study, we report 3D LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4/reduced graphene oxide microspheres synthesized by one-step salt-assisted spray drying using a mixed solution containing a precursor salt and graphene oxide and a subsequent heat treatment. During this process, it was found that the type of metal salt used has significant effects on the morphology, phase purity, and electrochemical properties of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, the amount of the chelating agent used also affects the phase purity and electrochemical properties of the samples. The composite exhibited a high tap density (1.1 g cm‑3) as well as a gravimetric capacity of 161 mA h g‑1 and volumetric capacity of 281 mA h cm‑3 at 0.05 C-rate. It also exhibited excellent rate capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g‑1 at 60 C-rate. Furthermore, the microspheres exhibited high energy efficiency and good cyclability, showing a capacity retention rate of 93% after 1000 cycles at 10 C-rate.

  6. Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 Microspheres by Salt-Assisted Spray Drying for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ruan, Dianbo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Microsized, spherical, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based composites as electrode materials exhibit improved tap density and electrochemical properties. In this study, we report 3D LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4/reduced graphene oxide microspheres synthesized by one-step salt-assisted spray drying using a mixed solution containing a precursor salt and graphene oxide and a subsequent heat treatment. During this process, it was found that the type of metal salt used has significant effects on the morphology, phase purity, and electrochemical properties of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, the amount of the chelating agent used also affects the phase purity and electrochemical properties of the samples. The composite exhibited a high tap density (1.1 g cm−3) as well as a gravimetric capacity of 161 mA h g−1 and volumetric capacity of 281 mA h cm−3 at 0.05 C-rate. It also exhibited excellent rate capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g−1 at 60 C-rate. Furthermore, the microspheres exhibited high energy efficiency and good cyclability, showing a capacity retention rate of 93% after 1000 cycles at 10 C-rate. PMID:27220812

  7. Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 Microspheres by Salt-Assisted Spray Drying for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ruan, Dianbo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Microsized, spherical, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based composites as electrode materials exhibit improved tap density and electrochemical properties. In this study, we report 3D LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4/reduced graphene oxide microspheres synthesized by one-step salt-assisted spray drying using a mixed solution containing a precursor salt and graphene oxide and a subsequent heat treatment. During this process, it was found that the type of metal salt used has significant effects on the morphology, phase purity, and electrochemical properties of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, the amount of the chelating agent used also affects the phase purity and electrochemical properties of the samples. The composite exhibited a high tap density (1.1 g cm(-3)) as well as a gravimetric capacity of 161 mA h g(-1) and volumetric capacity of 281 mA h cm(-3) at 0.05 C-rate. It also exhibited excellent rate capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 60 C-rate. Furthermore, the microspheres exhibited high energy efficiency and good cyclability, showing a capacity retention rate of 93% after 1000 cycles at 10 C-rate. PMID:27220812

  8. Porous micro-spherical aggregates of LiFePO 4/C nanocomposites: A novel and simple template-free concept and synthesis via sol-gel-spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Zhang, Jingjie; Yang, Yanfeng; Song, Guangzhi

    Porous micro-spherical aggregates of LiFePO 4/C nanocomposites were prepared with a process of spray drying at 200 °C and subsequent heat treatment at 700 °C for 12 h by a novel and simple template-free sol-gel-SD method independent of surfactants or templates. The results indicate that the as-obtained LiFePO 4 porous microspheres have the mean diameter of 19.8 μm, average pore size of 45 nm, and large specific surface area (20.2 m 2 g -1) with evenly distributed carbon (4.5 wt.%). The particles can be easily brought into contact with electrolyte, facilitating electric and lithium ion diffusion. They present large reversible discharge capacity of 137.5 mAh g -1 at the current density of 0.1 C, good rate capacity of 53.8 mAh g -1 at 10 C, and excellent capacity retention rate closed to 100% after various current densities in the region of 2.0-4.3 V.

  9. Synthesis and performances of 2LiFePO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode materials via spray drying method with double carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-feng; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Bao; Zheng, Jun-chao; Peng, Chun-li; Wang, Xiao-wei; Yuan, Xin-bo; Li, Hui; Chen, Guo-min

    2014-12-01

    The 2LiFePO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C samples are synthesized through spray drying method. Glucose and oxalic acid are used as collaborative carbon sources to improve the electrochemical performance of 2LiFePO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C composites. XRD results reveal the LiFePO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C samples are composed of orthorhombic LiFePO4 and monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 phases. SEM results reveal that the nano-spherical Fe4(VO4)4·5H2O are about 80 nm and the 2LiFePO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C composites possess a micro-nano spherical morphology with carbon coating layer. The samples show the best electrochemical performance when the mass ration of glucose and oxalic is 6:4, it can deliver a capacity of 147.6 mAh g-1, 145.0 mAh g-1, 134.1 mAh g-1 and 123.0 mAh g-1 at the rates of 0.1C, 1C, 5C and 10C, respectively.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium non-stoichiometric Li 1+ x(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2+ δ prepared by a spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Kumagai, Naoaki; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    Lithium non-stoichiometric Li[Li x(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 1- x]O 2 materials (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) were synthesized using a spray drying method. The electrochemical properties and structural stabilities of the synthesized materials were investigated. The synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal structure in all the x-value and the lattice parameters of the materials were gradually decreased with increasing x-value due to an increasing amount of Ni 3+ ions for charge compensation. The capacity retention ability and rate capability of the stoichiometric Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 material were improved by increasing x-value, the so-called overlithiation. We found that the overlithiated materials could keep more structural integrity than the stoichiometric one during electrochemical cyclings, which could be one of reasons for a better electrochemical properties of the overlithiated materials.

  11. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1997-11-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. PMID:9519180

  12. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PHARMACEUTICALS USING AN IN SILICO DOSIMETRY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an in silico dosimetry model which can be used for inhalation toxicology (risk assessment of inhaled air pollutants) and aerosol therapy ( targeted delivery of inhaled drugs). This work presents scientific and clinical advances beyond the development of the original in...

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW CYSTIC FIBROSIS INHALED ANTIBIOTIC CLASS AND CHANGE IN PREVALENCE OF PATIENTS RECEIVING MULTIPLE INHALED ANTIBIOTIC CLASSES

    PubMed Central

    Dasenbrook, Elliott C.; Konstan, Michael W.; VanDevanter, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, aztreonam for inhalation solution joined aminoglycosides and colistimethate as a new cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic inhaled antimicrobial therapy. We studied how introduction of this new inhaled antibiotic class changed management of US CF patients. Methods Use of inhaled aminoglycosides, colistimethate, and aztreonam among patients followed in the CF Foundation Patient Registry was analyzed by age group, lung disease stage, and microbiologic status both annually, and at individual visits between 2009 and 2012. Results The overall prevalence of inhaled antibiotic use did not change during the period, but the prevalence of annual and any visit treatment with >1 inhaled antibiotic class more than doubled. Adults, those with advanced lung disease, and those with >1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory culture were more likely to receive >1 antibiotic class. Conclusions Inhaled antibiotic management of US CF patients has dramatically changed in association with the introduction of a third inhaled antibiotic class. PMID:25496726

