Science.gov

Sample records for advanced stage stage

  1. Advanced two-stage compressor program design of inlet stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryce, C. A.; Paine, C. J.; Mccutcheon, A. R. S.; Tu, R. K.; Perrone, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of an inlet stage for a two-stage, 10/1 pressure ratio, 2 lb/sec flow rate compressor is discussed. Initially a performance comparison was conducted for an axial, mixed flow and centrifugal second stage. A modified mixed flow configuration with tandem rotors and tandem stators was selected for the inlet stage. The term conical flow compressor was coined to describe a particular type of mixed flow compressor configuration which utilizes axial flow type blading and an increase in radius to increase the work input potential. Design details of the conical flow compressor are described.

  2. Advanced staged combustion system for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Goyal, A.

    1993-12-31

    To respond to the increasing market need for a new generation of plants with a substantial improvement in efficiency and a reduction in capital cost, the Institute of Gas Technology has developed an advanced staged, fluidized-bed combustion system concept. The staged fluidized-bed partial combustor produces the fuel gas at about 1500 F. The fuel gas, after particulate removal, is directed to a gas turbine followed by a steam cycle. Adequate sulfur capture and solids waste stabilization are attained by separating calcination, carbonization, and gasification/combustion steps in the staged fluidized beds. Intermediate gas cooling is avoided during the process to maximize the power production. The coal-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the system approaches 49 percent, which exceeds the efficiencies of the other emerging technologies.

  3. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  4. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  5. Cyberknife treatment for advanced or terminal stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideo; Taniguch, Hiroyoshi; Nomura, Ryutaro; Sato, Kengo; Suzuki, Ichiro; Nakata, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of the Cyberknife treatment for patients with advanced or terminal stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients with HCC with extrahepatic metastasis or vascular or bile duct invasion were enrolled between May 2011 and June 2015. The Cyberknife was used to treat each lesion. Treatment response scores were based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. The trends of tumor markers, including alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and proteins induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II) were assessed. Prognostic factors for tumor response and tumor markers were evaluated with Fisher’s exact test and a logistic regression model. Survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with 95 lesions were enrolled. Based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification, all patients were either in the advanced or terminal stage of the disease. The target lesions were as follows: 52 were bone metastasis; 9, lung metastasis; 7, brain metastasis; 9, portal vein invasion; 4, hepatic vein invasion; 4, bile duct invasion; and 10 other lesion types. The response rate and disease control rate were 34% and 53%, respectively. None of the clinical factors correlated significantly with tumor response. Fiducial marker implantation was associated with better control of both AFP (HR = 0.152; 95%CI: 0.026-0.887; P = 0.036) and PIVKA II (HR = 0.035; 95%CI: 0.003-0.342; P = 0.004). The median survival time was 9 mo (95%CI: 5-15 mo). Terminal stage disease (HR = 9.809; 95%CI: 2.589-37.17, P < 0.001) and an AFP of more than 400 ng/mL (HR = 2.548; 95%CI: 1.070-6.068, P = 0.035) were associated with worse survival. A radiation dose higher than 30 Gy (HR = 0.274; 95%CI: 0.093-0.7541, P = 0.012) was associated with better survival. In the 52 cases of bone metastasis, 36 patients (69%) achieved pain relief. One patient had cerebral

  6. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  7. Exprimental Results of the First Two Stages of an Advanced Transonic Core Compressor Under Isolated and Multi-Stage Conditions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahst, Patricia S.; Kulkarni, Sameer; Sohn, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program calls for investigation of the technology barriers associated with improved fuel efficiency for large gas turbine engines. Under ERA, the highly loaded core compressor technology program attempts to realize the fuel burn reduction goal by increasing overall pressure ratio of the compressor to increase thermal efficiency of the engine. Study engines with overall pressure ratio of 60 to 70 are now being investigated. This means that the high pressure compressor would have to almost double in pressure ratio while keeping a high level of efficiency. NASA and GE teamed to address this challenge by testing the first two stages of an advanced GE compressor designed to meet the requirements of a very high pressure ratio core compressor. Previous test experience of a compressor which included these front two stages indicated a performance deficit relative to design intent. Therefore, the current rig was designed to run in 1-stage and 2-stage configurations in two separate tests to assess whether the bow shock of the second rotor interacting with the upstream stage contributed to the unpredicted performance deficit, or if the culprit was due to interaction of rotor 1 and stator 1. Thus, the goal was to fully understand the stage 1 performance under isolated and multi-stage conditions, and additionally to provide a detailed aerodynamic data set for CFD validation. Full use was made of steady and unsteady measurement methods to understand fluid dynamics loss source mechanisms due to rotor shock interaction and endwall losses. This paper will present the description of the compressor test article and its measured performance and operability, for both the single stage and two stage configurations. We focus the paper on measurements at 97% corrected speed with design intent vane setting angles.

  8. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research.

  9. Experimental Results of the First Two Stages of an Advanced Transonic Core Compressor Under Isolated and Multi-Stage Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahst, Patricia S.; Kulkarni, Sameer; Sohn, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program calls for investigation of the technology barriers associated with improved fuel efficiency of large gas turbine engines. Under ERA the task for a High Pressure Ratio Core Technology program calls for a higher overall pressure ratio of 60 to 70. This mean that the HPC would have to almost double in pressure ratio and keep its high level of efficiency. The challenge is how to match the corrected mass flow rate of the front two supersonic high reaction and high corrected tip speed stages with a total pressure ratio of 3.5. NASA and GE teamed to address this challenge by using the initial geometry of an advanced GE compressor design to meet the requirements of the first 2 stages of the very high pressure ratio core compressor. The rig was configured to run as a 2 stage machine, with Strut and IGV, Rotor 1 and Stator 1 run as independent tests which were then followed by adding the second stage. The goal is to fully understand the stage performances under isolated and multi-stage conditions and fully understand any differences and provide a detailed aerodynamic data set for CFD validation. Full use was made of steady and unsteady measurement methods to isolate fluid dynamics loss source mechanisms due to interaction and endwalls. The paper will present the description of the compressor test article, its predicted performance and operability, and the experimental results for both the single stage and two stage configurations. We focus the detailed measurements on 97 and 100 of design speed at 3 vane setting angles.

  10. The changing hope trajectory in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Seda, Julie S; Kardinal, Carl G

    2012-06-01

    As patients with advanced-stage cancer move from the initial diagnosis through treatment, remission, recurrence, and advanced-stage disease, the hope trajectory undergoes a dynamic transformation. By identifying the hope trajectory, nurses can help patients focus on obtainable hope objects while balancing the need to present a realistic prognosis. This, in turn, may help patients find meaning and purpose in advanced-stage cancer and facilitate realistic hope when faced with a life-threatening illness.

  11. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    PubMed

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  12. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  13. Serum markers in early-stage and locally advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lugowska, Iwona; Kowalska, Maria; Fuksiewicz, Małgorzata; Kotowicz, Beata; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Koseła-Paterczyk, Hanna; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The identification of prognostic factors in cutaneous melanoma allows choosing the most effective treatment, especially in group of patients with locoregional disease. Markers related to carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in particular have effect on the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical utility of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and YKL-40 in serum of melanoma patients at pathological stages I-III. We included 148 adult patients with melanoma. The median follow-up was 40 months. Disease recurrence was observed in 43 patients; 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 71.7%; 35 patients died; and the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. Concentrations of VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and YKL-40 were measured by ELISA kits. VEGF, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and YKL-40 were significantly higher in group of patients than in controls. Increased concentrations of TIMP-1 were related to patient survival, which in the group of lower and increased TIMP-1, disease-free survival amounted to 81 vs. 61% (p = 0.014) and overall survival -88 vs. 82% (p = 0.050), respectively. An increased concentration of YKL-40 was observed in 59% of patients with ulceration and in 26% of patients without ulceration (p = 0.012). We have found a clinically significant correlation between YKL-40 and MMP-9 (rho = 0.363; p = 0.004) as well as YKL-40 and VEGF (rho = 0.306; p = 0.018). In melanoma patients at stages I-III, the high concentrations of TIMP-1 in serum predicted adverse prognosis. YKL-40 was associated with ulceration of primary tumor, which is a very important prognostic factor.

  14. Advanced stages in the evolution of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, U. G.

    1991-06-01

    The method of analytical fits to numerical results of stellar evolutionary tracks is used to estimate the effects of using different codes and input physics, as well as to gauge the effects of uncertainties in the knowledge of the sun's chemical composition, mixing-length parameter, and mass-loss parameter. The sun is found to be in a region of parameter space where solar models with only slightly different input will lead to widely different evolutionary ends, spanning from the end of nuclear burning before the helium core flash can occur, to evolution until enough nucleosynthesized material has been dredged up to turn the sun into a carbon star with C/O approximating 1.6. The most likely final stage is an oxygen-rich red giant Mira variable with a period of around 250 days and a luminosity and temperature of around 5000 solar luminosities and 3000 K, respectively, at an age of 11.6 x 10 to the 9th yr. Between 35 and 55 percent of the mass will be lost via wind during the solar lifetime, primarily shortly before the helium core flash and at the asymptotic giant branch.

  15. Stage Posts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulsby, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty about identity and the future is occurring at a stage of life when people do question what they have achieved and what they still want to achieve. The notion of midlife crisis has been in existence for some time but recently its occurrence has coincided with opportunities to take early retirement or redundancy. This has meant that the…

  16. Nutrition Intervention for Advanced Stages of Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF For the goals of reducing diabetic kidney disease (DKD) onset and progression, approaches to nutritional therapy are a subject of much debate. This article discusses selected nutrients that have a role in affecting DKD outcomes and introduces application of newer, individualized concepts for healthful eating, as supported by clinical evidence relevant to patients with DKD. Selected aspects of management of advanced DKD are also reviewed. PMID:26300611

  17. Nutrition Intervention for Advanced Stages of Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Goldstein-Fuchs, Jordi; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-08-01

    IN BRIEF For the goals of reducing diabetic kidney disease (DKD) onset and progression, approaches to nutritional therapy are a subject of much debate. This article discusses selected nutrients that have a role in affecting DKD outcomes and introduces application of newer, individualized concepts for healthful eating, as supported by clinical evidence relevant to patients with DKD. Selected aspects of management of advanced DKD are also reviewed.

  18. Microvessel density and p53 mutations in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Niyati J; Geest, Koen De; Neff, Traci; Young, Barry De; Bender, David P; Ahmed, Amina; Smith, Brian J; Button, Anna; Goodheart, Michael J

    2013-04-30

    We planned to determine the relationship between angiogenesis and p53 mutational status in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Using 190 tumor samples from patients with stage III and IV ovarian cancer we performed p53 sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and CD31 microvessel density (MVD) determination. MVD was elevated in tumors with p53 null mutations compared to p53 missense mutation or no mutation. Disease recurrence was increased with higher MVD in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In adjusted analysis, p53 null mutation was associated with increased recurrence and worse overall survival. Worse overall survival and increased recurrence risk were also associated with the combination of CD31 MVD values >25 vessels/HPF and any p53 mutation. P53 mutation status and MVD may have prognostic significance in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Tumors with p53 null mutations are likely to be more vascular, contributing to decreased survival and increased recurrence probability.

  19. Statin as a Combined Therapy for Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Yu; Wang, Qian; Xu, Qiu-Hong; Yan, Li; Gao, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the great achievements in the treatment of advanced-stage ovarian cancer, it is still a severe condition with an unfavorable 5-year survival rate. Statins have been suggested to reduce the risk of several cancers beyond their cholesterol-lowing effects. However, the prognostic significance of statins in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer remains controversial. Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the association between statin intake and overall survival (OS) among patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by courses of intravenous chemotherapy were matched through a propensity score analysis. Results. A total of 60 propensity-matched patients were included. Women in statin group showed a similar OS than the nonstatin counterparts (P = 0.966), whereas residual tumor was significantly associated with better OS (P = 0.013) and was an independent factor that associated with OS (P = 0.002, hazard ratio = 5.460, and 95% confidence interval: 1.894 to 15.742) in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Our results suggested that statin usage was not associated with improved OS in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer undergoing surgery and chemotherapy. Considering the retrospective nature and the relative small sample size of the study, further prospective studies and random control trials are needed. PMID:27975064

  20. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  1. The Influence of Social Norms on Advancement Through Bystander Stages for Preventing Interpersonal Violence.

    PubMed

    Deitch-Stackhouse, Jacqueline; Kenneavy, Kristin; Thayer, Richard; Berkowitz, Alan; Mascari, Janine

    2015-10-01

    This research evaluates the impact of social norms on the advancement through the bystander stages toward prosocial (active) intervention in interpersonal violence (IPV): emotional abuse, physical violence, controlling behavior, sexual violence, and stalking. The influence of social norms on bystander behavior across stages and types of violence varies. Accurate social norms perceptions are associated with routine intervention, although social norms misperceptions are not always a strong deterrent to intervention. Interpretation of a violent situation as problematic predicts increased willingness to intervene. Implications for the development of social norms antiviolence campaigns and strategies for reducing barriers to prosocial intervention are discussed.

  2. Advanced Development Program for a 625 lbf thrust engine for Ares First Stage Roll Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Matt; Chenevert, Blake; Brewster, Gerry; Frei, Tom; Bullard, Brad; Fuller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    NASA's new Ares Launch Vehicle will require twelve thrusters to provide roll control of the vehicle during the first stage firing. All twelve roll control thrusters will be located at the inter-stage segment that separates the solid rocket booster first stage from the second stage. NASA selected a mono propellant hydrazine solution and as a result awarded Aerojet-General a contract in 2007 for an advanced development program for an MR-80- series 625 Ibf vacuum thrust monopropellant hydrazine thruster. This thruster has heritage dating back to the 1976 Viking Landers and most recently for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory. Prior to the Ares application, the MR-80-series thrusters had been equipped with throttle valves and not typically operated in pulse mode. The primary objective of the advanced development program was to increase the technology readiness level and retire major technical risks for the future flight qualification test program. Aerojet built on their heritage MR-80 rocket engine designs to achieve the design and performance requirements. Significant improvements to cost and lead-time were achieved by applying Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. AerojetGeneral has completed Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews, followed by two successful rocket engine development test programs. The test programs included qualification random vibration and firing lite that significantly exceed the flight qualification requirements. This paper discusses the advanced development program and the demonstrated capability of the MR-80C engine. Y;

  3. Early stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-12-14

    Evidence has now accumulated that colonoscopy and removal of polyps, especially during screening and surveillance programs, is effective in overall risk reduction for colon cancer. After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced adenomas and new early stage metachronous cancers. Early stage colon cancer can be defined as disease that appears to have been completely resected with no subsequent evidence of involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes or distant sites. This differs from the clinical setting of an apparent "curative" resection later pathologically upstaged following detection of malignant cells extending into adjacent organs, peritoneum, lymph nodes or other distant sites, including liver. This highly selected early stage colon cancer group remains at high risk for subsequent colon polyps and metachronous colon cancer. Precise staging is important, not only for assessing the need for adjuvant chemotherapy, but also for patient selection for continued surveillance. With advanced stages of colon cancer and a more guarded outlook, repeated surveillance should be limited. In future, novel imaging technologies (e.g., confocal endomicroscopy), coupled with increased pathological recognition of high risk markers for lymph node involvement (e.g., "tumor budding") should lead to improved staging and clinical care.

  4. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  5. Stages and Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Understand Behaviors Aggression | Agitation Confusion | Depression Hallucinations | Suspicion Sleep Issues and Sundowning Repetition | Wandering Get Help 24/ ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage IIA, IIB, and stage II primary peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that ...

  7. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  8. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced-Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    There is an urgent need to develop effective therapies for the treatment of advanced stage prostate cancer (PrCa) due to their limited or no response to...metastatic PrCa. Our results illustrated that ORM treatment effectively inhibited invasion and motility of PrCa cells. Further, we observed that ORM... effectively inhibits metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1) in PrCa cells. MTA1 has been reported to be very tightly associated with cancer metastasis in

  9. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tara A; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives.

  10. Controversies on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-12-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma, even in advanced-stage, is a highly curable malignancy, but treatment is associated with short-term toxicity and long-term side effects. Early predictive markers are required to identify those patients who do not require the full-length standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy de-escalation) and those patients who will not be cured by standard therapy (and thus qualify for therapy escalation). Multiple trials have assessed the value of (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after a few cycles of chemotherapy (also known as 'interim FDG-PET') in predicting outcome in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, multiple interim FDG-PET-adapted trials, in which patients with positive interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to escalated therapies, and patients with negative interim FDG-PET scans are assigned to de-escalated therapies, have recently been published or are currently ongoing, with generally heterogeneous results. The present article reports the currently available evidence (and controversies) on the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with positive and negative interim FDG-PET findings following continuation of standard chemotherapy or escalated/de-escalated therapy.

  11. Oral squamous cell carcinoma among Yemenis: Onset in young age and presentation at advanced stage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaya, Maha; Abdulhuq, Mahmoud; Al-Mandili, Ahmad; Al-Anazi, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide. Up to 90% of oral cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The data on oral SCC in Yemen are lacking. The objective of this study therefore was to describe and analyze the demographic, clinical and histological characteristics of Yemeni patients with oral SCC. Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, two sets of retrospective data for Yemeni cancer patients were obtained officially by two different registries. Patients with oral SCC were included. Their ages were dichotomized using 40 and 45 years alternately as individual cut-points for young and old patients. The patients` demographic, clinical and histological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Results: There were 457 Yemenis with oral SCC; 253 patients (55.4%) were men. The overall mean age was 58.15±14.11 years. The tongue was the most affected oral sub-site accounting for 53% of the reported cases. The well and moderately differentiated oral SCC accounted for 55.5% and 25.6% of the total cases respectively. Noteworthy, 62 patients (14%) were affected by the age of ?40; this increased to 105 patients (23%) aged ?45 years. Additionally, a high proportion of oral SCC patients (62%, 283) were diagnosed at advanced tumor stages (regional extension or metastasized). The distributions of histological grades and tumor stages in young and old patients were significantly different (P=0.006 and 0.026 respectively). Conclusion: The relative frequency of oral SCC among Yemeni young people is high. Unfortunately, most of oral SCC patients in Yemen were diagnosed at advanced stage. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Yemen, young patients, advanced stage. PMID:24558559

  12. Post-operative radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Panwala, Kathryn; Holland, John

    2002-11-01

    Between 1985 and 1999, 43 patients with locally-advanced, resectable oropharyngeal cancer were treated with combined surgery and post-operative radiation therapy (RT) at Oregon Health and Science University. Five patients (12 per cent) had Stage III disease and 38 patients (88 per cent) had Stage IV disease. All patients had gross total resections of the primary tumour. Thirty-seven patients had neck dissections for regional disease. RT consisted of a mean tumour-bed dose of 63.0 Gy delivered in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions over a mean of 49 days. At three- and five-years, the actuarial local control was 96 per cent and the actuarial local/regional control was 80 per cent. The three- and five-year actuarial rates of distant metastases were 41 per cent and 46 per cent, respectively. The actuarial overall survival at three- and five-years was 41 per cent and 34 per cent, respectively. The actuarial rates of progression-free survival were 49 per cent at three-years and 45 per cent at five years. Combined surgery and post-operative RT for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer results in excellent local/regional control. This particular group of patients experienced a high-rate of developing distant metastases.

  13. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. 5: Acoustic final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Riloff, N., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Q2S(quiet two-stage) fan is a 0.836m (32.9 in.) diameter model of the STF 433 engine fan, selected in a 1972 study for an Advanced Technology Transport (ATT) airplane. Noise-control features include: low tip speed, moderate stage pressure rise, large blade-vane spacings, no inlet guide vanes, and optimum blade and vane numbers. Tests were run on the baseline Q2S fan with standard inlet and discharge ducts. Further tests were made of a translating centerbody sonic inlet device and treated discharge ducts. Results were scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan size for comparison with current two-stage fans, and were also scaled to STF 433 fan size to compare calculated ATT flyover noise with FAR 36 limits. Baseline Q2S results scaled to JT8D and JT3D engine fan sizes showed substantial noise reductions. Calculated unsuppressed baseline ATT flyovers averaged about 2.5 EPNdB below FAR 36 limits. Using measured sonic inlet results, scaled baseline Q2S fan results, and calculated attenuations for a 1975 technology duct liner, projected flyover noise calculations for the ATT averaged about FAR 36 limits minus 10 EPNdB. Advances in suppression technology required to meet the 1985 goal of FAR 36 limits minus 20 EPNdB are discussed.

  14. In search of an advance directive that works for end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Bruce

    2006-10-01

    Although loss, disability, and death are constant possibilities for any end-stage renal disease patient, very few have planned for the last of life. Currently available Advance Directives (ADs) are refusal of specific therapies in only specific but nebulous circumstances. They fail to provide positive guidance for a patient's remaining time. Without addressing goals, quality of life, reversibility of medical problems, and desired end-of-life (EOL) care, such ADs are useless. End-stage renal disease providers are generally untrained and unsupported in offering guidance. Financial, emotional, and structural factors collude to justify ignoring EOL planning. Several alternative ADs are offered, along with a goal-directed approach to EOL counseling for patients and staff.

  15. A Two Stage Solution Procedure for Production Planning System with Advance Demand Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Hasuike, Takashi; Okuhara, Koji

    We model for ‘Naiji System’ which is a unique corporation technique between a manufacturer and suppliers in Japan. We propose a two stage solution procedure for a production planning problem with advance demand information, which is called ‘Naiji’. Under demand uncertainty, this model is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic programming problem which minimizes the sum of production cost and inventory holding cost subject to a probabilistic constraint and some linear production constraints. By the convexity and the special structure of correlation matrix in the problem where inventory for different periods is not independent, we propose a solution procedure with two stages which are named Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) and Variable Mesh Neighborhood Search (VMNS) based on meta-heuristics. It is shown that the proposed solution procedure is available to get a near optimal solution efficiently and practical for making a good master production schedule in the suppliers.

  16. Advanced Strategies for End-Stage Heart Failure: Combining Regenerative Approaches with LVAD, a New Horizon?

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Cheyenne C. S.; Ramjankhan, Faiz Z.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the improved treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the population with end-stage heart failure (HF) is progressively growing. The scarcity of the gold standard therapy, heart transplantation, demands novel therapeutic approaches. For patients awaiting transplantation, ventricular-assist devices have been of great benefit on survival. To allow explantation of the assist device and obviate heart transplantation, sufficient and durable myocardial recovery is necessary. However, explant rates so far are low. Combining mechanical circulatory support with regenerative therapies such as cell (-based) therapy and biomaterials might give rise to improved long-term results. Although synergistic effects are suggested with mechanical support and stem cell therapy, evidence in both preclinical and clinical setting is lacking. This review focuses on advanced and innovative strategies for the treatment of end-stage HF and furthermore appraises clinical experience with combined strategies. PMID:25905105

  17. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... Three-panel drawing of stage IA, IB, and IC; the first panel (stage IA) shows cancer inside ... cancer inside both ovaries. The third panel (stage IC) shows cancer inside both ovaries, and one ovary ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  3. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  4. Long-Term Results of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced N2-3 Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Chen, Meng; Wu, Jing; Xu, Jian-Hua; Qian, Pu-Dong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Xue-Song; Zhu, Huan-Feng; Gu, Jia-Jia; Wu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Ye-wei; He, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background N-stage is related to distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of different nedaplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in advanced N2-3 stage NPC patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods Between April 2005 and December 2009, a total of 128 patients with N2-3 advanced NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with IMRT concurrent with 2 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of either nedaplatin plus paclitaxel (NP group, n = 67) or nedaplatin plus fluorouracil and paclitaxel (NFP group, n = 61). Two to four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were then administered every 21 days following concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Results With a median follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for all patients were 81.4%, 71.5%, 87.8% and 82.0%, respectively. No significant difference in PFS (66.6% vs. 76.7%, P = 0.212) and LRRFS rates (89.0% vs. 86.3%, P = 0.664) was observed between the NP and NFP groups. The 5-year OS (75.4% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.046) and DMFS (75.1% vs. 89.0%, P = 0.042) rate were superior in the NFP group compared with the NP group. The NFP group had a higher incidence of grade 3–4 acute toxicities including bone marrow suppression (leukopenia: χ2 = 3.935, P = 0.047; anemia: χ2 = 9.760, P = 0.002; thrombocytopenia: χ2 = 8.821, P = 0.003), and both liver and renal dysfunction (χ2 = 5.206, P = 0.023) compared with the NP group. Late toxicities were moderate and no difference was observed between the two groups. Conclusion IMRT concurrent with nedaplatin-based chemotherapy is an advocated regimen for patients with advanced N2-3 stage NPC. Patients with advanced N2-3 stage may be better candidates for the NFP regimen although this regimen was associated with a high acute

  5. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 2: Aerodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data from static tests of a two-stage advanced technology fan designed to minimize noise are presented. Fan design conditions include delivery of 209.1kg/sec/sq m (42.85 lbm/sec/sq ft) specific corrected flow at an overall pressure ratio of 1.9 and an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent. The 0.836m (2.74ft) diameter first stage rotor has a hub/tip ratio of 0.4 and 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec) design tip speed. In addition to the moderate tip speed and pressure rise per stage, other noise control design features involve widely spaced blade rows and proper selection of blade-vane ratios. Aerodynamic data are presented for tests with unifrom and with hub and tip radially distorted inlet flow. Aerodynamic data are also presented for tests of this fan with acoustic treatments, including acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic ring, and a translating centerbody sonic inlet device. A complete tabulation of the overall performance data, the blade element data, and the power spectral density information relating to turbulence levels generated by the sonic inlet obtained during these tests is included. For vol. 1, see N74-33789.

  6. Transcriptome portrait of cellulose-enriched flax fibres at advanced stage of specialization.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Oleg; Mokshina, Natalia; Gorshkov, Vladimir; Chemikosova, Svetlana; Gogolev, Yuri; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    Functional specialization of cells is among the most fundamental processes of higher organism ontogenesis. The major obstacle to studying this phenomenon in plants is the difficulty of isolating certain types of cells at defined stages of in planta development for in-depth analysis. A rare opportunity is given by the developed model system of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) phloem fibres that can be purified from the surrounding tissues at the stage of the tertiary cell wall deposition. The performed comparison of the whole transcriptome profile in isolated fibres and other portions of the flax stem, together with fibre metabolism characterization, helped to elucidate the general picture of the advanced stage of plant cell specialization and to reveal novel participants potentially involved in fibre metabolism regulation and cell wall formation. Down-regulation of all genes encoding proteins involved in xylan and lignin synthesis and up-regulation of genes for the specific set of transcription factors transcribed during tertiary cell wall formation were revealed. The increased abundance of transcripts for several glycosyltransferases indicated the enzymes that may be involved in synthesis of fibre-specific version of rhamnogalacturonan I.

  7. Advances in high-rate anaerobic treatment: staging of reactor systems.

    PubMed

    van Lier, J B; van der Zee, F P; Tan, N C; Rebac, S; Kleerebezem, R

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) is considered as the most cost-effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. Particularly the development of high-rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times are uncoupled from solids retention times, has led to a world-wide acceptance of AnWT. In the last decade up to the present, the application potentials of AnWT are further explored. Research shows the feasibility of anaerobic reactors under extreme conditions, such as low and high temperatures. Also toxic and/or recalcitrant wastewaters, that were previously believed not to be suitable for anaerobic processes, are now effectively treated. The recent advances are made possible by adapting the conventional anaerobic high-rate concept to the more extreme conditions. Staged anaerobic reactor concepts show advantages under non-optimal temperature conditions as well as during the treatment of chemical wastewater. In other situations, a staged anaerobic-aerobic approach is required for biodegradation of specific pollutants, e.g. the removal of dyes from textile processing wastewaters. The current paper illustrates the benefits of reactor staging and the yet un-exploited potentials of high-rate AnWT.

  8. The principles of cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, James; Gospodarowicz, Mary; O’Sullivan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The anatomic disease extent or tumour stage of a cancer at diagnosis as a determinant of prognosis is discussed. The importance of cancer stage in individual patient prognosis and determination of treatment is reviewed as well as its value in research and cancer control activities. The conflict between the need for stability of cancer stage definitions over time and the need to evolve with advances in medicine are examined. The ecancer elearning modules on Cancer Stage are introduced. PMID:28101141

  9. Molecular targeted therapy in the treatment of advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; van Zanwijk, Nico; Soo, Ross A

    2015-04-01

    Historically, patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with chemotherapy alone, but a therapeutic plateau has been reached. Advances in the understanding of molecular genetics have led to the recognition of multiple molecularly distinct subsets of NSCLC. This in turn has led to the development of rationally directed molecular targeted therapy, leading to improved clinical outcomes. Tumour genotyping for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement has meant chemotherapy is no longer given automatically as first-line treatment but reserved for when patients do not have a 'druggable' driver oncogene. In this review, we will address the current status of clinically relevant driver mutations and emerging new molecular subsets in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and the role of targeted therapy and mechanisms of acquired resistance to targeted therapy.

  10. Modified approach for extraperitoneal laparoscopic staging for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Gil-Moreno, A; Maffuz, A; Díaz-Feijoo, B; Puig, O; Martínez-Palones, J M; Pérez, A; García, A; Xercavins, J

    2007-12-01

    Describe a modified approach to the technique for staging laparoscopic extraperitoneal aortic and common iliac lymph node dissection for locally advanced cervical cancer.Retrospective, nonrandomized clinical study. (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), setting in an acute-care, teaching hospital. Thirty-six patients with locally advanced cervical cancer underwent laparoscopic surgical staging via extraperitoneal approach with the conventional or the modified technique from August 2001 through September 2004. Clinical outcomes in 23 patients who were operated on with the conventional technique using index finger for first trocar entrance; 12 patients with the modified technique using direct trocar entrance, were compared. One patient was excluded due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Technique, baseline characteristics, histopathologic variables and surgical outcome were measured. There were no significant differences in patients basal characteristics on comparative analysis between conventional and modified technique. With our proposed modified technique, we obtained a reduced surgical procedure duration and blood loss. The proposed modified surgical technique offers some advantages, is an easier approach because the parietal pelvic peritoneum is elastic and this helps to avoid its disruption at time of trocar insertion, size of incision is shorter, we achieved no CO2 leak through the trocar orifice, and wound suture is fast and simple.

  11. Dual-Fuel Propulsion in Single-Stage Advanced Manned Launch System Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit

    1995-01-01

    As part of the United States Advanced Manned Launch System study to determine a follow-on, or complement, to the Space Shuttle, a reusable single-stage-to-orbit concept utilizing dual-fuel rocket propulsion has been examined. Several dual-fuel propulsion concepts were investigated. These include: a separate-engine concept combining Russian RD-170 kerosene-fueled engines with space shuttle main engine-derivative engines: the kerosene- and hydrogen-fueled Russian RD-701 engine; and a dual-fuel, dual-expander engine. Analysis to determine vehicle weight and size characteristics was performed using conceptual-level design techniques. A response-surface methodology for multidisciplinary design was utilized to optimize the dual-fuel vehicles with respect to several important propulsion-system and vehicle design parameters, in order to achieve minimum empty weight. The tools and methods employed in the analysis process are also summarized. In comparison with a reference hydrogen- fueled single-stage vehicle, results showed that the dual-fuel vehicles were from 10 to 30% lower in empty weight for the same payload capability, with the dual-expander engine types showing the greatest potential.

  12. Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2003-12-16

    A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

  13. Prognostic factors of advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, Jihen; Ben Safta, Boutheina; Zaibi, Haifa; Dhahri, Besma; Baccar, Mohamed Ali; Azzabi, Saloua

    2016-05-01

    Background Lung cancer is the main cause of death from cancer in the world. The 5-year survival is about 15%. Despite the progress of medicine the mortality rate decreased only marginally. This poor prognosis is due to late diagnosis. Aim To evaluate overall survival and prognostic factors in patients locally advanced or metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Retrospective study including 180 patients with non-small cell lung cancer hospitalized in the department of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis between January 2007 and December 2014. Results The mean age was 61.5 years with a male predominance (93.3%). The median overall survival was 6 months. The poor prognostic factors were the performans status (PS) and early delays of management (<30 days). The factors that improve survival were surgical treatment and delays of management more than 45 days.  Conclusion The prognostic factors in locally advanced and metastatic NSLC in our patient were: PS, management delay and treatment. These factors should be considered in management of patient with advanced stage NSCLC.

  14. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 5: Fan acoustics. Section 1: Results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic tests and data analysis for a 0.508-scale fan vehicle of a 111,300 newton (25,000 pound) thrust, full-size engine, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single-stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec (1,650 ft/sec) to achieve the desired pressure ratio in a single-stage fan with low radius ratio (0.38), and to maintain adequate stall margin. The fan has 44 tip-shrouded rotor blades and 90 outlet guide vanes. The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise was accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels (20 EPNdB) below current Federal Air Regulation noise standards for a full-scale fan at the takeoff, cutback, and approach conditions. The suppression goal of FAR 36-20 was not reached, but improvements in the technology of both front and aft fan-noise suppression were realized. The suppressed fan noise was shown to be consistent with the proposed federal regulation on aircraft noise.

  15. Long-Term Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Advanced Gallbladder Cancer: Focus on the Advanced T Stage

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haoxin; Song, Huwei; Zhao, Yaling; Zhang, Guanjun; Li, Wenzhi; Ma, Li; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Radical resection is an effective therapeutic method to increase the survival rate of patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC). In addition to the surgical approach, the relationships between various clinicopathologic factors and the outcome of patients with GBC remain controversial. Methods Clinical and laboratory examination characteristics, pathological and surgical data, and post-operative survival time of 338 patients with advanced GBC who received treatment at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China from January 2008 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Factors influencing the prognosis of GBC after surgery were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results The overall survival rates for curative resection patients were significantly greater than those for non-curative resection patients (1-,3-,5-year survival rate and mean-survival time: 59.0%, 47.3%, 44.3% and 22.0 months vs. 12.7%, 8.3%, 7.7% and 3.0 months) (P < 0.001). For the curative resection patients, positive margin, lymph node metastasis, poorly pathological differentiation and the presence of ascites were all independent risk factors for poor prognosis. For patients with T3 stage, neither segmentectomy of IVb and V nor common bile duct resection improved the prognosis (P = 0.867 and P = 0.948). For patients with T4 stage, aggressive curative resection improved the prognosis (P = 0.007). Conclusions An advanced T stage does not preclude curative resection. Positive margin, lymph node metastasis, poorly pathological differentiation and the presence of ascites are all independent risk factors for poor prognosis in the curative intent resection patients. The range of liver resection and whether common bile duct resection is performed do not influence the prognosis as long as R0 resection is achieved. PMID:27846279

  16. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  17. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  18. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  19. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  20. Stages of Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serosal (outer) layer. Between these layers is supporting connective tissue . Primary gallbladder cancer starts in the inner layer ... has spread beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle. Stage IIIA In stage IIIA , ...

  1. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage II endometrial cancer. Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside ... uterus. In stage II , cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix , but has not spread outside ...

  2. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 ...

