Science.gov

Sample records for advanced structure-borne sound

  1. Structure-borne sound: Structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Lothar; Heckl, Manfred

    The fundamental principles of sound production and propagation in and from structures are examined analytically in an introductory textbook, and their design implications are considered. Chapters are devoted to the definition, measurement, and generation of structure-borne sound; wave types and characteristics; damping; impedances; attenuation; and sound radiation from structures. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  2. Structure-borne sound and vibration from building-mounted wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, Andy; Elliott, Andy; Eastwick, Graham; Evans, Tomos; Ryan, Andy; von Hunerbein, Sabine; le Bescond, Valentin; Waddington, David

    2011-07-01

    Noise continues to be a significant factor in the development of wind energy resources. In the case of building-mounted wind turbines (BMWTs), in addition to the usual airborne sound there is the potential for occupants to be affected by structure-borne sound and vibration transmitted through the building structure. Usual methods for prediction and evaluation of noise from large and small WTs are not applicable to noise of this type. This letter describes an investigation aiming to derive a methodology for prediction of structure-borne sound and vibration inside attached dwellings. Jointly funded by three UK government departments, the work was motivated by a desire to stimulate renewable energy generation by the removal of planning restrictions where possible. A method for characterizing BMWTs as sources of structure-borne sound was first developed during a field survey of two small wind turbines under variable wind conditions. The 'source strength' was established as a function of rotor speed although a general relationship to wind speed could not be established. The influence of turbulence was also investigated. The prediction methodology, which also accounts for the sound transmission properties of the mast and supporting building, was verified in a field survey of existing installations. Significant differences in behavior and subjective character were noted between the airborne and structure-borne noise from BMWTs.

  3. Uncertainties in predicting structure-borne sound power input into buildings.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, B M

    2013-05-01

    There has been a steady development of methods of measurement and prediction of structure-borne noise in buildings, particularly over the last two decades. In proposing and evaluating these methods, a major consideration has been the likely trade-off between accuracy and simplicity. Structure-borne sound transmission is a more complicated process than airborne sound transmission, but practitioners seek methods of prediction for the former, which are as straightforward as for the latter. In this paper a description is given of a study of multi-contact sources in buildings. The study concentrates on measurement and calculation procedures for sources and calculation procedures for receiver structures, particularly lightweight building elements. Although the study is not exhaustive, the findings point to the limitations of simplified methods, specifically the uncertainties likely as a result of reducing the data sets and computational effort, and the discrepancies resulting from simplifying assumptions.

  4. Interface mobilities for characterization of structure-borne sound sources resiliently mounted via multiple contact points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiowetz, S.; Bonhoff, H. A.

    2013-10-01

    This paper introduces an expansion of the interface mobility method for structure-borne sound sources that are resiliently mounted to a receiving structure at multiple discrete contact points. Subsystems of source, receiver and isolators are represented by Fourier transforms of their mobility matrices. Along with the source activity, a formulation for the transmitted power fed into the receiver is obtained. Furthermore, the source descriptor and a coupling function for resiliently mounted multi-point sources are obtained which both form recognized concepts for structure-borne sound source characterization. The method is based on a neglection of cross-order terms which describe a coupling between Fourier coefficients of different order. With regard to a subsystem of discretely placed isolators, cross-order terms were found to account for variations of isolator parameters along the contact points. In a set of numerical studies it was shown that errors introduced by neglecting cross-order terms are most pronounced in the higher frequency region where isolators show resonant behavior due to internal wave effects. A subsystem of identical isolators is completely described by equal-order terms, therefore no error is introduced considering such cases. Moreover, errors inherent in the rigidly mounted case due to cross-order source or receiver mobilities are reduced significantly when isolator mobilities are large compared to those from source and receiver. Findings from theoretical studies were validated in practical settings considering structure-borne sound transmission from a ship diesel engine and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device.

  5. Fundamental studies of structure borne noise for advanced turboprop applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, W.; Koval, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission of sound generated by wing-mounted, advanced turboprop engines into the cabin interior via structural paths is considered. The structural model employed is a beam representation of the wing box carried into the fuselage via a representative frame type of carry through structure. The structure for the cabin cavity is a stiffened shell of rectangular or cylindrical geometry. The structure is modelled using a finite element formulation and the acoustic cavity is modelled using an analytical representation appropriate for the geometry. The structural and acoustic models are coupled by the use of hard wall cavity modes for the interior and vacuum structural modes for the shell. The coupling is accomplished using a combination of analytical and finite element models. The advantage is the substantial reduction in dimensionality achieved by modelling the interior analytically. The mathematical model for the interior noise problem is demonstrated with a simple plate/cavity system which has all of the features of the fuselage interior noise problem.

  6. Experimental study of structure-borne sound transmission loss of mechanical joints.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Liu, M; Nilsson, A

    2001-09-01

    A mechanical joint is one of the most effective ways to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. In order to increase the transmission loss, heavily damped joints are often used, which, in many cases, will reduce the structure integrity and hence can only be used in limited cases. In this study attention is focused on a type of resonant joint, i.e., a joint which will increase the transmission loss but will not reduce the structure integrity. The study is based on experiments in a one-dimensional structure. It is found that by adjusting the overlap of the joint, the transmission loss of 30 dB can be obtained at a certain frequency range without adding any dissipative materials. The mechanism of this high transmission loss is the cantilever-type resonance. The resonant frequency can be predicted precisely. The influence of extra dissipative material is investigated. The performance of the same joint in a finite structure is also examined by using the concept of vibrational insertion loss. When there is a certain damping in a finite system, a rather high insertion loss can still be achieved by using the above-mentioned joint, but the resonant frequency is shifted to higher end. It seems that the effective length of the cantilever is shortened by the finiteness.