  14. Inhalation treatment for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, J; Warner, J O

    1986-01-01

    Inhaled medication has revolutionised the lives of many children with asthma. Despite this we see many children for whom appropriate inhaled medication has been prescribed but whose symptoms continue to be poorly controlled. In our experience this is often due to poor technique or inappropriately prescribed devices and an inadequate understanding of when and how to use the treatment. The prescribing physician must have a clear idea of the optimal inhalation technique. We have reviewed the standard devices available and our use of them in the treatment of childhood asthma. PMID:3082295

  15. Effects of ramp-up of inspired airflow on in vitro aerosol dose delivery performance for certain dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-03-10

    This study investigated the effect of airflow ramp-up on the dose delivery performance of seven dry powder inhalers, covering a broad range of powder formulations and powder dispersion mechanisms. In vitro performance tests were performed at a target pressure drop of 4kPa, using two inspiratory flow ramp-up conditions, representing slow and fast ramp-up of airflow, respectively. The fluidization of bulk powder and aerosol clearance from the inhaler was assessed by laser photometer evaluation of aerosol emission kinetics and measurement of the delivered dose (DD). The quality of aerosol dispersion (i.e. de-agglomeration) and associated lung targeting performance was assessed by measuring the total lung dose (TLD) using the Alberta idealized mouth-throat model. The ratio of DD and TLD under slow/fast ramp conditions was used as a metric to rank-order flow ramp effects. Test results show that the delivered dose is relatively unaffected by flow ramp (DD ratio ~1 for all dry powder inhalers). In contrast, the total lung dose showed significantly more variation as a function of flow ramp and inhaler type. Engineered (spray dried) powder formulations were associated with relatively high TLD (>50% of nominal dose) compared to lactose blend and agglomerate based formulations, which had a lower TLD (7-40% of nominal dose), indicative of less efficient targeting of the lung. The TLD for the Tobi Podhaler was the least influenced by flow ramp (TLD ratio ~1), while the TLD for the Asmanex Twisthaler was the most sensitive to flow ramp (TLD ratio ≪1). The relatively high sensitivity of the Asmanex Twisthaler to flow ramp is attributed to rapid aerosol clearance (from the inhaler) combined with a strong effect of flow-rate on particle de-agglomeration and resulting size distribution. PMID:26780380

  16. Novel Inhaled Combination Powder Containing Amorphous Colistin and Crystalline Rifapentine with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activities against Planktonic Cells and Biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping; Chan, John Gar Yan; Wang, Ping; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Wang, Jiping; Li, Jian; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-08-01

    Colistin has been increasingly used for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately parenteral administration of colistin can cause severe adverse effects. This study aimed to develop an inhaled combination dry powder formulation of colistin and rifapentine for the treatment of respiratory infections. The combination formulation was produced by spray-drying rifapentine particles suspended in an aqueous colistin solution. The combination dry powder had enhanced antimicrobial activities against planktonic cells and biofilm cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) values (2 and 4 mg/L, respectively) being half that of pure colistin (MIC 4 mg/L and MBIC 8 mg/L) and 1/16th that of pure rifapentine (MIC 32 mg/L and MBIC 64 mg/L). High aerosol performance, as measured via an Aerolizer device, was observed with emitted doses>89% and fine particle fraction (FPF) total>76%. The proportion of submicron particles of rifapentine particles was minimized by the attachment of colistin, which increased the overall particle mass and aerodynamic size distribution. Using the spray-drying method described here, stable particles of amorphous colistin and crystalline rifapentine were distributed homogeneously in each stage of the impinger. Unlike the colistin alone formulation, no deterioration in aerosol performance was found for the combination powder when exposed to a high relative humidity of 75%. In our previous study, surface coating by rifampicin contributed to the moisture protection of colistin. Here, a novel approach with a new mechanism was proposed whereby moisture protection was attributed to the carrier effect of elongated crystalline rifapentine particles, which minimized contact between hygroscopic colistin particles. This inhaled combination antibiotic formulation with enhanced aerosol dispersion efficiency and in vitro efficacy

  17. Inhaled therapy in cystic fibrosis: agents, devices and regimens

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Key points There have been significant advances in both inhalation medicines and delivery devices with “intelligent nebulisers” and “dry-powder inhalers” becoming commonplace in CF care. Inhaled medicines generate high levels of a drug within the airways with limited systemic effects, offering safe and convenient antibiotic and mucolytic therapy for individuals with CF. Variations in adherence are not unique to CF; however, treatment burden is high and therefore fast inhaled drug delivery devices may assist individuals in completing the prescribed treatment regimes. Prescribers of inhaled medicines have a responsibility to consider, in addition to efficacy, the appropriated drug/device combination for each individual in order to promote adherence and achieve the desired clinical benefit. Summary The recognised mainstay daily treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) focus on inhaled and oral medications, airway clearance and optimised nutrition. This review discusses recent advances in inhaled therapies for the management of CF, including devices such as intelligent nebulisers, drug formulations and supporting evidence for inhaled antibiotics (for the management of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and muco-active drugs. We include practical advice for clinicians regarding the optimisation of inhalation technique and education. The influence of adherence on the use of inhaled therapies in CF is also reviewed. Educational aims To inform readers about the history and progression of inhaled therapies for people with CF with reference to the literature supporting current practice. To highlight the factors that may impact the success of inhaled therapies, including those which are device specific such as drug deposition and those which influence adherence. PMID:26306111

  18. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  19. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  20. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  1. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic ... the puff; continue to take a full, deep breath. Take the inhaler away from you mouth, hold ...

  2. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by opening the inhaler unless you are ... refrigerator or at room temperature away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the ...

  3. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  4. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties (bronchospasm) caused by exercise, cold and dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, ... of substances that cause inflammation (swelling) in the air passages of the lungs.

  5. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... Sit upright and place the mouthpiece in your mouth or put on the facemask. Turn on the ...

  6. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has been sprayed or put into a paper or plastic bag Ballooning: Inhaling a gas from ... empty soda cans, empty perfume bottles, and toilet paper tubes stuffed with rags or toilet paper soaked ...

  7. Enhancing the Thermal and Upper Voltage Performance of Ni-Rich Cathode Material by a Homogeneous and Facile Coating Method: Spray-Drying Coating with Nano-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Du, Ke; Xie, Hongbin; Hu, Guorong; Peng, Zhongdong; Cao, Yanbing; Yu, Fan

    2016-07-13

    The electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathode material at high temperature (>50 °C) and upper voltage operation (>4.3 V) is a challenge for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of the rapid capacity degradation over cycling. Here we report improved performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 materials via a LiAlO2 coating, which was prepared from a Ni0.80Co0.15Al0.05(OH)2 precursor by spray-drying coating with nano-Al2O3. Investigations by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that an Al2O3 layer is uniformly distributed on the precursor and a LiAlO2 layer on the as-prepared cathode material. Such a coating shell acts as a scavenger to protect the cathode material from attack by HF and serious side reactions, which remarkably enhances the cycle performance at 55 °C and upper operating voltage (4.4 and 4.5 V). In particular, the sample with a 2% Al2O3 coating shows capacity retentions of 90.40%, 85.14%, 87.85%, and 81.1% after 150 cycles at a rate of 1.0C at room temperature, 55 °C, 4.4 V, and 4.5 V, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of the pristine one. This is mainly due to the significant improvement of the structural stability led by the effective coating technique, which could be extended to other cathode materials to obtain LIBs with enhanced safety and excellent cycling stability. PMID:27328728

  8. Inhalation injury: a decade without progress.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J B; Goldfarb, I W; Slater, H; Hammell, E J