  5. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  8. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 1: Aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Younghans, J. L.; Little, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec 11,650 ft/sec). The fan and booster components are designed in a scale model flow size convenient for testing with existing facility and vehicle hardware. The design corrected flow per unit annulus area at the fan face is 215 kg/sec sq m (44.0 lb m/sec sq ft) with a hub-tip ratio of 0.38 at the leading edge of the fan rotor. This results in an inlet corrected airflow of 117.9 kg/sec (259.9 lb m/sec) for the selected rotor tip diameter if 90.37 cm (35.58 in.). The variable geometry inlet is designed utilizing a combination of high throat Mach number and acoustic treatment in the inlet diffuser for noise suppression (hybrid inlet). A variable fan exhaust nozzle was assumed in conjunction with the variable inlet throat area to limit the required area change of the inlet throat at approach and hence limit the overall diffusion and inlet length. The fan exit duct design was primarily influenced by acoustic requirements, including length of suppressor wall treatment; length, thickness and position on a duct splitter for additional suppressor treatment; and duct surface Mach numbers.

  9. Single stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 3: Acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Mishler, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec (1,650 ft/sec). The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise is accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels (20 EPNdB) below current Federal Air Regulation noise standards for a full-scale fan at the takeoff, cutback, and approach conditions. Predicted unsuppressed and suppressed fore and aft maximum perceived noise levels indicate that the cutback condition is the most critical with respect to the goal, which is probably unattainable for that condition. This is also true for aft radiated noise in the approach condition.

  10. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fangning; Qin, Xiaojian; Zhang, Guiming; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Hailiang; Dai, Bo; Shi, Guohai; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data suggest coronary artery disease shares etiology with prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this work was to assess the effects of several serum markers reported in cardiovascular disease on PCa. Serum markers (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], apolipoprotein [apo] B100, and apoB48) in peripheral blood samples from 50 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) with localized or lymph node metastatic PCa were investigated in this study. Twenty-five samples from normal individuals were set as controls. We first conducted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to select candidate markers that were significantly different between these patients and controls. Then, the clinical relevance between OLR1 (the ox-LDL receptor) expression and PCa was analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We also investigated the function of ox-LDL in PCa cell lines in vitro. Phosphorylation protein chips were used to analyze cell signaling pathways in ox-LDL-treated PC-3 cells. The ox-LDL level was found to be significantly correlated with N stage of prostate cancer. OLR1 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis in the TCGA cohort. In vitro, ox-LDL stimulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of LNCaP and PC-3 in a dose-dependent manner. The results of phosphoprotein microarray illustrated that ox-LDL could influence multiple signaling pathways of PC-3. Activation of proliferation promoting signaling pathways (including β-catenin, cMyc, NF-κB, STAT1, STAT3) as well as apoptosis-associating signaling pathways (including p27, caspase-3) demonstrated that ox-LDL had complicated effects on prostate cancer. Increased serum ox-LDL level and OLR1 expression may indicate advanced-stage PCa and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, ox-LDL could stimulate PCa proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro.

  11. Results of two different surgical techniques in the treatment of advanced-stage Freiberg's disease

    PubMed Central

    Özkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Alemdar, Celil; Arslan, Hüseyin; Boğatekin, Ferit; Kişin, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Freiberg's disease is an osteochondrosis most commonly seen in adolescent women and characterized by pain, swelling and motion restriction in the second metatarsal. The early stages of this disease can be managed with semirigid orthoses, metatarsal bars and short leg walking cast. Number of operative methods are suggested which can be used depending on the pathophysiology of the disease, including abnormal biomechanics, joint congruence and degenerative process. We evaluated the outcomes of the patients with Freiberg's disease who were treated with dorsal closing-wedge osteotomy and resection of the metatarsal head. Patients and Methods: 16 patients (11 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 24.5 (range 13–49 years) years who underwent dorsal closing wedge osteotomy or resection of the metatarsal head were included in this retrospective study. Second metatarsal was affected in 13 and third metatarsal in three patients. According to the Smillie's classification system, ten patients had type IV osteonecrosis and six patients had type V. The results of the patients were evaluated using the lesser metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal (LMPI) scale. Results: According to the LMPI scale, the postoperative scores for the osteotomy and excision groups were 86 (range 64–100) and 72.6 (range 60–85), respectively. In the osteotomy group, mean passive flexion restriction was 18° (range 0°–35°) and mean passive extension restriction was 12° (range 0°–25°). Mean metatarsal shortening was 2.2 mm (range 2–4 mm) in the osteotomy group as opposed to 9.8 mm (range 7–14 mm) in the excision group. Significant pain relief was obtained in both groups following the surgery. Conclusions: The decision of performing osteotomy or resection arthroplasty in the patients with advanced-stage Freiberg's disease should be based on the joint injury and the patients should be informed about the cosmetic problems like shortening which may arise from resection. PMID:26955180

  12. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  13. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  14. Three stage rocket vehicle with parallel staging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A three stage rocket vehicle has a large forward propellant tank and a small aft propellant tank axially aligned. Secured to the rear end of the aft propellant tank is an engine mount structure carrying rocket engines. Offset and secured to the propellant tanks is a payload structure. The propellants from the large forward tank are fed into the aft propellant tank. This arrangement enables the vehicle to parallel stage its use of engines and components and results in significant payload capability. The design and components fully utilize existing space shuttle elements and tooling.

  15. A review of the Mark 48-F, 3.50 pitch diameter, 2-stage reaction turbine designed for the staged combustion cycle requirements of an advanced space engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macaluso, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The Mark 48-F two-stage reaction turbine was designed as a component for an advanced space engine propellant feed system, high-pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump. The turbine total inlet temperature and total inlet pressure were designed to be 1860 R and 3420 psia, respectively. At a design speed of 95,000 rpm, the turbine will develop 2543 horsepower with LO2/LH2 working fluid. The aerothermodynamic performance of a prototype turbine assembly was evaluated with gaseous nitrogen working fluid. Turbine performance was evaluated at turbine velocity ratios ranging from 0.250 to 0.782, and turbine speeds up to 25,250 rpm. Turbine test efficiency at the design velocity ratio of 0.483 was found to be 79.5% total-to-total.

  16. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  17. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  18. HLA-G Expression and Role in Advanced-Stage Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Caocci, G.; Greco, M.; Fanni, D.; Senes, G.; Littera, R.; Lai, S.; Risso, P.; Carcassi, C.; Faa, G.; La Nasa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-classical human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G class I molecules have an important role in tumor immune escape mechanisms. We investigated HLA-G expression in lymphonode biopsies taken from 8 controls and 20 patients with advanced-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), in relationship to clinical outcomes and the HLA-G 14-basepair (14-bp) deletion-insertion (del-ins) polymorphism. Lymphnode tissue sections were stained using a specific murine monoclonal HLA-G antibody. HLA-G protein expression was higher in cHL patients than controls. In the group of PET-2 positive (positron emission tomography carried out after 2 cycles of standard chemotherapy) patients with a 2-year progression-free survival rate (PFS) of 40%, we observed high HLA-G protein expression within the tumor microenvironment with low expression on Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Conversely, PET-2 negative patients with a PFS of 86% had higher HLA-G protein expression levels on HRS cells compared to the microenvironment. Lower expression on HRS cells was significantly associated with the HLA-G 14-bp ins/ins genotype. These preliminary data suggest that the immunohistochemical pattern of HLA-G protein expression may represent a useful tool for a tailored therapy in patients with cHL, based on the modulation of HLA-G expression in relation to achievement of negative PET-2. PMID:27349312

  19. Glacier advance during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Swanger, Kate M.; Lamp, Jennifer L.; Winckler, Gisela; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Marchant, David R.

    2017-01-01

    We mapped six distinct glacial moraines alongside Stocking Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Stocking Glacier is one of several alpine glaciers in the Dry Valleys fringed by multiple cold-based drop moraines. To determine the age of the outermost moraine, we collected 10 boulders of Ferrar Dolerite along the crest of the moraine and analyzed mineral separates of pyroxene for cosmogenic 3He. On the basis of these measurements, the exposure age for the outermost moraine is 391 ± 35 ka. This represents the first documented advance of alpine glacier ice in the Dry Valleys during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. At this time, Stocking Glacier was ~20–30% larger than today. The cause of ice expansion is uncertain, but most likely it is related to increased atmospheric temperature and precipitation, associated with reduced ice extent in the nearby Ross Embayment. The data suggest complex local environmental response to warm climates in Antarctica and have implications for glacial response to Holocene warming. The study also demonstrates the potential for using alpine glacier chronologies in the Transantarctic Mountains as proxies for retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment. PMID:28139676

  20. The prognostic relevance of tumor associated macrophages in advanced stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jakovic, Ljubomir R; Mihaljevic, Biljana S; Perunicic Jovanovic, Maja D; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Andjelic, Bosko M; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Z

    2011-10-01

    Although the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been improved, distinguishing reliable prognostic biomarkers could better stratify patients for more effective treatment. We analyzed the prognostic relevance of CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) by immunohistochemical analysis at diagnosis and standard clinical parameters in 52 ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine)-treated patients with advanced stage classical HL (cHL). Patients with >25% CD68+ TAMs compared to those with ≤25% had worse 5-year overall survival (45% vs. 77%, log-rank p = 0.019) and showed a trend toward shorter 5-year event-free survival (51% vs. 71%, log-rank p = 0.19). Additionally, no significant correlation with selected clinical features was found. Significantly shorter 5-year overall survival was associated with International Prognostic Score (IPS) >2, bulky disease, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (log-rank test, p = 0.003, p = 0.049, p = 0.007, respectively). In multivariate analysis, increased CD68+TAMs, IPS >2, and bulky disease were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival (Cox multivariate model, p = 0.006, p = 0.007, p = 0.013, respectively). Tumor-associated macrophages represent a potential prognostic biomarker which could contribute to better risk stratification of patients with cHL.

  1. Glacier advance during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, Kate M.; Lamp, Jennifer L.; Winckler, Gisela; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Marchant, David R.

    2017-01-01

    We mapped six distinct glacial moraines alongside Stocking Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Stocking Glacier is one of several alpine glaciers in the Dry Valleys fringed by multiple cold-based drop moraines. To determine the age of the outermost moraine, we collected 10 boulders of Ferrar Dolerite along the crest of the moraine and analyzed mineral separates of pyroxene for cosmogenic 3He. On the basis of these measurements, the exposure age for the outermost moraine is 391 ± 35 ka. This represents the first documented advance of alpine glacier ice in the Dry Valleys during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. At this time, Stocking Glacier was ~20–30% larger than today. The cause of ice expansion is uncertain, but most likely it is related to increased atmospheric temperature and precipitation, associated with reduced ice extent in the nearby Ross Embayment. The data suggest complex local environmental response to warm climates in Antarctica and have implications for glacial response to Holocene warming. The study also demonstrates the potential for using alpine glacier chronologies in the Transantarctic Mountains as proxies for retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment.

  2. Glacier advance during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Swanger, Kate M; Lamp, Jennifer L; Winckler, Gisela; Schaefer, Joerg M; Marchant, David R

    2017-01-31

    We mapped six distinct glacial moraines alongside Stocking Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Stocking Glacier is one of several alpine glaciers in the Dry Valleys fringed by multiple cold-based drop moraines. To determine the age of the outermost moraine, we collected 10 boulders of Ferrar Dolerite along the crest of the moraine and analyzed mineral separates of pyroxene for cosmogenic (3)He. On the basis of these measurements, the exposure age for the outermost moraine is 391 ± 35 ka. This represents the first documented advance of alpine glacier ice in the Dry Valleys during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. At this time, Stocking Glacier was ~20-30% larger than today. The cause of ice expansion is uncertain, but most likely it is related to increased atmospheric temperature and precipitation, associated with reduced ice extent in the nearby Ross Embayment. The data suggest complex local environmental response to warm climates in Antarctica and have implications for glacial response to Holocene warming. The study also demonstrates the potential for using alpine glacier chronologies in the Transantarctic Mountains as proxies for retreat of grounded glacier ice in the Ross Embayment.

  3. A Clinicoimmunohistopathologic Study of Anetoderma: Is Protruding Type More Advanced in Stage Than Indented Type?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwan Ho; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Park, Chul Jong; Yu, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical and histopathologic classification of anetoderma are not well characterized. Objective. We aimed to investigate the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of anetoderma and to correlate clinical phenotypes with immunohistopathologic findings. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with anetoderma and performed immunohistochemistry for elastin, fibrillin-1, metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- (TIMP-) 1 and TIMP-2. Results. Protruding type (n = 17) had a longer disease duration and more severe loss of elastin, without changes in fibrillin, than indented type (n = 13). MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed significantly higher expressions in the dermis compared with controls (p < 0.05). MMP-7 and MMP-12 showed little expressions in both anetoderma and control tissue. TIMP-1 was highly expressed in anetoderma lesions and controls. TIMP-2 expression was variable. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that protruding type anetoderma may represent a more advanced stage and that MMP-2 and MMP-9 could be responsible for elastic fiber degradation in anetoderma. PMID:28116317

  4. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. 4: Aerodynamic final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Keenan, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A two-stage research fan was tested to provide technology for designing a turbofan engine for an advanced, long range commercial transport having a cruise Mach number of 0.85 -0.9 and a noise level 20 EPNdB below current requirements. The fan design tip speed was 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec);the hub/tip ratio was 0.4; the design pressure ratio was 1.9; and the design specific flow was 209.2 kg/sec/sq m(42.85lbm/sec/sq ft). Two fan-versions were tested: a baseline configuration, and an acoustically treated configuration with a sonic inlet device. The baseline version was tested with uniform inlet flow and with tip-radial and hub-radial inlet flow distortions. The baseline fan with uniform inlet flow attained an efficiency of 86.4% at design speed, but the stall margin was low. Tip-radial distortion increased stall margin 4 percentage points at design speed and reduced peak efficiency one percentage point. Hub-radial distortion decreased stall margin 4 percentage points at all speeds and reduced peak efficiency at design speed 8 percentage points. At design speed, the sonic inlet in the cruise position reduced stall margin one percentage point and efficiency 1.5 to 4.5 percentage points. The sonic inlet in the approach position reduced stall margin 2 percentage points.

  5. Development of advanced heat pump. Part 2: Preliminary test of two-stage compression heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsubo, Tetsushiro; Saikawa, Michinori; Hamamatsu, Teruhide

    1988-03-01

    A heat pump driven by electricity is one of the excellent electricity utilization systems and is promoted to be widely used. An advanced heat pump has been investigated to enlarge its applications in the field of hot water supply for domestic use which will be competitive with city gas and air conditioning in large scale buildings. An experimental unit with two-stage compression system was designed, which has the multi-function of air conditioning and hot water supply, and the trial system was fabricated. In the design, followings were considered; cooperative operations of two compressors by inverter driving, the temperature conditions of both the air for the air conditioning and the heat source, additional setting of the intermediate heat exchanger. The test operation was carried out with checking the start up procedure, the control sequence and so on. The probability of five operation modes: cooling, heating, hot water supply, cooling/hot water supply, and heating/hot water supply, were confirmed. In the mode of heating/hot water supply the hot water temperature was increased to 65 C, the excellent performance in hot water supply was demonstrated.

  6. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced (stage IIIC) epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Škof, Erik; Merlo, Sebastjan; Pilko, Gasper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005–2007. The differences in the rates of R0 resections, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and in five-year and eight-year survival rates between patients treated with NACT and patients who had primary surgery were compared. Results Overall 160 patients had stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. Eighty patients had NACT and eighty patients had primary surgery. Patients in NACT group had higher rates of R0 resection (42% vs. 20%; p = 0.011) than patients after primary surgery. PFS was 14.1 months in NACT group and 17.7 months after primary surgery (p = 0.213). OS was 24.8 months in NACT group and 31.6 months after primary surgery (p = 0.012). In patients with R0 resections five-year and eight-year survival rates were 20.6% and 17.6% in NACT group compared to 62.5% and 62.5% after primary surgery (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Despite higher rates of R0 resections achieved by NACT, survival of patients treated with NACT was inferior to survival of patients who underwent primary surgery. NACT should only be offered to patients with advanced epithelial cancer who are not candidates for primary surgery. PMID:27679552

  7. Anatomic Location of PET-Positive Aortocaval Nodes in Patients with Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Implications for Surgical Staging

    PubMed Central

    Frumovitz, Michael; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Klopp, Ann H.; Nick, Alpa M.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Jhingran, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pathologic evaluation of aortocaval nodes in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in an effort to better tailor radiotherapy has gained popularity. We sought to determine which aortocaval nodes should be sampled during surgical staging procedures. Methods From 2004 to 2011, 246 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer underwent positron emission tomography (PET) before definitive chemoradiation. We reviewed the imaging studies to determine the location of PET-positive aortocaval nodes in relationship to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). Results Forty-two patients (17%) had PET images suggesting aortocaval metastasis. Ten patients had stage IB, 1 had stage IIA, 13 had stage IIB, 13 had stage IIIB, and 5 had stage IV disease. Of these 42 patients, 39 (93%) had FDG-avid pelvic nodes, 1 (2%) had PET-negative pelvic nodes but FDG-avid common iliac nodes, and 2 (5%) had direct spread to the aortocaval nodes. Three patients (7%) had FDG-avid aortocaval nodes above the IMA without FDG-avid nodes between the aortic bifurcation and IMA. All 3 of these patients also had FDG-avid nodes in the pelvis. Nineteen patients (45%) had FDG-avid nodes above and below the IMA, and 20 (48%) had FDG-avid nodes below the IMA only. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study revealed that a small number of patients have PET-positive aortocaval nodes above the IMA only. For patients undergoing surgical staging for locally advanced cervical cancer, dissection to the renal vessels may be necessary. A future international, randomized study will prospectively evaluate the locations of pathologically positive aortocaval lymph nodes. PMID:22810967

  8. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer: advanced-stage undifferentiated adenocarcinoma located in the pyloric gland area.

    PubMed

    Okano, Akihiro; Kato, Shigeru; Ohana, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer (HpNGC) is extremely low. A 78-year old female without H. pylori infection was diagnosed with type 4 advanced-stage gastric prepylorus cancer. Distal gastrectomy was performed as for HpNGC (cT3N0M0). Histological findings of the resected specimen showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma, which were located in the pyloric gland area, diffusely invaded beyond the serosa without lymph node metastasis (pT4aN0M0). Most cases of undifferentiated-type HpNGC are diagnosed in the early stage and are located in the fundic gland area. We report the first case of advanced-stage undifferentiated HpNGC located in the pyloric gland area.

  9. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaws in advanced stage breast cancer was detected from bone scan: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Thongjood, Thanaporn; Aroonroch, Rangsima

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are indicated to treat skeletal-related events (SREs) for cancer patients with bone metastasis. We report a 79-year-old woman with advanced stage breast cancer with bone metastasis who was prescribed BPs (zoledronate), then developed osteonecrosis of jaw. We provide a brief review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:28210558

  10. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  11. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-09-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case-control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P < 0.001, respectively) while PD controls without DBS lost 0.8 ± 1.1 kg. Although bilateral STN DBS patients gained 1.7 kg more than unilateral STN DBS patients at 2 years, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.885). Although there was a trend toward greater weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode.

  12. "High Stage" Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, William R.

    Although a psychological theory of stages of transformation in human development currently exists, organizational researchers have yet to elaborate and test any theory of organizational transformation of comparable elegance. According to the organizational stage theory being developed since 1974 by William Torbert, bureaucratic organization, which…

  13. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  14. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan. 1: Aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Ruschak, J. T.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of 365.8 m/sec and a hub/tip ratio of 0.4. The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1.9 with an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent at a specific inlet corrected flow of 209.2kg/sec/sq m. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device, widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.

  15. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system.

  16. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  17. Clinical outcomes of advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a need for reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features and patient outcomes for advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The study was restricted to cases in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the biopsied specimen. During the study period, 675 patients were diagnosed with primary cervical carcinoma. Five (0.7%) of the 675 patients had cervical glassy cell carcinoma; of these, three were premenopausal, and two were postmenopausal. Abnormal vaginal bleeding was the most frequent presenting symptom. Glassy cell carcinoma presented as a fungating, exophytic, or infiltrative mass. The greatest tumor dimension ranged from 3 to 9 cm. All patients had parametrial extension. Four patients had stage IIB tumors, and one had a stage IIIB tumor. All patients received concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The patient with a stage IIIB tumor died of hypovolemic shock caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeding during radiation therapy. Three patients with stage IIB tumors survived for more than 8 years without tumor recurrence or metastasis. One of these three patients died of pelvic recurrence 10 years after the initial diagnosis. Cervical glassy cell carcinoma has traditionally been considered an aggressive, highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, but our data suggest that patient survival is not significantly decreased compared with other histological types of cervical carcinoma. It will be necessary to analyze patient outcomes using a larger number of cervical glassy cell carcinoma cases to confirm our findings. PMID:27793022

  18. Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 1: an ovarian stage dependent involvement

    PubMed Central

    Zmora, Nilli; Trant, John; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

    2009-01-01

    To understand the hormonal coordination of the antagonism between molting and reproduction in crustaceans, the terminally anecdysial mature female Callinectes sapidus was used as a model. The regulatory roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) in vitellogenesis were examined. A competitive specific RIA was used to measure the levels of MIH and CHH in the hemolymphs of mature females at pre- and mid- vitellogenic stages, and their effects on vitellogenesis at early (early 2, E2) and mid vitellogenesis (3) stages were determined in vitro. A hepatopancreas fragments incubation system was developed and the levels of vitellogenin (VtG), as well as VtG mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn)VtG RNA were determined using RIA or QPCR, respectively. MIH titers were four times higher at mid-vitellogenesis than at pre-vitellogenesis, while CHH levels in the hemolymph were constant. In the in vitro incubation experiments, MIH increased both VtG mRNA levels and secretion at ovarian stage 3. At stage E2, however, MIH resulted in a mixed response: downregulation of VtG mRNA and upregulation of hnVtG RNA. CHH had no effect on any of the parameters. Actinomycin D blocked the stimulatory effects of MIH in stage 3 animals on VtG mRNA and VtG, while cycloheximide attenuated only VtG levels, confirming the MIH stimulatory effect at this stage. MIH is a key endocrine regulator in the coordination of molting and reproduction in the mature female C. sapidus, which simultaneously inhibits molt and stimulates vitellogenesis. PMID:19583852

  19. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  20. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  1. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches ... spleen , and bile ducts . Tests that examine the pancreas are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ...

  2. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  3. Stages of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... three stages. Expand all | Collapse all First trimester (week 1–week 12) During the first trimester your body undergoes ... is different, so is each pregnancy. Second trimester (week 13–week 28) Most women find the second ...

  4. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  5. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  6. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  7. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  8. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  9. Optimization of two-stage production/inventory systems under order base stock policy with advance demand information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakade, Koichi; Yokozawa, Shiori

    2016-08-01

    It is important to share demand information among the members in supply chains. In recent years, production and inventory systems with advance demand information (ADI) have been discussed, where advance demand information means the information of demand which the decision maker obtains before the corresponding actual demand arrives. Appropriate production and inventory control using demand information leads to the decrease of inventory and backlog costs. For a single stage system, the optimal base stock and release lead time have been discussed in the literature. In practical production systems the manufacturing system has multiple processes. The multiple stage production and inventory system with ADI, however, has been analyzed by simulation or assuming exponential processing time. That is, their theoretical analysis and optimization of release lead time and base stock level have little been obtained because of its difficulty. In this paper, theoretical analysis of a two-stage production inventory system with advance demand information is developed, where the processing time is assumed deterministic and identical; demand arrival process is Poisson, and an order base stock policy is adopted. Using the analytical results, optimal release lead time and optimal base stock levels for minimizing the average cost on the holding and backlog costs are explicitly derived.

  10. Reading Aloud: Discrete Stage(s) Redux

    PubMed Central

    Robidoux, Serje; Besner, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Interactive activation accounts of processing have had a broad and deep influence on cognitive psychology, particularly so in the context of computational accounts of reading aloud at the single word level. Here we address the issue of whether such a framework can simulate the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency (which have been shown to produce both additive and interactive effects depending on the context). We extend previous work on this question by considering an alternative implementation of a stimulus quality manipulation, and the role of interactive activation. Simulations with a version of the Dual Route Cascaded model (a model with interactive activation dynamics along the lexical route) demonstrate that the model is unable to simulate the entire pattern seen in human performance. We discuss how a hybrid interactive activation model that includes some context dependent staged processing could accommodate these data. PMID:28289395

  11. PET-CT for staging and early response: results from the Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Sally F; Kirkwood, Amy A; Franceschetto, Antonella; Fulham, Michael J; Roberts, Thomas H; Almquist, Helén; Brun, Eva; Hjorthaug, Karin; Viney, Zaid N; Pike, Lucy C; Federico, Massimo; Luminari, Stefano; Radford, John; Trotman, Judith; Fosså, Alexander; Berkahn, Leanne; Molin, Daniel; D'Amore, Francesco; Sinclair, Donald A; Smith, Paul; O'Doherty, Michael J; Stevens, Lindsey; Johnson, Peter W

    2016-03-24

    International guidelines recommend that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) should replace CT in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aims of this study were to compare PET-CT with CT for staging and measure agreement between expert and local readers, using a 5-point scale (Deauville criteria), to adapt treatment in a clinical trial: Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL). Patients were staged using clinical assessment, CT, and bone marrow biopsy (RATHL stage). PET-CT was performed at baseline (PET0) and after 2 chemotherapy cycles (PET2) in a response-adapted design. PET-CT was reported centrally by experts at 5 national core laboratories. Local readers optionally scored PET2 scans. The RATHL and PET-CT stages were compared. Agreement among experts and between expert and local readers was measured. RATHL and PET0 stage were concordant in 938 (80%) patients. PET-CT upstaged 159 (14%) and downstaged 74 (6%) patients. Upstaging by extranodal disease in bone marrow (92), lung (11), or multiple sites (12) on PET-CT accounted for most discrepancies. Follow-up of discrepant findings confirmed the PET characterization of lesions in the vast majority. Five patients were upstaged by marrow biopsy and 7 by contrast-enhanced CT in the bowel and/or liver or spleen. PET2 agreement among experts (140 scans) with a κ (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.76-0.91) was very good and between experts and local readers (300 scans) at 0.77 (0.68-0.86) was good. These results confirm PET-CT as the modern standard for staging HL and that response assessment using Deauville criteria is robust, enabling translation of RATHL results into clinical practice.

  12. Advances of multidetector computed tomography in the characterization and staging of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsili, Athina C; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 90%-95% of kidney tumors. With the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging modalities, more than half of RCCs are detected incidentally, often diagnosed at an early stage. This may allow the planning of more conservative treatment strategies. Computed tomography (CT) is considered the examination of choice for the detection and staging of RCC. Multidetector CT (MDCT) with the improvement of spatial resolution and the ability to obtain multiphase imaging, multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions in any desired plane brought about further improvement in the evaluation of RCC. Differentiation of RCC from benign renal tumors based on MDCT features is improved. Tumor enhancement characteristics on MDCT have been found closely to correlate with the histologic subtype of RCC, the nuclear grade and the cytogenetic characteristics of clear cell RCC. Important information, including tumor size, localization, and organ involvement, presence and extent of venous thrombus, possible invasion of adjacent organs or lymph nodes, and presence of distant metastases are provided by MDCT examination. The preoperative evaluation of patients with RCC was improved by depicting the presence or absence of renal pseudocapsule and by assessing the possible neoplastic infiltration of the perirenal fat tissue and/or renal sinus fat compartment. PMID:26120380

  13. Functional Impairment of Myeloid Dendritic Cells during Advanced Stage of HIV-1 Infection: Role of Factors Regulating Cytokine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Sharma, Aman; Arora, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Severely immunocompromised state during advanced stage of HIV-1 infection has been linked to functionally defective antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs). The molecular mechanisms behind DC impairment are still obscure. We investigated changes in DC function and association of key regulators of cytokine signaling during different stages of HIV-1 infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Phenotypic and functional characteristics of circulating myeloid DCs (mDCs) in 56 ART-naive patients (23 in early and 33 in advanced stage of disease), 36 on ART and 24 healthy controls were evaluated. Sixteen patients were studied longitudinally prior-to and 6 months after the start of ART. For functional studies, monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) were evaluated for endocytosis, allo-stimulation and cytokine secretion. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and other regulators of cytokine signaling was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Results The ability to respond to an antigenic stimulation was severely impaired in patients in advanced HIV-1 disease which showed partial recovery in the treated group. Mo-DCs from patients with advanced HIV-disease remained immature with low allo-stimulation and reduced cytokine secretion even after TLR-4 mediated stimulation ex-vivo. The cells had an increased expression of negative regulatory factors like SOCS-1, SOCS-3, SH2-containing phosphatase(SHP)-1 and a reduced expression of positive regulators like Janus kinase(JAK)2 and Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells(NF-κB)1. A functional recovery after siRNA mediated silencing of SOCS-1 in these mo-DCs confirms the role of negative regulatory factors in functional impairment of these cells. Conclusions Functionally defective DCs in advanced stage of HIV-1 infection seems to be due to imbalanced state of negative and positive regulatory gene expression. Whether this is a cause or effect of increased viral

  14. Staging of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) comprises approximately 5−30% of primary liver tumors, however it has been increasing over the last several decades. Up to and including the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) edition staging system, ICC was staged the same as hepatocellular carcinoma. In the 7th edition AJCC/UICC manual, the staging system of ICC was revised such that a distinct classification was proposed. Pathologic features for prognosis included vascular invasion, tumor multiplicity, local extension, periductal infiltration and lymph nodal metastasis. Over the last decade, as the incidence of ICC has increased and surgery for this indication has become more common, more data has been published on the prognostic factors associated with long-term survival. PMID:28261593

  15. A population-based study of prognosis in advanced stage follicular lymphoma managed by watch and wait.

    PubMed

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Bilgrau, Anders E; de Nully Brown, Peter; Mylam, Karen J; Ahmad, Syed A; Pedersen, Lars M; Gang, Anne O; Bentzen, Hans H; Juul, Maja B; Bergmann, Olav J; Pedersen, Robert S; Nielsen, Berit J; Johnsen, Hans E; Dybkaer, Karen; Bøgsted, Martin; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Watch and wait (WAW) is a common approach for asymptomatic, advanced stage follicular lymphoma (FL), but single-agent rituximab is an alternative for these patients. In this nationwide study we describe the outcome of patients selected for WAW. A cohort of 286 out of 849 (34%) stage III-IVA FL patients seen between 2000 and 2011, were managed expectantly and included. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 29-42]. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 65% (95%CI 54-78), and the cumulative risk of dying from lymphoma within 10 years of diagnosis was 13% (95%CI 7-20). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase and > four nodal regions involved were associated with a higher risk of lymphoma treatment and death from lymphoma. The WAW patients and a matched background population had similar OS during the first 50 months after diagnosis (P = 0·7), but WAW patients had increased risk of death after 50 months (P < 0·001). The estimated loss of residual life after 10 years was 6·8 months. The 10-year cumulative risk of histological transformation was 22% (95%CI 15-29) and the 3-year OS after transformation was 71% (95%CI 58-87%). In conclusion, advanced stage FL managed by WAW had a favourable outcome and abandoning this strategy could lead to overtreatment in some patients.

  16. StrandAdvantage test for early-line and advanced-stage treatment decisions in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Sen, Manimala; Katragadda, Shanmukh; Ravichandran, Aarthi; Deshpande, Gouri; Parulekar, Minothi; Nayanala, Swetha; Vittal, Vikram; Shen, Weiming; Phooi Nee Yong, Melanie; Jacob, Jemima; Parchuru, Sravanthi; Dhanuskodi, Kalpana; Eyring, Kenneth; Agrawal, Pooja; Agarwal, Smita; Shanmugam, Ashwini; Gupta, Satish; Vishwanath, Divya; Kumari, Kiran; Hariharan, Arun K; Balaji, Sai A; Liang, Qiaoling; Robolledo, Belen; Gauribidanur Raghavendrachar, Vijayashree; Oomer Farooque, Mohammed; Buresh, Cary J; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Bahadur, Urvashi; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Hariharan, Ramesh; Veeramachaneni, Vamsi; Sankaran, Satish; Gupta, Vaijayanti

    2017-04-03

    Comprehensive genetic profiling of tumors using next-generation sequencing (NGS) is gaining acceptance for guiding treatment decisions in cancer care. We designed a cancer profiling test combining both deep sequencing and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of relevant cancer targets to aid therapy choices in both standard-of-care (SOC) and advanced-stage treatments for solid tumors. The SOC report is provided in a short turnaround time for four tumors, namely lung, breast, colon, and melanoma, followed by an investigational report. For other tumor types, an investigational report is provided. The NGS assay reports single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), copy number variations (CNVs), and translocations in 152 cancer-related genes. The tissue-specific IHC tests include routine and less common markers associated with drugs used in SOC settings. We describe the standardization, validation, and clinical utility of the StrandAdvantage test (SA test) using more than 250 solid tumor formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and control cell line samples. The NGS test showed high reproducibility and accuracy of >99%. The test provided relevant clinical information for SOC treatment as well as more information related to investigational options and clinical trials for >95% of advanced-stage patients. In conclusion, the SA test comprising a robust and accurate NGS assay combined with clinically relevant IHC tests can detect somatic changes of clinical significance for strategic cancer management in all the stages.

  17. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  18. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  19. End-Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, Mai Neng

    2001-01-01

    Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

  20. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  1. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  2. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  3. 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer: locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, W E E; De Ruysscher, D; Weder, W; Le Péchoux, C; De Leyn, P; Hoffmann, H; Westeel, V; Stahel, R; Felip, E; Peters, S

    2015-08-01

    To complement the existing treatment guidelines for all tumour types, ESMO organises consensus conferences to focus on specific issues in each type of tumour. The 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference on Lung Cancer was held on 11-12 May 2013 in Lugano. A total of 35 experts met to address several questions on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in each of four areas: pathology and molecular biomarkers, first-line/second and further lines of treatment in advanced disease, early-stage disease and locally advanced disease. For each question, recommendations were made including reference to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. This consensus paper focuses on locally advanced disease.

  4. Staged treatment of pilon fractures

    PubMed Central

    Deivaraju, Chenthuran; Vlasak, Richard; Sadasivan, Kalia

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate outcomes following staged anterolateral plating of pilon fractures. Methods Over a 5 year period, patients with pilon fractures received four treatment regimens (staged anterolateral plating, staged medial plating, definitive external fixation, early total care). We defined five outcomes (reduction, soft tissue complications, infection, non-union, malunion) and assessed the outcome of fractures treated by these interventions. Results Staged anterolateral plating or staged medial plating achieved comparable reduction and soft tissue complications. Staged medial plating had higher infection rates, malunion and non-union rates. Conclusions Staged anterolateral plating is superior to staged medial plating in the management of pilon fractures. PMID:26719618

  5. Rocket-Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector: A Single-Stage-to-Orbit Advanced Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Robertson, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    During the atmospheric boost phase of a rocket trajectory, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles can be utilized to augment the thrust by several hundred percent without the input of additional energy. The concept is an MHD implementation of a thermodynamic ejector. Some ejector history is described and some test data showing the impressive thrust augmentation capabilities of thermodynamic ejectors are provided. A momentum and energy balance is used to derive the equations to predict the MHD ejector performance. Results of these equations are compared with the test data and then applied to a specific performance example. The rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) engine is described and a status of the technology and availability of the engine components is provided. A top level vehicle sizing analysis is performed by scaling existing MHD designs to the required flight vehicle levels. The vehicle can achieve orbit using conservative technology. Modest improvements are suggested using recently developed technologies, such as superconducting magnets, which can improve predicted performance well beyond those expected for current single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) designs.