  7. Dynamic effective mass of granular media and the attenuation of structure-borne sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Ingale, Rohit; Gland, Nicolas; Makse, Hernán A.; Johnson, David Linton

    2009-11-01

    We report a theoretical and experimental investigation into the fundamental physics of why loose granular media are effective deadeners of structure-borne sound. Here, we demonstrate that a measurement of the effective mass, M˜(ω) , of the granular medium is a sensitive and direct way to answer the question: what is the specific mechanism whereby acoustic energy is transformed into heat? Specifically, we apply this understanding to the case of the flexural resonances of a rectangular bar with a grain-filled cavity within it. The pore space in the granular medium is air of varying humidity. The dominant features of M˜(ω) are a sharp resonance and a broad background, which we analyze within the context of simple models. We find that: (a) on a fundamental level, dampening of acoustic modes is dominated by adsorbed films of water at grain-grain contacts, not by global viscous dampening or by attenuation within the grains. (b) These systems may be understood, qualitatively, in terms of a height-dependent and diameter-dependent effective sound speed [˜100-300(mṡs-1)] and an effective viscosity [˜5×104Poise] . (c) There is an acoustic Janssen effect in the sense that, at any frequency, and depending on the method of sample preparation, approximately one-half of the effective mass is borne by the side walls of the cavity and one-half by the bottom. (d) There is a monotonically increasing effect of humidity on the dampening of the fundamental resonance within the granular medium which translates to a nonmonotonic, but predictable, variation in dampening within the grain-loaded bar.

  8. Modelling of high-frequency structure-borne sound transmission on FEM grids using the Discrete Flow Mapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Timo; Tanner, Gregor; Xie, Gang; Chappell, David; Bajars, Janis

    2016-09-01

    Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) combined with the Discrete Flow Mapping technique (DFM) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. This has proven to enhance vibro-acoustic simulations considerably by making it possible to work directly on existing finite element meshes circumventing time-consuming and costly re-modelling strategies. In addition, DFM provides detailed spatial information about the vibrational energy distribution within a complex structure in the mid-to-high frequency range. We will present here progress in the development of the DEA method towards handling complex FEM-meshes including Rigid Body Elements. In addition, structure borne transmission paths due to spot welds are considered. We will present applications for a car floor structure.

  9. Prediction of low-frequency structure-borne sound in concrete structures using the finite-difference time-domain method.

    PubMed

    Asakura, T; Ishizuka, T; Miyajima, T; Toyoda, M; Sakamoto, S

    2014-09-01

    Due to limitations of computers, prediction of structure-borne sound remains difficult for large-scale problems. Herein a prediction method for low-frequency structure-borne sound transmissions on concrete structures using the finite-difference time-domain scheme is proposed. The target structure is modeled as a composition of multiple plate elements to reduce the dimensions of the simulated vibration field from three-dimensional discretization by solid elements to two-dimensional discretization. This scheme reduces both the calculation time and the amount of required memory. To validate the proposed method, the vibration characteristics using the numerical results of the proposed scheme are compared to those measured for a two-level concrete structure. Comparison of the measured and simulated results suggests that the proposed method can be used to simulate real-scale structures.

  10. The influence of cross-order terms in interface mobilities for structure-borne sound source characterization: Frame-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhoff, H. A.; Petersson, B. A. T.

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of interface mobilities for structure-borne sound source characterization critically depends on the admissibility of neglecting the cross-order terms. Following on from a previous study [H.A. Bonhoff, B.A.T. Petersson, Journal of Sound and Vibration 311 (2008) 473-484], the influence of the cross-order terms is investigated for frame-like structures under the assumption of a uniform force-order distribution. Considering the complex power, the cross-order terms are significant from intermediate frequencies on upwards. At lower frequencies, the cross-order terms can come into play for cases where the in-phase motion of the structure along the interface is constrained. The frequency characteristics of the influence of cross-order terms for the zero-order source descriptor and coupling function are similar to those of the complex power. For non-zero source descriptor and coupling function orders, the quality of the equal-order approximation mainly depends on the presence of low-order cross-order interface mobilities. By analyzing the symmetry of an interface system, it is possible to predict which cross-order terms are equal to zero. The equal-order approximation manages to capture the main trends and overall characteristics and offers an acceptable estimate for engineering practice.

  11. Advanced Systems for Monitoring Underwater Sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Michael; Van Meter, Steven; Gilmore, Richard Grant; Sommer, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The term "Passive Acoustic Monitoring System" (PAMS) describes a developmental sensing-and-data-acquisition system for recording underwater sounds. The sounds (more precisely, digitized and preprocessed versions from acoustic transducers) are subsequently analyzed by a combination of data processing and interpretation to identify and/or, in some cases, to locate the sources of those sounds. PAMS was originally designed to locate the sources such as fish of species that one knows or seeks to identify. The PAMS unit could also be used to locate other sources, for example, marine life, human divers, and/or vessels. The underlying principles of passive acoustic sensing and analyzing acoustic-signal data in conjunction with temperature and salinity data are not new and not unique to PAMS. Part of the uniqueness of the PAMS design is that it is the first deep-sea instrumentation design to provide a capability for studying soniferous marine animals (especially fish) over the wide depth range described below. The uniqueness of PAMS also lies partly in a synergistic combination of advanced sensing, packaging, and data-processing design features with features adapted from proven marine instrumentation systems. This combination affords a versatility that enables adaptation to a variety of undersea missions using a variety of sensors. The interpretation of acoustic data can include visual inspection of power-spectrum plots for identification of spectral signatures of known biological species or artificial sources. Alternatively or in addition, data analysis could include determination of relative times of arrival of signals at different acoustic sensors arrayed at known locations. From these times of arrival, locations of acoustic sources (and errors in those locations) can be estimated. Estimates of relative locations of sources and sensors can be refined through analysis of the attenuation of sound in the intervening water in combination with water-temperature and salinity

  12. Advanced microwave sounding unit study for atmospheric infrared sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenkranz, Philip W.; Staelin, David H.

    1992-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A), and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS, formerly AMSU-B) together constitute the advanced sounding system facility for the Earth Observing System (EOS). A summary of the EOS phase B activities are presented.