    1992-01-01

    Despite major advances in the management of patients with critical burn injuries, inhalation injury continues to be a major determinant of death resulting from burn injuries. Two cohort groups of victims with burn and inhalation injuries, separated by a decade, were retrospectively reviewed in an effort to determine the impact of newer treatment modalities. Patients were categorized as being at "high" or "low" risk on the basis of primary and secondary diagnostic criteria. Despite a statistically significant decrease in the percent of total body surface injury, no change in mortality rate was noted between the two groups. The advent of sophisticated diagnostic and management techniques does not appear to have decreased the mortality rate associated with inhalation injury. PMID:1452592

  9. Spray drying: Thermodynamics and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Normand, Valery; Subramaniam, Anandaraman; Donnelly, Jeffrey; Bouquerand, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-09-12

    A thermodynamic model has been built to draw a safety envelope of non-stickiness for maltopolymers of various molecular weight distributions. The model is based on the combination of two properties of maltopolymer-water interactions. These interactions include the plasticization and glass formation along with the water sorption properties at different temperatures. The model gives indications on the processing conditions to be used to produce an acceptable powder from a very dilute carbohydrate aqueous solution together with a maximization of the evaporation capacity of the drying equipment. PMID:23911475

  10. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  11. Inhaled Antibiotics for Lower Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Bradley S.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled antibiotics have been used to treat chronic airway infections since the 1940s. The earliest experience with inhaled antibiotics involved aerosolizing antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. These formulations caused significant bronchial irritation due to added preservatives and nonphysiologic chemical composition. A major therapeutic advance took place in 1997, when tobramycin designed for inhalation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Attracted by the clinical benefits observed in CF and the availability of dry powder antibiotic formulations, there has been a growing interest in the use of inhaled antibiotics in other lower respiratory tract infections, such as non-CF bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacterial disease, and in the post–lung transplant setting over the past decade. Antibiotics currently marketed for inhalation include nebulized and dry powder forms of tobramycin and colistin and nebulized aztreonam. Although both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have approved their use in CF, they have not been approved in other disease areas due to lack of supportive clinical trial evidence. Injectable formulations of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin are currently nebulized “off-label” to manage non-CF bronchiectasis, drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and post-transplant airway infections. Future inhaled antibiotic trials must focus on disease areas outside of CF with sample sizes large enough to evaluate clinically important endpoints such as exacerbations. Extrapolating from CF, the impact of eradicating organisms such as P. aeruginosa in non-CF bronchiectasis should also be evaluated. PMID:24673698

  12. New aspects of developing a dry powder inhalation formulation applying the quality-by-design approach.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Karimi, Keyhaneh; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2016-09-10

    The current work outlines the application of an up-to-date and regulatory-based pharmaceutical quality management method, applied as a new development concept in the process of formulating dry powder inhalation systems (DPIs). According to the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology and Risk Assessment (RA) thinking, a mannitol based co-spray dried formula was produced as a model dosage form with meloxicam as the model active agent. The concept and the elements of the QbD approach (regarding its systemic, scientific, risk-based, holistic, and proactive nature with defined steps for pharmaceutical development), as well as the experimental drug formulation (including the technological parameters assessed and the methods and processes applied) are described in the current paper. Findings of the QbD based theoretical prediction and the results of the experimental development are compared and presented. Characteristics of the developed end-product were in correlation with the predictions, and all data were confirmed by the relevant results of the in vitro investigations. These results support the importance of using the QbD approach in new drug formulation, and prove its good usability in the early development process of DPIs. This innovative formulation technology and product appear to have a great potential in pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:27386791

  13. Improvement of stability and absorbability of dry insulin powder for inhalation by powder-combination technique.

    PubMed

    Todo, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Iida, Kotaro; Danjo, Kazumi

    2004-03-01

    The effect of pulmonary absorption enhancers on the stability of active ingredients is an important factor for successful inhalation therapy as well as the effect on pharmacological activity and safety. We examined the effect of pulmonary absorption enhancers on the stability of insulin in dry powders prepared by a spray-drying technique. Although the hypoglycemic effect was greatly improved when a dry insulin powder containing citric acid (MIC SD) was administered, insulin in the MIC SD was unstable compared with the other powders examined. Bacitracin and Span 85, which are potent pulmonary absorption enhancers of insulin formulated in solutions, showed no deteriorative effect on the stability of dry insulin powder. However, they did not improve the hypoglycemic effect of insulin in dry powders. We modified the insulin dosage form with citric acid to improve the insulin stability at room temperature without loss of hypoglycemic activity. MIC Mix was formulated as a combination of insulin powder (MI') and citric acid powder (MC). MIC Mix showed hypoglycemic activity comparable to MIC SD while the insulin stability was much better than that of MIC SD at a 60 degrees C/dry condition. However, moisture lowered the insulin stability and changed the particle morphology of MIC Mix with time at a 60 degrees C/75% relative humidity condition, suggesting that a package preventing moisture absorption was necessary for the MIC Mix powder. PMID:15129972

  14. Effects of formulation and operating variables on zanamivir dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Ziwei; Ren, Yufeng; Mei, Xingguo

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of formulation and operating variables on the physical characteristics and aerosolization performance of zanamivir spary-dried powders for inhalation. Spray-dried samples of zanamivir, zanamivir/mannitol and zanamivir/mannitol/leucine were prepared from their corresponding aqueous solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and zanamivir/mannitol/leucine (1/1/3 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Dry powders were characterized afterwards for different physical properties, including morphology, particle size, flowability, density and moisture absorption. The in vitro deposition was also evaluated after the aerosolization of powders at 100 L min(-1) via the Aerolizer® into a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The highest FPF of 41.40 ± 1.1% was obtained with a zanamivir/mannitol/leucine ratio of 1/1/3, which had an average Dg of 3.11 ± 0.13 μm and an angle of repose of 36°( )± 1. It was found that the influence of the preparation process on zanamivir spary-dried powders characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:24491208

  15. Fabrication and electrochemical performance of 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 microspheres by two-step spray-drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Mun Yeong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-08-01

    0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 composite microspheres with dense structures are prepared by a two-step spray-drying process. Precursor powders with hollow and porous structures prepared by the spray-drying process are post-treated at a low temperature of 400°C and then wet-milled to obtain a slurry with high stability. The slurry of the mixture of metal oxides is spray-dried to prepare precursor aggregate powders several microns in size. Post-treatment of these powders at high temperatures (>700°C) produces 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 composite microspheres with dense structures and high crystallinity. The mean size and geometric standard deviation of the composite microspheres post-treated at 900°C are 4 μm and 1.38, respectively. Further, the initial charge capacities of the aggregated microspheres post-treated at 700, 800, 900, and 1000°C are 336, 349, 383, and 128 mA h g-1, respectively, and the corresponding discharge capacities are 286, 280, 302, and 77 mA h g-1, respectively. The discharge capacity of the composite microspheres post-treated at an optimum temperature of 900°C after 100 cycles is 242 mA h g-1, and the corresponding capacity retention is 80%.