  6. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes: A Reflexology Trial With Patients With Advanced-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gwen; Sikorskii, Alla; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Victorson, David; You, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To evaluate the safety and efficacy of reflexology, a complementary therapy that applies pressure to specific areas of the feet. Design Longitudinal, randomized clinical trial. Setting Thirteen community-based medical oncology clinics across the midwestern United States. Sample A convenience sample of 385 predominantly Caucasian women with advanced-stage breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Methods Following the baseline interview, women were randomized into three primary groups: reflexology (n = 95), lay foot manipulation (LFM) (n = 95), or conventional care (n = 96). Two preliminary reflexology (n = 51) and LFM (n = 48) test groups were used to establish the protocols. Participants were interviewed again postintervention at study weeks 5 and 11. Main Research Variables Breast cancer–specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical functioning, and symptoms. Findings No adverse events were reported. A longitudinal comparison revealed significant improvements in physical functioning for the reflexology group compared to the control group (p = 0.04). Severity of dyspnea was reduced in the reflexology group compared to the control group (p < 0.01) and the LFM group (p = 0.02). No differences were found on breast cancer–specific HRQOL, depressive symptomatology, state anxiety, pain, and nausea. Conclusions Reflexology may be added to existing evidence-based supportive care to improve HRQOL for patients with advanced-stage breast cancer during chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Implications for Nursing Reflexology can be recommended for safety and usefulness in relieving dyspnea and enhancing functional status among women with advanced-stage breast cancer. PMID:23107851

  7. Can evidence-based prevention programs be sustained in community practice settings? The Early Risers' Advanced-Stage Effectiveness Trial.

    PubMed

    August, Gerald J; Bloomquist, Michael L; Lee, Susanne S; Realmuto, George M; Hektner, Joel M

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated institutional sustainability of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program. In a previous early-stage effectiveness trial Early Risers had been successfully implemented by a nonprofit community agency with guidance, supervision, technical assistance and fiscal support/oversight provided by program developers. The current advanced-stage effectiveness trial applied a randomized, control group design to determine whether this community agency could replicate earlier positive findings with a new cohort of participants, but with less direct involvement of program developers. An intent-to-intervene strategy was used to compare children randomly assigned to Early Risers or a no-intervention comparison group. Compared to results obtained in an early-stage effectiveness trial, program attendance rates were much lower and only one positive outcome was replicated. Failure to replicate program effects was not attributed to poor program implementation, because data collected pertaining to exposure, adherence and quality of delivery were acceptable, and a participation analysis showed that families who attended at higher levels did benefit. It was difficulties that the community agency experienced in engaging families in program components at recommended levels that primarily accounted for the results. Possible organizational barriers that impeded sustainability included unreliable transportation, poor collaboration between the agency and the local public school system, high staff turnover, agency downsizing, and fiduciary responsibility and accountability. It was concluded that both program developers and program providers need to be proactive in planning for sustainability.

  8. Saturn IB Second Stage (S-IVB Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This cutaway drawing shows the S-IVB stage in its Saturn IB configuration. As a part of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB stage was utilized in the Saturn IB launch vehicle as a second stage and, later, the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  9. Survival analysis of patients with advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to the Epstein-Barr virus status

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Rui; Li, Wen-Fei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Tan, Ling-Long; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The main aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic differences in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who are positive and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results Of the 1106 patients, 248 (22.4%) had undetectable pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA levels. The total distant metastasis rate for EBV-negative group vs. EBV-positive group were 3.6% (9/248) vs. 15.0% (128/858) (P < 0.001). The estimated 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) for EBV-negative group vs. EBV-positive group were 88.9% vs. 76.9% (P < 0.001), 93.6% vs. 85.9% (P = 0.001), 96.7% vs. 84.8% (P < 0.001) and 94.1% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.1), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the EBV status was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 1.813; 95% CI, 1.219-2.695; P = 0.003), OS (HR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.075-3.107; P = 0.026) and DMFS (HR, 3.678; 95% CI, 1.859-7.277; P <0.001), and overall stage still remained the most important prognostic factor in patients with stage III-IVB NPC. Methods and Materials Data on 1106 patients with non-metastatic, histologically proven advanced-stage (III-IVB) NPC who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient survival between different EBV status groups were compared. Conclusions EBV status was an independent prognostic factor for patients with stage III–IVB NPC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) should be better treatment regimen for EBV-positive patients since distant metastasis was the main failure pattern, and CCRT may be enough for EBV-negative patients. PMID:27008701

  10. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  11. Image Guided Hypofractionated 3-Dimensional Radiation Therapy in Patients With Inoperable Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Agolli, Linda; Valeriani, Maurizio; Falco, Teresa; Bracci, Stefano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HypoRT) can potentially improve local control with a higher biological effect and shorter overall treatment time. Response, local control, toxicity rates, and survival rates were evaluated in patients affected by inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received HypoRT. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled; 27% had stage IIIA, 50% had stage IIIB, and 23% had stage IV disease. All patients underwent HypoRT with a prescribed total dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions of 3 Gy each. Radiation treatment was delivered using an image guided radiation therapy technique to verify correct position. Toxicities were graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity score. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 4-56 months). All patients completed radiation therapy and received the total dose of 60 Gy to the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes. The overall response rate after radiation therapy was 83% (3 patients with complete response and 22 patients with partial response). The 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 38.1% and 36%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence/persistence occurred in 11 (37%) patients. Distant metastasis occurred in 17 (57%) patients. Acute toxicities occurred consisting of grade 1 to 2 hematological toxicity in 5 patients (17%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; grade 1 to 2 esophagitis in 12 patients (40%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; and grade 1 to 2 pneumonitis in 6 patients (20%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (7%). Thirty-three percent of patients developed grade 1 to 2 late toxicities. Only 3 patients developed grade 3 late adverse effects: esophagitis in 1 patient and pneumonitis in 2 patients. Conclusions: Hypofractionated curative radiation therapy is a feasible and well-tolerated treatment for patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Randomized

  12. The conjoint use of music therapy and reflexology with hospitalized advanced stage cancer patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Magill, Lucanne; Berenson, Susan

    2008-09-01

    Advanced stage cancer patients experience debilitating physical symptoms as well as profound emotional and spiritual struggles. Advanced disease is accompanied by multiple changes and losses for the patient and the family. Palliative care focuses on the relief of overall suffering of patients and families, including symptom control, psychosocial support, and the meeting of spiritual needs. Music therapy and reflexology are complementary therapies that can soothe and provide comfort. When used conjointly, they provide a multifaceted experience that can aid in the reduction of anxiety, pain, and isolation; facilitate communication between patients, family members, and staff; and provide the potential for a more peaceful dying experience for all involved. This article addresses the benefits of the combined use of music therapy and reflexology. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the application and benefits of this dual approach for patients and their families regarding adjustment to the end of life in the presence of anxiety and cognitive impairment.

  13. High expression of Wls is associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage in gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tao, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Ping

    2017-03-01

    The roles of Wnt protein in carcinogenesis have been well documented in human cancers. Wls is a key modulator for the secretion of Wnt protein. We previously found that Wls was aberrantly expressed in colorectal carcinomas. Studies have revealed that dysregulation of Wnt signal transduction plays an important role in gastric carcinoma. We hypothesized that Wls may play a role in the development and progression of gastric carcinoma. In this study, three gastric cancer cell lines MGC-803, SGC-7901, and AGS, and a set of gastric carcinoma tissue specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry. The relationship between the expression of Wls and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Wls was negatively detected in MGC-803, positively detected in SGC-7901 and AGS cell lines. Wls was weakly expressed in 9.7% (15/154), moderately in 33.1% (51/154), and strongly in 57.1% (88/154) of tested gastric carcinoma specimens. High expression of Wls was positively associated with well and moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.035, rs  = 0.170), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001, rs  = 0.276), and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.006, rs  = 0.219). Our data suggest that Wls protein is related to tumor metastasis and advanced TNM stage, and may be used as a new marker for prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

  14. Analysis of Outcome of Intraplueral Streptokinase in Pediatric Empyema Thoracis even in Advanced Stages: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Kallol; Saha, Sudip; Mridha, Dhrubojyoti; Das, Kallol; Mondal, Piyasi; Das, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Empyema thoracis in children causes significant morbidity. Standard treatment of Empyema thoracis includes tube drainage and antibiotics. But the tube drainage often fails. Intrapleural Streptokinase has been used in empyema thoracis with good success rate. Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of intra-pleural Streptokinase in management of empyema thoracis even in advanced stages. Patients and Methods: A total of 28 patients with empyema thoracis requiring intercostal tube drainage aged zero to twelve years were included in the study who were admitted in Pediatric intensive care unit. 15,000 units/kg of Streptokinase was instilled into the pleural cavity. Response was assessed by clinical outcome, after unclamping and subsequent chest radiography and serial chest ultrasounds. Results: Streptokinase enhanced drainage in all patients with complete resolution of empyema thoracis in 26 patients. Two patients were referred for surgery. Only 7.2% required surgery. Streptokinase was equally effective if started before or after seven days. Conclusions: Intrapleural Streptokinase is the preferred treatment for treating pediatric empyema thoracis even in advanced stages and can avoid surgery. PMID:26495096

  15. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  16. Rituximab and Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-04

    Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  17. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  18. Chimpanzee sleep stages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

  19. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  20. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  1. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Angiogenic inhibitors for older patients with advanced colorectal cancer: Does the age hold the stage?

    PubMed Central

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Fontanella, Caterina; Lutrino, Eufemia Stefania; Ferrari, Laura; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Cardellino, Giovanni Gerardo; Rosati, Gerardo; Fasola, Gianpiero

    2013-01-01

    Although major progress has been achieved in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) with the employment of antiangiogenic agents, several questions remain on the use of these drugs in older patients. Since cardiovascular, renal and other comorbidities are common in the elderly, an accurate assessment of the patients’ conditions should be performed before a treatment decision is made. Since most CRC patients enrolled in clinical trials testing antiangiogenic drugs were aged < 65 years, the efficacy and tolerability of these agents in elderly patients has not been adequately explored. Data suggest that patients with advanced CRC derive similar benefit from bevacizumab treatment regardless of age, but the advantage of other antiangiogenic drugs in the same class of patients appears more blurred. Literature data suggest that specific antiangiogenic-related toxicities such as hypertension or arterial thromboembolic events may be higher in the elderly than in the younger patients. In addition, it should be emphasized that the patients included in the clinical studies discussed herein were selected and therefore may not be representative of the usual elderly population. Advanced age alone should not discourage the use of bevacizumab. However, a careful patients’ selection and watchful monitoring of toxicities are required to optimize the use of antiangiogenics in this population. PMID:23847406

  3. Successful treatment of advanced stage yolk sac tumour of extragonadal origin: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Vilius, Rudaitis; Ugnius, Mickys; Justina, Katinaite; Justyna, Dulko

    2016-01-01

    Background. Yolk sac tumour diagnosis should be considered for young age patients admitted to the hospital with non-specific complaints of widespread disease. Correct diagnosis and carefully planned treatment is the key to a successful outcome. Methods and materials. We present a rare case of a widespread yolk sack tumour of a uterine broad ligament. Our team directed a special attention towards the patient’s young age, advanced disease, and fertility sparing strategy of treatment. Results and conclusions. Stage IV yolk sac tumours of extragonadal origin are rarely reported in the literature. Hence, diagnosis and treatment often pose a challenge for emergency care unit doctors, gynaecologists, and oncologists. However, it can be a potentially curable disease. Moreover, patients’ fertility can also be preserved. We believe that further analysis of similar cases is necessary to study outcomes and evaluate patients’ responses to a sequence of medical decisions taken for this specific case.

  4. The Modern Role of Radiation Therapy in Treating Advanced-Stage Retinoblastoma: Long-Term Outcomes and Racial Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Orman, Amber; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Miao, Feng; Markoe, Arnold; Panoff, Joseph E.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 41 eyes of 30 patients treated with external beam radiation therapy between June 1, 1992, and March 31, 2012, with a median follow-up time of 133 months (11 years). Outcome measures included overall survival, progression-free survival, local control, eye preservation rate, and toxicity. Results: Over 90% of the eyes were stage V. Definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was delivered in 43.9% of eyes, adjuvant EBRT in 22% of eyes, and second-line/salvage EBRT in 34.1% of eyes. A relative lens sparing (RLS) technique was used in 68.3% of eyes and modified lens sparing (MLS) in 24.4% of eyes. Three eyes were treated with other techniques. Doses ≥45 Gy were used in 68.3% of eyes. Chemotherapy was a component of treatment in 53.7% of eyes. The 10-year overall survival was 87.7%, progression-free survival was 80.5%, and local control was 87.8%. White patients had significantly better overall survival than did African-American patients in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.09; 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.84; P=.035). Toxicity was seen in 68.3% of eyes, including 24.3% with isolated acute dermatitis. Conclusions: External beam radiation therapy continues to be an effective treatment modality for advanced retinoblastoma, achieving excellent long-term local control and survival with low rates of treatment-related toxicity and secondary malignancy.

  5. Targeting multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways with a resorcinol derivative leads to inhibition of advanced stages of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Rumi; Singer, Eric; Pakdel, Arash; Sarma, Pranamee; Judkins, Jonathon; Elwakeel, Eiman; Dayal, Sonali; Martinez-Martinez, Esther; Amere, Mukkanti; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can both reduce cancer progression, each through distinct anti-tumour pathways. Our goal was to discover a compound that could efficiently target both cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways. Experimental Approach To measure breast cancer cell proliferation/viability and invasion, MTT and Boyden chamber assays were used. Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein and annexin/propidium iodide, respectively, in combination with cell flow cytometry. Changes in protein levels were evaluated using Western analysis. Orthotopic and i.v. mouse models of breast cancer metastasis were used to test the activity of cannabinoids in vivo. Key Results CBD reduced breast cancer metastasis in advanced stages of the disease as the direct result of down-regulating the transcriptional regulator Id1. However, this was associated with moderate increases in survival. We therefore screened for analogues that could co-target cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways (CBD- and THC-associated) and discovered the compound O-1663. This analogue inhibited Id1, produced a marked stimulation of ROS, up-regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis. Of all the compounds tested, it was the most potent at inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in culture and metastasis in vivo. Conclusions and Implications O-1663 prolonged survival in advanced stages of breast cancer metastasis. Developing compounds that can simultaneously target multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways efficiently may provide a novel approach for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. PMID:24910342

  6. Effect of p53 codon 72 polymorphism on the survival outcome in advanced stage cervical cancer patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Akanksha; Das, Poulami; Kannan, Sadhana; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mulherkar, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The Arg>Pro polymorphism in codon 72 of p53 gene is known to affect the susceptibility of cervical cancer differently in different population worldwide although information regarding its role in determining survival status and disease outcome in patients is lacking. The present study was conducted to determine the genotype frequency and prognostic role of p53 codon 72 Arg>Pro polymorphism in patients with advanced stage cervical cancer in India. Methods: The p53 codon 72 polymorphism was determined in tumour biopsies (n = 107) and matched blood samples (n = 19) in cervical cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Effect of p53 genotype on the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was analyzed. Individual Arg or Pro alleles were studied for their significance on survival as Pro carriers (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro) versus Arg/Arg individuals or Arg carriers (Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro) versus Pro/Pro individuals. Results: The frequencies for Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes were 27.2, 49.5 and 23.3 per cent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the genotypes with respect to patients’ OS or RFS. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study indicated that p53 codon 72 polymorphism might not be an independent marker in predicting clinical outcome in advanced stage cervical cancer patients. Further studies need to be done in larger samples to confirm these findings. PMID:28139534

  7. Technology and staging effects on two-stage-to-orbit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff and landing two-stage systems with an airbreathing first stage and rocket second stage are evaluated for staging Mach numbers that range from 5 to 14. All systems are evaluated with advanced technologies being developed in the NASP Program and sized to the same mission requirements. With these advanced technologies, the two-stage systems are heavier than the single stage. The weights of the two-stage systems are closely related to staging. Using a rocket on the first stage to accelerate from the turboramjet limit of Mach 6 to Mach 10 signiificantly decreases dry weight as compared to the Mach 6-staged system. The optimum dry weight staging Mach number for the scramjet two-stage system is Mach 12. At a 40 percent weight growth (current technology level), the scramjet two-stage systems are half the weight and less sensitive to weight changes than the single stage, but still require substantial technology development in the areas of inlets, nozzles, ramjet propulsion, active cooling, and high-temperature structures.

  8. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600[degrees]C--1000[degrees]C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  9. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600{degrees}C--1000{degrees}C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  10. How Are Myelodysplastic Syndromes Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndromes Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Are Myelodysplastic Syndromes Scored? Doctors often group cancers into different stages ... Ask Your Doctor About Myelodysplastic Syndromes? More In Myelodysplastic Syndromes About Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  13. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recent FIGO staging. Stages of ovarian and fallopian tube cancer Once a patient's T, N, and M ... only within the ovary (or ovaries) or fallopian tube(s). It has not spread to organs and tissues ...

  14. Design and overall performance of four highly loaded, high speed inlet stages for an advanced high-pressure-ratio core compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, L.; Moore, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed design and overall performances of four inlet stages for an advanced core compressor are presented. These four stages represent two levels of design total pressure ratio (1.82 and 2.05), two levels of rotor aspect ratio (1.19 and 1.63), and two levels of stator aspect ratio (1.26 and 1.78). The individual stages were tested over the stable operating flow range at 70, 90, and 100 percent of design speeds. The performances of the low aspect ratio configurations were substantially better than those of the high aspect ratio configurations. The two low aspect ratio configurations achieved peak efficiencies of 0.876 and 0.872 and corresponding stage efficiencies of 0.845 and 0.840. The high aspect ratio configurations achieved peak ratio efficiencies of 0.851 and 0.849 and corresponding stage efficiencies of 0.821 and 0.831.

  15. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.

    1968-01-01

    Continuous measurements of stream stage are used in determining records of stream discharge. In addition a record of stream stage is useful in itself, as in designing structures affected by stream elevation or in planning the use of flood plains. This report describes instruments and structures commonly used in obtaining a record of stream stage.

  16. Limited genomic heterogeneity of circulating melanoma cells in advanced stage patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E; McClay, Edward; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-01-09

    Purpose. Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design. Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results. Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1-250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5-371.5 CMCs ml(-1)). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions. Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this cell population may contribute to the design of effective personalized therapies in patients with melanoma.

  17. Limited Genomic Heterogeneity of Circulating Melanoma Cells in Advanced Stage Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Ed; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors (NBD) were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification (WGA) and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1 to 250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5 to 371.5 CMCs/ml). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this population may contribute to develop effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25574741

  18. Limited genomic heterogeneity of circulating melanoma cells in advanced stage patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Edward; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Purpose. Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design. Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results. Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1-250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5-371.5 CMCs ml-1). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions. Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this cell population may contribute to the design of effective personalized therapies in patients with melanoma.

  19. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  20. Results of Two-Stage Light-Gas Gun Development Efforts and Hypervelocity Impact Tests of Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelison, C. J.; Watts, Eric T.

    1998-01-01

    Gun development efforts to increase the launching capabilities of the NASA Ames 0.5-inch two-stage light-gas gun have been investigated. A gun performance simulation code was used to guide initial parametric variations and hardware modifications, in order to increase the projectile impact velocity capability to 8 km/s, while maintaining acceptable levels of gun barrel erosion and gun component stresses. Concurrent with this facility development effort, a hypervelocity impact testing series in support of the X-33/RLV program was performed in collaboration with Rockwell International. Specifically, advanced thermal protection system materials were impacted with aluminum spheres to simulate impacts with on-orbit space debris. Materials tested included AETB-8, AETB-12, AETB-20, and SIRCA-25 tiles, tailorable advanced blanket insulation (TABI), and high temperature AFRSI (HTA). The ballistic limit for several Thermal Protection System (TPS) configurations was investigated to determine particle sizes which cause threshold TPS/structure penetration. Crater depth in tiles was measured as a function of impact particle size. The relationship between coating type and crater morphology was also explored. Data obtained during this test series was used to perform a preliminary analysis of the risks to a typical orbital vehicle from the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  1. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods.

  2. Increased NDRG1 expression is associated with advanced T stages and poor vascularization in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuifeng; Yu, Juanhan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongtao; Wang, Enhua

    2012-07-01

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a member of the N-myc downstream regulated gene family which belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. Earlier studies have shown its association with inhibition of tumor metastasis. However, its function in malignant tumors is not fully enunciated. Recently there was increasing evidence that NDRG1 is involved in stress responses. In the current study, we examined the expression of NDRG1 and its correlation with clinicopathological factors and microvessel density (MVD) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC (71/115, 61.7%) was higher than that in normal lung tissues (32/115, 27.8%) (p < 0.05). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC cells was found in cytoplasm (63/115, 54.8%), nuclear (24/115, 20.9%) and cell membrane (13/115, 11.3%). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC with advanced T stages (T2-4) (63/84, 75.0%) was significantly higher than that with T1 stage (8/31, 25.8%) (P < 0.05). No other clinicopathological factors including lymph node metastasis were found to be associated with NDRG1 expression (p > 0.05). Moreover increased NDRG1 expression was associated with lower MVD in NSCLC (P < 0.05). MVD in adenocarcinoma (33.4 ± 8.4/HP) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19.3 ± 8.1/HP) (P < 0.05). No other clinicopathological factors were associated with MVD in NSCLC (p > 0.05). The present findings indicate an increase of NDRG1 expression with the progress of tumour extent which may be due to unbalanced tumor oxygenation on account of poor vascularization in NSCLC.

  3. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  4. Oblimersen Sodium and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-11

    Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  5. Multi-stage complex contagions.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A; Gleeson, James P; Porter, Mason A

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages-which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea-exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades-and hence collective action-can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  6. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  7. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  8. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  9. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  10. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  11. Advanced glycation end products, carotid atherosclerosis, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Koyama, Hidenori; Fukumoto, Shinya; Tanaka, Shinji; Shoji, Takuhito; Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Tahara, Hideki; Inaba, Masaaki; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Miyata, Toshio; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2011-04-01

    Numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to be decreased in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the mechanism of which remained poorly understood. In this study, mutual association among circulating EPC levels, carotid atherosclerosis, serum pentosidine, and skin autofluorescence, a recently established noninvasive measure of advanced glycation end products accumulation, was examined in 212 ESRD subjects undergoing hemodialysis. Numbers of circulating EPCs were measured as CD34+ CD133+ CD45(low) VEGFR2+ cells and progenitor cells as CD34+ CD133+ CD45(low) fraction by flow cytometry. Skin autofluorescence was assessed by the autofluorescence reader; and serum pentosidine, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid atherosclerosis was determined as intimal-medial thickness (IMT) measured by ultrasound. Circulating EPCs were significantly and inversely correlated with skin autofluorescence in ESRD subjects (R = -0.216, P = .002), but not with serum pentosidine (R = -0.079, P = .25). Circulating EPCs tended to be inversely associated with IMT (R = -0.125, P = .069). Intimal-medial thickness was also tended to be correlated positively with skin autofluorescence (R = 0.133, P = .054) and significantly with serum pentosidine (R = 0.159, P = .019). Stepwise multiple regression analyses reveal that skin autofluorescence, but not serum pentosidine and IMT, was independently associated with low circulating EPCs. Of note, skin autofluorescence was also inversely and independently associated with circulating progenitor cells. Thus, tissue accumulated, but not circulating, advanced glycation end products may be a determinant of a decrease in circulating EPCs in ESRD subjects.

  12. Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies.

  13. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

  14. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  15. SERUM SOLUBLE B7x IS ELEVATED IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS AND IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCED STAGE

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R. Houston; Zang, Xingxing; Lohse, Christine M.; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Slovin, Susan F.; Reuter, Victor E.; Cheville, John C.; Blute, Michael L.; Russo, Paul; Kwon, Eugene D.; Allison, James P.

    2008-01-01

    B7x is the newest member of the B7-CD28 family and is thought to dampen immune responses via negative costimulation. Tumor expression of B7x was recently described in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and was associated with poor outcome. We developed an assay to detect serum soluble B7x (sB7x) and investigated 101 patients with clear cell RCC who underwent nephrectomy between 2003 and 2007. For controls, we obtained serum from 101 sex-matched blood donors within the same age range. Following an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for sB7x, detectable levels (>0.1ng/ml) of sB7x were observed in 53 RCC patients compared with 18 controls (pstage I–IV RCC were 6.6, 10.3, 14.5, and 43.3ng/mL, respectively (p=0.012). In this first evaluation of sB7x in RCC, we demonstrate that RCC patients are more likely to have detectable sB7x compared with controls and higher sB7x levels correlate with advanced tumor stage. These early results merit further investigation of this serum marker for potential diagnostic and prognostic purposes. PMID:18676826

  16. The larval stages of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Meighan; Cruz Smith, Luisa; Cameron, R Andrew; Urry, Lisa A

    2008-06-01

    The adult body plan of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is established within the imaginal rudiment during the larval stages. To facilitate the study of these stages, we have defined a larval staging scheme, which consists of seven stages: Stage I, four-arm stage; Stage II, eight-arm stage; Stage III, vestibular invagination stage; Stage IV, rudiment initiation stage; Stage V, pentagonal disc stage; Stage VI, advanced rudiment stage; and Stage VI, tube-foot protrusion stage. Each stage is characterized by significant morphological features observed for the first time at that stage. This scheme is intended as a guide for determining the degree of larval development, and for identifying larval and adult structures. Larval anatomy was visualized using light and confocal microscopy as required on living material, whole mount fixed specimens, and serial sections. Antibody staining to localize specific gene products was also used. Detailed analysis of these data has furthered our understanding of the morphogenesis of the rudiment, and has suggested provocative questions regarding the molecular basis for these events. We intend this work to be of use to investigators studying gene expression and morphogenesis in postembryonic larvae.

  17. A Model of Moral Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Don Collins

    2008-01-01

    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…

  18. The Theatre Student: Stage Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Albert M.

    Stage violence is a complex art which, when conceived inventively, approached with professional care and respect, and practiced with patience and energy, can be the highlight of a scene or of an entire play. This book is designed for amateurs who have not had the benefit of formal training in stage violence. Chapters discuss falling (the…

  19. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  20. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  1. Systemic Therapies for Late-stage Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Peter W.; Friedlander, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Late-stage melanoma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Classic treatment methods relied on cytotoxic chemotherapy, which is limited by low response rates and significant adverse effects. Recent advances in immunogenetics have led to the advent of important new systemictreatments.Thisarticle reviews the latest therapy options for advanced melanoma. PMID:27847547

  2. Multi-stage complex contagions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.

    2013-03-01

    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  4. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  5. Testing of polyimide second-stage rod seals for single-state applications in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Machined polyimide second-stage rod seals were evaluated to determine their suitability for single-stage applications where full system pressure acts on the upstream side of the seal. The 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) K-section seal was tested in impulse screening tests where peak pressure was increased in 3.448-MPa (500-psi) increments each 20,000 cycles. Seal failure occurred at 37.92 MPa (5,500 psi), indicating a potential for acceptability in a 27.58-MPa (4,000-psi) system. Static pressurization for 600 sec at pressures in excess of 10.34 MPa (1,500 psi) revealed structural inadequacy of the seal cross section to resist fracture and extrusion. Endurance testing showed the seals capable of at least 65,000 1.27-cm (0.5-in.) cycles at 450 K (350 F) without leakage. It was concluded that the second-stage seals were proven to be exceptional in the 1.379-MPa (200-psi) applications for which they were designed, but polyimide material properties are not adequate for use in this design at pressure loading equivalent to that present in single-stage applications.

  6. Two stage turbine for rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  7. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ?0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  8. Identification of a potential ovarian cancer stem cell gene expression profile from advanced stage papillary serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Saxena, Deepa; Mok, Samuel C; Hauschka, Peter V; Ozbun, Laurent; Birrer, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Identification of gene expression profiles of cancer stem cells may have significant implications in the understanding of tumor biology and for the design of novel treatments targeted toward these cells. Here we report a potential ovarian cancer stem cell gene expression profile from isolated side population of fresh ascites obtained from women with high-grade advanced stage papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays were used to interrogate the differentially expressed genes between side population (SP) and main population (MP), and the results were analyzed by paired T-test using BRB-ArrayTools. We identified 138 up-regulated and 302 down-regulated genes that were differentially expressed between all 10 SP/MP pairs. Microarray data was validated using qRT-PCR and17/19 (89.5%) genes showed robust correlations between microarray and qRT-PCR expression data. The Pathway Studio analysis identified several genes involved in cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis which are unique to SP cells and a mechanism for the activation of Notch signaling is identified. To validate these findings, we have identified and isolated SP cells enriched for cancer stem cells from human ovarian cancer cell lines. The SP populations were having a higher colony forming efficiency in comparison to its MP counterpart and also capable of sustained expansion and differentiation in to SP and MP phenotypes. 50,000 SP cells produced tumor in nude mice whereas the same number of MP cells failed to give any tumor at 8 weeks after injection. The SP cells demonstrated a dose dependent sensitivity to specific γ-secretase inhibitors implicating the role of Notch signaling pathway in SP cell survival. Further the generated SP gene list was found to be enriched in recurrent ovarian cancer tumors.

  9. Low numbers of tryptase+ and chymase+ mast cells associated with reduced survival and advanced tumor stage in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Hanna; Poukka, Mari; Bykachev, Andrey; Tyynelä-Korhonen, Kristiina; Sironen, Reijo; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2015-12-01

    The role of mast cells in cutaneous melanoma remains unclear. Tryptase and chymase are serine proteinases and major proteins in mast cell secretory granules. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of tryptase and chymase mast cells in benign and malignant cutaneous melanocytic lesions and in lymph node metastases of melanomas. The presence of positively stained mast cells was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in invasive melanomas. Paraffin-embedded sections of 28 benign (13 intradermal, 10 compound, and five junctional nevi) and 26 dysplastic nevi, 15 in-situ melanomas, 36 superficially (pT1, Breslow's thickness<1 mm), and 49 deeply (pT4, Breslow's thickness>4 mm) invasive melanomas and 30 lymph node metastases were immunohistochemically stained for mast cell tryptase and chymase, and immunopositive cells were counted using the hotspot counting method. The mean count of tryptase and chymase mast cells was lower in invasive melanomas compared with in-situ melanomas and dysplastic and benign nevi. In deeply invasive melanomas, the difference was statistically significant compared with dysplastic nevi (P=0.003 for tryptase and P=0.009 for chymase) and in-situ melanomas (0.043 for tryptase). Low numbers of tryptase mast cells were associated with poor overall survival (P=0.031) in deeply invasive melanomas and with a more advanced stage (T1b, P=0.008) in superficially invasive melanomas. Low numbers of chymase mast cells were associated with microsatellites (P=0.017) in deeply invasive melanomas. The results suggest that these serine proteinases of mast cells may be protective in the pathogenesis of melanoma.

  10. Once-Weekly, High-Dose Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer: 6-Year Analysis of 60 Early-Stage, 42 Locally Advanced, and 7 Metastatic Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Omar M. Sandhu, Taljit S.; Lattin, Paul B.; Chang, Jung H.; Lee, Choon K.; Groshko, Gayle A.; Lattin, Cheryl J.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To explore once-weekly stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in nonoperable patients with localized, locally advanced, or metastatic lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 primary (89 untreated plus 13 recurrent) and 7 metastatic tumors were studied. The median follow-up was 38 months, the average patient age was 75 years. Of the 109 tumors studied, 60 were Stage I (45 IA and 15 IB), 9 were Stage II, 30 were Stage III, 3 were Stage IV, and 7 were metastases. SBRT only was given in 73% (40 Gy in four fractions to the planning target volume to a total dose of 53 Gy to the isocenter for a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy{sub 10}). SBRT was given as a boost in 27% (22.5 Gy in three fractions once weekly for a dose of 32 Gy at the isocenter) after 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary plus the mediastinum. The total biologically effective dose was 120 Gy{sub 10}. Respiration gating was used in 46%. Results: The overall response rate was 75%; 33% had a complete response. The overall response rate was 89% for Stage IA patients (40% had a complete response). The local control rate was 82%; it was 100% and 93% for Stage IA and IB patients, respectively. The failure rate was 37%, with 17% within the planning target volume. No Grade 3-4 acute toxicities developed in any patient; 12% and 7% of patients developed Grade 1 and 2 toxicities, respectively. Late toxicity, all Grade 2, developed in 3% of patients. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate for Stage I was 70% and was 74% and 64% for Stage IA and IB patients, respectively. The 3-year Stage III cause-specific survival rate was 30%. The patients with metastatic lung cancer had a 57% response rate, a 27% complete response rate, an 86% local control rate, a median survival time of 19 months, and 23% 3-year survival rate. Conclusions: SBRT is noninvasive, convenient, fast, and economically attractive; it achieves results similar to surgery for early or metastatic lung cancer patients who are older

  11. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  12. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  13. Neuroblastoma: diagnostic imaging and staging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Brasch, R.C.; deLorimier, A.A.; Albin, A.R.; London, D.A.; Gooding, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    Results of computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy, excretory urography, and other imaging tests used to diagnose and stage 38 cases of neuroblastoma prior to treatment were reviewed. Findings of these examinations were correlated with clinical data, laboratory data, results of biopsy, and surgical findings. CT was the most sensitive single test (100%) for the detection and delineation of the primary tumor. Calcifications that suggested the histologic diagnosis of neuroblastoma were present in 79% of the cases. Rim calcifications, the most specific pattern for neuroblastoma, were identified in 29% of all cases. CT alone accurately staged 82% of cases; when complemented by bone marrow biopsy, staging accuracy was 97%. CT alone was more accurate than any combination of imaging tests that excluded CT. An algorithm using CT is presented for the diagnosis and staging of neuroblastoma at reduced cost and with increased efficiency.

  14. Five Developmental Stages of Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, J. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Precommunicative, semiphonetic, phonetic, transitional, and correct spelling are the developmental stages in the acquisition of spelling competency. Samples of children's early spelling patterns are presented. A system for classifying early spelling strategy is outlined. (DF)

  15. Two stage to orbit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design of a two-stage to orbit vehicle was conducted with the requirements to carry a 10,000 pound payload into a 300 mile low-earth orbit using an airbreathing first stage, and to take off and land unassisted on a 15,000 foot runway. The goal of the design analysis was to produce the most efficient vehicle in size and weight which could accomplish the mission requirements. Initial parametric analysis indicated that the weight of the orbiter and the transonic performance of the system were the two parameters that had the largest impact on the design. The resulting system uses a turbofan ramjet powered first stage to propel a scramjet and rocket powered orbiter to the stage point of Mach 6 to 6.5 at an altitude of 90,000 ft.

  16. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  17. First human treatment with investigational rhGUS enzyme replacement therapy in an advanced stage MPS VII patient.