  13. Structure-borne noise at hotels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, George Paul; Jue, Deborah A.

    2002-11-01

    Hotels present a challenging environment for building designers to provide suitable noise and vibration isolation between very incompatible uses. While many are familiar with ways to reduce traditional sources of airborne noise and vibration, structure-borne noise and vibration are often overlooked, often with costly repercussions. Structure-borne noise can be very difficult to pinpoint, and troubleshooting the sources of the vibration can be a tedious process. Therefore, the best approach is to avoid the problem altogether during design, with attention to the building construction, potential vibration sources, building uses and equipment locations. In this paper, the relationship between structure-borne vibration and noise are reviewed, typical vibration sources discussed (e.g., aerobic rooms, laundry rooms, mechanical equipment/building services, and subway rail transit), and key details and design guidance to minimize structure-borne noise provided.

  14. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  15. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Recent Developments in Air- and Structure-Borne Sound and Vibration (2nd) Held in Auburn University, Alabama on 4-6 March 1992. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-06

    Spherical and Cylindrical Acoustic Targets in Water ," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 2, 971-979 (1991). 2. E.R. Lapwood and T. Usami, "Free Oscillations of the Earth ...ULTRACLEAN WATER ........................................................... 917 Aleksei M. Brodnikovskii and Vladimir A. Sivovolov, Institute of...STRUCTURE OF A SPHERICAL SHELL BY INCIDENT SOUND IN WATER ........................... 1125 Robert Hiciding and James F. Ball, University of

  16. Leak detection using structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen D. (Inventor); Chimenti, Dale E. (Inventor); Roberts, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for detection and location of air leaks in a pressure vessel, such as a spacecraft, includes sensing structure-borne ultrasound waveforms associated with turbulence caused by a leak from a plurality of sensors and cross correlating the waveforms to determine existence and location of the leak. Different configurations of sensors and corresponding methods can be used. An apparatus for performing the methods is also provided.

  17. Sound Insulation in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gösele, K.; Schröder, E.

    Sound insulation between the different rooms inside a building or to the outside is a very complex problem. First, the airborne sound insulation of ceilings, walls, doors and windows is important. Second, a sufficient structure-borne sound insulation, also called impact sound insulation, for the ceilings, has to be provided especially. Finally, the service equipment should be sufficiently quiet.

  18. Characterisation of the advanced microwave sounding unit, AMSU-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangasse, P.; Charlton, J.; Jarrett, M.

    1996-03-01

    The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-B, is a five channel microwave radiometer to be flown later this decade on the series of polar orbiting spacecraft NOAA-K, L and M. It will provide global data in support of synoptic weather forecasting by sounding the water vapour content of the atmosphere from the `window' channels at 89 and 150 GHz to the strong resonance line at 183.3 GHz. It has a scan period of 2 2/3 seconds and provides 90 earth view pixels each of nominal beam width 1.1 degrees during earth scan. The key radiometric requirements of the instrument are to provide a temperature sensitivity of 1 to 1.2K depending on channel, a linearity within 0.3 of the temperature sensitivity and a beam efficiency of 95%. This paper describes the design of the AMSU-B, the ground based buy-off tests and results obtained for the Proto-Flight Model (PFM), Flight 2 (FM2) and Flight 3 (FM3) Models in the context of these requirements. The Engineering Model testing is described in reference /1/.

  19. A programmable sound processor for advanced hearing aid research.

    PubMed

    McDermott, H

    1998-03-01

    A portable sound processor has been developed to facilitate research on advanced hearing aids. Because it is based on a digital signal processing integrated circuit (Motorola DSP56001), it can readily be programmed to execute novel algorithms. Furthermore, the parameters of these algorithms can be adjusted quickly and easily to suit the specific hearing characteristics of users. In the processor, microphone signals are digitized to a precision of 12 bits at a sampling rate of approximately 12 kHz for input to the DSP device. Subsequently, processed samples are delivered to the earphone by a novel, fully-digital class-D driver. This driver provides the advantages of a conventional class-D amplifier (high maximum output, low power consumption, low distortion) without some of the disadvantages (such as the need for precise analog circuitry). In addition, a cochlear implant driver is provided so that the processor is suitable for hearing-impaired people who use an implant and an acoustic hearing aid together. To reduce the computational demands on the DSP device, and therefore the power consumption, a running spectral analysis of incoming signals is provided by a custom-designed switched-capacitor integrated circuit incorporating 20 bandpass filters. The complete processor is pocket-sized and powered by batteries. An example is described of its use in providing frequency-shaped amplification for aid users with severe hearing impairment. Speech perception tests confirmed that the processor performed significantly better than the subjects' own hearing aids, probably because the digital filter provided a frequency response generally closer to the optimum for each user than the simpler analog aids.

  20. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Production of English Speech Sounds: Problems and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the production of English speech sounds by advanced Cantonese ESL learners in Hong Kong. A total of forty university students participated in the study, which included three speech production tasks investigating participants' production of target English speech sounds in isolated words, minimal pairs and passages. The…

  1. Structure-borne noise control for propeller aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test apparatus was developed which would allow the study and development of propeller wake/vortex-induced structure-borne interior noise control measures. Various methods of wing structural modification, including blocking masses, surface damping treatments, and tuned mechanical absorbers, were evaluated relative to reduced interior noise levels. Inboard wing fuel was found to act as an effective blocking mass. Wing panel add-on damping treatment in the form of a single, constrained layer was not an effective control measure, except in the area of the propeller wake. However, highly damped, tuned mechanical absorbers were found to be the most efficient structure-borne noise (SBN) control measure.

  2. Learning words and learning sounds: Advances in language development.

    PubMed

    Vihman, Marilyn M

    2017-02-01

    Phonological development is sometimes seen as a process of learning sounds, or forming phonological categories, and then combining sounds to build words, with the evidence taken largely from studies demonstrating 'perceptual narrowing' in infant speech perception over the first year of life. In contrast, studies of early word production have long provided evidence that holistic word learning may precede the formation of phonological categories. In that account, children begin by matching their existing vocal patterns to adult words, with knowledge of the phonological system emerging from the network of related word forms. Here I review evidence from production and then consider how the implicit and explicit learning mechanisms assumed by the complementary memory systems model might be understood as reconciling the two approaches.