  16. Fabrication and electrochemical performance of 0.6Li2MnO3-0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 microspheres by two-step spray-drying process

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mun Yeong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-01-01

    0.6Li2MnO3–0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 composite microspheres with dense structures are prepared by a two-step spray-drying process. Precursor powders with hollow and porous structures prepared by the spray-drying process are post-treated at a low temperature of 400°C and then wet-milled to obtain a slurry with high stability. The slurry of the mixture of metal oxides is spray-dried to prepare precursor aggregate powders several microns in size. Post-treatment of these powders at high temperatures (>700°C) produces 0.6Li2MnO3–0.4Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 composite microspheres with dense structures and high crystallinity. The mean size and geometric standard deviation of the composite microspheres post-treated at 900°C are 4 μm and 1.38, respectively. Further, the initial charge capacities of the aggregated microspheres post-treated at 700, 800, 900, and 1000°C are 336, 349, 383, and 128 mA h g−1, respectively, and the corresponding discharge capacities are 286, 280, 302, and 77 mA h g−1, respectively. The discharge capacity of the composite microspheres post-treated at an optimum temperature of 900°C after 100 cycles is 242 mA h g−1, and the corresponding capacity retention is 80%. PMID:25168912

  17. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone inhalation. If you were using a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) on a regular basis, your doctor ...

  18. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  19. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  20. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  1. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  2. New inhalation-optimized itraconazole nanoparticle-based dry powders for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Duret, Christophe; Wauthoz, Nathalie; Sebti, Thami; Vanderbist, Francis; Amighi, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Itraconazole (ITZ) dry powders for inhalation (DPI) composed of nanoparticles (NP) embedded in carrier microparticles were prepared and characterized. Methods DPIs were initially produced by reducing the ITZ particle size to the nanometer range using high-pressure homogenization with tocopherol polyethylene 1000 succinate (TPGS, 10% w/w ITZ) as a stabilizer. The optimized nanosuspension and the initial microsuspension were then spray-dried with different proportions of or in the absence of mannitol and/or sodium taurocholate. DPI characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy for morphology, laser diffraction to evaluate the size-reduction process, and the size of the dried NP when reconstituted in aqueous media, impaction studies using a multistage liquid impactor to determine the aerodynamic performance and fine-particle fraction that is theoretically able to reach the lung, and dissolution studies to determine the solubility of ITZ. Results Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the DPI particles were composed of mannitol microparticles with embedded nano- or micro-ITZ crystals. The formulations prepared from the nanosuspension exhibited good flow properties and better fine-particle fractions, ranging from 46.2% ± 0.5% to 63.2% ± 1.7% compared to the 23.1% ± 0.3% that was observed with the formulation produced from the initial microsuspension. Spray-drying affected the NP size by inducing irreversible aggregation, which was able to be minimized by the addition of mannitol and sodium taurocholate before the drying procedure. The ITZ NP-based DPI considerably increased the ITZ solubility (58 ± 2 increased to 96 ± 1 ng/mL) compared with that of raw ITZ or an ITZ microparticle-based DPI (<10 ng/mL). Conclusion Embedding ITZ NP in inhalable microparticles is a very effective method to produce DPI formulations with optimal aerodynamic properties and enhanced ITZ solubility. These formulations could be applied to other

  3. Efficient Nose-to-Lung (N2L) Aerosol Delivery with a Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Laleh; Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Tian, Geng; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Delivering aerosols to the lungs through the nasal route has a number of advantages, but its use has been limited by high depositional loss in the extrathoracic airways. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nose-to-lung (N2L) delivery of excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation aerosols generated with a new inline dry powder inhaler (DPI). The device was also adapted to enable aerosol delivery to a patient simultaneously receiving respiratory support from high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy. Methods: The inhaler delivered the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which was formulated as submicrometer combination particles containing a hygroscopic excipient prepared by spray-drying. Nose-to-lung delivery was assessed using in vitro and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods in an airway model that continued through the upper tracheobronchial region. Results: The best performing device contained a 2.3 mm flow control orifice and a 3D rod array with a 3-4-3 rod pattern. Based on in vitro experiments, the emitted dose from the streamlined nasal cannula had a fine particle fraction <5 μm of 95.9% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.4 μm, which was considered ideal for nose-to-lung EEG delivery. With the 2.3-343 device, condensational growth in the airways increased the aerosol size to 2.5–2.7 μm and extrathoracic deposition was <10%. CFD results closely matched the in vitro experiments and predicted that nasal deposition was <2%. Conclusions: The developed DPI produced high efficiency aerosolization with significant size increase of the aerosol within the airways that can be used to enable nose-to-lung delivery and aerosol administration during HFNC therapy. PMID:25192072

  4. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  5. Insulin inhalation--Pfizer/Nektar Therapeutics: HMR 4006, inhaled PEG-insulin--Nektar, PEGylated insulin--Nektar.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 120 centres worldwide, and will use a fourth prototype inhaler device that is half the size of the first prototype, and has reduced manufacturing costs. Pfizer and its partner, Aventis Pharma, are conducting additional long-term pulmonary safety data studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pfizer is also conducting phase III clinical trials with inhaled insulin in paediatric patients aged 6-17 years. Nektar Therapeutics is using its Advanced PEGylation technology to develop a dry powder-inhaled polyethylene glycol (PEG) formulation for delivering peptides efficiently across the lungs and to promote prolonged serum concentration of the peptide. PEG is a neutral, water-soluble, nontoxic polymer comprising any number of repeating units of ethylene oxide. PEGylation is designed to increase the size of the active molecule and ultimately improve drug performance by optimising pharmacokinetics, increasing bioavailability, and decreasing immunogenicity and dosing frequency. The investigation has begun with inhaled, long-acting (PEGylated) insulin [inhaled PEG-insulin, PEGylated insulin--Nektar], and is funded by Pfizer. Preclinical results of a dry powder formulation of inhaled PEG-insulin presented at the 63rd Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association (ADA-2003) [June 2003, New Orleans, LA, USA] demonstrated prolonged systemic activity of insulin in dogs. Nektar Therapeutics was granted US patent 5,997,848 on a method for delivering inhalable insulin. The patent covers a method for delivering of 0.5-15 mg of aerosol dry powder insulin per dosing session in 1-4 individual dosages into the deep lung for systemic absorption. The patent does not specify the formulation of insulin or aerosol delivery device. Nektar Therapeutics estimated in June 2002 that Exubera could earn the company potential revenues of >200 million US dollars. PMID:15139780

  6. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Baidoo, S K; Marquardt, R R; Yang, X

    2003-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection and resulting scours is a major problem for young pigs, especially when purified plant proteins are fed rather than spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). The effect of supplementing a pea protein isolate (PPI)-based diet with egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from laying hens immunized with ETEC K88 antigen on piglet performance, incidence of scours, and gut histology was studied in a 14-d trial. Ninety-six 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give six replicate pens per treatment. The treatments were PPI without EYA (PPI-EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI+EYA), SDPP without EYA (SDPP-EYA), SDPP with EYA (SDPP+EYA), or a combination of PPI and SDPP (PPI+SDPP). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake. Blood from all pigs was taken on d 0, 7, and 14 for determining plasma urea N (PUN). On d 7, pigs were orally challenged with 6 mL of 10(10) cfu/ mL ETEC K88. Piglets were weighed on d 7 and 14. On d 7, 8, and 14, four pigs per treatment were sacrificed to study the histology of the small intestine. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Fecal swabs from 10 pigs per treatment were taken for a PCR test to detect K88 E. coli. Feed efficiency over the 14-d period was not affected (P > 0.78) by dietary treatment. Mean ADFI on an as-fed basis was lower (P < 0.002) in piglets fed PPI-EYA (64.3 g/d) compared with PPI+EYA (94.8 g/d) or SDPP (102 g/d) during wk 1. Piglets fed PPI-EYA tend to have a lower (P < 0.026) overall ADG (84 g/d) than those fed PPI+EYA (123 g/d) or SDPP (127 g/d) (P < 0.006)-based diets. Although scours was evident in all groups of pigs 6 h after the challenge, most of the piglets fed EYA- or SDPP-containing diets recovered 10 to 72 h postchallenge, whereas those fed PPI-EYA continued to have severe diarrhea, resulting in 33% mortality. The PCR results showed that a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of piglets