    PubMed

    Fox, Joyce E; Volpe, Linda; Bullaro, Josephine; Kakkis, Emil D; Sly, William S

    2015-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) is a very rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUS), which is required for the degradation of three glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate. Progressive accumulation of these GAGs in lysosomes leads to increasing dysfunction in numerous tissues and organs. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been used successfully for other MPS disorders, but there is no approved treatment for MPS VII. Here we describe the first human treatment with recombinant human GUS (rhGUS), an investigational therapy for MPS VII, in a 12-year old boy with advanced stage MPS VII. Despite a tracheostomy, nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure, and oxygen therapy, significant pulmonary restriction and obstruction led to oxygen dependence and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels in the 60-80mmHg range, eventually approaching respiratory failure (ETCO2 of 100mmHg) and the need for full-time ventilation. Since no additional medical measures could improve his function, we implemented experimental ERT by infusing rhGUS at 2mg/kg over 4h every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. Safety was evaluated by standard assessments and observance for any infusion associated reactions (IARs). Urinary GAG (uGAG) levels, pulmonary function, oxygen dependence, CO2 levels, cardiac valve function, liver and spleen size, and growth velocity were assessed to evaluate response to therapy. rhGUS infusions were well tolerated. No serious adverse events (SAEs) or IARs were observed. After initiation of rhGUS infusions, the patient's uGAG excretion decreased by more than 50%. Liver and spleen size were reduced within 2 weeks of the first infusion and reached normal size by 24 weeks. Pulmonary function appeared to improve during the course of treatment based on reduced changes in ETCO2 after off-ventilator challenges and a reduced oxygen requirement. The patient regained the

  18. Minuteman 3, stage 3 surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R.; Porter, L. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The program effort during this reporting period consisted of laboratory testing of both the Morton Thiokol, Inc./ASPC Minuteman 3 Third Stage Surveillance components and material samples. In addition, bondline aging testing and analysis using samples from previously dissected motors were accomplished. In support of the program, all flight and static tests, for both First and Third Stage Minuteman motors, were reviewed and tabulated for incorporation into reliability and motor historical records.

  19. A prospective evaluation of the impact of 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography staging on survival for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Blackstock, A. William . E-mail: ablackst@wfubmc.edu; Farmer, Michael R.; Lovato, James; Mishra, Girish; Melin, Susan A.; Oaks, Timothy; Aklilu, Mabea; Clark, Paige B.; Levine, Edward A.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and prognosis of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and October 2004, all patients with LAEC evaluated in the Department of Radiation Oncology were considered for enrollment into a Phase II trial of preoperative chemoradiation. Entry required a staging whole-body FDG-PET scan. Results: One hundred ten consecutive patients were evaluated; 38 were ineligible for reasons including treatment elsewhere, prior malignancy, or refusal of treatment. After conventional staging (clinical examination, endoscopic ultrasound, and chest/abdominal computerized tomography), 33 patients were ineligible because of metastatic disease or poor performance status. Of the remaining 39 patients, 23 were confirmed to have LAEC after FDG-PET staging and were treated in the Phase II trial (Cohort I). Sixteen patients, however, had FDG-PET findings consistent with occult metastatic disease and were deemed ineligible for the trial but were treated with curative intent (Cohort II). The 2-year survival rate for the 23 patients in Cohort I was 64%, compared with 17% (p = 0.003) for patients in Cohort II (FDG-PET positive). Conclusions: More than one-third of patients determined to have LAEC with conventional staging were upstaged with the use of FDG-PET. Despite comparable therapy, upstaging with FDG-PET predicts poor 2-year survival.

  20. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  1. Antemortem Prediction of Braak Stage

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jesper O. E.; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Graff, Caroline; Nennesmo, Inger; Lindström, Anna-Karin; Gerritsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which tauopathy distribution, as determined by Braak staging, might be predicted by various risk factors in older individuals. The Swedish Twin Registry provided extensive information on neuropsychological function, lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors of 128 patients for whom autopsy data including Braak staging were available. Logistic regression was used to develop a prognostic model that targeted discrimination between Braak stages 0-II vs. III-VI. The analysis showed that Braak stage III-VI was significantly predicted by having one or more APOE ε4 alleles, older age, high total cholesterol, absence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and poorer scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Score Information test, verbal fluency, and recognition memory but better verbal recall. The algorithm predicted Braak stage III-VI well (receiver-operating characteristic area under curve: 0.897; 95% CI: 0.842-0.951). Using a cut-off of 50% risk or more, the sensitivity was 85%, the specificity was 70%, and the negative predictive value was 69%. This study demonstrates that tauopathy distribution can be accurately predicted using a combination of antemortem patient data. These results provide further insight into tauopathy development and AD-related disease mechanisms and suggest a prognostic model that predicts the spread of neurofibrillary tangles above the transentorhinal stage. PMID:26469248

  2. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  3. Increased level of Hsp90-beta in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlates with lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Biaoxue; Cai, Xiguang; Liu, Hua; Fu, Tian; Gao, Wenlong; Zhao, Chongchong; Lin, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this work is to explore the correlation between Hsp90-beta level in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung cancer. Methods: Hsp90-beta level was measured by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sensitivity and specificity of Hsp90-beta were calculated by receiver operator characteristic curve. Results: BALF in patients with lung cancer showed a higher expression of Hsp90-beta than those with benign lung disease (P<0.05). Elevated Hsp90-beta was closely related to lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of patients with lung cancer (P<0.05). The sensitivity of BALF Hsp90-beta for discerning lung cancer from patients with benign disease was 82.56% and specificity was 97.56%. Conclusion: Increased BALF Hsp90-beta correlates with lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of patients with lung cancer, suggesting it could be a diagnostic indicator for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27829999

  4. Analyses of advanced concepts in multi-stage gyro-amplifiers and startup in high power gyro-oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.

    Gyrotrons are well recognized sources of high-power coherent electromagnetic radiation. The power that gyrotrons can radiate in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength regions exceeds the power of classical microwave tubes by many orders of magnitude. In this work, the author considers some problems related to the operation of gyro-devices and methods of their solution. In particular, the self-excitation conditions for parasitic backward waves and effect of distributed losses on the small-signal gain of gyro-TWTs are analyzed. The corresponding small-signal theory describing two-stage gyro-traveling-wave tubes (gyro-TWTs) with the first stage having distributed losses is presented. The theory is illustrated by using it for the description of operation of a Ka-band gyro-TWT designed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Also, the results of nonlinear studies of this tube are presented and compared with the ones obtained by the use of MAGY, a multi-frequency, self-consistent code developed at the University of Maryland. An attempt to build a large signal theory of gyro-TWTs with tapered geometry and magnetic field profile is made and first results are obtained for a 250 GHz gyro-TWT. A comparative small-signal analysis of conventional four-cavity and three-stage clustered-cavity gyroklystrons is performed. The corresponding point-gap models for these devices are presented. The efficiency, gain, bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product are analyzed for each scheme. Advantages of the clustered-cavity over the conventional design are discussed. The startup scenarios in high-power gyrotrons and the most important physical effects associated with them are considered. The work presents the results of startup simulations for a 140 GHz, MW-class gyrotron developed by Communications and Power Industries (CPI) for electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and current drive experiments on the "Wendelstein 7-X" stellarator plasma. Also presented are the results for a 110 GHz, 1

  5. Clostridial abdominal gas gangrene masquerading as a bowel perforation in an advanced-stage ovarian cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Abaid, L N; Thomas, R H; Epstein, H D; Goldstein, B H

    2013-08-01

    The coexistence of clostridial gas gangrene and a gynecologic malignancy is extremely rare, with very few cases involving ovarian cancer. A patient originally presented to our gynecologic oncology service with stage IV ovarian cancer; she underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On postoperative day 6, the patient developed severe abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis, suggestive of a bowel perforation. Further evaluation confirmed that her symptoms were attributed to Clostridium perfringens-related gas gangrene. Despite immediate surgical intervention, the patient succumbed to her disease. Clostridial gas gangrene is associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Therefore, accurate detection and prompt management are indispensable to ensuring a favorable patient outcome.

  6. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Workers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) begin hoisting S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB stage), into the Center's Dynamic Test Stand on January 11, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine large boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  7. Effects and Safety of Linagliptin as an Add-on Therapy in Advanced-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy Patients Taking Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuichiro; Ishii, Hiroki; Kitano, Taisuke; Shindo, Mitsutoshi; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Ito, Kiyonori; Hirai, Keiji; Kaku, Yoshio; Mori, Honami; Hoshino, Taro; Ookawara, Susumu; Kakei, Masafumi; Tabei, Kaoru; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated the effects and safety of linagliptin as an add-on therapy in patients with advanced-stage diabetic nephropathy (DMN) taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. METHOD Twenty advanced-stage DMN patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 24.5 ± 13.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) taking RAAS blockers were administered 5 mg/day linagliptin for 52 weeks. Changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and renal function were evaluated. RESULTS Linagliptin decreased glycosylated hemoglobin levels (from 7.32 ± 0.77% to 6.85 ± 0.87%, P < 0.05) without changing fasting blood glucose levels, and significantly decreased total cholesterol levels (from 189.6 ± 49.0 to 170.2 ± 39.2 mg/dL, P < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (from 107.1 ± 32.4 to 90.2 ± 31.0 mg/dL, P < 0.05) without changing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Urine protein/creatinine ratio and annual change in eGFR remained unchanged. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSION Linagliptin as an add-on therapy had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism without impairment of renal function, and did not have any adverse effects in this population of patients with advanced-stage DMN taking RAAS blockers. PMID:27660406

  8. Neutron interferometry with cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, Taisiya; Arif, M.; Huber, M. G.; Shahi, C. B.; Clark, C. W.; Cory, D. G.; Nsofini, J.; Sarenac, D.; Pushin, D. A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is amongst the most precise methods for characterizing neutron interactions by measuring the relative difference between two neutron paths, one of which contains a sample-of-interest. Because neutrons carry magnetic moment and are deeply penetrating, they are excellent probes to investigate properties of magnetic materials. The advantage of NI is its unique sensitivity which allows to directly measure magnetic and structural transitions in materials. Up to now NI has been sparingly used in material research due to its sensitivity to environmental noise. However, recent successes in implementing Quantum Error Correction principles lead to an improved NI design making it robust against mechanical vibrations. Following these advances, a new user facility at the National Institute for Standards and Technology was built to study condensed matter applications, biology and quantum physics. Incorporating cold sample stage inside NI is the first of its kind experiment which can be carried out on large range of temperatures down to 4K. Upon successful realization, it will open new frontiers to characterize magnetic domains, phase transitions and spin properties in a variety of materials such as, for example, iron-based superconductors and spintronic materials. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  9. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  10. Stage Separation Performance Analysis Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Zhang, Sijun; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    Stage separation process is an important phenomenon in multi-stage launch vehicle operation. The transient flowfield coupled with the multi-body systems is a challenging problem in design analysis. The thermodynamics environment with burning propellants during the upper-stage engine start in the separation processes adds to the complexity of the-entire system. Understanding the underlying flow physics and vehicle dynamics during stage separation is required in designing a multi-stage launch vehicle with good flight performance. A computational fluid dynamics model with the capability to coupling transient multi-body dynamics systems will be a useful tool for simulating the effects of transient flowfield, plume/jet heating and vehicle dynamics. A computational model using generalize mesh system will be used as the basis of this development. The multi-body dynamics system will be solved, by integrating a system of six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with high accuracy. Multi-body mesh system and their interactions will be modeled using parallel computing algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement method will also be employed to enhance solution accuracy in the transient process.

  11. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  12. Advanced space engine preliminary design. [liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen upper stage engine for space tug application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachary, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and design of an optimum LO2/LH2, combustion topping cycle, 88,964 Newtons (20,000-pound) thrust, liquid rocket engine was conducted. The design selected is well suited to high-energy, upper-stage engine applications such as the Space Tug and embodies features directed toward optimization of vehicle performance. A configuration selection was conducted based on prior Air Force Contracts, and additional criteria for optimum stage performance. Following configuration selection, analyses and design of the major components and engine systems were conducted to sufficient depth to provide layout drawings suitable for subsequent detailing. In addition, engine packaging to a common interface and a retractable nozzle concept were defined. Alternative development plans and related costs were also established. The design embodies high-performance, low-weight, low NPSH requirements (saturated propellant inlet conditions at start), idle-mode operation, and autogenous pressurization. The design is the result of the significant past and current LO2/LH2 technology efforts of the NASA centers and the Air Force, as well as company-funded programs.

  13. Mars Science Laboratory's Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This portion of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, called the descent stage, does its main work during the final few minutes before touchdown on Mars.

    The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground.

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

    This image was taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  15. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  16. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  17. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  18. The Advanced Stages of Stellar Evolution: Impact of Mass Loss, Rotation, and Link With B[e] Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgy, C.; Saio, H.; Ekström, S.; Meynet, G.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of rotation and mass loss on the evolved stages of massive star evolution. The physical reasons of the time evolution of the surface velocity are explained. We also show how the late-time evolution of massive stars are impacted in combination with the effects of mass loss. The most interesting result is that, in some cases, a massive star can have a blue-red-blue evolution, opening the possibility that blue supergiants are composed by two distinct populations of stars: one just leaving the main sequence and crossing the HRD for the first time, and the other one evolving back to the blue side of the HRD after a Red Supergiant phase. We discuss a few possible observational tests that can allow distinguishing these two populations and how supergiant B[e] stars fit in this context.

  19. Advances of two-stage riser catalytic cracking of heavy oil for maximizing propylene yield (TMP) process.

    PubMed

    Chaohe, Yang; Xiaobo, Chen; Jinhong, Zhang; Chunyi, Li; Honghong, Shan

    Two-stage riser catalytic cracking of heavy oil for maximizing propylene yield (TMP) process proposed by State Key Laboratory of Heavy oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, can remarkably enhance the propylene yield and minimize the dry gas and coke yields, and obtain high-quality light oils (gasoline and diesel). It has been commercialized since 2006. Up to now, three TMP commercial units have been put into production and other four commercial units are under design and construction. The commercial data showed that taking paraffinic based Daqing (China) atmospheric residue as the feedstock, the propylene yield reached 20.31 wt%, the liquid products yield (the total yield of liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, and diesel) was 82.66 wt%, and the total yield of dry gas and coke was 14.28 wt%. Moreover, the research octane number of gasoline could be up to 96.

  20. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Staging The extent (stage) of breast cancer needs to be determined to help choose the ...

  1. Drama for Classroom and Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Albert and Bertha

    This book with a three-part format contains information which the would-be thespian needs to know for maximum enjoyment and success in stage activities. The first part, "Heritage," traces the history and development of the theater from primitive ritual through the drama of classical Greece and Rome, the Renaissance, and modern Europe and America,…

  2. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1980-06-26

    A multi-stage flash degaser is incorporated in an energy conversion system having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger in order that the heat exchanger and a turbine and condenser of the system can operate at optimal efficiency.

  3. All the World's a Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Open Stages is Britain's biggest amateur theatre project, a hugely ambitious scheme to bring the professional and amateur theatre worlds together. It is a learning project but, as the Royal Shakespeare Company's Ian Wainwright tells this author, it is not only the amateurs who are learning. Wainwright states that the amateur and professional…

  4. Stages of neuronal network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiterski, Lydia; Claudepierre, Thomas; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer; Käs, Josef A.

    2013-02-01

    Graph theoretical approaches have become a powerful tool for investigating the architecture and dynamics of complex networks. The topology of network graphs revealed small-world properties for very different real systems among these neuronal networks. In this study, we observed the early development of mouse retinal ganglion cell (RGC) networks in vitro using time-lapse video microscopy. By means of a time-resolved graph theoretical analysis of the connectivity, shortest path length and the edge length, we were able to discover the different stages during the network formation. Starting from single cells, at the first stage neurons connected to each other ending up in a network with maximum complexity. In the further course, we observed a simplification of the network which manifested in a change of relevant network parameters such as the minimization of the path length. Moreover, we found that RGC networks self-organized as small-world networks at both stages; however, the optimization occurred only in the second stage.

  5. The Early Stages of Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John

    The stages of interlanguage, the speech of beginning second language learners as they progress toward second language fluency, are described. Examples are drawn from the speech of Spanish speaking students of English as a second language. The continuum of interlanguage development from native language forms to target language forms includes three…

  6. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  7. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  8. Intraoperative radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear: a hypothesis-generating retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, G; Mercante, G; Marucci, L; Soriani, A; Telera, S; Spriano, G

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, effectiveness and functional outcomes of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear. Data on 13 consecutive patients treated for malignant tumor of external auditory canal involving the middle ear were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 33 months (range 6-133). Five (38%) patients were stage III and 8 (62%) were Stage IV according to the University of Pittsburgh staging system. Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) was performed in all cases. LTBR was associated with parotidectomy in 5 (38%) cases, and with neck dissection and parotidectomy in 6 (46%) cases. No patients had gross residual tumour. Surgical treatment was followed by IORT (12 Gy) and IMRT (50 Gy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in 4 (30%) cases. Preoperative and postoperative audiometric tests were performed to assess hearing loss. 5-year local-control (LC), 5-year distant-metastasis (DM), 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and 5-year overall-survival (OS) were calculated with Kaplan-Meyer method. Significant changes in bone conduction were reported after treatment. Partial flap necrosis was the only early complication observed in three (23%) cases, while meningeal fistula was seen in one (7.6%) case as a late complication. The 5-year LC-rate was 68%. The 5-year DM-rate was 90%. The 5-year DFS-rate was 61%. The 5-year OS-rate was 69%. IORT followed by IMRT for the treatment of advanced external auditory canal and middle ear tumours seems to be safe. No intraoperative death was reported. IORT may reduce the postoperative irradiation of remnant tissue obtaining the same full dose on the tumour bed. No complications of the residual external ear were observed. Detriment of neurosensory hearing may be expected. Future studies are required to confirm the benefit of this procedure in the ear.

  9. Neural networks predict tomato maturity stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico

    1999-03-01

    Almost 40% of the total horticultural produce exported from Mexico the USA is tomato, and quality is fundamental for maintaining the market. Many fruits packed at the green-mature stage do not mature towards a red color as they were harvested before achieving its physiological maturity. Tomato gassed for advancing maturation does not respond on those fruits, and repacking is necessary at terminal markets, causing losses to the producer. Tomato spectral signatures are different on each maturity stage and tomato size was poorly correlated against peak wavelengths. A back-propagation neural network was used to predict tomato maturity using reflectance ratios as inputs. Higher success rates were achieved on tomato maturity stage recognition with neural networks than with discriminant analysis.

  10. Nuclear electric propulsion stage requirements and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.; Nakashima, A. M.; Nsieh, T. M.; Phillips, W. M.; Kikin, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    The application of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage in the exploration of near-earth, cometary, and planetary space was discussed. The NEP stage is powered by a liquid-metal-cooled, fast spectrum thermionic reactor capable of providing 120 kWe for 20,000 hours. This power is used to drive a number of mercury ion bombardment thrusters with specific impulse in the range of 4000-5000 seconds. The NEP description, characteristics, and functional requirements are discussed. These requirements are based on a set of five coordinate missions, which are described in detail. These five missions are a representative part of a larger set of missions used as a basic for an advanced propulsion comparison study. Additionally, the NEP stage development plan and test program is outlined and a schedule presented.

  11. Cutaneous Lymphoma International Consortium Study of Outcome in Advanced Stages of Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: Effect of Specific Prognostic Markers on Survival and Development of a Prognostic Model

    PubMed Central

    Scarisbrick, Julia J.; Prince, H. Miles; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Quaglino, Pietro; Horwitz, Steven; Porcu, Pierluigi; Stadler, Rudolf; Wood, Gary S.; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Pham-Ledard, Anne; Foss, Francine; Girardi, Michael; Bagot, Martine; Michel, Laurence; Battistella, Maxime; Guitart, Joan; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Martinez-Escala, Maria Estela; Estrach, Teresa; Papadavid, Evangelia; Antoniou, Christina; Rigopoulos, Dimitis; Nikolaou, Vassilki; Sugaya, Makoto; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Gniadecki, Robert; Sanches, José Antonio; Cury-Martins, Jade; Miyashiro, Denis; Servitje, Octavio; Muniesa, Cristina; Berti, Emilio; Onida, Francesco; Corti, Laura; Hodak, Emilia; Amitay-Laish, Iris; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose L.; Knobler, Robert; Porkert, Stefanie; Bauer, Wolfgang; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Grandi, Vieri; Cowan, Richard; Rook, Alain; Kim, Ellen; Pileri, Alessandro; Patrizi, Annalisa; Pujol, Ramon M.; Wong, Henry; Tyler, Kelly; Stranzenbach, Rene; Querfeld, Christiane; Fava, Paolo; Maule, Milena; Willemze, Rein; Evison, Felicity; Morris, Stephen; Twigger, Robert; Talpur, Rakhshandra; Kim, Jinah; Ognibene, Grant; Li, Shufeng; Tavallaee, Mahkam; Hoppe, Richard T.; Duvic, Madeleine; Whittaker, Sean J.; Kim, Youn H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Advanced-stage mycosis fungoides (MF; stage IIB to IV) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are aggressive lymphomas with a median survival of 1 to 5 years. Clinical management is stage based; however, there is wide range of outcome within stages. Published prognostic studies in MF/SS have been single-center trials. Because of the rarity of MF/SS, only a large collaboration would power a study to identify independent prognostic markers. Patients and Methods Literature review identified the following 10 candidate markers: stage, age, sex, cutaneous histologic features of folliculotropism, CD30 positivity, proliferation index, large-cell transformation, WBC/lymphocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and identical T-cell clone in blood and skin. Data were collected at specialist centers on patients diagnosed with advanced-stage MF/SS from 2007. Each parameter recorded at diagnosis was tested against overall survival (OS). Results Staging data on 1,275 patients with advanced MF/SS from 29 international sites were included for survival analysis. The median OS was 63 months, with 2- and 5-year survival rates of 77% and 52%, respectively. The median OS for patients with stage IIB disease was 68 months, but patients diagnosed with stage III disease had slightly improved survival compared with patients with stage IIB, although patients diagnosed with stage IV disease had significantly worse survival (48 months for stage IVA and 33 months for stage IVB). Of the 10 variables tested, four (stage IV, age > 60 years, large-cell transformation, and increased lactate dehydrogenase) were independent prognostic markers for a worse survival. Combining these four factors in a prognostic index model identified the following three risk groups across stages with significantly different 5-year survival rates: low risk (68%), intermediate risk (44%), and high risk (28%). Conclusion To our knowledge, this study includes the largest cohort of patients with advanced-stage MF/SS and

  12. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  13. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector.

  14. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer.

  15. Growth stage estimation. [crop calendars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, V. S.; Phinney, D. E.; Crea, W. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Of the three candidate approaches to adjustment of the crop calendar to account for year-to-year weather differences, the Robertson triquadratic unit, a function of a nonlinear function of maximum and minimum temperature and day length, best described the rate of phenological development of wheat. The adjustable crop calendar (ACC) as implemented for LACIE is used to calculate the daily increment of development through six physiological stages of growth. Topics covered include dormancy modeling, the spring restart model, spring wheat starter model, winter starter model, winter wheat starter model, inclusion of the moisture variable, and display of crop stage estimation results. Assessment of the ACC accuracy over the period of LACIE operation indicates that the adjustable crop calendars used provided more accurate information than would have been available using historical norms. The models performed best under the conditions from which they were derived (Canadian spring wheat) and most poorly for the dwarf varieties and Southern Hemisphere applications.

  16. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    PubMed

    Dotto, L

    1996-04-15

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does not produce memory deficits. Declarative memory, which is used for the recall of specific facts, is not similarly affected by REM-sleep loss. The learning of procedural motor tasks, including those required in many sports, is impaired by the loss of stage 2 sleep, which occurs primarily in the early hours of the morning. These findings have implications for the academic and athletic performance of students and for anyone whose work involves ongoing learning and demands high standards of performance.

  17. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  18. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-stage flash degaser (18) is incorporated in an energy conversion system (10) having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger (22) in order that the heat exchanger (22) and a turbine (48) and condenser (32) of the system (10) can operate at optimal efficiency.

  19. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  20. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  1. Protective effects of pioglitazone and/or liraglutide on pancreatic β-cells in db/db mice: Comparison of their effects between in an early and advanced stage of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomohiko; Kaneto, Hideaki; Shimoda, Masashi; Hirukawa, Hidenori; Okauchi, Seizo; Kohara, Kenji; Hamamoto, Sumiko; Tawaramoto, Kazuhito; Hashiramoto, Mitsuru; Kaku, Kohei

    2015-01-15

    The aim was to compare the protective effects of pioglitazone (PIO) and/or liraglutide (LIRA) on β-cells with the progression of diabetes. Male db/db mice were treated with PIO and/or LIRA for 2 weeks in an early and advanced stage. In an early stage insulin biosynthesis and secretion were markedly increased by PIO and LIRA which was not observed in an advanced stage. In concomitant with such phenomena, expression levels of various β-cell-related factors were up-regulated by PIO and LIRA only in an early stage. Furthermore, β-cell mass was also increased by the treatment only in an early stage. Although there was no difference in apoptosis ratio between the two stages, β-cell proliferation was augmented by the treatment only in an early stage. In conclusion, protective effects of pioglitazone and/or liraglutide on β-cells were more powerful in an early stage of diabetes compared to an advanced stage.

  2. Reflexive Learning: Stages towards Wisdom with Dreyfus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The Dreyfus (2001) account of seven stages of learning is considered in the context of the Dreyfus (1980s) account of five stages of skill development. The two new stages, Mastery and Practical Wisdom, make more explicit certain themes implicit in the five-stage account. In this way Dreyfus (2001) encourages a more reflexive approach. The themes…

  3. Predictors of Surgery Types after Neoadjuvant Therapy for Advanced Stage Breast Cancer: Analysis from Florida Population-Based Cancer Registry (1996–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azhri, Jamila; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Miao, Feng; Saclarides, Constantine; Byrne, Margaret M.; Avisar, Eli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite the established guidelines for breast cancer treatment, there is still variability in surgical treatment after neoadjuvant therapy (NT) for women with large breast tumors. Our objective was to identify predictors of the type of surgical treatment: mastectomy versus breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in women with T3/T4 breast cancer who received NT. METHODS Population-based Florida Cancer Data System Registry, Florida’s Agency for Health Care Administration, and US census from 1996 to 2009 were linked for women diagnosed with T3/T4 breast cancer and received NT followed by either BCS or mastectomy. Analysis of multiple variables, such as sociodemographic characteristics (race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, marital status, and urban/rural residency), tumor’s characteristics (estrogen/progesterone receptor status, histology, grade, SEER stage, and regional nodes positivity), treatment facilities (hospital volume and teaching status), patients’ comorbidities, and type of NT, was performed. RESULTS Of 1,056 patients treated with NT for T3/T4 breast cancer, 107 (10%) had BCS and 949 (90%) had mastectomy. After adjusting with extensive covariables, Hispanic patients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = [3.50], 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38–8.84, P = 0.008) were more likely to have mastectomy than BCS. Compared to localized SEER stage, regional stage with direct extension (aOR = [3.24], 95% CI: 1.60–6.54, P = 0.001), regional stage with direct extension and nodes (aOR = [4.35], 95% CI: 1.72–11.03, P = 0.002), and distant stage (aOR = [4.44], 95% CI: 1.81–10.88, P = 0.001) were significantly more likely to have mastectomy than BCS. Compared to patients who received both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, patients who received hormonal NT only (aOR = [0.29], 95% CI: 0.12–0.68, P = 0.004) were less likely to receive mastectomy. CONCLUSION Our study suggests that Hispanic ethnicity, advanced SEER stage, and type of NT are significant

  4. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB), makes its way to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area on January 4, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle in the Dynamic Test Stand. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  5. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC. PMID:27517300

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC.

  7. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates. PMID:26998128

  8. [Benefit of L-DOPA-without-DCI (decarboxylase inhibitor) therapy on wearing-off phenomenon in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease patients].

    PubMed

    Hironishi, Masaya; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2002-02-01

    Motor fluctuation is the most annoying complication experienced by patients in the advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. A Combination therapy of a dopamine receptor agonist and levodopa/DCI(DOPA-decarboxylase inhibitor) is commonly used to control the complication. Although administration of levodopa/DCI is useful in minimizing peripheral side effects of levodopa, it increases the incidence of motor complications due to the marked fluctuation of plasma levodopa level. The use of levodopa without DCI might be an option for controlling motor fluctuation, because the extent of plasma levodopa level fluctuation is smaller when levodopa is administered without DCI than with DCI. Six patients with Parkinson's disease who had troublesome motor complications under levodopa/DCI and DA agonist combination therapy were compared in terms of the extent of motor complications and their satisfaction after changing their therapy from levodopa/DCI to levodopa without DCI. The change from levodopa/DCI to levodopa(without DCI) was carried out all at once, and the levodopa/DCI to levodopa dose ratio was started at 1:4. The dose of levodopa(without DCI) was then increased gradually until motor complications improved or side effects were observed in patients. Except two patients who voluntarily quitted levodopa and restarted DOPA/DCI before the dose of levodopa fixed, all cases showed improvement of wearing-off phenomenon. No adverse event was observed. Levodopa-without-DCI-therapy was effective for controlling motor fluctuation in patients of Parkinson's disease in advanced stages.

  9. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 5: Fan acoustics. Section 2: One-third octave data tabulations and selected narrowband traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The raw-acoustic data corrected to standard day, from acoustic tests performed on a 0.508-scale fan vehicle of a 111,300 newton thrust, full-size engine, which has application on an advanced transport aircraft, are presented. The single-stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec to achieve the desired pressure ratio in a single-stage fan with low radius ratio, and to maintain adequate stall margin. The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise was accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels. The suppression goal of FAR 36-20 was not reached, but improvements in the technology of both front and aft fan-noise suppression were realized.

  10. Cardiac prosthesis as an advanced surgical therapy for end-stage cardiac patients: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Takatani, S

    2000-09-01

    This paper reviews the current status and future perspectives of the artificial heart research that was started in 1957 by Akutsu and Kolff. During the 1960's, although not much progress was made in increasing animal survival time with artificial hearts, clinical applications were already made for both a ventricular assist device in 1962 and total artificial heart (TAH) in 1969 followed by a second TAH application in 1981. Both TAH applications were done as bridges to heart transplantation. Meanwhile, the animal survival time improved during the 1970's because of the availability of better biomaterials, better understanding of the circulatory system, and improvement in surgical techniques. Continuous flow pumps were also investigated during the 1970's, which demonstrated feasibility for chronically supporting circulation in healthy animals. Four permanent cases of TAH application were done early 1980's for patients who could not be the candidates for heart transplantation. Although the patients were tethered to the external drive-console, one of them survived for nearly two years. Complications due to thromboembolism and infection were the major causes of death in these patients. The patients' quality of life was questionable and the permanent application of the TAH was then stopped to make improvements in the system in terms of implantability and biocompatibility. During the 1980's, efforts were then switcthed to development of totally implantable VAD and TAH systems, which led to the first discharge of a VAD patient from the hospital in 1992. In the early 1990's, implantable electric VADs, Novacor and ThermoCardio System (TCI), became available to support the circulation of end-stage cardiac patients until a donor heart could be found. The transplantation rate of the VAD patients ranged around 70% with the average waiting time of 80 to 100 days. The number of patients transplanted with VADs are more than 5000 and those with the pneumatic TAH exceed 200. Because

  11. 6p22.3 amplification as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target of advanced stage bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianmin; Underwood, Willie; Yang, Nuo; Frangou, Costa; Eng, Kevin; Head, Karen; Bollag, Roni J.; Kavuri, Sravan K.; Rojiani, Amyn M.; Li, Yingwei; Yan, Li; Hill, Annette; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L.; Candace, Johnson S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified as to contribute directly or indirectly to the generation of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB). In a comparative fashion much less is known about copy number alterations in TCC-UB, but it appears that amplification of chromosome 6p22 is one of the most frequent changes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, we evaluated chromosomal 6p22 amplification in a large cohort of bladder cancer patients with complete surgical staging and outcome data. We have also used shRNA knockdown candidate oncogenes in the cell based study. We found that amplification of chromosome 6p22.3 is significantly associated with the muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) (22%) in contrast to superficial TCC-UB (9%) (p=7.2-04). The rate of 6p22.3 amplification in pN>1 patients (32%) is more than twice that in pN0 (16%) patients (p=0.05). Interestingly, we found that 6p22.3 amplification is as twice as high (p=0.0201) in African American (AA) than European American (EA) TCC-UB patients. Moreover, we showed that the expression of some candidate genes (E2F3, CDKAL1 and Sox4) in the 6p22.3 region is highly correlated with the chromosomal amplification. In particular, knockdown of E2F3 inhibits cell proliferation in a 6p22.3-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of CDKAL1 and Sox4 has no effect on cell proliferation. Using gene expression profiling, we further identified some common as well as distinctive subset targets of the E2F3 family members. In summary, our data indicate that E2F3 is a key regulator of cell proliferation in a subset of bladder cancer and the 6p22.3 amplicon is a biomarker of aggressive phenotype in this tumor type. PMID:24231253

  12. Two stage coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shoebotham, N.M.

    1984-06-26

    This invention relates to a two stage coal gasification plant which comprises a gasifier 1 and a predistillation retort 2. The gasifier has a plurality of gas extraction outlets 4 located in the periphery thereof which feed into a manifold 5 from where a percentage of the gas from the gasifier is extracted. Gas from the predistillation retort is extracted through an outlet near the top of the retort. An agitator 8 is provided for agitation of the coal in the agglomeration zone. The agitator is preferably automatically controlled by means of a temperature sensing device 10 located on an arm thereof.

  13. Single-stage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    President Bush established a three phase Space Exploration Initiative for the future of space exploration. The first phase is the design and construction of Space Station Freedom. The second phase is permanent lunar base. The last phase of the Initiative is the construction of a Mars outpost. The design presented is the concept of a single-stage Mars mission developed by the University of Minnesota Aerospace Design Course. The mission will last approximately 500 days including a 30-60 day stay on Mars.

  14. Elizabethan madness: on London's stage.

    PubMed

    Dalby, J T

    1997-12-01

    During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a renaissance of both literary and political history occurred. The stage was transformed from primitive echoes of the morality plays to a vibrant and diverse exploration of human endeavor and man's place in the universe. The titanic literary figure of Shakespeare today veils a group of friends and challengers whose pens strove for the same goal. The depiction of madness was ubiquitous during plays of this time and reflection on the views of this group of men gives us a more reliable insight into mental illness then and today.

  15. Liquid biopsy in early stage lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Robles, Ana I.; Molina, Miguel Ángel; Faus-Dáder, María José; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths worldwide. Surgery is the standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, 30% to 80% of these patients will die within 5 yearS of diagnosis. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) harbors pathologic characteristics of the original tumor, such as gene mutations or epigenetic alterations. Analysis of cfDNA has revolutionized the clinical care of advanced lung cancer patients undergoing targeted therapies. However, the low concentration of cfDNA in the blood of early-stage NSCLC patients has hampered its use for management of early disease. Continuing development of more specific and sensitive techniques for detection and analysis of cfDNA will soon enable its leverage in early stage and, perhaps, even screening settings. Therefore, cfDNA analysis may become a tool used for routine NSCLC diagnosis and for monitoring tumor burden, as well as for identifying hidden residual disease. In this review, we will focus on the current evidence of cfDNA in patients with early-stage NSCLC, new and upcoming approaches to identify circulating-tumor biomarkers, their clinical applications and future directions. PMID:27826533

  16. [Advances in Lymph Node Metastasis and the Modes of Lymph Node 
Dissection in Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Caner].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ningning; Mao, Yousheng

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer ranks the first position in morbidity and mortality among all malignances in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for nearly 80% of all lung malignancies. Surgical resection is still the current major treatment method for early stage NSCLC. Lymph node stages together with the extent of lymph node dissection directly affect the prognosis. Anatomical lobectomy with systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection have been the standard surgical treatment for NSCLC. However, it is controversial in the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage NSCLC. Accurate nodes stage and the extent of mediatinal nodes dissection affect the peri-operative complications and the prognosis of NSCLC greatly. In the past decade, more and more surgeons demostrated that lobe-specific or selective mediastinal lymph node dissection is suitable for clinical stage I NSCLC, especially the stage Ia lesions, and may become the standard lymph node dissection mode in the future.