  3. A shock absorber model for structure-borne noise analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaziz, Marouane; Nacivet, Samuel; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    Shock absorbers are often responsible for undesirable structure-borne noise in cars. The early numerical prediction of this noise in the automobile development process can save time and money and yet remains a challenge for industry. In this paper, a new approach to predicting shock absorber structure-borne noise is proposed; it consists in modelling the shock absorber and including the main nonlinear phenomena responsible for discontinuities in the response. The model set forth herein features: compressible fluid behaviour, nonlinear flow rate-pressure relations, valve mechanical equations and rubber mounts. The piston, base valve and complete shock absorber model are compared with experimental results. Sensitivity of the shock absorber response is evaluated and the most important parameters are classified. The response envelope is also computed. This shock absorber model is able to accurately reproduce local nonlinear phenomena and improves our state of knowledge on potential noise sources within the shock absorber.

  4. Structure-borne low-frequency noise from multi-span bridges: A prediction method and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. D.; Wu, D. J.; Li, Q.; Botteldooren, D.

    2016-04-01

    Structure-borne noise from railway bridges at far-field points is an important indicator in environmental noise assessment. However, studies that predict structure-borne noise tend to model only single-span bridges, thus ignoring the sound pressure radiating from adjacent spans. To simulate the noise radiating from multi-span bridges induced by moving vehicles, the vibrations of a multi-span bridge are first obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction simulation using the mode superposition method. A procedure based on the 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) boundary element method (BEM) is then presented to promote the efficiency of acoustical computation compared with the 3D BEM. The simulated results obtained from both the single-span and multi-span bridge models are compared with the measured results. The sound predictions calculated from the single-span model are accurate only for a minority of near-field points. In contrast, the sound pressures calculated from the multi-span bridge model match the measured results in both the time and frequency domains for all of the near-field and far-field points. The number of bridge spans required in the noise simulation is then recommended related to the distance between the track center and the field points of interest. The spatial distribution of multi-span structure-borne noise is also studied. The variation in sound pressure levels is insignificant along the length of the bridge, which validates the finding that the sound test section can be selected at an arbitrary plane perpendicular to the multi-span bridge.

  5. Computing aerodynamic sound using advanced statistical turbulence theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, A. M.; Teske, M. E.; Bilanin, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that the calculation of turbulence-generated aerodynamic sound requires knowledge of the spatial and temporal variation of Q sub ij (xi sub k, tau), the two-point, two-time turbulent velocity correlations. A technique is presented to obtain an approximate form of these correlations based on closure of the Reynolds stress equations by modeling of higher order terms. The governing equations for Q sub ij are first developed for a general flow. The case of homogeneous, stationary turbulence in a unidirectional constant shear mean flow is then assumed. The required closure form for Q sub ij is selected which is capable of qualitatively reproducing experimentally observed behavior. This form contains separation time dependent scale factors as parameters and depends explicitly on spatial separation. The approximate forms of Q sub ij are used in the differential equations and integral moments are taken over the spatial domain. The velocity correlations are used in the Lighthill theory of aerodynamic sound by assuming normal joint probability.

  6. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  7. Vensis: Venus Advanced Radar For Subsurface And Ionosphere Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biccari, D.; Gurnett, D.; Jordan, R.; Huff, R.; Marinangeli, L.; Nielsen, E.; Ori, G. G.; Picardi, G.; Plaut, J.; Provvedi, F.; Seu, R.; Zampolini, E.

    Due to optically opaque atmosphere of Venus radar is the best way to observe the surface of the planet from orbit. Magellan has obtained global SAR imaging, as well as altimetry and emissivity. As a subsurface sounder, working at low frequency and preferably in the night time, VENSIS would obtain fundamentally different kinds of geologic information than Magellan, mapping of interfaces of geologic units (e.g. tessera, plains, lava flows, impact debris) could in fact be extended into the third di- mension. A subsurface investigation of the first 1-2 Km will show the internal defor- mations of the Venusian surface and will depict the structural styles of old crust which are essential to define the crust dynamics, an improved understanding of the evolu- tion of complex Venusian features is a key to define the geological evolution of the planet. Furthermore in standard subsurface sounding mode VENSIS will be able to transmit four different bandwidth, so the possibility of multi frequency observations will allow the estimate of the material attenuation in the crust and will give significant indications on the dielectric properties of the detected interfaces. Thus the Primary Scientific Objectives of VENSIS are the following: 1-Characterize surface roughness, composition and electrical properties at long wavelengths (orders of magnitude longer than Magellan) 2-Probe the subsurface of Venus (to few km depth) to detect and map geologic materials and large scale structures at planetary level VENSIS sounder, using active sounding in a frequency range of 100 kHz to 7 MHz, would also allow detailed characterization of the Venus ionosphere while in passive mode it can be used to detect lightning, the presence of which remains both controversial and critical to understand the behavior of the atmosphere and the possibility of present day volcanism. Therefore a secondary objective is to Probe the ionosphere to characterize interactions between the solar wind and the Venusian

  8. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed spatial and temporal climatologies of lightning occurrence based on eight atmospheric flow regimes. The AMU created climatological, or composite, soundings of wind speed and direction, temperature, and dew point temperature at four rawinsonde observation stations at Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami, and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for each of the eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the National version of the Skew-T Hodograph analysis and Research Program (NSHARP) software program. The NWS MLB requested the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), so they could be overlaid on current observed soundings. This will allow the forecasters to compare the current state of the atmosphere with climatology. This presentation describes how the AMU converted the composite soundings from NSHARP Archive format to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format, so that the soundings could be displayed in AWl PS. The NetCDF is a set of data formats, programming interfaces, and software libraries used to read and write scientific data files. In AWIPS, each meteorological data type, such as soundings or surface observations, has a unique NetCDF format. Each format is described by a NetCDF template file. Although NetCDF files are in binary format, they can be converted to a text format called network Common data form Description Language (CDL). A software utility called ncgen is used to create a NetCDF file from a CDL file, while the ncdump utility is used to create a CDL file from a NetCDF file. An AWIPS receives soundings in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological data (BUFR) format (http://dss.ucar.edu/docs/formats/bufr/), and then decodes them into NetCDF format. Only two sounding files are generated in AWIPS per day. One

  9. 37 CFR 201.22 - Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. 201.22 Section 201.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. (a) Definitions... after the first fixation of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both that is first...