  7. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody, zinc oxide, fumaric acid, or antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Marquardt, R R

    2003-07-01

    The effect of feeding diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) or pea protein-isolate (PPI) supplemented with either egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (K88 and F18) antigens, ZnO, fumaric acid (FA), or carbadox (AB) on pig performance, incidence of scours, and gut morphology was studied in a 14-d experiment. Ninety 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to six dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give five pens per treatment with three pigs per pen. The diets were SDPP without EYA (SDPP - EYA), PPI without EYA (PPI - EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI + EYA), PPI with ZnO (PPI + ZnO), PPI with FA (PPI + FA), or PPI with AB (PPI + AB). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels, with AB, EYA, FA, and ZnO at 0.25, 0.5, 2.0, and 0.4% of the diet, respectively. Pigs were weighed and bled on d 0, 7, and 14 to determine plasma urea N (PUN). Pigs were orally challenged with a 6-mL dose of 10(10) cfu/mL ETEC (K88) on d 7. On d 14, three pigs per treatment were killed to obtain sections of the small intestine for histological measurements. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Incidence of scours and scour scores were monitored and fecal swabs were taken before and after ETEC challenge for PCR test to detect ETEC (K88). Feeding SDPP or supplementing PPI-based diets with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB did not affect (P > 0.05) ADG, ADFI (as-fed basis), or gain:feed throughout the study. However, pigs fed PPI - EYA tended to have lower (P = 0.08) ADFI during wk 2 (137.9 g/d) and lower (P < 0.10) ADG from d 0 to 14 (100.1 g/d) than those fed the SDPP - EYA (156.6 g/d), PPI + EYA (151.2 g/d), PPI + ZnO (158.9 g/ d), PPI + FA (155.4 g/d), and PPI + AB (152.6 g/d) diets. Although scours was evident in all pigs 8 h after the ETEC challenge, it lasted only 3 to 5 d in pigs fed SDPP or PPI supplemented with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB. Pigs fed PPI - EYA continued to have severe diarrhea

  8. Technosphere inhaled insulin (Afrezza).

    PubMed

    Rendell, M

    2014-12-01

    Technosphere® insulin uses a unique carrier -fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP)- which adsorbs insulin to form microparticles to permit delivery to the alveoli by inhalation. Toxicity studies have been entirely negative. The pulmonary absorption of insulin is very rapid, and the disappearance time is shorter than for subcutaneously delivered rapid-acting insulins. As a result, after inhalation, there is a rapid drop in glucose levels which subsequently return to normal in a shorter time than after subcutaneous insulin administration. Consequently, there is a lower incidence of hypoglycemic reactions. Pulmonary function studies have shown a small, reversible decrease in FEV1, and pulmonary imaging studies have shown no adverse effect. The inhalation of Technosphere insulin can produce a cough in up to 27% of patients. The cough has resulted in discontinuance in as many as 9% of users. Technosphere insulin has been approved for use in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-term studies of pulmonary safety and surveillance for malignancy will be performed in the future. Studies to assess the optimal time dosing regimen are needed. PMID:25588086

  9. Toward Repositioning Niclosamide for Antivirulence Therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infections: Development of Inhalable Formulations through Nanosuspension Technology.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Gabriella; d'Angelo, Ivana; Rampioni, Giordano; Bondì, Roslen; Pompili, Barbara; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Mitidieri, Emma; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Miro, Agnese; Quaglia, Fabiana; Imperi, Francesco; Leoni, Livia; Ungaro, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Inhaled antivirulence drugs are currently considered a promising therapeutic option to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have recently shown that the anthelmintic drug niclosamide (NCL) has strong quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting activity against P. aeruginosa and could be repurposed as an antivirulence drug. In this work, we developed dry powders containing NCL nanoparticles that can be reconstituted in saline solution to produce inhalable nanosuspensions. NCL nanoparticles were produced by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) using polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80 as stabilizers. After 20 cycles of HPH, all formulations showed similar properties in the form of needle-shape nanocrystals with a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 450 nm and a zeta potential of -20 mV. Nanosuspensions stabilized with polysorbate 80 at 10% w/w to NCL (T80_10) showed an optimal solubility profile in simulated interstitial lung fluid. T80_10 was successfully dried into mannitol-based dry powder by spray drying. Dry powder (T80_10 DP) was reconstituted in saline solution and showed optimal in vitro aerosol performance. Both T80_10 and T80_10 DP were able to inhibit P. aeruginosa QS at NCL concentrations of 2.5-10 μM. NCL, and these formulations did not significantly affect the viability of CF bronchial epithelial cells in vitro at microbiologically active concentrations (i.e., ≤10 μM). In vivo acute toxicity studies in rats confirmed no observable toxicity of the NCL T80_10 DP formulation upon intratracheal administration at a concentration 100-fold higher than the anti-QS activity concentration. These preliminary results suggest that NCL repurposed in the form of inhalable nanosuspensions has great potential for the local treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infections as in the case of CF patients. PMID:25974285

  10. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... methods really work, and people who use these methods may continue to use their inhalers after the inhalers are empty.Some inhalers come with a counter that shows the number of sprays that remain in the inhaler. If your inhaler ...

  11. Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roller, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

  12. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  13. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  14. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  15. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'. PMID:25451137

  16. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  17. Polymer coating of carrier excipients modify aerosol performance of adhered drugs used in dry powder inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Traini, Daniela; Scalia, Santo; Adi, Handoko; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Young, Paul M

    2012-11-15

    The potential of excipient coating to enhance aerosol performance of micronized drugs in carrier excipient-drug blends, used in dry powder inhalers, was investigated. Both EC (ethyl cellulose) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) were used as coating agents. Carriers were prepared via sieve fractioning followed by spray drying, with and without polymer additive. Each uncoated and coated carrier salbutamol sulphate (SS) blended systems were evaluated for particle size, morphology, drug carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance, after blending and storage for 24h. All carrier-based systems prepared had similar particle sizes and morphologies. The surface chemistries of the carriers were significantly different, as was drug-carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance. Particle adhesion between SS and aerosol performance (fine particle fraction; FPF) followed the rank: PVP coated>un-coated>EC coated lactose. This rank order could be attributed to the surface energy measured by contact goniometry and related to the chemistry of lactose and each polymer. Storage did not significantly affect aerosol performance, however a rank increase in mean FPF value was observed for uncoated and EC coated lactose. Finally, the net electrostatic charge across the aerosol cloud indicated that the EC coated lactose transferred less charge to SS particles. The performance of each carrier system could be attributed to the carrier surface chemistry and, in general, by careful selection of the coating polymer, drug-carrier adhesion, electrostatic charge and aerosol performance could be controlled. PMID:22964399