  17. 37 CFR 1.496 - Examination of international applications in the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national stage. National stage applications having paid therein the search fee as set forth in § 1.492(b)(1... cancel rejected claims. Such national stage applications will be advanced out of turn for examination....

  18. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  19. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  20. Treatment outcome of patients with advanced stage natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: elucidating the effects of asparaginase and postchemotherapeutic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Yi; Wang, Yu; Sun, Peng; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The prognosis of advanced stage natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) remains relatively disappointing, and the optimal treatment strategy for this disease has yet to be discovered. Seventy-three patients with Ann Arbor stage III or IV NKTCL were retrospectively reviewed. The treatment efficacies of asparaginase-containing and asparaginase-absent chemotherapy regimens were compared, and the effects of postchemotherapeutic radiotherapy were explored. The overall response rate (ORR) of the asparaginase-containing regimens was marginally higher than that of the asparaginase-absent regimens (56.5 vs 32.6 %, P = 0.057). However, no significant difference was observed in 2-year overall survival (OS) (38.3 vs 22.7 %, P = 0.418) or 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) (25.4 vs 14.9 %, P = 0.134) between the asparaginase-containing and asparaginase-absent groups. Postchemotherapeutic radiotherapy was associated with a significantly prolonged survival (2-year OS 57.5 vs 14.5 %, P < 0.001; 2-year PFS 46.3 vs 8.4 %, P < 0.001) and was an independent predictor of both OS and PFS. Radiotherapy significantly improved the prognosis among the patients who exhibited complete or partial remission after initial chemotherapy (2-year OS 81.5 vs 40.2 %, P = 0.002; 2-year PFS 65.6 vs 23.4 %, P = 0.008) but failed to provide a significant survival advantage among those who experienced stable or progressive disease after initial chemotherapy. In conclusion, the use of asparaginase did not significantly improve survival for the treatment of patients with stage III/IV NKTCL. Postchemotherapeutic radiotherapy provided additional prognostic benefits to patients who responded well to the initial chemotherapy, which requires further validation in future prospective studies using larger sample sizes.

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Parachute Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward

    2003-05-06

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  4. Staged treatment of lymphedema praecox

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, A. R.; Douglas, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Lymphedema of the lower extremities poses a challenging problem in management. Gross deformities may be encountered in patients with filarial infestation. This degree of involvement is rare in native North Americans suffering from primary lymphedema. A case is presented of a patient with changes similar to those seen in filariasis, due to several episodes of acute lymphangitis over a period of years. The involved tissue was excised and the defects skin-grafted, employing a modified Charles procedure. The magnitude of the excision was such that it was carried out in three widely spaced stages. The result was satisfactory from a functional viewpoint, and also represented a marked cosmetic improvement. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4590797

  5. The treatment of advanced stage favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a preliminary report of a randomized trial comparing single agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy, and whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, R.T.; Kushlan, P.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Brown, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    Between 1975 and 1978, 51 patients with favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, pathologic stage III-IV, were treated prospectively on a randomized treatment protocol. Treatment options were single alkylating agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP), or fractionated whole body irradiation followed by low dose involved field irradiation. The median follow-up interval in this group of patients is not 41 mo. Actuarial survival is excellent, 84% at 4 yr for the entire group, with similar survival observed for each of the three treatment options. Initial complete remission rates (64%, 88%, and 71%) were not significantly different in the three treatment arms. Frequent relapse after initial remission induction was noted, however, with a freedom from relapse at 4 yr of only 25%. The toxicities of the three therapies were acceptable. Acute complications of therapy were most numerous in the group of patients treated with CVP; however, long-term hematologic depression was most commonly observed in patients treated with whole body irradiation. In general, hematologic complications were more frequent among patients who had marrow involvement and intact spleens at the time of initial therapy. The relationship of this study to other clinical trials in the management of patients with advanced stage favorable histology lymphomas and its implications for future clinical trials are discussed.

  6. Retrospective Study of Pegaspargase, Gemicitabine, Oxaliplatin and Dexamethasone (Peg-GemOD) as a First-Line Therapy for Advanced-Stage Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Yun; Tang, Yong; Zhuang, Yan; Zou, Li-Fang; Dou, Hong-Ju; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Qi

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to retrospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of pegaspargase, gemicitabine, oxaliplatin and dexamethasone (Peg-GemOD) combination chemotherapy as a first-line therapy for advanced-stage extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL). Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed stage III/IV ENKTL were subjected to 3-6 cycles of Peg-GemOD chemotherapy. After 3 cycles of therapy, the overall response rate was 67 % (12/18) with a complete response rate of 28 % (5/18) and a partial response rate of 39 % (7/18). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) time were 10 and 8.5 months respectively. For those responders, the median OS and PFS time were significantly better than those of non-responders (median OS, 15 vs. 10 months; P = 0.001 and median PFS, 15 vs. 7 months; P = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with low plasma EBV-DNA levels after induction chemotherapy had a remarkably longer OS and PFS time. The toxicity of Peg-GemOD regimen was acceptable.

  7. Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

  8. Pemetrexed for advanced stage nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer: latest evidence about its extended use and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Pascale; Barlesi, Fabrice; Mascaux, Celine; Greillier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still the leading cause of cancer-related death, and the treatment of advanced NSCLC relies on systemic treatments. During the last decade, pemetrexed, an antifolate agent, gradually became a key component of the treatment for patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. It has indeed been shown to be efficient for first-line, maintenance and second- or third-line treatment in this subgroup of NSCLC. Moreover, it is usually well tolerated, with few grade 3 and 4 toxicities. Several studies have tried to identify predictive biomarkers of pemetrexed efficacy. Due to pemetrexed’s mechanism of action, thymidilate synthase expression predictive value was investigated but could not be demonstrated. Currently, more than 400 trials of pemetrexed for the treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC are ongoing. PMID:27239238

  9. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage II endometrial cancer. Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside ... uterus. In stage II , cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix , but has not spread outside ...

  11. Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Survival rates are often used by ... Your Doctor About Soft Tissue Sarcomas? More In Soft Tissue Sarcoma About Soft Tissue Sarcoma Causes, Risk ...

  12. Revised FIGO staging system for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Sharyn N

    2011-06-01

    In 1988 the International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) developed a surgical staging system for endometrial cancer. The FIGO staging system was recently revised in 2009 to reflect our growing understanding of the natural history of endometrial cancer. In this review, we describe the revised 2009 FIGO staging system for tumors of the uterine corpus and examine the effect of the new changes in the staging criteria.

  13. Two Stage Gear Tooth Dynamics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    cordi - tions and associated iteration prooedure become more complex. This is due to both the increased number of components and to the time for a...solved for each stage in the two stage solution . There are (3 + ntrrber of planets) degrees of freedom fcr eacb stage plus two degrees of freedom...should be devised. It should be noted that this is not minor task. In general, each stage plus an input or output shaft will have 2 times (4 + number

  14. Staging of primary malignancies of bone.

    PubMed

    Heck, Robert K; Peabody, Terrance D; Simon, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Staging of bone sarcomas is the process whereby patients are evaluated with regard to histology, as well as the local and distant extent, of disease. Bone sarcomas are staged based on grade, size, and the presence and location of metastases. The system is designed to help stratify patients according to known risk factors. Proper staging helps define the prognosis for patients and helps guide their treatment. Furthermore, staging allows meaningful comparisons to be done among groups of patients.

  15. [Develpment of sleep stages in childhood].

    PubMed

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter

    2007-01-01

    With the perspective of describing some aspects of the ontogenesis and organization of the sleep stages during the first year of life, a literature review was carried out to assess the physiological and behavioral alterations controlled by changes occurring during sleep at this developmental stage. In addition, based on the sleep preceding theory the stages of differentiation, classification and time organization of sleep stages are presented, aiming at the favorable management of environmental events that affect the organization of infant sleep.

  16. Two-Stage Series-Resonant Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Two-stage inverter includes variable-frequency, voltage-regulating first stage and fixed-frequency second stage. Lightweight circuit provides regulated power and is invulnerable to output short circuits. Does not require large capacitor across ac bus, like parallel resonant designs. Particularly suitable for use in ac-power-distribution system of aircraft.

  17. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in advanced stage EBV-associated extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma is associated with better prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook Youn; Jung, Ho Young; Nam, Soo Jeong; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Chul-Woo; Jeon, Yoon Kyung

    2016-11-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway blockade has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an aggressive disease characterized by a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and chronic EBV infection is known to induce PD-L1 expression. However, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway status in ENKTL remains elusive. Thus, the expression pattern of PD-1 and PD-L1 was investigated in 73 ENKTL cases, and its clinicopathological features and prognostic significance were analyzed. Most ENKTLs had few PD-1(+) lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment. PD-L1 was positive in 56 % (n = 41/73) with a cutoff value of ≥10 % of tumor cells and in 62 % (n = 45/73) with a cutoff value of ≥10 % of total cells including malignant and non-malignant cells. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was mostly correlated with PD-L1 expression on non-malignant cells. PD-L1 positivity showed no significant relationship with clinicopathological features. However, patients with PD-L1(+) ENKTL exhibited better 5-year overall survival (OS) and a trend for longer 5-year progression-free survival. Moreover, in the subgroups with clinically advanced parameters including late stage III/IV, higher International Prognostic Index scores of 2-5 or non-upper aerodigestive tract involvement PD-L1 positivity was also associated with favorable OS. PD-L1 expression was the only significant independent predictor for longer OS in patients with advanced stage (III/IV) ENKTL. These results suggest that PD-L1 might be used as a novel prognostic marker.

  19. Safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation for the management of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zarvandi, Mahdi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Abazari, Mohammad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-02-16

    The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) consisted of Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Plantago psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum for controlling dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes. An open-label phase I trial was carried out on 30 patients who had hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia before the beginning of the trial in spite of receiving statins and oral hypoglycemic drugs. Patients were given one PHF sachet two times daily for 40 consecutive days. All subjects also continuously received their statins and oral hypoglycemic agents. Clinical assessments and laboratory findings were evaluated before starting treatment and at day 40. Treatment with PHF had no significant effects on serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney functions, on hematological parameters related to erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and on body weight and blood pressure. After consumption of PHF, 2 patients complained of mild nausea, and 2 patients reported diarrhea. PHF significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c from 162±40mg/dL to 146±37mg/dL and from 8.4±1.5% to 7.7±1.1%, respectively. Also, it significantly decreased the level of LDL from 138±25mg/dL to 108±36mg/dL, and the level of triglycerides from 203±47mg/dL to 166±58mg/dL. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated that the PHF was safe and efficacious in lowering the levels of blood glucose and serum lipids in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes.

  20. The Prognostic Value of Alpha-Fetoprotein Response for Advanced-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Sorafenib Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhao, Yan; Jia, Jia; Chen, Hui; Bai, Wei; Yang, Man; Yin, Zhanxin; He, Chuangye; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Wengang; Niu, Jing; Yuan, Jie; Cai, Hongwei; Xia, Jielai; Fan, Daiming; Han, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with sorafenib combined with transarterial chemoembolization. From May 2008 to July 2012, 118 HCC patients with baseline AFP levels >20 ng/ml treated with combination therapy were enrolled. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to generate a cutoff point for AFP changes for predicting survival. The AFP response was defined as an AFP decrease rate [ΔAFP(%)] greater than the cutoff point. The ΔAFP(%) was defined as the percentage of changes between the baseline and the nadir values within 2 months after therapy. The median follow-up time was 8.8 months (range 1.2–66.9). A level of 46% was chosen as the threshold value for ΔAFP (sensitivity = 53.7%, specificity = 83.3%). The median overall survival was significantly longer in the AFP response group than in the AFP non-response group (12.8 vs. 6.4 months, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG ≥ 1 (HR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.24–3.1, P = 0.004) and AFP nonresponse (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.15–2.55, P = 0.009) were associated with increased risk of death. In conclusion, AFP response could predict the survival of patients with advanced-stage HCC at an early time point after combination therapy. PMID:26831408

  1. [Pre- and postoperative radiotherapy of oral carcinoma of a locally advanced stage. An analysis of the results and complications].

    PubMed

    Zini, G; Barbieri, E; Campobassi, A; Dallera, P; Emiliani, E; Frezza, G; Marchetti, C; Neri, S; Romagnoli, D; Silvano, M

    1989-01-01

    The combination of radiotherapy and surgery in the treatment of advanced oral carcinoma (T3 and T4 lesions) yields good possibilities of recovery; whether radiotherapy should be given before or after surgery is still debated. Fifty patients with advanced oral carcinomas were analyzed: 24 of them were irradiated before and 26 after surgery; doses ranged from 40 to 56 Gy for the first group of patients, and from 50 to 68 Gy for the second one. The disease-free survival 48 months after the diagnosis was 36% in patients who received preoperative irradiation, and 53.6% in patients who received postoperative radiotherapy; the latter allowed local control of the disease to be significantly improved (chi 2 3.99, 0.01 less than p less than 0.05). The quality of survival was worse in the group receiving preoperative irradiation, because of radiation-induced surgical complications, which were especially observed in patients with diffuse disease. Our findings suggest that postoperative radiotherapy may be advisable if the tumor is resectable, since tolerance and local control rate were acceptable. On the contrary, nearly inoperable masses and massive neck diseases often require preoperative irradiation.

  2. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Studies of Advanced Stages of Meditation in the Tibetan Buddhist and Vedic Traditions. I: A Comparison of General Changes

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This article is the first of two comparing findings of studies of advanced practitioners of Tibetan Buddhist meditation in remote regions of the Himalayas, with established results on long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation programs. Many parallel levels of improvement were found, in sensory acuity, perceptual style and cognitive function, indicating stabilization of aspects of attentional awareness. Together with observed increases in EEG coherence and aspects of brain function, such changes are consistent with growth towards a state of total brain functioning, i.e. development of full mental potential. They are usually accompanied by improved health parameters. How they may be seen to be consistent with growth of enlightenment will be the subject of a second article. PMID:17173116

  4. Genomic damage in end-stage renal failure: potential involvement of advanced glycation end products and carbonyl stress.

    PubMed

    Stopper, Helga; Schupp, Nicole; Bahner, Udo; Sebekova, Katarina; Klassen, Andre; Heidland, August

    2004-09-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, genomic damage has been shown by numerous biomarkers, such as micronuclei frequency and comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) in peripheral lymphocytes, 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) content in leukocytes, mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle tissue and hair follicles, as well as in DNA repair mechanisms in freshly isolated lymphocytes after ultraviolet light exposure. In the pathogenesis of DNA damage--besides genetic influences, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation-the genotoxic potential of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive carbonyl compounds deserve special attention. In fact, reactions of glucose with DNA can lead to mutagenic DNA AGEs. In vitro, incubation of tubulus cells with various AGEs and methylglyoxal induces DNA damage, which is suppressed by antioxidants. This underlines the role played by oxidative stress in DNA damage.

  5. Studies of advanced stages of meditation in the tibetan buddhist and vedic traditions. I: a comparison of general changes.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2006-12-01

    This article is the first of two comparing findings of studies of advanced practitioners of Tibetan Buddhist meditation in remote regions of the Himalayas, with established results on long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation programs. Many parallel levels of improvement were found, in sensory acuity, perceptual style and cognitive function, indicating stabilization of aspects of attentional awareness. Together with observed increases in EEG coherence and aspects of brain function, such changes are consistent with growth towards a state of total brain functioning, i.e. development of full mental potential. They are usually accompanied by improved health parameters. How they may be seen to be consistent with growth of enlightenment will be the subject of a second article.

  6. Tumor deposits counted as positive lymph nodes in TNM staging for advanced colorectal cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Yang, Shengke; Hu, Junjie; Liu, Hao; Du, Feng; Yin, Jie; Liu, Sai; Li, Ci; Xing, Shasha; Yuan, Jiatian; Lv, Bo; Fan, Jun; Leng, Shusheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of counting tumor deposits (TDs) as positive lymph nodes (pLNs) in the pN category and evaluated its prognostic value for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A new pN category (npN category) was calculated using the numbers of pLNs plus TDs. The npN category included 4 tiers: npN1a (1 tumor node), npN1b (2-3 tumor nodes), npN2a (4-6 tumor nodes), and npN2b (≥7 tumor nodes). We identified 4,121 locally advanced CRC patients, including 717 (11.02%) cases with TDs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS) for npN and pN categories. Multivariate analysis showed that the npN and pN categories were both independent prognostic factors for DFS (HR 1.614, 95% CI 1.541 to 1.673; HR 1.604, 95% CI 1.533 to 1.679) and OS (HR 1.633, 95% CI 1.550 to 1.720; HR 1.470, 95% CI 1.410 to 1.532). However, the npN category was superior to the pN category by Harrell's C statistic. We conclude that it is thus feasible to consider TDs as positive lymph nodes in the pN category when evaluating the prognoses of CRC patients, and the npN category is potentially superior to the TNM (7th edition) pN category for predicting DFS and OS among advanced CRC patients. PMID:26934317

  7. Study on acute recent stage pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ye-Chen; Wang, Min; Zhu, Feng; Qin, Ren-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which involves the pancreas and surrounding tissue, and systemic inflammation with a characteristic systemic increase of vascular permeability and increased risk of multiple organ dysfunction. Currently, the pathogenesis of AP is fuzzy, and the diagnosis and treatment need to be standardized. Nevertheless, increased knowledge of AP may achieve more thorough understanding of the pathogenesis. The use of further advanced diagnostic tools and superior treatment, potentially will help clinicians to manage AP at an appropriate stage. However, in view of the multi factorial disease and the complex clinical manifestations, the management of patients with AP is also remaining areas for improvement. PMID:25473166

  8. Current Advancement in Multidisciplinary Treatment for Resectable cStage II/III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Satoru; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Ando, Nobutoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Multidisciplinary treatment comprising surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is widely used with improved prognosis. Transthoracic esophagectomy (TTE) with extended lymph node (LN) dissection, known as three field LN dissection, has been recommended for ESCC using open thoracotomy or the thoracoscopic approach. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) trial (JCOG1409) is investigating the patients’ long term survival using the thoracoscopic approach that has been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative respiratory complication. For perioperative treatment, neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been accepted as the standard of care in Japan based on the JCOG9907 trial. In Western countries, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was shown to prolong overall survival for esophageal cancer, including ESCC. Although surgery has been recognized as an initial curative treatment for esophageal cancer, definitive chemoradiotherapy is an alternative treatment for patients who are unable to undergo thoracotomy or who decline to undergo surgery. This article reviews multidisciplinary treatment advances for ESCC. However, current standard treatments are country dependent and the ongoing trial may help standardize ESCC treatment across various societies. PMID:27384595

  9. Cellular effector mechanisms against Plasmodium liver stages.

    PubMed

    Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cell biology of the malaria parasite have led to new vaccine development efforts resulting in a pipeline of over 40 candidates undergoing clinical phase I-III trials. Vaccine-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for pre-erythrocytic stage antigens have been found to express cytolytic and multi-cytokine effector functions that support a key role for these T cells within the hepatic environment. However, little is known of the cellular interactions that occur during the effector phase in which the intracellular hepatic stage of the parasite is targeted and destroyed. This review focuses on cell biological aspects of the interaction between malaria-specific effector cells and the various antigen-presenting cells that are known to exist within the liver, including hepatocytes, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells, stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelia. Considering the unique immune properties of the liver, it is conceivable that these different hepatic antigen-presenting cells fulfil distinct but complementary roles during the effector phase against Plasmodium liver stages.

  10. Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  11. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  12. Saturn V S-IVB (Third) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    After the S-II (second) stage dropped away, the S-IVB (third) stage ignited and burned for about two minutes to place itself and the Apollo spacecraft into the desired Earth orbit. At the proper time during this Earth parking orbit, the S-IVB stage was re-ignited to speed the Apollo spacecraft to escape velocity, injecting it and the astronauts into a moon trajectory. Developed and manufactured by the Douglas Aircraft Company in Huntington, California, the S-IVB stage measures about 21.5 feet in diameter, about 58 feet in length and is powered by a single 200,000-pound-thrust J-2 engine with a re-start capability. The S-IVB stage was also used on the second stage of the Saturn IB launch vehicle. The fully-assembled S-IVB (third) stage for the AS-503 (Apollo 8 mission) launch vehicle is pictured in the Douglas' vertical checkout building.

  13. Prognostic significance of urokinase (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 for survival in advanced ovarian carcinoma stage FIGO IIIc.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, W; Schmalfeldt, B; Reuning, U; Pache, L; Berger, U; Ulm, K; Harbeck, N; Späthe, K; Dettmar, P; Höfler, H; Jänicke, F; Schmitt, M; Graeff, H

    1999-04-01

    Strong evidence has accumulated on the prognostic value of tumour-associated proteolytic factors in patients afflicted with solid malignant tumours, including advanced ovarian cancer. We evaluated the prognostic impact of the protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 on overall survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO IIIc in order to select patients at risk. uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by ELISA in primary tumour tissue extracts of 86 ovarian cancer patients FIGO stage IIIc enrolled in a prospective study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The time-varying coefficient model of Gray was used to assess the time-dependent strength of prognostic factors tumour mass, uPA and PAI-1 on overall survival. In all patients, uPA and PAI-1 (optimized cut-offs of 2.0 and 27.5 ng mg(-1) protein respectively), in addition to the traditional prognostic parameters of residual tumour mass, nodal status, grading and ascites volume, were of prognostic significance in univariate analysis for overall survival. Even in patients with residual tumour mass (n = 43), the statistically independent prognostic impact of PAI-1 persisted, allowing further discrimination between low- and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, residual tumour mass (P < 0.001, relative risk (RR) 4.5), PAI-1 (P < 0.001; RR 3.1) and nodal status (P = 0.022, RR 2.6) turned out to be strong, statistically independent prognostic parameters. Evaluation of the time-dependent prognostic impact of residual tumour mass and PAI-1 on overall survival (n = 86, 50 months) revealed that the prognostic power of these factors increased with time. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer, both residual tumour mass and PAI-1 are statistically independent strong prognostic factors. Even within patient subgroups with or without residual tumour mass, PAI-1 allowed selection of patients at risk who might benefit from

  14. Combined processes of two-stage Fenton-biological anaerobic filter-biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Jijun; Chen, Zhiwei; Jian, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Che-Jen

    2012-12-01

    There are numerous non-biodegradable organic materials in the mature landfill leachate. To meet the new discharge standard of China, additional advanced treatment is needed for the effluent from the biological treatment processes of leachate. In this study, a combined process including two stages of "Fenton-biological anaerobic filter (BANF)-biological aerated filter (BAF)" was evaluated to address the advanced treatment need. The Fenton oxidation was applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and enhance biodegradability of refractory organics, and the BANF-BAF process was then applied to remove the total nitrogen (TN). The treatment achieved effluent concentrations of COD<70 mg/L, TN<40 mg/L and NH(3)-N<10 mg/L. The removal efficiency of COD and TN were 96.1% and 95.9%, respectively. The effluent quality met the new discharge standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid of PR China (GB16889-2008). The operation cost of these processes was about 36.1CHY/t (5.70USD/t).

  15. Tumor Staging and HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    The current TNM staging for oropharyngeal cancer (OSCC) was designed empirically for non-HPV-related disease. Emerging evidence suggests it is unsuited for Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OSCC. Patients with HPV-positive tumors have improved prognosis, despite presenting at advanced stages. These shortcomings of the current staging system have been identified in single- and multi-institutional trials. Patients with HPV related OSCC typically present with advanced N-stages leading to higher stage groupings. A rarity of stages I and II therefore represents the nature of HPV-related OSCC. Concerning prognosis of the patients, N-category and extracapsular spread seem to be of minor importance, whereas advanced T-stages result in unfavourable outcome. Anatomical staging therefore has been implied into different proposals to prognostic risk classifications in HPV-related disease as an additive compound. Prognostic risk groupings are further enhanced by incorporating non-anatomical factors. To summarize, it can be suggested that the current TNM system alone has little prognostic value in HPV-related OSCC.

  16. Stage IV and age over 45 years are the only prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Score for the outcome of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the Spanish Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group series.

    PubMed

    Guisado-Vasco, Pablo; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Canales, Miguel; Cánovas, Araceli; Garcia-Laraña, José; García-Sanz, Ramón; Lopez, Andrés; López, José Luis; Llanos, Marta; Moraleda, José Maria; Rodriguez, José; Rayón, Consuelo; Sabin, Pilar; Salar, Antonio; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; Tomás, José Francisco; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Victor; Piris, Miguel A; Garcia, Juán F; Montalban, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.

  17. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  18. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  19. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  20. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  1. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  2. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Sweet Ping; David, Steven; Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  4. Acting Antarctica: science on stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia

    2016-04-01

    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  5. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 2; Comparison of CFD and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57 percent engine scaled fan stage for a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space with multipoint operations. This fan stage was tested in NASA's transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test were to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off; 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio; 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet; and 4) fan wind-milling operation at high Mach flight conditions. This paper will focus on an assessment of APNASA, a multistage turbomachinery analysis code developed by NASA, to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speeds (37 to 100 percent) and bypass ratios.

  6. A Hypereosinophilic Syndrome with Cardiac Involvement from Thrombotic Stage to Fibrotic Stage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Kyun; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae Hee; Jang, Se Yong; Bae, Myung Hwan; Lee, Jang Hoon; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). It is classified into 3 stages by the degree of eosinophils-mediated heart injury; acute necrotic stage, thrombotic stage, and fibrotic stage. Nonetheless, definitive evidence that each patient passes sequentially through these stages is lacking. We present a case of 48-year-old male patient with dyspnea and peripheral edema who underwent valve replacement surgery due to severe mitral regurgitation. After the valve replacement, HES with cardiac involvement in the thrombotic stage was diagnosed. In the follow-up study, the patient progressed into fibrotic stage of HES. PMID:26140152

  7. Vorinostat, Rituximab, and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Stage II Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  8. Pretreatment Quality of Life Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Advanced Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yingwei; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Tan, Angelina D.; Krook, James E.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Soori, Gamini S.; Adjei, Alex A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis We conducted this pooled analysis to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment Quality of Life (QOL) assessments on overall survival (OS) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Four hundred twenty patients with advanced NSCLC (stages IIIB with pleural effusion and IV) from six North Central Cancer Treatment Group trials were included in this study. QOL assessments included the single-item Uniscale (355 patients), Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (217 patients), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (197 patients). QOL scores were transformed to a 0 to 100 scale with higher scores representing better status and categorized using the sample median or clinically deficient score (CDS, ≤50 versus >50). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study were used to evaluate the prognostic importance of QOL on OS alone and in the presence of other prognostic factors such as performance status, age, gender, body mass index, and laboratory parameters. Results Pretreatment QOL accessed by Uniscale was significantly associated with OS univariately (p < 0.0001). Uniscale (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio = 1.6 for the sample median and 2.0 for the CDS categorization) and body mass index were the only significant predictors of OS multivariately. The median survival of patients who had a Uniscale score less than or equal to the CDS (≤50) was 5.7 versus 11.1 months for the >50 group; and 7.8 versus 13 months for the less than or equal to sample median (≤83) group and >83 group, respectively. The Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung total scores were not significant predictors of OS. Conclusions Pretreatment QOL measured by Uniscale is a significant and an independent prognostic factor for OS, and QOL should be routinely integrated as a stratification factor in advanced NSCLC trials. PMID:19546817

  9. Targeted O-glycoproteomics explored increased sialylation and identified MUC16 as a poor prognosis biomarker in advanced stage bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sofia; Azevedo, Rita; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Ferreira, Dylan; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Manuel; Neves, Diogo; Amaro, Teresina; Cruz, Ricardo; Tavares, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Silva, André M N; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2017-02-03

    Bladder carcinogenesis and tumour progression is accompanied by profound alterations in protein glycosylation on the cell surface, which may be explored for improving disease management. In a search for prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets we have screened, using immunohistochemistry, a series of bladder tumours with differing clinicopathology for short-chain O-glycans commonly found in glycoproteins of human solid tumours. These included the Tn and T antigens and their sialylated counterparts sialyl-Tn(STn) and sialyl-T(ST), which are generally associated with poor prognosis. We have also explored the nature of T antigen sialylation, namely the sialyl-3-T(S3T) and sialyl-6-T(S6T) sialoforms, based on combinations of enzymatic treatments. We observed a predominance of sialoglycans over neutral glycoforms (Tn and T antigens) in bladder tumours. In particular, the STn antigen was associated with high-grade disease and muscle invasion, in accordance with our previous observations. The S3T and S6T antigens were detected for the first time in bladder tumours but not in healthy urothelia, highlighting their cancer-specific nature. These glycans were also overexpressed in advanced lesions, especially in cases showing muscle invasion. Glycoproteomic analyses of advanced bladder tumours based on enzymatic treatments, Vicia Villosa lectin-affinity chromatography enrichment and nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of several key cancer-associated glycoproteins (MUC16, CD44, integrins) carrying altered glycosylation. Of particular interest were MUC16 STn(+) -glycoforms, characteristic of ovarian cancers, which were found in a subset of advanced-stage bladder tumours facing the worst prognosis. In summary, significant alterations in the O-glycome and O-glycoproteome of bladder tumors hold promise for the development of novel non-invasive diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, abnormal MUC16 glycoforms hold potential as

  10. Genetically Modified T Cells in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer or Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-04

    Advanced Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; HLA-A*0201 Positive Cells Present; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pleural Mesothelioma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Pleural Mesothelioma

  11. Staging of laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Daniels, J.; Swanson, K. K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shaw, B. H.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.

  12. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components` final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  13. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components' final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  14. Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafaat, Syed; Chang, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) stage for mechanical adjustment of an optical component. The six degrees of freedom are translations along the Cartesian axes (x, y, and z) and rotations about these axes (theta x, theta y, and theta z, respectively). Relative to prior such stages, this stage offers advantages of compactness, stability, and robustness, plus other advantages as described below. The stage was designed specifically as part of a laser velocimeter and altimeter in which light reflected by a distant object is collected by a Cassegrainian telescope and focused into a single-mode, polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The stage is used to position and orient the input end of the optical fiber with respect to the focal point of the telescope. Stages like this one can also be adapted for use in positioning and orienting other optical components, including lenses, prisms, apertures, and photodetectors.

  15. Increased Levels of Plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA Identify a Poor-Risk Subset of Patients With Advanced Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Gru, Alejandro A.; Geyer, Susan M.; Bingman, Anissa K.; Hemminger, Jessica A.; Mishra, Anjali; Wong, Henry K.; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Discovering prognostic factors that simultaneously describe tumor characteristics and improve risk stratification is a priority in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). More than a third of advanced stage CTCL patients in this cohort had detectable cell free plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-DNA (pEBVd) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An increased level of pEBVd was highly concordant with EBV (ie, Epstein–Barr virus RNAs) in tumor tissue and was associated with inferior survival. Introduction Outcomes in advanced stage (AS) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are poor but with great variability. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Frequency of plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) detection, concordance with EBV RNA (EBER) in tumor tissue, codetection of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA (pCMVd), and prognostic effect in AS CTCL are unknown. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 46; 2006–2013) with AS CTCL (≥IIB) were retrospectively studied. pEBVd and pCMVd were longitudinally measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on tumor samples. Survival from time of diagnosis (ToD) and time of progression to AS was assessed. Results Plasma EBV-DNA and pCMVd were detected in 37% (17 of 46) and 17% (8 of 46) of AS CTCL patients, respectively. pCMVd detection was significantly more frequent in pEBVd-positive (pEBVd+) than pEBVd− patients (35% vs. 7%; P = .038). Tumor tissue for EBER-ISH was available in 14 of 17 pEBVd+ and 22 of 29 pEBVd− patients; 12 of 14 (85.7%) pEBVd+ patients were EBER+ versus 0 of 22 pEBVd− patients. Frequency of large cell transformation (LCT) tended to be greater in pEBVd+ patients, but was not significant (10 of 14 pEBVd+ vs. 10 of 23 pEBVd−; P = .17). No notable differences in rates of increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed (17 of 17 pEBVd+ vs. 27 of 29 pEBVd−). pEBVd detection was associated with

  16. Induction Charge Detector with Multiple Sensing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An induction charge detector with multiple sensing stages has been conceived for use in characterizing sprayed droplets, dust particles, large ionized molecules, and the like. Like related prior single-stage devices, each stage yields a measurement of the electric charge and the time of flight of the particle. In effect, an n-stage sensor yields n independent sets of such measurements from the same particle. The benefit of doing this is to increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio and thereby lower the charge-detection limit and the standard error of the charge measurement.

  17. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  18. The interweaving of pharmaceutical and medical expectations as dynamics of micro-pharmaceuticalisation: advanced-stage cancer patients' hope in medicines alongside trust in professionals.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick; de Graaf, Sabine; Hillen, Marij; Smets, Ellen; van Laarhoven, Hanneke

    2015-04-01

    Existing pharmaceuticalisation research denotes the salience of expectations in novel medicines and in the medical contexts through which these may be accessed. Specific processes of expectation such as hope and trust, alongside their shaping of patients' lifeworlds around pharmaceutical use, remain neglected however. Considering data from in-depth interviews and observations involving thirteen patients with advanced-stage cancer diagnoses who were or had recently been involved in clinical trials, we develop an interpretative phenomenological analysis of the influence of hope and trust upon the accessing of novel medicines through trials, illuminating the depth and texture of pharmaceuticalisation at the micro-level. Trust in clinicians and hope in trial medicines, for self and future patients, were important in the reconfiguring of patients' horizon of possibilities when accessing new medicines. Interwoven processes of trust and hope, embedded within heightened vulnerability, sustained the bracketing out of doubts regarding medicines, trials and professionals. The need to maintain hopes, and trusting relations with professionals who facilitated these hopes, generated meaning and momentum of medicines use which inhibited disengagement from trials. Findings indicate the taken-for-granted, as well as more reflexive, pursuit of solutions through medicines, which in this case-study enabled the generation of evidence through trial involvement. Analyses of micro-level dynamics within both downstream-consumption and upstream-substantiation of pharmaceutical solutions assist more nuanced accounts of interests, agency and expectations within pharmaceuticalisation.

  19. A voice that wraps around the body--communication problems in the advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R. J.; Chamberlain, R. M.; Khuri, F. R.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Significant problems in clinician-patient communication have been described in the oncology literatures. Advanced stage non-small lung cancer a devastating disease, can cause the communication between survivors, significant others, and clinicians to falter. To date, however, no studies have used qualitative methods to examine experiential aspects of living with non-small cell lung cancer. Nor have any studies evaluated the tools survivors might use to repair some of the damage caused by living with this disease. METHODS: Exploratory, two-part qualitative design. RESULTS: Survivors of non-small cell lung cancer live with multiple fears and losses. These include a diminished sense of self, the loss of health, fears of pain in a future tainted by the threat of death, and increased feelings of alienation due to the loss of previous sources of meaning in life. These experiences significantly affect cancer survivors abilities to communicate with clinicians and significant others. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of non-small cell lung cancer often have difficulty sharing their experiences with others not suffering a similar affliction. Through their narratives with other survivors, however, patients are better able to initiate a biopsychosocial mechanism which enables them to create a cognitive map. This cognitive map helps survivors share their experiences with others, thereby repairing some of the damage caused by this disease, including the harm done to their communication with other people. PMID:11922184

  20. Transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements of minority-carrier lifetime in tin sulfide thin films: Advanced metrology for an early stage photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, R.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Steinmann, V.; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartman, Katy; Nelson, Keith A.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Materials research with a focus on enhancing the minority-carrier lifetime of the light-absorbing semiconductor is key to advancing solar energy technology for both early stage and mature material platforms alike. Tin sulfide (SnS) is an absorber material with several clear advantages for manufacturing and deployment, but the record power conversion efficiency remains below 5%. We report measurements of bulk and interface minority-carrier recombination rates in SnS thin films using optical-pump, terahertz-probe transient photoconductivity (TPC) measurements. Post-growth thermal annealing in H2S gas increases the minority-carrier lifetime, and oxidation of the surface reduces the surface recombination velocity. However, the minority-carrier lifetime remains below 100 ps for all tested combinations of growth technique and post-growth processing. Significant improvement in SnS solar cell performance will hinge on finding and mitigating as-yet-unknown recombination-active defects. We describe in detail our methodology for TPC experiments, and we share our data analysis routines in the form freely available software.