  10. 37 CFR 201.22 - Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. 201.22 Section 201.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. (a) Definitions... after the first fixation of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both that is first...

  11. 37 CFR 201.22 - Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. 201.22 Section 201.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. (a) Definitions... after the first fixation of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both that is first...

  12. 37 CFR 201.22 - Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. 201.22 Section 201.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... § 201.22 Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. (a... after the first fixation of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both that is first...

  13. 37 CFR 201.22 - Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. 201.22 Section 201.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. (a) Definitions... after the first fixation of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both that is first...

  14. Interaction of airborne and structure-borne noise radiated by plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of airborne and structure-borne noise radiated by aircraft structures is studied analytically and experimentally for the case of noise radiating from thin, isotropic, rectangular aluminum plates as a result of fully coherent, combined acoustic and vibrational inputs. Attention is given to the great influence of the relative phase between inputs on the combined noise radiation characteristics of the plates; these phase-dependent effects, which are manifest as cross-terms in both the dynamic and acoustic portions of the analysis, can radically alter the combined sound power radiated by airframe structure plates. Such interactive effects have heretofore been neglected in analyses of results from analytical and experimental studies of propeller-driven aircraft interior noise.

  15. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous task, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMIU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TclITk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  16. Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    1. The nature of sound; 2. Elasticity and vibrations; 3. Transverse waves; 4. Longitudinal waves; 5. Velocity of longitudinal waves; 6. Reflection and refraction. Doppler's principle; 7. Interference. Beats. Combination tones; 8. Resonance and forced vibrations; 9. Quality of musical notes; 10. Organ pipes; 11. Rods. Plates. Bells; 12. Acoustical measurements; 13. The phonograph, microphone and telephone; 14. Consonance; 15. Definition of intervals. Scales. Temperament; 16. Musical instruments; 17. Application of acoustical principles to military purposes; Questions; Answers to questions; Index.

  17. Structure borne noise analysis using Helmholtz equation least squares based forced vibro acoustic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    This dissertation presents a structure-borne noise analysis technology that is focused on providing a cost-effective noise reduction strategy. Structure-borne sound is generated or transmitted through structural vibration; however, only a small portion of the vibration can effectively produce sound and radiate it to the far-field. Therefore, cost-effective noise reduction is reliant on identifying and suppressing the critical vibration components that are directly responsible for an undesired sound. However, current technologies cannot successfully identify these critical vibration components from the point of view of direct contribution to sound radiation and hence cannot guarantee the best cost-effective noise reduction. The technology developed here provides a strategy towards identifying the critical vibration components and methodically suppressing them to achieve a cost-effective noise reduction. The core of this technology is Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography method. In this study, the HELS formulations derived in spherical co-ordinates using spherical wave expansion functions utilize the input data of acoustic pressures measured in the nearfield of a vibrating object to reconstruct the vibro-acoustic responses on the source surface and acoustic quantities in the far field. Using these formulations, three steps were taken to achieve the goal. First, hybrid regularization techniques were developed to improve the reconstruction accuracy of normal surface velocity of the original HELS method. Second, correlations between the surface vibro-acoustic responses and acoustic radiation were factorized using singular value decomposition to obtain orthogonal basis known here as the forced vibro-acoustic components (F-VACs). The F-VACs enables one to identify the critical vibration components for sound radiation in a similar manner that modal decomposition identifies the critical natural modes in a structural vibration. Finally

  18. Earth Observing System(EOS). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Firmware Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the Firmware Test Report for the firmware to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. It describes the firmware results of the Formal Qualification Test (FQT)/Demonstrations conducted on Mar. 21, 1997, Apr. 8, 1998, and July 14, 1998, for the EOS/AMSU-A instrument.

  19. A New ERA in Global Temperature Monitoring with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.; Christy, John R.

    1999-01-01

    The launch of the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA-15 spacecraft on 13 May 1998 marked a significant advance in our ability to monitor global temperatures. Compared to the Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) flying since 1978 on the TIROS-N series of NOAA polar orbiters, the AMSU offers better horizontal, vertical, and radiometric resolutions. It will allow routine monitoring of 1 1 (mostly) separate layers, compared to 2 or 3 with the MSU, including layers in the middle and upper stratosphere (2.5 hPa) where increasing carbon dioxide concentrations should be causing a cooling rate of about 1 deg. C per decade. More precise limb corrections combined with low noise will allow identification of subtle spatial temperature patterns associated with global cyclone activity.

  20. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Antenna Number 2 Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Four bearing assemblies, lubricated with Apiezon C oil with 5% lead naphthenate (PbNp), were life tested in support of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These assemblies were tested continuously for five to six years using the scanning pattern of the flight instrument. A post-life-test analysis was performed on two of the assemblies to evaluate the lubricant behavior and wear in the bearings.

  1. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  2. New NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) Datasets for Stratospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.

    1999-01-01

    The NOAA-15 spacecraft launched in May 1998 carried the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The AMSU has eleven oxygen absorption channels with weighting functions peaking from near the surface to 2 mb. Twice-daily, limb-corrected I degree gridded datasets of layer temperatures have been constructed since the AMSU went operational in early August 1998. Examples of AMSU imagery will be shown, as will preliminary analyses of daily fluctuations in tropical stratospheric temperatures and their relationship to daily variations in tropical-average rainfall measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The AMSU datasets are now available for other researchers to utilize.

  3. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Puget Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.

  4. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullooly, William

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-first monthly report for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit- A (AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 July 1995 through 31 July 1995. This period is the nineteenth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. Included in this report is the Master Program Schedule (Section 2), a report from the Product Team Leaders on the status of all major program elements (Section 3), Drawing status (Section 4), Weight and Power Budgets (CDRL) 503 (Section 5), Performance Assurance (CDRL 204) (Section 6), Configuration Management Status Report (CDRL 203) (Section 7), Documentation/Data Management Status Report (Section 8), and Contract Status (Section 9).