  18. Mephedrone inhalation causes pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Ruth; Bowen, Nia; Singh, Joy

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old male patient presented to A&E with swelling on the right side of his neck, extending to below the clavicle, associated with neck pain and dysphonia. On examination, subcutaneous supraclavicular and chest wall emphysema was noted. Clinical observations and bloods were normal. A chest X-ray and subsequent CT of the thorax showed evidence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient denied any history of trauma but admitted to inhalation of mephedrone 3 days previously. The patient was discussed with the regional cardiothoracic unit who advised conservative management. He was treated prophylactically with antibiotics and was initially kept nil by mouth, but diet was introduced 24 h later. He remained well, his dysphonia resolved and his subcutaneous emphysema improved. He was discharged after 3 days. He has not attended any formal follow-up but was well when contacted by phone. PMID:24614784

  19. Toxic inhalational exposures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

    2013-01-01

    Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

  20. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gian Paolo; Searles, Robert; Yu, Binglan; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito; Zapol, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to induce a suspended animation–like state with hypothermia and a concomitant metabolic reduction in rodents. However, the impact of H2S breathing on cardiovascular function remains incompletely understood. In this study, the authors investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inhaled H2S in a murine model. Methods The impact of breathing H2S on cardiovascular function was examined using telemetry and echocardiography in awake mice. The effects of breathing H2S on carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured at room temperature and in a warmed environment. Results Breathing H2S at 80 parts per million by volume at 27°C ambient temperature for 6 h markedly reduced heart rate, core body temperature, respiratory rate, and physical activity, whereas blood pressure remained unchanged. Echocardiography demonstrated that H2S exposure decreased both heart rate and cardiac output but preserved stroke volume. Breathing H2S for 6 h at 35°C ambient temperature (to prevent hypothermia) decreased heart rate, physical activity, respiratory rate, and cardiac output without altering stroke volume or body temperature. H2S breathing seems to induce bradycardia by depressing sinus node activity. Breathing H2S for 30 min decreased whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at either 27° or 35°C ambient temperature. Both parameters returned to baseline levels within 10 min after the cessation of H2S breathing. Conclusions Inhalation of H2S at either 27° or 35°C reversibly depresses cardiovascular function without changing blood pressure in mice. Breathing H2S also induces a rapidly reversible reduction of metabolic rate at either body temperature. PMID:18362598

  1. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  2. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  3. Rifapentine-loaded PLGA microparticles for tuberculosis inhaled therapy: Preparation and in vitro aerosol characterization.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Leung, Sharon S Y; Quan, Diana Huynh; Triccas, Jamie A; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-06-10

    Inhaled delivery of drugs incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles allows a sustained lung concentration and encourages phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages that harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, limited data are available on the effects of physicochemical properties of PLGA, including the monomer ratio (lactide:glycide) and molecular weight (MW) on the aerosol performance, macrophage uptake, and toxicity profile. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap, using PLGAs with monomer ratios of 50:50, 75:25 and 85:15, MW ranged 24 - 240kDa and an anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, rifapentine. The PLGA-rifapentine powders were produced through a solution spray drying technique. The particles were spherical with a smooth surface and a volume median diameter around 2μm (span ~2). When the powders were dispersed using an Osmohaler(®) at 100L/min for 2.4s, the fine particle fraction (FPFtotal, wt.% particles in aerosol <5μm relative to the total recovered drug mass) was ranged between 52 and 57%, with no significant difference between the formulations. This result suggests that the monomer ratio and MW are not crucial parameters for the aerosol performance of PLGA. The phagocytosis analysis was performed using Thp-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The highest rate of uptake was observed in PLGA 85:15 followed by 75:25 and 50:50 with about 90%, 80% and 70%, respectively phagocytosis over 4h of exposure. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity analysis on Thp-1 and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells demonstrated that PLGA concentration up to 1.5mg/mL, regardless of the monomer composition and MW, were non-toxic. In conclusion, the monomer ratio and MW are not crucial in determining the aerosol performance and cytotoxicity profile of PLGA however, the particles with high lactide composition have a superior tendency for macrophage uptake. PMID:27049049

  4. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  5. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by closing or tilting the inhaler, playing ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  6. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  7. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000036.htm Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it ...

  8. Emerging inhalation aerosol devices and strategies: where are we headed?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Tang, Patricia; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Novel inhaled therapeutics including antibiotics, vaccines and anti-hypertensives, have led to innovations in designing suitable delivery systems. These emerging design technologies are in urgent demand to ensure high aerosolisation performance, consistent efficacy and satisfactory patient adherence. Recent vibrating-mesh and software technologies have resulted in nebulisers that have remarkably accurate dosing and portability. Alternatively, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have become highly favourable for delivering high-dose and single-dose drugs with the aid of advanced particle engineering. In contrast, innovations are needed to overcome the technical constrains in drug-propellant incompatibility and delivering high-dose drugs with pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). This review discusses recent and emerging trends in pulmonary drug delivery systems. PMID:24732364

  9. Asthma control: the right inhaler for the right patient.

    PubMed

    Scichilone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Inhaled therapy is the cornerstone of asthma management in that it optimizes the delivery of the medication to the site of action. The effectiveness of inhaled therapy is affected by the correct choice of the device and proper inhalation technique. In fact, this influences the drug delivery and distribution along the bronchial tree, including the most peripheral airways. In this context, accumulating evidence supports the contribution of small airways in asthma, and these have become an important target of treatment. In reality, the "ideal inhaler" does not exist, and not all inhalers are the same. Advances in technology has highlighted these differences, and have led to the design of new devices and the development of formulations characterized by extrafine particles that facilitate the distribution and deposition of the drug particles along the respiratory tract. In addition, efforts have been made to implement adherence to chronic treatment, which translates into clinical benefit. Taken together, the optimal control of asthma depends on the drug that is selected, the device that is employed and the removal of factors that reduce patient's adherence to therapy. PMID:25845769

  10. Physical Characterization of Tobramycin Inhalation Powder: I. Rational Design of a Stable Engineered-Particle Formulation for Delivery to the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Danforth P; Tan, Trixie; Tarara, Thomas E; Nakamura, John; Malcolmson, Richard J; Weers, Jeffry G

    2015-08-01

    A spray-dried engineered particle formulation, Tobramycin Inhalation Powder (TIP), was designed through rational selection of formulation composition and process parameters. This PulmoSphere powder comprises small, porous particles with a high drug load. As a drug/device combination, TOBI Podhaler enables delivery of high doses of drug per inhalation, a feature critical for dry powder delivery of anti-infectives for treatment of cystic fibrosis. The objective of this work was to characterize TIP on both the particle and molecular levels using multiple orthogonal physical characterization techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and Raman measurements show that a TIP particle consists of two phases: amorphous, glassy tobramycin sulfate with a glass transition temperature of about 100 °C and a gel-phase phospholipid (DSPC) with a gel-to-liquid-crystal transition temperature of about 80 °C. This was by design and constituted a rational formulation approach to provide Tg and Tm values that are well above the temperatures used for long-term storage of TIP. Raman and ESCA data provide support for a core/shell particle architecture of TIP. Particle surfaces are enriched with a porous, hydrophobic coating that reduces cohesive forces, improving powder fluidization and dispersibility. The excellent aerosol dispersibility of TIP enables highly efficient delivery of fine particles to the respiratory tract. Collectively, particle engineering has enabled development of TOBI Podhaler, an approved inhaled drug product that meaningfully reduces the treatment burden to cystic fibrosis patients worldwide. PMID:26052676

  11. Development of inhalable hyaluronan/mannitol composite dry powders for flucytosine repositioning in local therapy of lung infections.