  1. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre

    PubMed Central

    Hing (Wong), Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. Aim: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. Conclusion: The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients’ preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia. PMID:27803566

  2. Our experiences with erlotinib in second and third line treatment patients with advanced stage IIIB/ IV non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehić, Bakir; Stanetić, Mirko; Tinjić, Ljuljeta; Smoljanović, Vlatka

    2008-11-01

    HeadHER1/EGFR is known to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and is overexpressed in up to 80% of NSCLCs. The study of an Expanded Access Clinical Program of Erlotinib in NSCLC is a phase IV open-label, non-randomized, multicenter trial in patients with advanced (inoperable stage IIIb/IV) NSCLC who were eligible for treatment with erlotinib but had no access to trial participation. Patients for the study from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) were selected from two Clinical centres (Sarajevo and Banja Luka). The aim of study was to evaluated efficacy and tolerability of erlotinib monotherapy in this setting. All patients who received at least one dose of erlotinib and data were entered in the database as of the CRF cut-off date of 14th May 2008 were included in analysis of data (n = 19). This population is defined as the Intent to Treat (ITT) population and includes all patients who had at least one dose of erlotinib regardless of whether major protocol violations were incurred. The findings are consistent with the results of the randomized, placebo-controlled BR.21 study. Indicating that erlotinib is an effective option for patients with advanced NSCLC who are unsuitable for, or who have previously failed standard chemotherapy. In B&H group of patients DCR was almost 84%, and PFS was approximately 24,7 weeks (compared with 44% and 9,7 weeks for erlotinib reported in phase III). Almost three quarter of the patients received erlotinib as their second line of therapy. Overall, erlotinib was well tolerated; there were no patients who withdrew due to a treatment-related AE (mainly rash) and there were few dose reductions. 24% of patients experienced an SAE (most commonly gastrointestinal (GI) disorders).

  3. Validation of a Computational Model for the SLS Core Stage Oxygen Tank Diffuser Concept and the Low Profile Diffuser - An Advanced Development Design for the SLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodnick, Jacob; Richardson, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Low Profile Diffuser (LPD) project originated as an award from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Development (ADO) office to the Main Propulsion Systems Branch (ER22). The task was created to develop and test an LPD concept that could produce comparable performance to a larger, traditionally designed, ullage gas diffuser while occupying a smaller volume envelope. Historically, ullage gas diffusers have been large, bulky devices that occupy a significant portion of the propellant tank, decreasing the tank volume available for propellant. Ullage pressurization of spacecraft propellant tanks is required to prevent boil-off of cryogenic propellants and to provide a positive pressure for propellant extraction. To achieve this, ullage gas diffusers must slow hot, high-pressure gas entering a propellant tank from supersonic speeds to only a few meters per second. Decreasing the incoming gas velocity is typically accomplished through expansion to larger areas within the diffuser which has traditionally led to large diffuser lengths. The Fluid Dynamics Branch (ER42) developed and applied advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis methods in order to mature the LPD design from and initial concept to an optimized test prototype and to provide extremely accurate pre-test predictions of diffuser performance. Additionally, the diffuser concept for the Core Stage of the Space Launch System (SLS) was analyzed in a short amount of time to guide test data collection efforts of the qualification of the device. CFD analysis of the SLS diffuser design provided new insights into the functioning of the device and was qualitatively validated against hot wire anemometry of the exterior flow field. Rigorous data analysis of the measurements was performed on static and dynamic pressure data, data from two microphones, accelerometers and hot wire anemometry with automated traverse. Feasibility of the LPD concept and validation of the computational model were

  4. The Unique Dorsal Brood Pouch of Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) and Description of an Advanced Developmental Stage of Tulumella unidens from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), with a Discussion of Mouth Part Homologies to Other Malacostraca.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen; Boesgaard, Tom; Iliffe, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The Thermosbaenacea, a small taxon of crustaceans inhabiting subterranean waters, are unique among malacostracans as they brood their offspring dorsally under the carapace. This habit is of evolutionary interest but the last detailed report on thermosbaenacean development is more than 40 years old. Here we provide new observations on an ovigerous female of Tulumella unidens with advanced developmental stages in its brood chamber collected from an anchialine cave at the Yucatan Peninsula, which is only the third report on developmental stages of Thermosbaenacea and the first for the genus Tulumella. Significant in a wider crustacean context, we report and discuss hitherto unexplored lobate structures inside the brood chamber of the female originating at the first (maxilliped) and second thoracic segments, which are most likely modified epipods, perhaps serving as gills. At the posterior margin of carapace of the female are rows of large spines preventing the developing stages from falling out. The external morphology of the advanced developmental stages is described in much detail, providing information on e.g., carapace formation and early limb morphology. Among the hitherto unknown structures in the advanced developmental stages provided by this study are the presence of an embryonic dorsal organ and rudimentary 'naupliar processes' of the second antennae. Since most hypotheses on crustacean (and malacostracan and peracaridan) relationship rest on external limb morphology, we use early limb bud morphology of Tulumella to better establish thermosbaenacean limb homologies to those of other crustaceans, which is a necessary basis for future morphology based phylogenetic considerations.

  5. The Unique Dorsal Brood Pouch of Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) and Description of an Advanced Developmental Stage of Tulumella unidens from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), with a Discussion of Mouth Part Homologies to Other Malacostraca

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Jørgen; Boesgaard, Tom; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Thermosbaenacea, a small taxon of crustaceans inhabiting subterranean waters, are unique among malacostracans as they brood their offspring dorsally under the carapace. This habit is of evolutionary interest but the last detailed report on thermosbaenacean development is more than 40 years old. Here we provide new observations on an ovigerous female of Tulumella unidens with advanced developmental stages in its brood chamber collected from an anchialine cave at the Yucatan Peninsula, which is only the third report on developmental stages of Thermosbaenacea and the first for the genus Tulumella. Significant in a wider crustacean context, we report and discuss hitherto unexplored lobate structures inside the brood chamber of the female originating at the first (maxilliped) and second thoracic segments, which are most likely modified epipods, perhaps serving as gills. At the posterior margin of carapace of the female are rows of large spines preventing the developing stages from falling out. The external morphology of the advanced developmental stages is described in much detail, providing information on e.g., carapace formation and early limb morphology. Among the hitherto unknown structures in the advanced developmental stages provided by this study are the presence of an embryonic dorsal organ and rudimentary ‘naupliar processes’ of the second antennae. Since most hypotheses on crustacean (and malacostracan and peracaridan) relationship rest on external limb morphology, we use early limb bud morphology of Tulumella to better establish thermosbaenacean limb homologies to those of other crustaceans, which is a necessary basis for future morphology based phylogenetic considerations. PMID:25901753

  6. Four stages of a scientific discipline; four types of scientist.

    PubMed

    Shneider, Alexander M

    2009-05-01

    In this article I propose the classification of the evolutionary stages that a scientific discipline evolves through and the type of scientists that are the most productive at each stage. I believe that each scientific discipline evolves sequentially through four stages. Scientists at stage one introduce new objects and phenomena as subject matter for a new scientific discipline. To do this they have to introduce a new language adequately describing the subject matter. At stage two, scientists develop a toolbox of methods and techniques for the new discipline. Owing to this advancement in methodology, the spectrum of objects and phenomena that fall into the realm of the new science are further understood at this stage. Most of the specific knowledge is generated at the third stage, at which the highest number of original research publications is generated. The majority of third-stage investigation is based on the initial application of new research methods to objects and/or phenomena. The purpose of the fourth stage is to maintain and pass on scientific knowledge generated during the first three stages. Groundbreaking new discoveries are not made at this stage. However, new ways to present scientific information are generated, and crucial revisions are often made of the role of the discipline within the constantly evolving scientific environment. The very nature of each stage determines the optimal psychological type and modus operandi of the scientist operating within it. Thus, it is not only the talent and devotion of scientists that determines whether they are capable of contributing substantially but, rather, whether they have the 'right type' of talent for the chosen scientific discipline at that time. Understanding the four different evolutionary stages of a scientific discipline might be instrumental for many scientists in optimizing their career path, in addition to being useful in assembling scientific teams, precluding conflicts and maximizing

  7. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer or Adenoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Adenomatous Polyp; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  8. The Impact of Local and Regional Disease Extent on Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Daniel S.; Chen, Ronald C.; Tracton, Gregg; Morris, David E.; Halle, Jan; Rosenman, Julian G.; Stefanescu, Mihaela; Pham, Erica; Socinski, Mark A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma are typically treated with initial platinum-based chemotherapy. A variety of factors (eg, performance status, gender, age, histology, weight loss, and smoking history) are generally accepted as predictors of overall survival. Because uncontrolled pulmonary disease constitutes a major cause of death in these patients, we hypothesized that clinical and radiographic factors related to intrathoracic disease at diagnosis may be prognostically significant in addition to conventional factors. The results have implications regarding the selection of patients for whom palliative thoracic radiation therapy may be of most benefit. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pooled analysis of 189 patients enrolled at a single institution into 9 prospective phase II and III clinical trials involving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. Baseline clinical and radiographic characteristics before trial enrollment were analyzed as possible predictors for subsequent overall survival. To assess the relationship between anatomic location and volume of disease within the thorax and its effect on survival, the pre-enrollment computed tomography images were also analyzed by contouring central and peripheral intrapulmonary disease. Results: On univariate survival analysis, multiple pulmonary-related factors were significantly associated with worse overall survival, including pulmonary symptoms at presentation (P=.0046), total volume of intrathoracic disease (P=.0006), and evidence of obstruction of major bronchi or vessels on prechemotherapy computed tomography (P<.0001). When partitioned into central and peripheral volumes, central (P<.0001) but not peripheral (P=.74) disease was associated with worse survival. On multivariate analysis with known factors, pulmonary symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.46; P=.042), central disease volume (hazard ratio, 1.47; P=.042), and bronchial/vascular compression (hazard ratio, 1

  9. Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Jensen, Mary Ann C.

    1977-01-01

    This review examines published research on small-group development done in the last ten years that would constitute an empirical test of Tuckman's hypothesis that groups go through the stages of "forming,""storming,""norming," and "performing." A fifth stage, "adjourning," was added to the…

  10. Second-Stage Music Teachers' Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draves, Tami J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study research was to explore the professional identities of second-stage music teachers, or those in years 4-10 of teaching, focusing primarily on how their identities were sustained or neglected. Participants were two second stage music educators teaching in middle school (grades 6-8) music classrooms and taught…

  11. THE SPACE STAGE--FAD OR FUTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DECHAINE, FABER

    DISSATISFACTION WITH THE PROSCENIUM ARCH THEATRE, THE NEED FOR ECONOMY IN PUBLICLY-FINANCED STRUCTURES, AND THE ADVANTAGES OF INTIMATE THEATRE, HAVE LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE STAGE, WHICH PROJECTS INTO THE AUDITORIUM AND IS SURROUNDED ON THREE SIDES BY SEATING. THE SPACE STAGE CONCEPT IS USED IN THIS EXAMPLE TO PROVIDE A PERFORMING ARTS…

  12. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than two years, except when the Director grants an operating term extension under paragraph (i) of this section (entitled “May I receive an operating extension for a staging pile?”). You must measure the two... date when you first placed remediation waste into the staging pile for the life of the permit,...

  13. MR imaging in staging of bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ehara, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    For staging of bone tumors, TNM and Enneking’s systems are used with some differences. Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly useful for defining the extent of high-grade tumors, including transcortical and intertrabecular infiltration and periosteal extension. The concepts of compartment and curative surgical margins are important for bone tumor staging. PMID:17098647

  14. Is There a Scribble Stage for Sculpture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Nan

    2006-01-01

    Most parents and educators are not as familiar or comfortable with the developmental stages that may also occur in three-dimensional work, yet no doubt a similar progression exists. Is there a scribble stage in sculpture? Do children need to master one set of skills before they are able to move on to the next? Do students have opportunity and…

  15. Adolescent and Parent: Interaction between Developmental Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    The focus of this newsletter is on the interaction between two major developmental stages: adolescence and middle age. Research and theories about each stage are presented separately, followed by a discussion of how the two occur within the family structure. This discussion may be useful to teachers, counselors, employers, or researchers working…

  16. Developmental Stages in the Conceptualization of Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    1978-01-01

    "Marriage" is treated as a mental concept that evolves in a developmental sequence of four qualitatively distinct stages: Magical, Idealized Conventional, Individualistic, and Affirmational. Each stage is illustrated with excerpts from Ingmar Bergman's Scenes From a Marriage. Some applications for marriage counselors are suggested. (Author)

  17. Stage IV work hardening in cubic metals

    SciTech Connect

    Rollett, A.D.; Kocks, U.F.; Doherty, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The work hardening of fcc metals at large strains is discussed with reference to the linear stress-strain behavior often observed at large strains and known as Stage IV. The experimental evidence shows that Stage IV is a work hardening phenomenon that is found quite generally, even in pure fcc metals subjected to homogeneous deformation. A simple model for Stage IV in pure metals is presented, based on the accumulation of dislocation debris. Experiments are described for large strain torsion tests on four aluminum alloys. The level and extent of Stage IV scaled with the saturation stress that would represent the end of Stage III in the absence of a Stage IV. Reversing the torsion after large prestrains produced transient reductions in the work hardening. The strain rate sensitivity was also measured before and during the transient and found not to vary significantly. The microstructure observed at large strains in an Mg alloy suggest that Stage IV can occur in the absence of microband formation. Previous proposals for the cause of Stage IV are reviewed and found to be not supported by recent experimental data.

  18. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  19. Stages of Interpersonal Development in Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Yam, Aureet

    A validation study of 30 married females and 30 married males was conducted on a theoretical model of stages in interpersonal development developed by Bar-Yam Hassan (Bar-Yam Hassan & Bar-Yam, 1987). According to the model, the five stages of adult interpersonal development are: (1) Social Relatedness versus Self-Insistence, or need for Approval;…

  20. Stage Separation CFD Tool Development and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droege, Alan; Gomez, Reynaldo; Wang, Ten-See

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation evaluates CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) tools for solving stage separation problems. The demonstration and validation of the tools is for a second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) stage separation. The flow solvers are: Cart3D; Overflow/Overflow-D; Unic.

  1. Study of blade aspect ratio on a compressor front stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behlke, R. F.; Brooky, J. D.; Canal, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A single stage, low aspect ratio, compressor with a 442.0 m/sec (1450 ft/sec) tip speed and a 0.597 hub/tip ratio typical of an advanced core compressor front stage was tested. The test stage incorporated an inlet duct which was representative of an engine transition duct between fan and high pressure compressors. At design speed, the rotor stator stage achieved a peak adiabatic efficiency of 86.6 percent at a flow of 44.35 kg/sec (97.8 lbm/sec) and a pressure ratio of 1.8. Surge margin was 12.5 percent from the peak stage efficiency point.

  2. Prognostic staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (CLIP score): its value and limitations, and a proposal for a new staging system, the Japan Integrated Staging Score (JIS score).

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Chung, Hobyung; Osaki, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    A clinical staging system for cancer patients provides guidance for patient assessment and making therapeutic decisions. It is useful in deciding whether to treat a patient aggressively, and in avoiding the overtreatment of patients who would not tolerate the treatment or patients whose life expectancy rules out any chance of treatment. Clinical staging is also an essential tool for comparison between groups in therapeutic trials and for comparison between different studies. The current classifications most commonly used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the Okuda stages, the Child-Pugh staging system, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score. Among these, the CLIP score is currently the most commonly used integrated staging score, including both tumor stage and liver disease stage. Although the CLIP score has been well validated by many authors in terms of its prognostic value in HCC patients, this score has some problems and limitations when applied to currently diagnosed HCC patients, who are diagnosed in the early stage of disease. First, the CLIP score can discriminate score 0- to 3-patient populations, but it is not able to discriminate score 4- to 6-patient groups. Second, the definition of tumor morphology in the best prognostic group is too advanced, i.e., uninodular and a tumor extent of less than 50% of the liver. As a result, the prognosis of the CLIP system best prognostic group is not so good. In other words, this system cannot identify the best prognostic group who would benefit from curative and aggressive treatment. Third, nearly 80% of the patient population is classified as having a CLIP score of 0-2, as confirmed by many studies, which shows poor stratification ability. In contrast, a new staging system based on the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ), the Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score is currently proposed in Japan. This staging system combines Child-Pugh grade (grade A

  3. Protective immunity to liver-stage malaria

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Lauren E; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Heath, William R

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control. In this review, we discuss immunity to liver-stage malaria. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from animal models of malaria immunity will translate into a more powerful and effective vaccine to reduce this global health problem. PMID:27867517

  4. Protective immunity to liver-stage malaria.

    PubMed

    Holz, Lauren E; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Heath, William R

    2016-10-01

    Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control. In this review, we discuss immunity to liver-stage malaria. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from animal models of malaria immunity will translate into a more powerful and effective vaccine to reduce this global health problem.

  5. Structural stages and evolution of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, V. N.

    2013-02-01

    Five main structural and historical stages are established in the territory of the Urals: 1) Archean-Paleoproterozoic, a time of formation of the Volgo-Uralia subcontinent and its amalgamation with the other blocks of the craton of Baltica; 2) Riphean-Vendian (Meso- and Neoproterozoic), а stage that was finished with formation of Timanides; 3) Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic stage, corresponding to the development of the Uralides; 4) Mid-Jurassic-to Miocene platform stage; 5) Pliocene-Quaternary neo-orogenic stage. In this paper stratigraphic data are discussed, schemes of the structural zonation are presented, and the problems of the structural geology and geodynamics of sedimentary and magmatic complexes are discussed in a chronological order. Ideologically, the paper is based on plate and plume tectonics, in their modern versions.

  6. Light weight high-stiffness stage platen

    DOEpatents

    Spence, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    An improved light weight, stiff stage platen for photolithography is provided. The high stiffness of the stage platen is exemplified by a relatively high first resonant vibrational mode as determined, for instance, by finite element modal analysis. The stage platen can be employed to support a chuck that is designed to secure a mask or wafer. The stage platen includes a frame that has interior walls that define an interior region and that has exterior walls wherein the outer surfaces of at least two adjacent walls are reflective mirror surfaces; and a matrix of ribs within the interior region that is connected to the interior walls wherein the stage platen exhibits a first vibrational mode at a frequency of greater than about 1000 Hz.

  7. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  8. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for locally advanced (Stage II and worse) head-and-neck cancer: Dosimetric and clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Portaluri, Maurizio . E-mail: portaluri@hotmail.com; Fucilli, Fulvio I.M.; Castagna, Roberta; Bambace, Santa; Pili, Giorgio; Tramacere, Francesco; Russo, Donatella; Francavilla, Maria Carmen

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric parameters of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced head-and-neck tumors (Stage II and above) and the effects on xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A total of 49 patients with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the head and neck were consecutively treated with 3D-CRT using a one-point setup technique; 17 had larynx cancer, 12 oropharynx, 12 oral cavity, and 6 nasopharynx cancer; 2 had other sites of cancer. Of the 49 patients, 41 received postoperative RT and 8 definitive treatment. Also, 13 were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy before and during RT; in 6 cases, 5-fluorouracil was added. The follow-up time was 484-567 days (median, 530 days). Results: One-point setup can deliver 96% of the prescribed dose to the isocenter, to the whole planning target volume, including all node levels of the neck and without overdosages. The mean dose to the primary planning target volume was 49.54 {+-} 4.82 Gy (51.53 {+-} 5.47 Gy for larynx cases). The average dose to the contralateral parotid gland was approximately 38 Gy (30 Gy for larynx cases). The maximal dose to the spinal cord was 46 Gy. A Grade 0 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia score corresponded to a mean dose of 30 Gy to one parotid gland. A lower xerostomia score with a lower mean parotid dose and longer follow-up seemed to give rise to a sort of functional recovery phenomenon. Conclusion: Three dimensional-CRT in head-and-neck cancers permits good coverage of the planning target volume with about 10-11 segments and one isocenter. With a mean dose of approximately 30 Gy to the contralateral parotid, we observed no or mild xerostomia.

  9. Aurora-A signaling is activated in advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck cancer and requires osteopontin to stimulate invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Shiu, Li-Yen; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Yu, Chun-Chieh; Su, Huei-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significances, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms by which Aurora-A mediate its invasive effects in HNSCC are still unclear. Here, we found that Aurora-A expression is significantly higher in tumor tissues on 14-microarray of HNSCC in Oncomine-databases. The activity of Aurora-A was not only found in HNSCC specimens, but also significantly correlated with advanced-T-classification, positive-N-classification, TNM-stage and the poor 5-year survival rate. HNSCC-microarray profile showed that osteopontin and Aurora-A exhibited positive correlation. Stimulation of HNC cells with osteopontin results in an increase in Aurora-A expression where localized at the centrosome. Functionally, Aurora-A had the abilities to stimulate cell motility in HNC cells through increase ERK1/2 activity under osteopontin stimulation. Conversely, depletion of Aurora-A expression by siRNAs suppressed ERK1/2 activity as well as inhibition of cell invasiveness. Treatment with anti-CD44 antibodies in HNC cells not only caused a decrease of mRNA/protein of Aurora-A and ERK1/2 activity upon osteopontin stimulation, but also affected the abilities of Aurora-A-elicited cell motility. Finally, immunohistochemical/Western-blotting analysis of human aggressive HNSCC specimens showed a significant positively correlation between osteopontin-Aurora-A and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that Aurora-A is not only an important prognostic factor but also a new therapeutic target in the osteopontin/CD44/ERK pathway for HNSCC treatment. PMID:24810160

  10. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terpos, E; Christoulas, D; Kastritis, E; Bagratuni, T; Gavriatopoulou, M; Roussou, M; Papatheodorou, A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, E; Kanellias, N; Liakou, C; Panagiotidis, I; Migkou, M; Kokkoris, P; Moulopoulos, L A; Dimopoulos, M A

    2016-01-01

    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs. PMID:27716740

  11. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  12. Age, stage and senescence in plants

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Hal; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    1. Senescence (an increase in the mortality rate or force of mortality, or a decrease in fertility, with increasing age) is a widespread phenomenon. Theories about the evolution of senescence have long focused on the age trajectories of the selection gradients on mortality and fertility. In purely age-classified models, these selection gradients are non-increasing with age, implying that traits expressed early in life have a greater impact on fitness than traits expressed later in life. This pattern leads inevitably to the evolution of senescence if there are trade-offs between early and late performance. 2. It has long been suspected that the stage- or size-dependent demography typical of plants might change these conclusions. In this paper, we develop a model that includes both stage- and age-dependence and derive the age-dependent, stage-dependent and age×stage-dependent selection gradients on mortality and fertility. 3. We applied this model to stage-classified population projection matrices for 36 species of plants, from a wide variety of growth forms (from mosses to trees) and habitats. 4. We found that the age-specific selection gradients within a life cycle stage can exhibit increases with age (we call these contra-senescent selection gradients). In later stages, often large size classes in plant demography, the duration of these contra-senescent gradients can exceed the life expectancy by several fold. 5. Synthesis. The interaction of age- and stage-dependence in plants leads to selection pressures on senescence fundamentally different from those found in previous, age-classified theories. This result may explain the observation that large plants seem less subject to senescence than most kinds of animals. The methods presented here can lead to improved analysis of both age-dependent and stage-dependent demographic properties of plant populations. PMID:23741075

  13. Uruguay on the World Stage

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of international health has typically been assessed from the standpoint of central institutions (international health organizations, foundations, and development agencies) or of one-way diffusion and influence from developed to developing countries. To deepen understanding of how the international health agenda is shaped, I examined the little-known case of Uruguay and its pioneering role in advancing and institutionalizing child health as an international priority between 1890 and 1950. The emergence of Uruguay as a node of international health may be explained through the country’s early gauging of its public health progress, its borrowing and adaptation of methods developed overseas, and its broadcasting of its own innovations and shortcomings. PMID:16051940

  14. The accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    COTE, ADRIAN; GRAUR, FLORIN; LEBOVICI, ANDREI; MOIS, EMIL; AL HAJJAR, NADIM; MARE, CODRUTA; BADEA, RADU; IANCU, CORNEL

    2015-01-01

    . The accuracy of ERUS is higher in diagnosing rectal cancer in stages T1, T2 and even in stage T3 with malignant tumor which is not occlusive. ERUS is less accurate for T staging of locally advanced and stenotic tumours. PMID:26609269

  15. Assessment of Stage 35 With APNASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Mulac, Richard

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of APNASA was conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program to determine their predictive capabilities. The geometry selected for this study was Stage 35 which is a single stage transonic compressor. A speedline at 100% speed was generated and compared to experimental data at 100% speed for two turbulence models. Performance of the stage at 100% speed and profiles of several key aerodynamic parameters are compared to the survey data downstream of the stator in this report. In addition, hub leakage was modeled and compared to solutions without leakage and the available experimental data.

  16. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl.sub.2 or (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen.

  17. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl{sub 2} or (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen. 17 figs.

  18. Developmental Stages in School Computer Use: Neither Marx Nor Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengel, James G.

    Karl Marx's theory of stages can be applied to computer use in the schools. The first stage, the P Stage, comprises the entry of the computer into the school. Computer use at this stage is personal and tends to center around one personality. Social studies teachers are seldom among this select few. The second stage of computer use, the D Stage, is…

  19. Core compressor exit stage study. Volume 4: Data and performance report for the best stage configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    The core compressor exit stage study program develops rear stage blading designs that have lower losses in their endwall boundary layer regions. The test data and performance results for the best stage configuration consisting of Rotor-B running with Stator-B are described. The technical approach in this efficiency improvement program utilizes a low speed research compressor. Tests were conducted in two ways: (1) to use four identical stages of blading to obtain test data in a true multistage environment and (2) to use a single stage of blading to compare with the multistage test results. The effects of increased rotor tip clearances and circumferential groove casing treatment are evaluated.

  20. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  2. Engineered antibodies take center stage.

    PubMed

    Huston, J S; George, A J

    2001-01-01

    The start of the post-genomic era provides a useful juncture for reflection on the state of antibody engineering, which will be a critical technology for relating function and pathology to genomic sequence in biology and medicine. The phenomenal progress in deciphering the human genome has given significant impetus to the application of engineered antibodies in proteomics. Thus, advances in phage display antibody libraries can now help to define novel gene function and the measurement of abnormal protein expression in pathological states. Furthermore, intrabody and antibody engineering provide vehicles for the development of molecular medicines of the future. In addition to these new directions, antibody engineering has begun to show concrete success in its long-term efforts to develop targeted immunotherapies for cancer and other diseases. The cornerstones of clinical development are the detailed academic clinical trials that continue to push the boundaries of engineered antibodies into the real world. The field displays a healthy impatience for practical results, as research accelerates with concerted efforts to transfer preclinical insights into clinical trials. Growing private and governmental expenditures will lead to the rapid expansion of life-saving immunotherapeutic agents. The present review developed from our effort to report on the 11th Annual International Conference on Antibody Engineering (3-6 December 2000). This annual meeting is a forum for discussions on the latest advances in antibody engineering groups from around the world, and now includes the broader agenda of engineering in molecular immunology. In bringing scientists together to exchange ideas at this open forum, new collaborations and the threads of new discoveries are woven. For example, Professors Gerhard Wagner (Harvard Medical School), Dennis Burton (Scripps Research Institute), and Peter Hudson (CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia) gave exciting insights on structural immunobiology that had

  3. Next stages in HDR technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1993-03-01

    Twenty years of research and development have brought HDR heat mining technology from the purely conceptual stage to the establishment of an engineering-scale heat mine at Fenton Hill, NM. In April 1992, a long-term flow test (LTFT) of the HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill was begun. The test was carried out under steady-state conditions on a continuous basis for four months, but a major equipment failure in late July forced a temporary suspension of operations. Even this short test provided valuable information and extremely encouraging results as summarized below: There was no indication of thermal drawdown of the reservoir. There was evidence of increasing access to hot rock with time. Water consumption was in the rangki of 10--12%. Measured pumping costs were $0.003 per kilowatt of energy produced. Temperature logs conducted in the reservoir production zone during and after the flow test confirmed the fact that there was no decline in the average temperature of the fluid being produced from the reservoir. In fact, tracer testing showed that the fluid was taking more indirect pathways and thus contacting a greater amount of hot rock as the test progressed. Water usage quickly dropped to a level of 10--15 gallons per minute, an amount equivalent to about 10--12% of the injected fluid volume. At a conversion rate of 10--15%, these would translate to effective ``fuel costs`` of 2--3{cents} per kilowatt hour of electricity production potential. The completion of the LTFT will set the stage for commercialization of HDR but will not bring HDR technology to maturity. Relatively samples extensions of the current technology may bring significant improvements in efficiency, and these should be rapidly investigated. In the longer run, advanced operational concepts could further improve the efficiency of HDR energy extraction and may even offer the possibility of cogeneration schemes which solve both energy and water problems throughout the world.

  4. Two stage gear tooth dynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Linda S.

    1989-01-01

    The epicyclic gear dynamics program was expanded to add the option of evaluating the tooth pair dynamics for two epicyclic gear stages with peripheral components. This was a practical extension to the program as multiple gear stages are often used for speed reduction, space, weight, and/or auxiliary units. The option was developed for either stage to be a basic planetary, star, single external-external mesh, or single external-internal mesh. The two stage system allows for modeling of the peripherals with an input mass and shaft, an output mass and shaft, and a connecting shaft. Execution of the initial test case indicated an instability in the solution with the tooth paid loads growing to excessive magnitudes. A procedure to trace the instability is recommended as well as a method of reducing the program's computation time by reducing the number of boundary condition iterations.

  5. Shielded multi-stage EMI noise filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Fugate, David Lee

    2016-11-08

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise filter embodiments and methods for filtering are provided herein. EMI noise filters include multiple signal exclusion enclosures. The multiple signal exclusion enclosures contain filter circuit stages. The signal exclusion enclosures can attenuate noise generated external to the enclosures and/or isolate noise currents generated by the corresponding filter circuits within the enclosures. In certain embodiments, an output of one filter circuit stage is connected to an input of the next filter circuit stage. The multiple signal exclusion enclosures can be chambers formed using conductive partitions to divide an outer signal exclusion enclosure. EMI noise filters can also include mechanisms to maintain the components of the filter circuit stages at a consistent temperature. For example, a metal base plate can distribute heat among filter components, and an insulating material can be positioned inside signal exclusion enclosures.

  6. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  7. Two stage surgical procedure for root coverage.

    PubMed

    George, Anjana Mary; Rajesh, K S; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, Arun

    2012-07-01

    Gingival recession may present problems that include root sensitivity, esthetic concern, and predilection to root caries, cervical abrasion and compromising of a restorative effort. When marginal tissue health cannot be maintained and recession is deep, the need for treatment arises. This literature has documented that recession can be successfully treated by means of a two stage surgical approach, the first stage consisting of creation of attached gingiva by means of free gingival graft, and in the second stage, a lateral sliding flap of grafted tissue to cover the recession. This indirect technique ensures development of an adequate width of attached gingiva. The outcome of this technique suggests that two stage surgical procedures are highly predictable for root coverage in case of isolated deep recession and lack of attached gingiva.

  8. How Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M categories for GIST M0: The cancer has not ... lungs). Stage grouping Once the T, N, and M categories have been determined, this information is combined, ...

  9. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Treating Breast Cancer in Men Treatment of Breast Cancer in Men, by Stage Because there have been ... Doctor About Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  10. Coordinated X-Y stage apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion.

  11. Impact cratering at geologic stage boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The largest known Cenozoic impact craters with the most accurately measured ages are found to correlate very closely with geologic stage boundaries. The level of confidence in this result is 98-99 percent even under the most pessimistic assumptions concerning dating errors. One or more large impacts may have led, in at least some cases, to the extinctions and first appearances of biotic species that mark many of the geologic stage boundaries.

  12. High Head Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert W.; Skelley, Stephen E.; Stewart, Eric T.; Droege, Alan R.; Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Williams, Morgan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A team of engineers at NASA/MSFC and Boeing, Rocketdyne division, are developing unshrouded impeller technologies that will increase payload and decrease cost of future reusable launch vehicles. Using the latest analytical techniques and experimental data, a two-stage unshrouded fuel pump is being designed that will meet the performance requirements of a three-stage shrouded pump. Benefits of the new pump include lower manufacturing costs, reduced weight, and increased payload to orbit.

  13. Epacadostat and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Melanoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-18

    Mucosal Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  14. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-30

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise. PMID:22479126

  16. Behaviorism and the stages of scientific activity.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise.

  17. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  18. Esophageal cancer: anatomic particularities, staging, and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Encinas de la Iglesia, J; Corral de la Calle, M A; Fernández Pérez, G C; Ruano Pérez, R; Álvarez Delgado, A

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is usually diagnosed in advanced stages. The absence of serosa allows it to spread quickly to neighboring mediastinal structures, and an extensive lymphatic drainage network facilitates tumor spread even in early stages. The current TNM classification, harmonized with the classification for gastric cancer, provides new definitions for the anatomic classification, adds non-anatomic characteristics of the tumor, and includes tumors of the gastroesophageal junction. Combining endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provides greater accuracy in determining the initial clinical stage, and these imaging techniques play an essential role in the selection, planning, and evaluation of treatment. In this article, we review some particularities that explain the behavior of this tumor and we describe the current TNM staging system; furthermore, we discuss the different imaging tests available for its evaluation and include a diagnostic algorithm.

  19. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.

  20. Extraoral implants for orbit rehabilitation: a comparison between one-stage and two-stage surgeries.

    PubMed

    de Mello, M C L M P; Guedes, R; de Oliveira, J A P; Pecorari, V A; Abrahão, M; Dib, L L

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the osseointegration success rate and time for delivery of the prosthesis among cases treated by two-stage or one-stage surgery for orbit rehabilitation between 2003 and 2011. Forty-five patients were included, 31 males and 14 females; 22 patients had two-stage surgery and 23 patients had one-stage surgery. A total 138 implants were installed, 42 (30.4%) on previously irradiated bone. The implant survival rate was 96.4%, with a success rate of 99.0% among non-irradiated patients and 90.5% among irradiated patients. Two-stage patients received 74 implants with a survival rate of 94.6% (four implants lost); one-stage surgery patients received 64 implants with a survival rate of 98.4% (one implant lost). The median time interval between implant fixation and delivery of the prosthesis for the two-stage group was 9.6 months and for the one-stage group was 4.0 months (P < 0.001). The one-stage technique proved to be reliable and was associated with few risks and complications; the rate of successful osseointegration was similar to those reported in the literature. The one-stage technique should be considered a viable procedure that shortens the time to final rehabilitation and facilitates appropriate patient follow-up treatment.