  5. Validation of Rain-Rate Retrieved from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) over the Tropical Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byon, J.

    2002-12-01

    Rain-rate retrieval using the NOAA/AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) (Zaho et al., 2001) has been implemented at METRI/KMA since 2001. Here, we present the validation results of the AMSU derived rain-rate, especially for the rainfall associated with the tropical cyclone for 2001 and 2002. For the validation, we use rain-rate derived from the ground based radar and/or rainfall observation from the rain gauge in Korea. We estimate the bias score, threat score, bias, RMSE and correlation coefficient for total of 25 tropical cyclone cases. Bias score shows around 1.3 and it increases with the increasing threshold value of rain-rate, while the threat score extends from 0.4 to 0.6 with the increasing threshold value of precipitation. The averaged rain-rate for all 25 cases is 3.23mm/hr and 1.01mm/hr for the retrieved from AMSU and the ground observation, respectively. On the other hand, AMSU rain-rate shows a much better agreement with the ground based observation over inner part of tropical cyclone than over the outer part (Correlation coefficient for convective region is about 0.7, while it is only about 0.3 over the stratiform region). The larger discrepancy of the correlation coefficient with the different part of the tropical cyclone is partly due to the time difference in between ice water path and surface rainfall. Another possible cause is the different vertical rain structure within the tropical cyclone which will be further investigated. The detailed procedure we modified for the improvement of current algorithm will be discussed in the presentation. Reference Zaho, L., F. Weng, and R. Ferraro, 2001: A physically-based algorithm to derive surface rainfall rate using advanced microwave sounding unit-B (AMSU-B) measurements. 11th Conf. on satellite meteorology and oceanography, American Meteorological Society 371-374.

  6. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  7. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit: A (EOS/AMSU-A) Firmware Version Description Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisneros, A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final submittal of the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A Firmware Version Description Document. Its purpose is to provide a precise description of the particular version of the firmware being released. This description also defines the version of the requirements and design applicable to this version.

  8. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

  9. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  10. Post-Launch Assessment of Performance of the NOAA-19 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) on the NOAA-19 satellite was successfully launched on 6 February 2009. NOAA-19 is the fifth in a series of five Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) with AMSU-A that provide imaging and sounding capabilities. As it orbits the Earth, NOAA-19 will collect data about the Earth's surface and atmosphere that are vital inputs to NOAA's weather forecasts. AMSU-A is a new generation of total-power microwave radiometers which have been flown on the NOAA-15 to NOAA-18 and METOP-A Satellites since May 1998. AMSU-A is composed of two separate units. AMSU-A2 provides channels 1 and 2 at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz. AMSU-A1 furnishes 12 channels in the 50.3 to 57.3 GHz oxygen band which are used for temperature sounding from the surface to about 50 km (i.e., from 1000 to 1 millbar) plus channel 15 at 89 GHz. Channels 1-3 and 15, which have weighting functions peaked near the surface, aid the retrieval of temperature sounding by providing information to correct the effect due to surface emissivity, atmospheric liquid water, and total precipitable water vapor on temperature sounding. Channels 1 and 2 also provide information on precipitation, sea ice, and snow cover. Before launch, each AMSU-A was tested and calibrated by the instrument contractor Northrop Grumman (formerly Aerojet). These pre-launch calibration data are analyzed at NOAA to derive the calibration parameters which are used in the operational calibration software to produce the AMSU-A Level 1B data sets. A systematic post-launch calibration and validation of the instrumental performances was conducted with on-orbit data. The long-term trends of the housekeeping sensors and radiometric counts from the cold space and warm targets are continuously monitored. Scan-by- scan examination of the radiometric calibration counts is employed to confirm normal functioning of the instrument and to detect any anomalous events, such as lunar contamination (LC) in the cold

  11. Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) after nine years of operation: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosei, R.; Jordan, R. L.; Morgan, D. D.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Heggy, E.; Kirchner, D. L.; Noschese, R.; Kofman, W.; Masdea, A.; Plaut, J. J.; Seu, R.; Watters, T. R.; Picardi, G.

    2015-07-01

    Mars Express, the first European interplanetary mission, carries the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) to search for ice and water in the Martian subsurface. Developed by an Italian-US team, MARSIS transmits low-frequency, wide-band radio pulses penetrating below the surface and reflected by dielectric discontinuities linked to structural or compositional changes. MARSIS is also a topside ionosphere sounder, transmitting a burst of short, narrow-band pulses at different frequencies that are reflected by plasma with varying densities at different altitudes. The radar operates since July 2005, after the successful deployment of its 40 m antenna, acquiring data at altitudes lower than 1200 km. Subsurface sounding (SS) data are processed on board by stacking together a batch of echoes acquired at the same frequency. On ground, SS data are further processed by correlating the received echo with the transmitted waveform and compensating de-focusing caused by the dispersive ionosphere. Ground processing of active ionospheric sounding (AIS) data consists in the reconstruction of the electron density profile as a function of altitude. MARSIS observed the internal structure of Planum Boreum outlining the Basal Unit, an icy deposit lying beneath the North Polar Layered Deposits thought to have formed in an epoch in which climate was markedly different from the current one. The total volume of ice in polar layered deposits could be estimated, and parts of the Southern residual ice cap were revealed to consist of ≈ 10 m of CO2 ice. Radar properties of the Vastitas Borealis Formation point to the presence of large quantities of ice buried beneath the surface. Observations of the ionosphere revealed the complex interplay between plasma, crustal magnetic field and solar wind, contributing to space weather studies at Mars. The presence of three-dimensional plasma structures in the ionosphere was revealed for the first time. MARSIS could

  12. Recent advances concerning an understanding of sound transmission through engine nozzles and jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D.; Michel, U.; Dfizenmaier, E.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments on the interaction between a turbulent jet and pure tone sound coming from inside the jet nozzle are reported. This is a model representing the sound transmission from sound sources in jet engines through the nozzle and the jet flow into the far field. It is shown that pure tone sound at low frequencies is considerably attenuated by the jet flow, whereas it is conserved at higher frequencies. On the other hand, broadband jet noise can be amplified considerably by a pure tone excitation. Both effects seem not to be interdependent. Knowledge on how they are created and on relevant parameter dependences allow new considerations for the development of sound attenuators.