    PubMed

    Costabile, G; d'Angelo, I; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, R; Mitidieri, E; Pompili, B; Del Porto, P; Leoni, L; Visca, P; Miro, A; Quaglia, F; Imperi, F; Sorrentino, R; Ungaro, F

    2016-09-28

    Flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine, 5-FC) is a fluorinated analogue of cytosine currently approved for the systemic treatment of fungal infections, which has recently demonstrated a very promising antivirulence activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we propose novel inhalable hyaluronic acid (HA)/mannitol composite dry powders for repositioning 5-FC in the local treatment of lung infections, including those affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Different dry powders were produced in one-step by spray-drying. Powder composition and process conditions were selected after in depth formulation studies aimed at selecting the 5-FC/HA/mannitol formulation with convenient aerosolization properties and drug release profile in simulated lung fluids. The optimized 5-FC/HA/mannitol powder for inhalation (HyaMan_FC#3) was effectively delivered from different breath-activated dry powder inhalers (DPI) already available to CF patients. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic assessment of fine particles suggested that the developed formulation well fit with a low-resistance DPI. HyaMan_FC#3 inhibited the growth of the fungus Candida albicans and the production of the virulence factor pyoverdine by P. aeruginosa at 5-FC concentrations that did not affect the viability of both wild type (16HBE14o-) and CF (CFBE41o-) human bronchial epithelial cells. Finally, pharmacokinetics of HyaMan_FC#3 inhalation powder and 5-FC solution after intratracheal administration in rats were compared. In vivo results clearly demonstrated that, when formulated as dry powder, 5-FC levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were significantly higher and sustained over time as compared to those obtained with the 5-FC solution. Of note, when the same 5-FC amount was administered intravenously, no significant drug amount was found in the lung at each time point from the injection. To realize a 5-FC lung concentration similar to that obtained by using HyaMan_FC#3

  12. Inhaled beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate extrafine fixed combination for the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Zanini, Andrea; Pisi, Giovanna; Pignatti, Patrizia; Poli, Gianluigi; Scuri, Mario; Chetta, Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    Inhaled therapy is often considered the cornerstone of asthma management and international guidelines recommend combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting-beta2-agonists (LABA) in a large proportion of asthmatic patients. The effectiveness of ICS/LABA is dependent on the correct choice of device and proper inhalation technique, this influences drug delivery and distribution along the bronchial tree, including the most peripheral airways. The fixed combination of beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate (BDP/FF) is the only extrafine formulation available in pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) and in dry powder inhaler (DPI). Here, we focus on the recent significant advances regarding BDP/FF fixed combination for the treatment of asthma. PMID:26938578

  13. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  14. Formulation Design of Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry G; Miller, Danforth P

    2015-10-01

    Drugs for inhalation are no longer exclusively highly crystalline small molecules. They may also be amorphous small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and myriad types of engineered proteins. The evolution of respiratory therapeutics has created a need for flexible formulation technologies to engineer respirable particles. These technologies have enabled medicinal chemists to focus on molecular design without concern regarding compatibility of physicochemical properties with traditional, blend-based technologies. Therapeutics with diverse physicochemical properties can now be formulated as stable and respirable dry powders. Particle engineering technologies have also driven the deployment of new excipients, giving formulators greater control over particle and powder properties. This plays a key role in enabling efficient delivery of drugs to the lungs. Engineered powder and device combinations enable aerosols that largely bypass the mouth and throat, minimizing the inherent variability among patients that arises from differences in oropharyngeal and airway anatomies and in breathing profiles. This review explores how advances among molecules, particles, and powders have transformed inhaled drug product development. Ultimately, this scientific progress will benefit patients, enabling new classes of therapeutics to be formulated as dry powder aerosols with improved efficacy, reduced variability and side effects, and improved patient adherence. PMID:26296055

  15. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  16. Anaphylaxis induced by lentil inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ayşenur, Kaya; Akan, Ayşegül; Mustafa, Erkoçoğlu; Müge, Toyran; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2012-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset serious allergic reaction which may be fatal. Foods are the most common allergens leading to anaphylaxis especially for childhood. Most of the food-induced anaphylactic reactions take place after ingestion of the allergic food and only a few cases exist with anaphylactic reactions induced by inhalation of foods such as peanut, soybean and lupine. The case we present is unusual in that an 8 1/2-year-old boy developed anaphylaxis with the inhalation of steam from boiling lentils. PMID:22830298

  17. William TG Morton's early ether inhalers: a tale of three inhalers and their inscriptions.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Three ether inhalers with inscriptions stating that they had been used in early ether anaesthesia were found. All three inhalers were initially linked to WTG Morton. Two of the inhalers were probably among several types of inhalers used by Morton. The third inhaler was found to have been incorrectly attributed to Morton. It was first used by John Foster Brewster Flagg, a dentist in Philadelphia. PMID:19705631

  18. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  19. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  20. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  1. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  2. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

  3. Development and evaluation of well-tolerated and tumor-penetrating polymeric micelle-based dry powders for inhaled anti-cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rosière, Rémi; Van Woensel, Matthias; Mathieu, Véronique; Langer, Ingrid; Mathivet, Thomas; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Amighi, Karim; Wauthoz, Nathalie

    2016-03-30

    Despite the direct access to the lung offered by the inhalation route, drug penetration into lung tumors could remain an important issue. In this study, folate-polyethylene glycol-hydrophobically-modified dextran (F-PEG-HMD) micelles were developed as an effective pulmonary drug delivery system to reach and penetrate lung tumors and cancer cells. The F-PEG-HMD micelles were able to enter HeLa and M109-HiFR, two folate receptor-expressing cancer cell lines, in vitro, and in vivo after administration by inhalation to orthotopic M109-HiFR lung tumor grafted mice. Paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles characterized in PBS by a Z-average diameter of ∼50nm and a zeta potential of ∼-4mV were prepared with an encapsulation efficiency of ∼100%. The loaded micelles reduced HeLa and M109-HiFR cell growth, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 37 and 150nM, respectively. Dry powders embedding the paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles were developed by spray-drying. In vitro, good deposition profiles were obtained, with a fine particle fraction of up to 50% and good ability to re-disperse the micelles in physiological buffer. A polymeric micelle-based dry powder without paclitaxel was well-tolerated in vivo, as assessed in healthy mice by determination of total protein content, cell count, and cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. PMID:26850313

  4. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare. PMID:26809400

  5. From inhaler to lung: clinical implications of the formulations of ciclesonide and other inhaled corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Nave, Ruediger; Mueller, Helgert