  1. Expression of RNA-binding motif 10 is associated with advanced tumor stage and malignant behaviors of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guofang; Li, Ranwei; Tang, Wenfang; Liu, Tiecheng; Su, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yan; Tan, Jingjin; Jiang, Shan; Wang, Ke

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed RNA-binding motif 10 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and examined the role and mechanism of RNA-binding motif 10 in the regulation of lung adenocarcinoma malignancy. Lung adenocarcinoma and corresponding adjacent non-tumor lung tissues from 41 patients were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assessment to detect RNA-binding motif 10 expression. Recombinant lentivirus carrying RNA-binding motif 10 complementary DNA was used to infect lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and H1299 cells. Complementary DNA microarray was used to profile RNA-binding motif 10-regulated genes. Levels of RNA-binding motif 10 messenger RNA and protein were significantly lower in lung adenocarcinoma tissues than those in paired non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). Reduced RNA-binding motif 10 expression was found to be associated with an advanced tumor stage. RNA-binding motif 10 overexpression inhibited viability and colony formation capacity of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and induced cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in A549 cells and at S phase in H1299 cells. Complementary DNA microarray analysis identified 304 upregulated and 386 downregulated genes induced by RNA-binding motif 10 overexpression, which may be involved in cancer, focal adhesion, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-regulated gene pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, complement and coagulation cascades, platelet amyloid precursor protein pathway, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and small cell lung cancer-related genes. Expression of FGF2, EGFR, WNT5A, NF-κB, and RAP1A was downregulated, whereas expression of AKT2, BIRC3, and JUN was upregulated. RNA-binding motif 10 messenger RNA and protein were reduced in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and RNA-binding motif 10 overexpression inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell malignant behavior in vitro. Molecularly, RNA-binding motif

  2. The Current Role of Staging Laparoscopy in Oesophagogastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, RJ; Kennedy, R; Clements, WDB; Carey, PD; Kennedy, JA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oesophagogastric cancers are known to spread rapidly to locoregional lymph nodes and by transcoelomic spread to the peritoneal cavity. Staging laparoscopy combined with peritoneal cytology can detect advanced disease that may not be apparent on other staging investigations. The aim of this study was to determine the current value of staging laparoscopy and peritoneal cytology in light of the ubiquitous use of computed tomography in all oesophagogastric cancers and the addition of positron emission tomography in oesophageal cancer. Methods All patients undergoing staging laparoscopy for distal oesophageal or gastric cancer between March 2007 and August 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Demographic details, preoperative staging, staging laparoscopy findings, cytology and histopathology results were analysed. Results A total of 317 patients were identified: 159 (50.1%) had gastric adenocarcinoma, 136 (43.0%) oesophageal adenocarcinoma and 22 (6.9%) oesophageal squamous carcinoma. Staging laparoscopy revealed macroscopic metastases in 36 patients (22.6%) with gastric adenocarcinoma and 16 patients (11.8%) with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Positive peritoneal cytology in the absence of macroscopic peritoneal metastases was identified in a further five patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and six patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with macroscopic peritoneal disease and those with positive peritoneal cytology (p=0.219). Conclusions Staging laparoscopy and peritoneal cytology should be performed routinely in the staging of distal oesophageal and gastric cancers where other investigations indicate resectability. Currently, in our opinion, patients with positive peritoneal cytology should not be treated with curative intent. PMID:25723693

  3. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design.

  4. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    SciTech Connect

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  5. TBCC Fan Stage Operability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. Studies performed under NASA s NGLT and the NASP High Speed Propulsion Assessment (HiSPA) program indicated a variable cycle turbofan/ramjet was the best configuration to satisfy access-to-space mission requirements because this configuration maximizes the engine thrust-to-weight ratio while minimizing frontal area. To this end, NASA and GE teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10X), fan speed (7X), inlet mass flow (3.5X), inlet pressure (8X), and inlet temperature (3X). The primary goal of the fan stage was to provide a high pressure ratio level with good efficiency at takeoff through the mid range of engine operation, while avoiding stall and losses at the higher flight Mach numbers, without the use of variable inlet guide vanes. Overall fan performance and operability therefore requires major consideration, as competing goals at different operating points and aeromechanical issues become major drivers in the design. To mitigate risk of meeting the unique design requirements for the fan stage, NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57% engine scaled fan stage to be tested in NASA s transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test are to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off, 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio, 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet, and 4) fan windmilling operation at high Mach

  6. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1990-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  7. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1988-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  8. Affordable Development of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. The foundation provided by development and utilization of a NCPS could enable development of extremely high performance systems. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  9. Is a staged SST the answer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that a staged supersonic transport concept offers several advantages over conventional SST configurations. A staged SST could be optimized for cruise flight and also would not be subject to the noise and runway-length constraints normally associated with a transport aircraft. The cumulative effect of the various weight saving factors is an appreciably lower launch/takeoff weight. Other advantages include the fact that a landing gear would not be required and the staged SST can be designed to low-speed criteria. These initial studies suggest that launch and recovery operations from another aircraft could be made feasible with the use of a 747 type aircraft as the support vehicle.

  10. STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

    2002-08-29

    TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

  11. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOEpatents

    Skala, Glenn William; Hart-Predmore, David James; Pettit, William Henry; Borup, Rodney Lynn

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  12. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  13. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  14. The three stages of magma ocean cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    Models of magma ocean (MO) cooling and crystallization can provide important constraints on MO plausibility for a given planet, on the origin of long term, stable crusts, and even on the origin of the solar system. Assuming the MO is initially extensive enough to have a mostly molten surface, its first stage of cooling is an era of radiative heat loss from the surface, with extremely rapid convection below, and no conductive layer in between. The development of the chill crust starts the second stage of MO cooling. Heat loss is now limited by conduction through the crust. The third stage of cooling starts when the near surface MO evolves compositionally to the point of saturation with feldspar. At this point, the cooling rate again precipitously diminishes, the rate of crustal thickness growth as a function of temperature suddenly increases. More work on incorporating chemical constraints into the evolving physical models of MO solidification would be worthwhile.

  15. Prediction of stage transitions in fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Amelie U; Lippke, Sonia; Reuter, Tabea; Schüz, Benjamin; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    Stage theories propose that individuals pass through different stages on their way toward behavior change. The present study examines stage-specific prediction patterns of social-cognitive variables (risk perception, outcome expectancies, perceived self-efficacy, action planning and social support) regarding transitions between the three stages of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA; preintention, intention and action stage). In an online study (n = 494) on fruit and vegetable intake, social-cognitive variables and stages were assessed at baseline and stage transitions 4 weeks later. Transitions between the preintention, intention and action stage were predicted by social-cognitive variables using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Stage-specific prediction patterns emerged for stage progression and stage regression. Outcome expectancies predicted progression from the preintention stage, whereas social support predicted progression to the action stage. Low levels of planning were associated with relapse to the preintention and the intention stage. Self-efficacy emerged as a universal predictor of stage transitions. Findings support not only the usefulness of the stage construct for describing health behavior change but also the validity of the HAPA variables as predictors of stage transitions. Stage-matched interventions targeting the variables identified as stage-specific predictors might support stage progression toward the goal behavior.

  16. Stage 4 Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, John

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of the CMB have driven our understanding of the universe and the physics that govern its evolution from quantum fluctuations to its present state. They provide the foundation for the remarkable 6-parameter cosmological model, ΛCDM, which fits all cosmological data, although there are some tensions which may hint at new physics, or simply unaccounted systematics. Far from being the last word in cosmology, the model raises deep questions: Is Inflation correct? What is its energy scale? What is the dark matter? What is the nature of dark energy? There is still a lot to learn from the CMB measurements. We are searching for the unique B-mode polarization that would be induced on the CMB by inflationary gravitational waves. We are able to detect the impact of the neutrino background on the CMB, which can be used to provide precise constraints on the number and masses of the neutrinos. We are untangling the correlations in the CMB induced by gravitational lensing to make maps of all the mass in the universe. We are measuring the scattering of the CMB by ionized structures, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects, to detect clusters of galaxies and soon to map the momentum of the universe in addition to its density. To realize the enormous potential of these CMB tools we need to greatly increase the sensitivity of CMB measurements. We can expect significant advances in the next few years as the ongoing experiments deploy of order 10,000 detectors (Stage III), but to achieve critical threshold crossing goals we need to go further. The CMB community is therefore planning CMB-S4, an ambitious next generation (Stage IV) ground-based program with order of 500,000 detectors with science goals that include detecting or ruling out large field inflationary models, determining the number and masses of the neutrinos, providing precision constraints on dark energy through its impact on structure formation, as well as searching for cracks in the ΛCDM model.

  17. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  18. Progress on Ares First Stage Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Tiller, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not simply to maintain its current position with the International Space Station and other space exploration endeavors, but to build a permanent outpost on the Moon and then travel on to explore ever more distant terrains. The Constellation Program will oversee the development of the crew capsule, launch vehicles, and other systems needed to achieve this mission. From this initiative will come two new launch vehicles: the Ares I and Ares V. The Ares I will be a human-rated vehicle, which will be used for crew transport; the Ares V, a cargo transport vehicle, will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. The Ares Projects team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama is assigned with developing these two new vehicles. The Ares I vehicle will have an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration. The first stage will provide the thrust or propulsion component for the Ares rocket systems through the first two minutes of the mission. The First Stage Team is tasked with developing the propulsion system necessary to liftoff from the Earth and loft the entire Ares vehicle stack toward low-Earth orbit. Building on the legacy of the Space Shuttle and other NASA space exploration initiatives, the propulsion for the Ares I First Stage will be a Shuttle-derived reusable solid rocket motor. Progress to date by the First Stage Team has been robust and on schedule. This paper provides an update on the design and development of the Ares First Stage Propulsion system.

  19. Ares I First Stage: Powering Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Bruce K.; Priskos, Alex S.

    2008-01-01

    he mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not simply to maintain its current position with the International Space Station and other space exploration endeavors, but to build a permanent outpost on the Moon and then travel on to explore ever more distant terrains. The Constellation Program will oversee the development of the crew capsule, launch vehicles, and other systems needed to achieve this mission. From this initiative will come two new launch vehicles: the Ares I and Ares V. The Ares I will be a human-rated vehicle, which will be used for crew transport; the Ares V, a cargo transport vehicle, will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. The Ares Projects team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama is assigned with developing these two new vehicles. The Ares I vehicle will have an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration. The first stage will provide the thrust or propulsion component for the Ares rocket systems through the first two minutes of the mission. The First Stage Team is tasked with developing the propulsion system necessary to liftoff from the Earth and loft the entire Ares vehicle stack toward low-Earth orbit. Building on the legacy of the Space Shuttle and other NASA space exploration initiatives, the propulsion for the Ares I First Stage will be a Shuttle-derived reusable solid rocket motor. Progress to date by the First Stage Team has been robust and on schedule. This presentation provides an overview and update on the design and development of the Ares I First Stage Propulsion system.

  20. The thesis of stages fourteen years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, C. E.

    1980-12-01

    The author indicates the changes and additions he would make to his book ` The Quality of Education in Developing Countries' (1966) if he were re-writing it in 1980. He would make clearer that his primary interest is in a continuum of change, the process of growth of a school system, and that the `stages' are only a convenient non-mathematical artifact to make the thesis more useful to administrators and planners. In the light of more recent developments and experiences, he now gives new stress to the pluralism of objectives at the stage of Meaning, and discusses the political, social, cultural and financial reasons why a country may choose not to take the difficult step from stage III to stage IV. Recent forms of alternative education, particularly those embodying plans for lifelong education, offer some hope of bypassing his thesis of stages. More consideration is given to constraints other than that of teacher qualification, though the difficulty of changing the skills, habits, attitudes and purposes in the teaching profession remain the chief obstacle to qualitative growth. Particular attention is paid to `crash' programmes where processes that are, by their very nature, successive are compressed into simultaneous or almost simultaneous ones. Some implications of the thesis of stages for teacher training are briefly dealt with. Regarding the application of the thesis to secondary education, he maintains that a better model of growth would be one based on the capacity of secondary education to respond to the changing economic and social demands of the community. Finally, he suggests three methods of testing his hypotheses and pleads that more consideration be given to building up a body of educational, theory based on the experience of developing countries over the past three decades.

  1. All the World’s a Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    RELEASE ; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Sic& fA,5e~ if 94-19142 94 6 22 08C 14. SUBJECT TERMS 1S. NUMBER OF PAGES ALL...ESSAY WRITING CONTEST ENTRY ALL THE WORLD’S A STAGE by Valeuie A. Elbow Accesion Fr Liutenant Colonel, USAF NTIS CRA&I- DTIC TAB U-announCed...8217•.•..:.;:.’’. ABSTRACT "TITLE: All The World’s A Stage AUTHOR: Valerie A. Elbow, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF The relationship between government officials and the

  2. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cutaway illustration shows the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage with detailed callouts of the components. The S-IC Stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines that are powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  3. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  4. S-IB Stage Entering Point Barrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The Saturn 1B first stage (S-IB) enters the NASA barge Point Barrow, in March 1968. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) utilized a number of water transportation craft to transport the Saturn stages to-and-from the manufacturing facilities and test sites, as well as delivery to the Kennedy Space Center for launch. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Chrysler Corporation at Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), the S-IB utilized the eight H-1 engines and each produced 200,000 pounds of thrust, a combined thrust of 1,600,000 pounds.

  5. Reliability and reproducibility of Kienbock's disease staging.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, S; Degreef, I; De Smet, L

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of the Lichtman et al. classification for Kienböck's disease by getting four observers with different experience to look at 70 sets of wrist radiographs at different points in time. These observers staged each set of radiographs. Paired comparisons of the observations identified an agreement in 63% of cases and a mean weighted kappa coefficient of 0.64 confirming interobserver reliability. The stage of the involved lunate was reproduced in 78% of the observations with a mean weighted kappa coefficient of 0.81 showing intraobserver reproducibility. This classification for Kienböck's disease has good reliability and reproducibility.

  6. Developmental Stages in Dynamic Plant Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Waters, Geoff; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    During the growth of red beet plants in a closed environment plant growth chamber, a change in metabolism was observed (decreasing photosynthetic quotient) which was not predicted by a previously developed simple dynamic model of photosynthesis and respiration reactions. The incorporation of developmental stages into the model allowed for the representation of this change in metabolism without adding unnecessary complexity. Developmental stages were implemented by dividing the model into two successive sub-models with independent yields. The transition between the phases was detected based on online measurements. Results showed an accurate prediction of carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes.

  7. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This illustration shows a cutaway drawing with callouts of the major components for the S-IC (first) stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The S-IC stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing more than 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimball for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  8. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This is a cutaway view of the Saturn V first stage, known as the S-IC, detailing the five F-1 engines and fuel cells. The S-IC stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing more than 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through the five F-1 engines that are powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  9. Two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    An improved SRC-I two-stage coal liquefaction process which improves the product slate is provided. Substantially all of the net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate from the LC-Finer is combined with the SRC process solvent, substantially all of the net 400.degree.-650.degree. F. middle distillate from the SRC section is combined with the hydrocracker solvent in the LC-Finer, and the initial boiling point of the SRC process solvent is increased sufficiently high to produce a net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate of zero for the two-stage liquefaction process.

  10. TEN-YEAR FOLLOW UP OF A PHASE II STUDY OF DOSE-INTENSE PACLITAXEL WITH CISPLATIN AND CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE AS INITIAL THERAPY FOR POOR-PROGNOSIS ADVANCED-STAGE EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Sarosy, Gisele A.; Hussain, Mahrukh M.; Seiden, Michael V.; Fuller, A.F.; Nikrui, N.; Goodman, Annekathryn; Minasian, Lori; Reed, Eddie; Steinberg, Seth M.; Kohn, Elise C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Background To assess activity and toxicity in newly diagnosed advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients receiving dose-intense paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and filgrastim delivered with a flexible dosing schedule. Methods Patients with Stage III/IV EOC received cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, followed by 24 hr infusion of paclitaxel 250 mg/m2, and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 2. Filgrastim began on day 3 at 10 μg/kg/d × 9d. Patients received six cycles of all drugs. Those with pathologic complete response or microscopic residual disease at the conclusion of six cycles of therapy received an additional cycles two to four cycles of paclitaxel with cyclophosphamide. Patients with objective response continued cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Results 62 patients were enrolled. Thirty-two of these 62 patients had stage IIIC disease, and 26 of 62 had stage IV disease. Using an intent to treat analysis, 55 (89%) experienced clinical complete remission (CCR). With a median potential follow-up of 11.4 years, the median progression free survival is 18.9 months and median survival is 5.4 years. The most serious toxicity was grade 3/4 neutropenic fever (35%). Although all participants developed peripheral neuropathy, improvement in neuropathic symptoms began with decrease or cessation of paclitaxel. Conclusions This regimen yielded a high response rate and encouraging overall survival. These data and those of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group suggest that further study of dose dense or intense paclitaxel regimens in women with newly diagnosed advanced stage EOC is warranted. PMID:20091841

  11. Psychosexual Intervention in Patients With Stage I-III Gynecologic or Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage III Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell

  12. Racial differences in PSA screening interval and stage at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, William R.; Howard, Daniel L.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Ross, Louie E.; Wobker, Sara E.; Godley, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examined PSA screening interval of black and white men aged 65 or older and its association with prostate cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods SEER-Medicare data were examined for 18,067 black and white men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 2002. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between race, PSA screening interval, and stage at diagnosis. Analysis also controlled for age, marital status, comorbidity, diagnosis year, geographic region, income, and receipt of surgery. Results Compared to whites, blacks diagnosed with prostate cancer were more likely to have had a longer PSA screening interval prior to diagnosis, including a greater likelihood of no pre-diagnosis use of PSA screening. Controlling for PSA screening interval was associated with a reduction in blacks’ relative odds of being diagnosed with advanced (stage III or IV) prostate cancer, to a point that the stage at diagnosis was not statistically different from that of whites (OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.98–1.29). Longer intra-PSA intervals were systematically associated with greater odds of diagnosis with advanced disease. Conclusions More frequent or systematic PSA screening may be a pathway to reducing racial differences in prostate cancer stage at diagnosis, and, by extension, mortality. PMID:20333462

  13. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; van der Kwast, Theo H; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars L; Humphrey, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to extraprostatic extension (pT3a disease), bladder neck invasion, lymphovascular invasion and the definition of pT4 were coordinated by working group 3. It was agreed that prostate cancer can be categorized as pT3a in the absence of adipose tissue involvement when cancer bulges beyond the contour of the gland or beyond the condensed smooth muscle of the prostate at posterior and posterolateral sites. Extraprostatic extension can also be identified anteriorly. It was agreed that the location of extraprostatic extension should be reported. Although there was consensus that the amount of extraprostatic extension should be quantitated, there was no agreement as to which method of quantitation should be employed. There was overwhelming consensus that microscopic urinary bladder neck invasion by carcinoma should be reported as stage pT3a and that lymphovascular invasion by carcinoma should be reported. It is recommended that these elements are considered in the development of practice guidelines and in the daily practice of urological surgical pathology.

  14. Metabolomics Identifies Multiple Candidate Biomarkers to Diagnose and Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Isabel M.; Daly, Rónán; Courtioux, Bertrand; Cattanach, Amy M.; Biéler, Sylvain; Ndung’u, Joseph M.; Bisser, Sylvie; Barrett, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)). Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture. Here we use metabolomics to probe samples of CSF, plasma and urine from 40 Angolan patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, at different disease stages. Urine samples provided no robust markers indicative of infection or stage of infection due to inherent variability in urine concentrations. Biomarkers in CSF were able to distinguish patients at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 with absolute specificity. Eleven metabolites clearly distinguished the stage in most patients and two of these (neopterin and 5-hydroxytryptophan) showed 100% specificity and sensitivity between our stage 1 and advanced stage 2 samples. Neopterin is an inflammatory biomarker previously shown in CSF of stage 2 but not stage 1 patients. 5-hydroxytryptophan is an important metabolite in the serotonin synthetic pathway, the key pathway in determining somnolence, thus offering a possible link to the eponymous symptoms of “sleeping sickness”. Plasma also yielded several biomarkers clearly indicative of the presence (87% sensitivity and 95% specificity) and stage of disease (92% sensitivity and 81% specificity). A logistic regression model including these metabolites showed clear separation of patients being either at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 or indeed diseased (both stages) versus control. PMID:27941966

  15. Treatment results in women with clinical stage I and pathologic stage II endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Schutter, E M; Meerwaldt, J H; Van Der Palen, J; Van Der Sijde, R; Ten Cate, L N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report survival and results of therapy and possible prognostic factors in women with pathologic stage II endometrial carcinoma. Forty-two patients with pathologic stage II endometrial carcinoma were treated at the department of Radiation Oncology of the Medisch Spectrum Twente between 1987 and 1998. All patients received external radiotherapy following standard surgical procedures and no adjuvant systemic therapy was given. From the 42 patients 21 had a pathologic stage IIA and 21 stage IIB. The median follow-up was 62 months. The overall recurrence rate was 21.5% (9/42). Seven patients had distant metastasis, of which three also had locoregional recurrence, vaginal vault and/or pelvic. The presence of myometrial invasion (> (1/2)) and/or lymph-angioinvasion showed a significant relation with distant metastasis (P = 0.017). Stage IIB showed more recurrences, 33% (7/21). There was a significant different 5-year disease specific survival for stage IIA and IIB, respectively, 95% and 74% (P = 0.0311). Patients with a differentiation grade 3 and stage IIB showed a significantly poorer (P = 0.003) 5-year survival of 48.6% (P = 0.003). Results obtained in the present series of patients are in accordance with the literature. The present treatment policy seems justified, except for patients with pathologic stage IIB and grade 3, in which a more aggressive treatment should be considered.

  16. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamshidy, Ladan; Mozaffari, Hamid Reza; Faraji, Payam; Sharifi, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with two-stage technique using an appropriate tray. To measure the marginal gap, the distance between the restoration margin and preparation finish line of plaster dies was vertically determined in mid mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual (MDBL) regions by a stereomicroscope using a standard method. Results. The results of independent test showed that the mean value of the marginal gap obtained by one-stage impression technique was higher than that of two-stage impression technique. Further, there was no significant difference between one- and two-stage impression techniques in mid buccal region, but a significant difference was reported between the two impression techniques in MDL regions and in general. Conclusion. The findings of the present study indicated higher accuracy for two-stage impression technique than for the one-stage impression technique.

  17. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  18. The IASLC Mesothelioma Staging Project: Improving Staging of a Rare Disease Through International Participation.

    PubMed

    Pass, Harvey; Giroux, Dorothy; Kennedy, Catherine; Ruffini, Enrico; Cangir, Ayten K; Rice, David; Asamura, Hisao; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Weder, Walter; Hoffmann, Hans; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Nowak, Anna; Rusch, Valerie W

    2016-12-01

    For nearly 40 years, there was no generally accepted staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma. In 1994, members of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group, in collaboration with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, proposed a TNM staging system based on analyses of outcomes in retrospective surgical series and small clinical trials. Subsequently accepted by the American Joint Commission on Cancer and the Union for International Cancer Control for the sixth editions of their staging manuals, this system has since been the international staging standard. However, it has significant limitations, particularly with respect to clinical staging and to the categories for lymph node staging. Here we provide an overview of the development of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer malignant pleural mesothelioma staging database, which was designed to address these limitations through the development of a large international data set. Analyses of this database, described in papers linked to this overview, are being used to inform revisions in the eighth editions of the American Joint Commission on Cancer and Union for International Cancer Control staging systems.

  19. How orchestra members influence stage acoustic parameters on five different concert hall stages and orchestra pits.

    PubMed

    Wenmaekers, R H C; Hak, C C J M; Hornikx, M C J

    2016-12-01

    Stage acoustic parameters aim to quantify the amount of sound energy reflected by the stage and hall boundaries and the energy decay over time. In this research, the effect of orchestra presence on parameter values is investigated. The orchestra is simulated by dressed mannequins, which have been compared with humans with respect to acoustic properties. Impulse response measurements were performed in a concert hall, a theatre, a rehearsal room, and in two orchestra pits. Conditions were empty stage floors, stage floors with music stands and chairs only, and floors occupied by the mannequin orchestra. Results show that the direct and reflected sound levels and the energy decay are significantly affected by the orchestra compared to an empty stage or a stage with chairs and stands only. Both the direct sound and early reflected sound levels are reduced by the orchestra with the distance. The late reflected sound level is reduced considerably more than can be expected based on Barron's revised theory. It can be concluded that measurements on a stage without the orchestra being present results in significant differences. A practical method is presented to perform a "musician friendly" stage acoustic measurement with a real orchestra.

  20. Exit Stage Left (And Right): Getting Your Chorus on and off the Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoven, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A key element of a well-received performance is the efficient flow of performers on and off the stage. This important detail is often neglected until the last minute, with results that are, to say the least, unpredictable. While moving a large number of students on and off the stage will always take time, slow movement and ragged appearance while…

  1. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidy, Ladan; Faraji, Payam; Sharifi, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with two-stage technique using an appropriate tray. To measure the marginal gap, the distance between the restoration margin and preparation finish line of plaster dies was vertically determined in mid mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual (MDBL) regions by a stereomicroscope using a standard method. Results. The results of independent test showed that the mean value of the marginal gap obtained by one-stage impression technique was higher than that of two-stage impression technique. Further, there was no significant difference between one- and two-stage impression techniques in mid buccal region, but a significant difference was reported between the two impression techniques in MDL regions and in general. Conclusion. The findings of the present study indicated higher accuracy for two-stage impression technique than for the one-stage impression technique. PMID:28003824

  2. An actuarial approach to comparing early stage and late stage lung cancer mortality and survival.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sara W; Mulshine, James L; Hagstrom, Dale; Pyenson, Bruce S

    2010-02-01

    Comparing the mortality characteristics of different cohorts is an essential process in the life insurance industry. Pseudodisease, lead-time bias, and length bias, which are critical to determining the value of cancer screening, have close analogues in life insurance company management, including the temporal impact of underwriting. Ratios of all-cause mortality rates for cancer cohorts relative to standard population mortality rates can provide insights into early stage and late stage mortality differences, differences by age, sex, race, and histology, and allow modeling of biases associated with early stage detection or screening protocols. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data set has characteristics that allow efficient application of actuarial techniques. We show the mortality burden associated with treated early stage lung cancer and that identifying all lung cancers at early stage could reduce US lung cancer deaths by over 70,000 per year.

  3. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOEpatents

    Moore, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  4. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  5. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  6. Staging "Swissness": Inter- and Intracultural Theatre Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire…

  7. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  8. Staged description of the Finkelstein test.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Courtney; Mudgal, Chaitanya S

    2010-09-01

    We have revisited the original description of the Finkelstein test and review the reasons for its subsequent erroneous description. We have also outlined a staged description of this test, which we have found to be reliable and minimally painful for the diagnosis of de Quervain's tendonitis within our clinical practice.

  9. Hodgkin's lymphoma--patient's assessment and staging.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, Mary K

    2009-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most curable malignancies today. But treatment is associated with significant toxicity. The objective of high-quality management is to minimize treatment exposure while maximizing cure of disease. Principles of cancer staging and patient's assessment taxonomy are important to improve communication. An orderly patient evaluation and systematic recording of disease extent using the Ann Arbor classification forms the basis for treatment decision, response assessment, and clinical trials. The practice of staging in Hodgkin's lymphoma evolved over the past 40 years from clinical examination and plain imaging to modern anatomic and functional imaging. Although useful in the past, staging laparotomy, lymphangiograms, and Gallium scintigraphy have now been abandoned. Computerized tomography combined with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography form the basis for anatomic disease extent assessment. Although patients' evaluation and staging at diagnosis are important, the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma involves a complex series of algorithms requiring interim and overall response assessment, careful follow-up, repeat assessment, and salvage management of recurrent disease.

  10. Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2010-01-01

    A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…

  11. Predicting Stages of Change in Battered Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.; Tracy, Allison; Radek, Megan; Koverola, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Battered women's stages of change (SOCs) are examined in this study. First, confirmatory factor analysis and latent profile analysis were conducted on 754 battered women's responses on the Problems in Relationship Scale (Brown, 1998). Factor loadings were strong, and latent variable mixture modeling produces a two-class solution. Second,…

  12. Multi-stage separations based on dielectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-07-13

    A system utilizing multi-stage traps based on dielectrophoresis. Traps with electrodes arranged transverse to the flow and traps with electrodes arranged parallel to the flow with combinations of direct current and alternating voltage are used to trap, concentrate, separate, and/or purify target particles.

  13. One-stage model for color conversion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a one-stage approximation to the color-conversion model of Richards and Parks (1971). The modified model proposes three channels for color vision, each with different center-surround sensitivities. In its strongest form, the model predicts that the gain-setting control that alters the sensitivities of each channel is solely a function of achromatic contrast.

  14. Staged Turbojet Engine Would Emit Less NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. A.; Pritchard, H. O.

    1982-01-01

    New turbojet-engine concept could reduce nitric oxide emissions to a level from one-fifteenth to as little as one three-hundredth that of conventional units. Multiple-stage combustor could overcome flame instability problems associated with previous low-flame-temperature systems. It operates in a relatively-simple adiabatic mode without elaborate fuel-flow and air circulation patterns.,

  15. Educational Gymnastics--Stages of Content Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilges, Lynda M.

    1997-01-01

    Educational gymnastics uses a problem-solving approach to accommodate multiple correct solutions to open-ended movement problems in gymnastics. A four-stage framework is outlined to help teachers systematically increase and decrease task difficulty in educational gymnastics. Answers to common questions about educational gymnastics are provided.…

  16. Staged tendon grafts and soft tissue coverage.

    PubMed

    Elliot, David

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the two-staged flexor tendon method is to improve the predictability of final results in difficult problems dealing with tendon reconstruction. This article reviews the evolution and benefits of this procedure. It also considers the use of the technique to help deal with problems requiring pulley and skin reconstruction simultaneously with re-constituting the flexor tendon system.

  17. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations as long as they are intended to prepare the wastes for subsequent management or treatment. (2) (b... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum...

  18. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Smorudov, G. V.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  19. Stepwise two-stage sample size adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Ellenberg, Susan S; Anderson, Keaven M

    2015-01-15

    Several adaptive design methods have been proposed to reestimate sample size using the observed treatment effect after an initial stage of a clinical trial while preserving the overall type I error at the time of the final analysis. One unfortunate property of the algorithms used in some methods is that they can be inverted to reveal the exact treatment effect at the interim analysis. We propose using a step function with an inverted U-shape of observed treatment difference for sample size reestimation to lessen the information on treatment effect revealed. This will be referred to as stepwise two-stage sample size adaptation. This method applies calculation methods used for group sequential designs. We minimize expected sample size among a class of these designs and compare efficiency with the fully optimized two-stage design, optimal two-stage group sequential design, and designs based on promising conditional power. The trade-off between efficiency versus the improved blinding of the interim treatment effect will be discussed.

  20. Major Stages of Development, 1966-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    This study describes four developmental stages of Training and Technology (TAT), a human resources development activity begun 7 years ago by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities for the U. S. Department of Labor. The first year's project, in 1966, surveyed manpower development and training in universities, industry, and government in 15 Southern…

  1. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiko, Tadahiko

    2002-01-01

    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  2. MM2 LRSLA Testing Stage III Propellant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    tested Grain 70 data. This is the oldest CYR third stage pro- pellant in the OOALC inventory having been cast in June 1960. Motor serial numbers, lot ... numbers , cast dates and plot symbols are shown below. Motor S/N Lot Number Cast Date Symbol Grain 70 SR-47-60 Jun 60 0 0031064 SR-56-62 21 Oct 62

  3. The staging system: Display and edit module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, E.; Bernier, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Display and Edit (D and E) Module described is one of six major modules being developed for the STAGING (STructural Analysis through Generalized INteractive Graphics) System. Several remarks are included concerning the computer environment and the architecture of the data base. The utility of this module is emphasized.

  4. Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: A Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary McPhail; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The 72-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) was factor analyzed for a group of 534 university freshmen and sophomore students. Seven factors emerged, which were labeled Initiative, Industry, Identity, Friendship, Dating, Goal Clarity, and Self-Confidence. Item's representing Erikson's factors, Trust and Autonomy, were dispersed across…

  5. Two-Stage Passive Vibration Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, Renaud; Gursel, Yekta; Neville, Timothy; Bronowicki, Allen J.; Platus, David; MacDonald, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    The design and testing of a structural system were implemented to hold the optics of the planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) at positions and orientations characterized by vibrational translation and rotation errors of no more than a few nanometers or a few milliarcseconds, respectively. Much of the effort was devoted to a test bed for verifying the predicted behavior of a vibration- isolation structural subsystem working together with an active control system for positioning and orienting the SIM optics. There was considerable emphasis on the vibration-isolation subsystem, which was passive and comprised two stages. The main sources of vibration were six reaction wheels in an assembly denoted the "backpack." The first vibration-isolation stage consisted of hexapod isolator mounts - one for each reaction wheel - characterized by a natural vibration frequency of 10 Hz. The second stage was a set of three beams, disposed between the backpack and the structure that held the SIM optics, that were flexured such that they transmitted only bending loads, with a natural vibrational frequency and damping of about 5 Hz and 4 percent, respectively. Preliminary test results were presented and characterized as demonstrating the effectiveness of the two-stage vibration-isolation design.

  6. Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the…

  7. Strategies in late stage cervix carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krochak, R.

    1986-03-01

    Stage IIB-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix when treated by irradiation has a significant failure rate. Causes of pelvic and distant failure are discussed. New techniques employed to improve local control and decrease distant metastasis are presented. Data on morbidity, mortality, and survival will be reviewed with respect to these new strategies employed.

  8. Clinical manifestations and stages of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    The presentation and clinical diagnosis of Rett syndrome at various ages and stages are reviewed. In addition to the classical form, variability in phenotype between different atypical Rett forms is given. Obligatory, supportive, and differential diagnostic criteria are summarized. Long-term follow-up findings in ageing Rett women are addressed.

  9. [Effects of early growth stage shading on rice flag leaf physiological characters and grain growth at grain-filling stage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-hua; Zhou, Xue-biao; Yang, Lian-qun; Li, Tian; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2009-09-01

    In a pot experiment, rice plants were shaded during the period from transplanting to booting, aimed to study the effects of early growth stage shading on the rice growth at grain-filling stage. Comparing with the control, early growth stage shading decreased the tiller number by 26.72%, but increased the flag leaf area and soluble sugar content by 33.86% and 30.23%, respectively. The filled-grain number per panicle, 1000-grain mass, ultimate brown rice mass, and maximum and average grain-filling rates decreased by 8.65%, 4.81%, 9.74%, 20.22%, and 19.13%, and the effective panicle number and grain yield declined by 25.26% and 39.56%, respectively. The peak time of grain-filling rate (Tm) advanced 1.66 days, while the grain-filling time (T99) prolonged 6.80 days. For shading-tolerance variety, its flag leaf Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a + b) contents at early and mid grain-filling stages, and the protein N and soluble sugar contents and Chl a/b in its flag leaves at grain-filling stage all increased under early growth stage shading, and the ultimate brown rice mass and 1000-grain mass maintained at the similar levels as the control. Consequently, its grain yield reduction rate was lower than that of shading-sensitive variety.