  13. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the twentieth monthly report for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 August 1994 through 31 August 1994. This period is the eighth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. During this period the number one priority for the program continued to be the issuance of Requests for Quotations (RFQ) to suppliers and the procurement of the long-lead receiver components. Significant effort was also dedicated to preparation and conduct of internal design reviews and preparation for the PDR scheduled in September. An overview of the program status, including key events, action items, and documentation submittals, is provided in Section 2 of this report. The Program Manager's 'Priority Issues' are defined in Section 3. Section 4 through 7 provide detailed progress reports for the system engineering effort, each subsystem, performance assurance, and configuration/data management. Contractual matters are discussed in Section 8.

  14. Tidal effects on stratospheric temperature series derived from successive advanced microwave sounding units.

    PubMed

    Keckhut, P; Funatsu, B M; Claud, C; Hauchecorne, A

    2015-01-01

    Stratospheric temperature series derived from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board successive NOAA satellites reveal, during periods of overlap, some bias and drifts. Part of the reason for these discrepancies could be atmospheric tides as the orbits of these satellites drifted, inducing large changes in the actual times of measurement. NOAA 15 and 16, which exhibit a long period of overlap, allow deriving diurnal tides that can correct such temperature drifts. The characteristics of the derived diurnal tides during summer periods is in good agreement with those calculated with the Global Scale Wave Model, indicating that most of the observed drifts are likely due to the atmospheric tides. Cooling can be biased by a factor of 2, if times of measurement are not considered. When diurnal tides are considered, trends derived from temperature lidar series are in good agreement with AMSU series. Future adjustments of temperature time series based on successive AMSU instruments will require considering corrections associated with the local times of measurement.

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Calibration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the Calibration Management Plan for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The plan defines calibration requirements, calibration equipment, and calibration methods for the AMSU-A, a 15 channel passive microwave radiometer that will be used for measuring global atmospheric temperature profiles from the EOS polar orbiting observatory. The AMSU-A system will also provide data to verify and augment that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder.

  16. A Guide to Airborne, Impact, and Structure Borne Noise--Control in Multifamily Dwellings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendt, Raymond D.; And Others

    The control of noise on buildings is discussed extensively in this document, incorporating a broad range of criteria appropriate for isolating air borne, impact, and structure-borne noise associated with residential construction. Subject areas include--(1) noise types, sources, and transmission, (2) general principles of noise control, (3)…

  17. A prototype hail detection algorithm and hail climatology developed with the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Daniel; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sensor. This led to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations included geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A and -B) and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on several operational satellites since 1998: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 h, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz, one at 157 GHz, and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental US for a 10-year period (2000-2009). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40% of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-2011 that is stratified in several ways

  18. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Antenna Drive Subsystem METSAT AMSU-A2 (PN:1331200-2, SN:108)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haapala, C.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Antenna Drive Subassembly, Antenna Drive Subsystem, METSAT AMSU-A2 (P/N 1331200-2, SN: 108), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  19. Calibration of the advanced microwave sounding unit-A for NOAA-K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan

    1995-01-01

    The thermal-vacuum chamber calibration data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) for NOAA-K, which will be launched in 1996, were analyzed to evaluate the instrument performance, including calibration accuracy, nonlinearity, and temperature sensitivity. The AMSU-A on NOAA-K consists of AMSU-A2 Protoflight Model and AMSU-A1 Flight Model 1. The results show that both models meet the instrument specifications, except the AMSU-A1 antenna beamwidths, which exceed the requirement of 3.3 +/- 10%. We also studied the instrument's radiometric characterizations which will be incorporated into the operational calibration algorithm for processing the in-orbit AMSU-A data from space. Particularly, the nonlinearity parameters which will be used for correcting the nonlinear contributions from an imperfect square-law detector were determined from this data analysis. It was found that the calibration accuracies (differences between the measured scene radiances and those calculated from a linear two-point calibration formula) are polarization-dependent. Channels with vertical polarizations show little cold biases at the lowest scene target temperature 84K, while those with horizontal polarizations all have appreciable cold biases, which can be up to 0.6K. It is unknown where these polarization-dependent cold biases originate, but it is suspected that some chamber contamination of hot radiances leaked into the cold scene target area. Further investigation in this matter is required. The existence and magnitude of nonlinearity in each channel were established and a quadratic formula for modeling these nonlinear contributions was developed. The model was characterized by a single parameter u, values of which were obtained for each channel via least-squares fit to the data. Using the best-fit u values, we performed a series of simulations of the quadratic corrections which would be expected from the space data after the launch of AMSU-A on NOAA-K. In these simulations

  20. Ducted electromagnetic waves in the Martian ionosphere detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenfei; Orosei, Roberto; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the data of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Mars Express (MEX), a distinctive type of signals (called the "epsilon signature"), which is similar to that previously detected during radio sounding of the terrestrial F region ionosphere, is found. The signature is interpreted to originate from multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves propagating along sounder pulse-created, crustal magnetic field-aligned plasma bubbles (waveguides). The signatures have a low (below 0.5%) occurrence rate and apparent cutoff frequencies 3-5 times higher than the theoretical one for an ordinary mode wave. These properties are explained by the influence of the perpendicular ionospheric plasma density gradient and the sounder pulse frequency on the formation of waveguides.

  1. Engine isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine vibration isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction is investigated. A laboratory based test procedure to simulate engine induced structure-borne noise transmission, the testing of a range of candidate isolators for relative performance data, and the development of an analytical model of the transmission phenomena for isolator design evaluation are addressed. The isolator relative performance test data show that the elastomeric isolators do not appear to operate as single degree of freedom systems with respect to noise isolation. Noise isolation beyond 150 Hz levels off and begins to decrease somewhat above 600 Hz. Coupled analytical and empirical models were used to study the structure-borne noise transmission phenomena. Correlation of predicted results with measured data show that (1) the modeling procedures are reasonably accurate for isolator design evaluation, (2) the frequency dependent properties of the isolators must be included in the model if reasonably accurate noise prediction beyond 150 Hz is desired. The experimental and analytical studies were carried out in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.