    2013-01-01

    Asthma continues to be a global health problem and currently available treatments such as corticosteroids can cause unwanted side effects. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended as first-line therapy for reducing airway inflammation and have a distinct advantage over oral preparations as they provide a direct route of delivery to the lungs. However, local deposition of ICS in the oropharynx can lead to oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and pharyngitis. The pharmaceutical quality is a primary concern of any ICS asthma treatment, with a higher quality product resulting in improved efficacy and safety profiles. The particle size distribution and the spray force velocity of an ICS may directly influence lung deposition, and the spray duration of a device is another important factor when coordinating inhalation. Recent advances in ICS device and formulation technology have resulted in significant improvements in the efficacy of available asthma treatments. In particular, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solution technology and the development of smaller particle sizes have resulted in the production of new ICS formulations that have the ability to directly target drug delivery to the site of airway inflammation. Both the ICS formulation and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler device used to administer ciclesonide (CIC) HFA have been developed to treat the underlying chronic inflammation associated with asthma. CIC is administered as a prodrug which is activated in the lungs, leading to minimal oropharyngeal deposition. The small particle size of CIC results in the delivery of a high fraction of respirable particles to the small airways of the lungs, resulting in high lung deposition and continual dose consistency. This review summarizes how CIC administered as an HFA formulation is an effective treatment for asthma. PMID:23516175

  6. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  7. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  8. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  9. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    PubMed

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  10. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY METHODS: The Generation and Characterization of Exposure Atmospheres and Inhalational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lung-Chi; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we outline the need for laboratory-based inhalation toxicology studies, the historical background on adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, and the benefits of advance planning for the building of analytic options into the study design to maximize the scientific gains to be derived from the investments in the study. We then discuss methods for: 1) the generation and characterization of exposure atmospheres for inhalation exposures in humans and laboratory animals; 2) their delivery and distribution into and within whole-body exposure chambers, head-only exposure chambers, face-masks, and mouthpieces or nasal catheters; 3) options for on-line functional assays during and between exposures; and 4) options for serial non-invasive assays of response. In doing so, we go beyond exposures to single agents and simple mixtures, and include methods for evaluating biological responses to complex environmental mixtures. We also emphasize that great care should be taken in the design and execution of such studies so that the scientific returns can be maximized both initially, and in follow-up utilization of archived samples of the exposure atmospheres, excreta, and tissues collected for histology. PMID:25645246

  11. Endotoxin Inhalation Alters Lung Development in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulhankova, Katarina; George, Caroline L.S.; Kline, Joel N.; Darling, Melissa; Thorne, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma is a significant public health problem. Epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between childhood asthma exacerbations and early life exposure to environmental endotoxin. Although the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced adult asthma is well studied, questions remain about the impact of environmental endotoxin on pulmonary responsiveness in early life. Methods We developed a murine model of neonatal/juvenile endotoxin exposures approximating those in young children and evaluated the lungs inflammatory and remodeling responses. Results Persistent lung inflammation induced by the inhalation of endotoxin in early life was demonstrated by the influx of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory mediators to the airways and resulted in abnormal alveolarization. Conclusions Results of this study advance the understanding of the impact early life endotoxin inhalation has on the lower airways, and demonstrates the importance of an experimental design that approximates environmental exposures as they occur in young children. PMID:22576659

  12. The Skeletal Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Stephanie A; Stein, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal effects of inhaled glucocorticoids are poorly understood. Children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids have lower growth velocity, bone density, and adult height. Studies of adults with asthma have reported variable effects on BMD, although prospective studies have demonstrated bone loss after initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids in premenopausal women. There is a dose-response relationship between inhaled glucocorticoids and fracture risk in asthmatics; the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures is greater in subjects treated with the highest doses in the majority of studies. Patients with COPD have lower BMD and higher fracture rates compared to controls, however, the majority of studies have not found an additional detrimental effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone. While the evidence is not conclusive, it supports using the lowest possible dose of inhaled glucocorticoids to treat patients with asthma and COPD and highlights the need for further research on this topic. PMID:27091558

  13. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  14. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  15. The Evolution of Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers from Early to Modern Devices.

    PubMed

    Roche, Nicolas; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard

    2016-08-01

    Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) are sometimes viewed as old-fashioned and as having been superseded by dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Here, we review the technological advances that characterize modern pMDIs, and consider how they can influence the effectiveness of drug delivery for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared with old chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based inhalers, many hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-driven pMDIs have more favorable plume characteristics such as a reduced velocity and a higher fine particle fraction; together, these advances have resulted in the development of pMDIs with reduced oropharyngeal deposition and increased lung deposition. In addition, the plume from many HFA-pMDIs is warmer, which may facilitate their use by patients; moreover, devices are equipped with dose counters, which improves their reliability. As well as reviewing the technological advances of pMDIs, we also discuss the importance of individualizing inhaler therapies to each patient by accounting for their personal preferences and natural breathing patterns. Because pMDIs and DPIs differ considerably in their handling characteristics, matching the right inhaler to the right patient is key to ensuring effective therapy and good compliance. Finally, the majority of patients can be trained successfully in the correct use of their pMDI; training and regular monitoring of inhalation technique are essential prerequisites for effective therapy. While the 'ideal inhaler' may not exist, pMDIs are an effective device option suitable for many patients. pMDIs, together with other types of devices, offer opportunities for the effective individualization of treatments. PMID:26824873

  16. Solid lipid budesonide microparticles for controlled release inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mezzena, Matteo; Scalia, Santo; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2009-12-01

    A solid lipid microparticle system containing budesonide was prepared by oil in water emulsification followed by spray drying. The solid lipid system was studied in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, crystallinity, thermal properties, aerosol performance, and dissolution/diffusion release. The microparticle system was also compared to conventional spray-dried crystalline and amorphous budesonide samples. The particle size distributions of the crystalline, amorphous, and solid lipid microparticles, measured by laser diffraction, were similar; however, the microparticle morphology was more irregular than the spray-dried drug samples. The thermal response of the solid lipid microparticles suggested polymorphic transition and melting of the lipid, glycerol behenate (at approximately 48 degrees C and approximately 72 degrees C). No budesonide melting or crystallisation peaks were observed, suggesting that the budesonide was integrated into the matrix. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the crystalline and amorphous budesonide were consistent with previous studies while the solid lipid microparticles showed two peaks, at approximately 21.3 and 23.5 2theta suggesting the metastable sub-alpha and primarily beta' form. Analysis of the in vitro diffusion/dissolution of the formulations was studied using a flow through model and curves analysed using difference/similarity factors and fitted using the Higuchi model. Regression analysis of this data set indicated differences in the t (0.5), where values of 49.7, 35.3, and 136.9 min were observed for crystalline, amorphous, and the solid lipid microparticles, respectively. The aerosol performance (<5 microm), measured by multistage liquid impinger, was 29.5%, 27.3%, and 21.1 +/- 0.6% for the crystalline, amorphous, and the solid lipid microparticles, respectively. This study has shown that solid lipid microparticles may provide a useful approach to controlled release respiratory therapy. PMID:19908147

  17. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. PMID:23786241

  18. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inhalation toxicity. 798.2450 Section 798.2450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2450 Inhalation toxicity. (a) Purpose. In the assessment...

  19. How to use an inhaler - with spacer

    MedlinePlus

    ... out through your mouth. After using your inhaler, rinse your mouth with water, gargle, and spit. This helps reduce side effects from your medicine. Keep your inhaler clean Look at the ... mouthpiece. Rinse only the mouthpiece and cap in warm water. ...

  20. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at www. whitehousedrugpolicy. gov. No.Even though household products like glue and air freshener have legal,useful ... A. A. Q.Since inhalants are found in household products,aren’t they safe? Q.Can inhalants make ...