  10. Applications of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Single-Stage, Multi-Stage and Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), based on the magnetocaloric effect, are solid-state coolers that were the first to achieve cooling well into the sub-kelvin regime. Although supplanted by more powerful dilution refrigerators in the 1960s, ADRs have experienced a revival due to the needs of the space community for cooling astronomical instruments and detectors to temperatures below 100 mK. The earliest of these were single-stage refrigerators using superfluid helium as a heat sink. Their modest cooling power (<1 µW at 60 mK[1]) was sufficient for the small (6x6) detector arrays[2], but recent advances in arraying and multiplexing technologies[3] are generating a need for higher cooling power (5-10 µW), and lower temperature (<30 mK). Single-stage ADRs have both practical and fundamental limits to their operating range, as mass grows very rapidly as the operating range is expanded. This has led to the development of new architectures that introduce multi-staging as a way to improve operating range, efficiency and cooling power. Multi-staging also enables ADRs to be configured for continuous operation, which greatly improves cooling power per unit mass. This paper reviews the current field of adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, beginning with a description of the magnetocaloric effect and its application in single-stage systems, and then describing the challenges and capabilities of multi-stage and continuous ADRs.

  11. Conceptual design of a two stage to orbit spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armiger, Scott C.; Kwarta, Jennifer S.; Horsley, Kevin B.; Snow, Glenn A.; Koe, Eric C.; Single, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    This project, undertaken through the Advanced Space Design Program, developed a 'Conceptual Design of a Two Stage To Orbit Spacecraft (TSTO).' The design developed utilizes a combination of air breathing and rocket propulsion systems and is fully reusable, with horizontal takeoff and landing capability. The orbiter is carried in an aerodynamically designed bay in the aft section of the booster vehicle to the staging altitude. This TSTO Spacecraft design meets the requirements of replacing the aging Space Shuttle system with a more easily maintained vehicle with more flexible mission capability.

  12. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  13. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2005-05-01

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  14. Tumor progression stage: specific losses of heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Cavenee, W K

    1989-01-01

    The development of human cancer is generally thought to entail a series of events that cause a progressively more malignant phenotype. This hypothesis predicts that tumor cells of the ultimate stage will carry each of the events, cells of the penultimate stage will carry each of the events less the last one and so on. That is to say, a dissection of the pathway form a normal cell to a fully malignant tumor may be viewed as the unraveling of a nested set of aberrations. In experiments designed to elucidate these events, we have compared genotypic combinations at genomic loci defined by restriction endonuclease recognition site variation in normal and tumor tissues from patients with various forms and stages of cancer. The first step, inherited predisposition, is best described for retinoblastoma in which a recessive mutation of a locus residing in the 13q14 region of the genome is unmasked by aberrant, but specific, mitotic chromosomal segregation. A similar mechanism involving the distal short arm of chromosome 17 is apparent in astrocytic tumors and the event is shared by cells in each malignancy stage. This is distinct from a loss of heterozygosity for loci on chromosome 10 which is restricted to the ultimate stage, glioblastoma multiforme. Further, this approach has has been extended to a wide variety of human cancers and shown to be generally applicable. The results suggest a genetic approach to defining degrees of tumor progression and a means for determining the genomic locations of genes involved in the pathway as a prelude to their molecular isolation and characterization. They have provided a molecular genetic-based oncology with clinical utility in differential pathology, in disease groupings for therapeutic purposes and in prenatal identification of latent disease carriers.

  15. Initial Staging of Hodgkin’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Danieli, Roberta; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Travascio, Laura; Cantonetti, Maria; Gallamini, Andrea; Guazzaroni, Manlio; Orlacchio, Antonio; Simonetti, Giovanni; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography/low-dose computed tomography (PET/ldCT) versus the same technique implemented by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) in staging Hodgkin’s disease (HD). Forty patients (18 men and 22 women, mean age 30 ± 9.6) with biopsy-proven HD underwent a PET/ldCT study for initial staging including an unenhanced low-dose computed tomography for attenuation correction with positron emission tomography acquisition and a ceCT, performed at the end of the PET/ldCT scan, in the same exam session. A detailed datasheet was generated for illness locations for separate imaging modality comparison and then merged in order to compare the separate imaging method results (PET/ldCT and ceCT) versus merged results positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography (PET/ceCT). The nodal and extranodal lesions detected by each technique were then compared with follow-up data that served as the reference standard. No significant differences were found at staging between PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT in our series. One hundred and eighty four stations of nodal involvement have been found with no differences in both modalities. Extranodal involvement was identified in 26 sites by PET/ldCT and in 28 by PET/ceCT. We did not find significant differences concerning the stage (Ann Arbor). Our study shows a good concordance and conjunction between PET/ldCT and ceCT in both nodal and extranodal sites in the initial staging of HD, suggesting that PET/ldCT could suffice in most of these patients. PMID:25121354

  16. Three-stage combustion demonstration projects update

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, B.; Zawadzki, E.; Murrell, F.; Shroyer, D.; Gallenbach, T.

    2000-07-01

    The Ashworth Combustor is a pulverized coal-fired system that reduces the three major air pollutants (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate) associated with coal combustion. A 50 million Btu/hr combustion system will be retrofitted to a stoker boiler at the Lincoln Development Center in Lincoln, Illinois. Startup and testing re scheduled for mid 2000. With this technology, a two-stage slagging combustor is used with furnace over-fire air (the third stage). Pulverized coal/limestone are fired/calcined in the combustor. limestone (lime) is added to flux the slag and capture sulfur in a molten slag eutectic as a non-leaching calcium sulfide. Beside deep NO{sub x} reduction, 70%+SO{sub 2} and 70 to 80% particulate reductions are projected for the Ashworth Combustor. ClearStack, the Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs Office of Coal Development and Marketing and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) are sponsoring the Ashworth Combustor demonstration. The Stage3Cyclone is a simple retrofit to cyclone-fired boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to low levels. The existing cyclone barrels are used as the first stage of combustion and the conventional cyclone feed coal size (-1/4 inch) is used. Limestone is added to flux the coal ash. Second stage air is added in the furnace at the re-entrant throat level followed by over-fire air (OFA) injection in the upper part of the furnace. The technique is to be demonstrated on a southern Illinois Power Cooperative 33 MWe cyclone-fired unit in Marion, Illinois. Funding arrangements are being made and testing is projected for late 2000.

  17. Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  19. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  20. Progress and prospects for blood-stage malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kazutoyo

    2016-06-01

    There have been significant decreases in malaria mortality and morbidity in the last 10-15 years, and the most advanced pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine, RTS,S, received a positive opinion from European regulators in July 2015. However, no blood-stage vaccine has reached a phase III trial. The first part of this review summarizes the pros and cons of various assays and models that have been and will be used to predict the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines. In the second part, blood-stage vaccine candidates that showed some efficacy in human clinical trials or controlled human malaria infection models are discussed. Then, candidates under clinical investigation are described in the third part, and other novel candidates and strategies are reviewed in the last part.

  1. Progress and prospects for blood-stage malaria vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kazutoyo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There have been significant decreases in malaria mortality and morbidity in the last 10-15 years, and the most advanced pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine, RTS,S, received a positive opinion from European regulators in July 2015. However, no blood-stage vaccine has reached a phase III trial. The first part of this review summarizes the pros and cons of various assays and models that have been and will be used to predict the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines. In the second part, blood-stage vaccine candidates that showed some efficacy in human clinical trials or controlled human malaria infection models are discussed. Then, candidates under clinical investigation are described in the third part, and other novel candidates and strategies are reviewed in the last part. PMID:26760062

  2. Stages in the psychological resolution of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Steggles, Gillian R. M.

    2015-01-01

    From the work of Dr. Michael Robbins in Massachusetts, USA, it is known that nine schizophrenic patients out of a series of 18, and a further schizophrenic patient, treated by him achieved positive outcomes using psychoanalytic methodology. Four of these had strikingly successful outcomes, for example completing their treatment without a need for further medication, and also becoming happily married or graduating at university. This paper aims to illustrate the stages identified by him through which this can be accomplished. Dr. Robbins’ Stages of Psychological Therapy of Schizophrenia are compared with Dr. Steggles’ detailed case study of a patient’s recovery from schizoaffective disorder. These two data sources are juxtaposed and compared. Dr. Robbins’ therapeutic stages are found to parallel exactly Dr. Steggles’ findings from her case study, which she summarized as her psychodynamic pentapointed cognitive construct (PPCC) model of her schizoaffective patient’s experience. Psychological therapy of schizophrenia is still in its early stages of development. However, Dr. Robbins’ psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic technique has given rise to positive outcomes in 10 of the 19 patients he treated, that is, his series of 18 patients together with a further patient; these 19 patients he gave full psychological treatment, i.e., usually four sessions per week. The Stages he identifies in his therapeutic process match perfectly the stages Dr. Steggles identified in her own patient’s healing mind. Not all schizophrenic patients are likely to be able to benefit from this psychological therapy. Females seem to be better able than males to respond to the treatment, and motivation is necessary for a successful outcome. It is not known how to identify precisely those patients who will be successful. But those patients who do benefit may counterbalance by their economic activity the healthcare costs of those who do not recover, as well as achieving benefit from

  3. VEGF Trap in Treating Patients With Recurrent Stage III or Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-02

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage III Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  4. Performance of two-stage fan having low-aspect-ratio first-stage rotor blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Gorrell, W. T.; Cunnan, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA two stage fan was tested with a low aspect ratio first stage rotor having no midspan dampers. At design speed the fan achieved an adiabatic design efficiency of 0.846, and peak efficiencies for the first stage and rotor of 0.870 and 0.906, respectively. Peak efficiency occurred very close to the stall line. In an attempt to improve stall margin, the fan was retested with circumferentially grooved casing treatment and with a series of stator blade resets. Results showed no improvement in stall margin with casing treatment but increased to 8 percent with stator blade reset.

  5. The Mechanism of Phagocytosis: Two Stages of Engulfment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2014-10-01

    Despite being of vital importance to the immune system, the mechanism by which cells engulf relatively large solid particles during phagocytosis is still poorly understood. From movies of neutrophil phagocytosis of polystyrene beads, we measure the fractional engulfment as a function of time and demonstrate that phagocytosis occurs in two distinct stages. During the first stage, engulfment is relatively slow and progressively slows down as phagocytosis proceeds. However, at approximately half-engulfment, the rate of engulfment increases dramatically, with complete engulfment attained soon afterwards. By studying simple mathematical models of phagocytosis, we suggest that the first stage is due to a passive mechanism, determined by receptor diffusion and capture, whereas the second stage is more actively controlled, perhaps with receptors being driven towards the site of engulfment. We then consider a more advanced model that includes signaling and captures both stages of engulfment. This model predicts that there is an optimum ligand density for quick engulfment. Further, we show how this model explains why non-spherical particles engulf quickest when presented tip-first. Our findings suggest that active regulation may be a later evolutionary innovation, allowing fast and robust engulfment even for large particles.

  6. The role of laparoscopy in staging of different gynaecological cancers.

    PubMed

    Tse, K Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2015-08-01

    Apart from cervical and vaginal cancers that are staged by clinical examination, most gynaecological cancers are staged surgically. Not only can pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy offer accurate staging information that helps determine patients' prognosis and hence their treatment plan, but it may also provide a therapeutic effect under certain circumstances. In the past, such a procedure required a big laparotomy incision. With the advent of laparoscopic lighting and instrument, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy became popular since the late 1980s. Dargent et al. published the first report on laparoscopic staging in cervical cancers, and many studies then followed. To date, there are numerous case series and trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic surgery in managing gynaecological cancers. In general, compared with laparotomy, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy has less intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pain, fewer wound complications, shorter length of hospital stay and more speedy recovery. However, this is at the expense of longer operative time. The incidence of port-site metastasis is extremely low, although it may be higher in advanced ovarian cancer. Preliminary data showed that there was no significant effect on recurrence and survival, but long-term data are lacking. In this article, the roles of laparoscopy in staging of uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers, the three most common gynaecological cancers, will be reviewed. Novel technologies such as robot-assisted surgery, single-port surgery and sentinel node biopsy will also be discussed.

  7. Gastric carcinoma: imaging diagnosis, staging and assessment of treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Hallinan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Gastric carcinoma (GC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Surgical resection is the only cure available and is dependent on the GC stage at presentation, which incorporates depth of tumor invasion, extent of lymph node and distant metastases. Accurate preoperative staging is therefore essential for optimal surgical management with consideration of preoperative and/or postoperative chemotherapy. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with its ability to assess tumor depth, nodal disease and metastases is the preferred technique for staging GC. Endoscopic ultrasonography is more accurate for assessing the depth of wall invasion in early cancer, but is limited in the assessment of advanced local or stenotic cancer and detection of distant metastases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although useful for staging, is not proven to be effective. Positron emission tomography (PET) is most useful for detecting and characterizing distant metastases. Both MDCT and PET are useful for assessment of treatment response following preoperative chemotherapy and for detection of recurrence after surgical resection. This review article discusses the usefulness of imaging modalities for detecting, staging and assessing treatment response for GC and the potential role of newer applications including CT volumetry, virtual gastroscopy and perfusion CT in the management of GC. PMID:23722535

  8. Second-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; By, Robert Romany; Sims, Calvin L.; Hyde, Susan Marie

    2002-01-01

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X and Y values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket. The second-stage wheel has sixty buckets.

  9. High Head Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert W.; Skelley, Stephen E.; Stewart, Eric T.; Droege, Alan R.; Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Williams, Morgan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Objective to develop an unshrouded impeller design, which a meets the performance requirements of a 3-stage fuel pump with a 2-stage pump design, has been accomplished. Performance of the baseline unshrouded impeller has been experimentally verified. Unshrouded impeller trade study and final 6+6 unshrouded impeller configuration has been presented. Structurally viable, 6+6-impeller design concept has been produced. Based on results presented in this study, at a nominal 10% tip-clearance, the 6+6 impeller design would increase payload to orbit by almost 625 lbs. per engine. The RLV vehicle requires 7 engines, therefore, application of high head unshrouded technology would increase payload capability by as much as 4,375 lbs. per vehicle.

  10. Nutraceutical use in late-stage cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jay; Brown, Vondina; Ellis, Jane; Logothetis, Britt; Weber, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Access to a wealth of information on the internet has led many cancer patients to use complementary methods as an adjunct to traditional therapy for cancer, with, and more often, without informing their primary caregiver. Of the common complementary modalities, the use of dietary supplements appears to be highly prevalent in patients in active treatment for cancer, and later in cancer survivors. Emerging research suggests that some plant-based agents may, indeed, impact late-stage cancer, influencing molecular processes corrupted by tumor cells to evade detection, expand clonally, and invade surrounding tissues. The intent of this article is to review some of the current science underpinning the use of nutraceuticals in the latter stages of cancer. PMID:20714787

  11. Pressurization of whole element canister during staging

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.F.

    1998-01-27

    An analytical model was developed to estimate the buildup of gas pressure for a single outer element in a hot cell test container for a post cold vacuum drying staging/storage test. This model considers various sources of gas generation and gas consumption as a function of time. In a canister containing spent nuclear fuel, hydrogen is generated from the reactions of uranium with free water or hydrated water, hydride decomposition, and radiolysis. The canister pressurization model predicts a stable pressure and a peak temperature during staging, with an assumption that a fuel element contains 40 gm of corrosion products and a decay heat of 2.07 or 1.06 Watts. Calculations were also performed on constant temperature tests for fuel elements containing varied amounts of sludge tested at 150, 125, 105, and 85 C. The pressurization model will be used to evaluate test results obtained from post-drying testing on whole fuel elements.

  12. Stage dependent nutritional regulation of transgenerational longevity

    PubMed Central

    Roussou, Ilianna G.; Savakis, Charalambos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Metaxakis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Statistical analyses in human populations have associated limited food availability during development with increased longevity of next generations. In support, recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed nutritional effects on transgenerational longevity. OBJECTIVES: In this study we tested the effect of nutrition on longevity of future generations in Drosophila and whether this is sex-specific. METHODS: We reared male larvae and adults of Drosophila under different food conditions and performed lifespan analyses in F2 generation. RESULTS: Grandsons of males which experienced starvation through larval stages were long-lived and grandsons of well fed larvae were short lived, in two Drosophila strains. In one strain, the nutritional effect on transgenerational longevity was transmitted through male line. Interestingly, we find that dietary restriction in adult males is the main nutritional condition affecting lifespan of grandsons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nutritional regulation of transgenerational longevity is evolutionarily conserved and developmental stage – dependent in Drosophila. PMID:28035341

  13. Ecology of Postlarval Stages of Chigger Mites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-05

    as the principle species for study because it has the widest geographic range of all American species encompassing both tropical and temperate...Daniel, M. 1958. The seasonal dynamics of the infestation of small mammals by chigger larvae in a lowland forest of periodically inundated area. Vest. Cs...the soil surface in tropical areas, especially during the wet season. Nadchatram (1970) collected postlarval stages of chiggers (Leptotrombidium

  14. Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

  15. Computer Program Predicts Turbine-Stage Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Haas, Jeffrey E.; Katsanis, Theodore

    1988-01-01

    MTSBL updated version of flow-analysis programs MERIDL and TSONIC coupled to boundary-layer program BLAYER. Method uses quasi-three-dimensional, inviscid, stream-function flow analysis iteratively coupled to calculated losses so changes in losses result in changes in flow distribution. Manner effects both configuration on flow distribution and flow distribution on losses taken into account in prediction of performance of stage. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  16. Multi-stage hydride-hydrogen compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golben, P. M.

    A 4-stage metal hydride/hydrogen compressor that uses low temperature hot water (75 C) as its energy source has been built and tested. The compressor utilizes a new hydride heat exchanger technique that has achieved fast cycling time (with 20 C cooling water) on the order of 1 min. This refinement substantially decreases the size, weight and cost of the unit when compared to previous hydride compressors or even conventional mechanical diaphragm compressors.

  17. Two-Stage Free Electron Laser Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-24

    Ctmetenar an reverse ode It ne*eey aud identify fo black nmber) Free electron laser, two-stage free electron laser, quasioptical cavity, helical ...of very high intensity (_10 W/cm ). A quasioptical cavity concept has been developed to produce such a field. A helical wiggler is needed to excite...the TE waveguide mode in this cavity. Work is described on the development of a pfmanent magnet helical wiggler for this system. Off-axis electron

  18. Technologies of stage magic: Simulation and dissimulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wally

    2015-06-01

    The craft of stage magic is presented in this article as a site to study the interplay of people and technology. The focus is on conjuring in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a time when magicians eagerly appropriated new optical, mechanical and electrical technologies into their acts. Also at this time, a modern style of conjuring emerged, characterized by minimal apparatus and a natural manner of performance. Applying Lucy Suchman's perspective of human-machine reconfigurations, conjuring in this modern style is interpreted as an early form of simulation, coupled with techniques of dissimulation. Magicians simulated the presence of supernational agency for public audiences, while dissimulating the underlying methods and mechanisms. Dissimulation implies that the secret inner workings of apparatus were not simply concealed but were rendered absent. This, in turn, obscured the production of supernatural effects in the translation of agencies within an assembly of performers, assistants, apparatus, apparatus-builders, and so on. How this was achieved is investigated through an analysis of key instructional texts written by and for magicians working in the modern style. Techniques of dissimulation are identified in the design of apparatus for three stage illusions, and in the new naturalness of the performer's manner. To explore the significance of this picture of stage magic, and its reliance on techniques of dissimulation, a parallel is drawn between conjuring and recent performances of computerized life forms, especially those of social robotics. The paper concludes by considering what is revealed about the production of agency in stage magic's peculiar human-machine assemblies.

  19. Long-term/strategic scenario for reusable booster stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Martin; Manfletti, Chiara; Burkhardt, Holger

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the final design status of a partially reusable space transportation system which has been under study for five years within the German future launcher technology research program ASTRA. It consists of dual booster stages, which are attached to an advanced expendable core. The design of the reference liquid fly-back boosters (LFBB) is focused on LOX/LH2 propellant and a future advanced gas-generator cycle rocket motor. The preliminary design study was performed in close cooperation between DLR and the German space industry. The paper's first part describes recent progress in the design of this reusable booster stage. The second part of the paper assesses a long-term, strategic scenario of the reusable stage's operation. The general idea is the gradual evolution of the above mentioned basic fly-back booster vehicle into three space transportation systems performing different tasks: Reusable First Stage for a small launcher application, successive development to a fully reusable TSTO, and booster for a super-heavy-lift rocket to support an ambitious space flight program like manned Mars missions. The assessment addresses questions of technical sanity, preliminary sizing and performance issues and, where applicable, examines alternative options.

  20. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed.

  1. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  2. Staging Liver Fibrosis with Statistical Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Jonathan Frieman

    Chronic liver disease is a worldwide health problem, and hepatic fibrosis (HF) is one of the hallmarks of the disease. Pathology diagnosis of HF is based on textural change in the liver as a lobular collagen network that develops within portal triads. The scale of collagen lobules is characteristically on order of 1mm, which close to the resolution limit of in vivo Gd-enhanced MRI. In this work the methods to collect training and testing images for a Hotelling observer are covered. An observer based on local texture analysis is trained and tested using wet-tissue phantoms. The technique is used to optimize the MRI sequence based on task performance. The final method developed is a two stage model observer to classify fibrotic and healthy tissue in both phantoms and in vivo MRI images. The first stage observer tests for the presence of local texture. Test statistics from the first observer are used to train the second stage observer to globally sample the local observer results. A decision of the disease class is made for an entire MRI image slice using test statistics collected from the second observer. The techniques are tested on wet-tissue phantoms and in vivo clinical patient data.

  3. Integration of Life-Stage Physiologically Based ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Life-stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to include descriptions of several life-stage events such as pregnancy, fetal development, the neonate and child growth. The overall modeling strategy was used for in vitro to in vivo (IVIVE) extrapolation to help contextualize activity in ToxCast assays that were mapped to an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption. Using life-stage PBPK models, we estimated maternal exposures that would yield fetal blood levels equivalent to in vitro activity from ToxCast assays with critical vascular signaling targets. The resulting in vivo dose estimates were then compared to life-time exposures using literature data or exposure models (SHEDS-LITE) to derive AOP-based Margins of Exposure (ME). This computational framework was applied to a list of five chemicals with varying activity against the putative Vascular Disruption AOP. The idea of linking biological information related to toxicity (using AOPs), high throughput in vitro data (ToxCast), and age-varying physiological and biochemical information to estimate AOP-based MEs is novel and can be used to help regulators in realistically assessing chemicals based on toxicity, dosimetry, and real-life exposures. Developing fetuses and infants are especially sensitive to toxicity caused by exposure to xenobiotics. The time and dose to which a developing target tissue is exposed during pregnancy or via lactation after birth are c

  4. Polymorphic crystals selected in the nucleation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Jun; Peng, Shu-Ming; Zhou, Xiao-Song; Ju, Xin

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the atomic mechanism of formation of polymorphic crystals. Cooling the Lennard-Jones systems, we observe that the system almost always evolves into a polymorphic crystal with either fivefold-symmetric stacking faults or single-direction stacking faults. The detailed analysis reveals that such an evolution depends on the configuration of fcc/hcp concomitance in the nucleation stage. A defect-induced model is then introduced to illustrate these two evolution routes. Through calculating the formation energies of the defective critical nuclei, we find that the polymorphic crystals seem to be determined by their critical nuclei, in which the relatively lower formation energy ensures the preponderance of the fivefold-symmetric cluster. Before the nucleation, we observe that thermal fluctuations prefer hcp-like particles over fcc-like ones while in the nucleation and growth stage this preference reverses. Notably, an extended step rule of Ostwald is seemingly suitable to characterise the growth process because of the temporary hcp layers appearing among fcc layers in the growth stage. Although the crystalline cluster with single-direction stacking faults has higher growth rate and structural order than its competitor, the component (fcc and hcp) proportion of the final crystals is almost always constant regardless of the polymorphic type. Our finding renews the understanding of the polymorphism of crystals, and possibly draws more attention of people intending to control the polymorphic structures through nucleation.

  5. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Intravital Microscopy for Identifying Tumor Vessels in Patients With Stage IA-IV Melanoma That is Being Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  7. Stage Effects on Stalling and Recovery of a High-Speed 10-Stage Axial- Flow Compressor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    17.7 Test compressor sixth stage characteristics 78.5% design corrected speed 347 17.8 Test compressor seventh stage characteristics 78.5% design...Figure 17.6 Test compressor fifth stage characteristics 78.5% design corrected speed 347 6TH STAGE PRESSURE CHARACTERISTIC 78.5% DESIGN CORRECTED SPEED...Vr) II 4 374 0 w0 -uU- M 4J 6 0 , 110 0 0 ’ 0 W0 wW LU $4 $4 w -j X 0W w) 4)O rl 0 4) Cd - 0 ) o--i0 0 r-4 - x 4) 0-H 04r fT~..I W 4 04 WEJ 0 0 0

  8. Performance of two-stage fan with larger dampers on first-stage rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Cunnan, W. S.; Stevans, W.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a two stage, high pressure-ratio fan, having large, part-span vibration dampers on the first stage rotor is presented and compared with an identical aerodynamically designed fan having smaller dampers. Comparisons of the data for the two damper configurations show that with increased damper size: (1) very high losses in the damper region reduced overall efficiency of first stage rotor by approximately 3 points, (2) the overall performance of each blade row, downstream of the damper was not significantly altered, although appreciable differences in the radial distributions of various performance parameters were noted, and (3) the lower performance of the first stage rotor decreased the overall fan efficiency more than 1 percentage point.

  9. A comparison study of staging systems for bone sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Heck, Robert K; Stacy, G Scott; Flaherty, Michael J; Montag, Anthony G; Peabody, Terrance D; Simon, Michael A

    2003-10-01

    A retrospective study of 250 patients treated at one institution was done to evaluate the prognostic significance of the new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system compared with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society staging system for patients with sarcomas of bone. Regarding the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society system, there were significant differences in survival among patients with Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III disease. There were no significant differences between patients with Stages I-A and I-B disease, nor between patients with Stages II-A and II-B disease. Similarly, regarding the new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, there were significant differences among patients with Stage I, Stage II, and Stage IV disease. No significant differences were seen between patients with Stages I-A and I-B disease, between patients with Stages II-A and II-B disease, nor between patients with Stages IV-A and IV-B disease. A significant advantage in the ability to predict prognosis for one staging system over the other staging system was not shown with the relatively small number of patients in this study.

  10. Two-stage/single-stage reversible pump-turbine with supplying pump

    SciTech Connect

    Brcar, A.

    1980-08-12

    In a hydroelectric facility, a vertically mounted rotatable shaft is connected to a motor-generator and carries a pumpturbine with a supplying pump disposed below and immersed in water, the supplying pump disengaging from the shaft when the pump-turbine is driving the motor-generator and engaging the shaft when the motor-generator is driving the pump-turbine and supplying pump, thereby providing a two-stage pumping mode and a single-stage generating mode.

  11. Staged field experiment No. 4: Application of advanced technologies in tight gas sandstones. Frontier formation, Chimney Buttes Field, Sublette County, Wyoming. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Gas Research Institute has sponsored research directed towards improving the recovery efficiency and reducing the cost of producing gas from tight reservoirs. In support of the goal, the Staged Field Experiment (SFE) project was implemented. The document provides the results of the research work performed on the SFE No. 4 well. Following an extensive site selection effort, the Frontier Formation along the Moxa Arch was selected as the target formation for SFE No. 4 research. Cooperative well data acquisition and analysis led to the selection of the SFE No. 4 site in the Chimney Buttes Field located in Section 24, T28N R113W. The open-hole and data acquisition programs designed and implemented on the SFE No. 4 well supported the goal of determining the most effective combination of formation evaluation (geological, petrophysical and engineering), fracture diagnostics, hydraulic fracturing and fracture modeling techniques to reduce the cost of producing gas from tight formations such as the Frontier. Analyses of these data, presented in detail in the report, determined that the target Second Bench of the Second Frontier was found to have a thin (approximately 10 ft), tight (ranging from 0.004 to 0.008 md) reservoir unit which had pre-frac flow rates measured at 9 MCFD. Higher than expected stress gradients were measured in in-situ stress tests. Several fluid-only mini-frac injections were attempted but aborted when pressure limitations of surface equipment were reached.

  12. Treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radiosensitizer: report of a pilot study from the National Cancer Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Ozols, R.F.; Myers, C.C.; Ostechega, Y.; Young, R.C.

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-eight patients with Stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma were treated with combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy employing a unique protocol. Four cycles of cyclophosphamide and hexamethylmelamine alternated with four cycles of concurrent cisplatin, whole abdominal radiotherapy, and intraperitoneal misonidazole. The entire treatment program lasted six months. Clinical complete responses were seen in 50% of the patients with an overall response rate of 61%. Pathologic complete response (PCR) confirmed at second look surgery occurred in 18% of the group (5 patients). Median survival of the entire group was 15.2 months with all PCR's alive NED. This outcome was no different than our previous experience with combination chemotherapy alone. Toxicities seen included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. However, these side effects were manageable. Two non-tumor deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining drug and radiation therapy concurrently in the treatment of ovarian cancer; further research is needed to explore different sequencing and dose levels that could improve the outcome.

  13. Supersonic Air-Breathing Stage For Commercial Launch Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Concept proposed to expand use of air-breathing, reusable stages to put more payload into orbit at less cost. Stage with supersonic air-breathing engines added to carry expendable stages from subsonic airplane to supersonic velocity. Carry payload to orbit. Expendable stages and payload placed in front of supersonic air-breathing stage. After releasing expendable stages, remotely piloted supersonic air-breathing stage returns to takeoff site and land for reuse. New concept extends use of low-cost reusable hardware and increases payload delivered from B-52.

  14. [Comparison research on two-stage sequencing batch MBR and one-stage MBR].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin-Yan; Shen, Heng-Gen; Sun, Lei; Wang, Lin; Li, Shi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at resolving problems in MBR operation, like low nitrogen and phosphorous removal efficiency, severe membrane fouling and etc, comparison research on two-stage sequencing batch MBR (TSBMBR) and one-stage aerobic MBR has been done in this paper. The results indicated that TSBMBR owned advantages of SBR in removing nitrogen and phosphorous, which could make up the deficiency of traditional one-stage aerobic MBR in nitrogen and phosphorous removal. During steady operation period, effluent average NH4(+) -N, TN and TP concentration is 2.83, 12.20, 0.42 mg/L, which could reach domestic scenic environment use. From membrane fouling control point of view, TSBMBR has lower SMP in supernatant, specific trans-membrane flux deduction rate, membrane fouling resistant than one-stage aerobic MBR. The sedimentation and gel layer resistant of TSBMBR was only 6.5% and 33.12% of one-stage aerobic MBR. Besides high efficiency in removing nitrogen and phosphorous, TSBMBR could effectively reduce sedimentation and gel layer pollution on membrane surface. Comparing with one-stage MBR, TSBMBR could operate with higher trans-membrane flux, lower membrane fouling rate and better pollutants removal effects.

  15. Simulation and Analyses of Stage Separation of Two-Stage Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Neirynck, Thomas A.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Scallion, William I.; Murphy, K. J.; Covell, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has initiated the development of methodologies, techniques and tools needed for analysis and simulation of stage separation of next generation reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, ConSep simulation tool is being developed which is a MATLAB-based front-and-back-end to the commercially available ADAMS(Registerd TradeMark) solver, an industry standard package for solving multi-body dynamic problems. This paper discusses the application of ConSep to the simulation and analysis of staging maneuvers of two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) Bimese reusable launch vehicles, one staging at Mach 3 and the other at Mach 6. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic database were assembled using the data from wind tunnel tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The effects of parametric variations in mass, inertia, flight path angle, altitude from their nominal values at staging were evaluated. Monte Carlo runs were performed for Mach 3 staging to evaluate the sensitivity to uncertainties in aerodynamic coefficients.

  16. Simulation and Analyses of Stage Separation Two-Stage Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Neirynck, Thomas A.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Scallion, William I.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Covell, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the development of methodologies, techniques and tools needed for analysis and simulation of stage separation of next generation reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, ConSep simulation tool is being developed which is a MATLAB-based front-and-back-end to the commercially available ADAMS(registered Trademark) solver, an industry standard package for solving multi-body dynamic problems. This paper discusses the application of ConSep to the simulation and analysis of staging maneuvers of two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) Bimese reusable launch vehicles, one staging at Mach 3 and the other at Mach 6. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic database were assembled using the data from wind tunnel tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The effects of parametric variations in mass, inertia, flight path angle, altitude from their nominal values at staging were evaluated. Monte Carlo runs were performed for Mach 3 staging to evaluate the sensitivity to uncertainties in aerodynamic coefficients.

  17. Results of the Utah-Arizona stage-by-stage migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Mellon, C.; Kinloch, M.; Dolbeare, T.; Ossi, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to find a safer means of teaching cranes new migration routes, each year (in 1998 and 1999) we transported a group of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) stage-by-stage, in a horse trailer, with stops for brief flights at about 30-km intervals, along a 1300-1400-km fall migration route from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (Fish Springs) in west-central Utah to the vicinity of Gila Bend, Arizona. Thereafter, we released them into a wild flock of sandhill cranes. All stage-by-stage birds were hand-reared with both a plastic crane decoy (to encourage them to roost in water) and a costume-draped humanoid form (called a scare-eagle and used for its namesake purpose). When these 2 teaching aids were placed in water, our cranes readily roosted nearby. All but 4 of our cranes proved cooperative (i.e., catchable at each of the ca 25-36 stops) during the migration. All were efficiently released into a wild flock and experienced good survival. The stage-by-stage method proved to be a safe means of transporting cranes south and giving them experience along the route. Some cranes apparently learned their route from the limited experience afforded by releasing them at intervals, and the 1999 cranes have made repealed migrations to or near our chosen northern terminus. However, after 1 winter in our chosen area, the birds have moved elsewhere to winter.

  18. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  19. Late-stage formation of carbon-fluorine bonds.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael G; Ritter, Tobias

    2014-06-01

    In this account, we review work from our lab on the development of methods for carbon-fluorine bond formation, with an emphasis on late-stage fluorination of functionalized small molecules and synthesis of (18) F-labeled molecules for potential use as tracers in positron emission tomography (PET). We attempt to highlight reactions that we feel are of particular practical relevance, as well as areas of research where there is still significant room for advancement.

  20. Radiotherapy Does Not Influence the Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Observed With the Administration of Gemcitabine and Bleomycin in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With the BAGCOPP Regimen: A Report by the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Macann, Andrew; Bredenfeld, Henning; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on the severe pulmonary toxicity observed in the pilot study of BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine) for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV Hodgkin's lymphoma or Stage IIB with risk factors participated in this single-arm, multicenter pilot study. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled on the study before its premature closure as a result of the development of serious pulmonary toxicity in 8 patients. The pulmonary toxicity occurred either during or immediately after the BAGCOPP chemotherapy course. Pulmonary toxicity contributed to one early fatality but resolved in the other 7 patients after cessation of gemcitabine and bleomycin, allowing continuation of therapy. Fifteen patients received consolidative radiotherapy, including 4 who previously had pulmonary toxicity. There were no reported cases of radiation pneumonitis and no exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms in the 4 patients who had had previous pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions: The severe pulmonary toxicity observed in this study has been attributed to an interaction between gemcitabine and bleomycin. Gemcitabine (when administered without bleomycin) remains of interest in Hodgkin's lymphoma and is being incorporated into a new German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group protocol that also includes consolidative radiotherapy. This study supports the concept of the integration of radiotherapy in gemcitabine-containing regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma if there is an interval of at least 4 weeks between the two modalities and with a schedule whereby radiotherapy follows the chemotherapy.