  2. Experiments on the Interaction of Light and Sound for the Advanced Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, D. T.; Byer, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment in which both Raman-Nath and Bragg diffraction of light by acoustic waves in water are observed in the sound frequency range from 5 to 45 MHz. The apparatus consists of a laser, light detector, rf power source, quartz transducer, and homemade water cell. (Author/DF)

  3. Installation effects on propeller wake/vortex induced structure-borne noise transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus was employed to investigate the effects of power-plant placement, engine/nacelle mass installation, and wing-to-fuselage attachment methods on propeller-induced structure-borne noise (SBN) transmission levels and their effects on noise-control measures. Data are presented showing SBN transmission is insensitive to propeller spanwise placement, however some sensitivity is seen in propeller-to-wing spacing. Installation of an engine/nacelle mass and variation in wing-to-fuselage attachments have measurable influences on SBN transmission and control measures.

  4. Fresnel-region fields and antenna noise-temperature calculations for advanced microwave sounding units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A transition from the antenna noise temperature formulation for extended noise sources in the far-field or Fraunhofer-region of an antenna to one of the intermediate near field or Fresnel-region is discussed. The effort is directed toward microwave antenna simulations and high-speed digital computer analysis of radiometric sounding units used to obtain water vapor and temperature profiles of the atmosphere. Fresnel-region fields are compared at various distances from the aperture. The antenna noise temperature contribution of an annular noise source is computed in the Fresnel-region (D squared/16 lambda) for a 13.2 cm diameter offset-paraboloid aperture at 60 GHz. The time-average Poynting vector is used to effect the computation.

  5. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) METOP Stress Analysis Report (Qual Level Random Vibration) A1 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehitretter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module performed using the Meteorological Operational (METOP) Qualification Level 9.66 grms Random Vibration PSD Spectrum is presented. The random vibration structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions are summarized.

  6. Leak detection in spacecraft using structure-borne noise with distributed sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen D.; Roberts, Ron; Chimenti, D. E.; Strei, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We have developed and tested in the laboratory a method for in-orbit detection and location of air leaks in manned spacecraft that uses only a small number of sensors distributed arbitrarily on the inner surface of the spacecraft skin. Then, structure-borne ultrasound in the range of 300-600 kHz is monitored from each of the sensors. When cross correlations between measured sensor waveforms indicate the presence of a leak, these correlations are compared with a large dynamically generated database of simulated correlations to locate the the leak on the pressure vessel. A series of experimental tests were performed and at worst the method identified some false locations, but the true location of the leak always appeared.

  7. Acoustic metamaterials for sound mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouar, Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    We provide theoretical and numerical analyses of the behavior of a plate-type acoustic metamaterial considered in an air-borne sound environment in view of sound mitigation application. Two configurations of plate are studied, a spring-mass one and a pillar system-based one. The acoustic performances of the considered systems are investigated with different approaches and show that a high sound transmission loss (STL) up to 82 dB is reached with a metamaterial plate with a thickness of 0.5 mm. The physical understanding of the acoustic behavior of the metamaterial partition is discussed based on both air-borne and structure-borne approaches. Confrontation between the STL, the band structure, the displacement fields and the effective mass density of the plate metamaterial is made to have a complete physical understanding of the different mechanisms involved.

  8. Experimental analysis of the structure-borne tyre/road noise due to road discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, P.; Berckmans, D.; De Coninck, F.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2009-11-01

    Tyre/road noise has become the major source of traffic noise in urban regions. Although tyre/road noise has been studied for decades, little can be found in the literature about the noise resulting from crossing road discontinuities such as expansion joints, railway crossings, and potholes. Both vehicle interior and exterior noise can reach significant peak levels as a result of crossing such a pavement discontinuity. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the generating phenomena of structure borne tyre/road noise due to a road discontinuity. Both exterior and interior tyre/road noise are considered. The influence of driving speed, cleat dimension, inflation pressure, tyre temperature and preload onto the noise generating phenomena is investigated. A novel test setup was designed and built at the K.U. Leuven Noise and Vibration Engineering Laboratory in order to measure the structural and acoustic response of a tyre rolling over a cleat. The vehicle interior noise is analysed by means of a test circuit cleat test.

  9. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). As-Designed Parts List: Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts List for the AMSU-A Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the As-Designed Parts List, Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts Lists For The AMSU-A Instruments, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  10. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  11. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  12. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  13. HIRS-AMTS satellite sounding system test - Theoretical and empirical vertical resolving power. [High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder - Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the vertical resolving power of satellite-borne temperature sounding instruments. Information is presented on the capabilities of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and a proposed sounding instrument called the Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder (AMTS). Two quite different methods for assessing the vertical resolving power of satellite sounders are discussed. The first is the theoretical method of Conrath (1972) which was patterned after the work of Backus and Gilbert (1968) The Backus-Gilbert-Conrath (BGC) approach includes a formalism for deriving a retrieval algorithm for optimizing the vertical resolving power. However, a retrieval algorithm constructed in the BGC optimal fashion is not necessarily optimal as far as actual temperature retrievals are concerned. Thus, an independent criterion for vertical resolving power is discussed. The criterion is based on actual retrievals of signal structure in the temperature field.

  14. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  15. Sound Localization with an Army Helmet Worn in Combination with an In-Ear Advanced Communications System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    hearing with head and ear protection Figure 1: Nacre QUIETPRO® communications earplug. The left panel shows the controller with the in-ear system...was the Nacre QUIETPRO® in push-to-talk mode, with the volume for external sounds set at 0 dB gain. This device is one of several currently under review...the 10 subjects. The two ear conditions are labeled unoccluded (no ear protection) and occluded ( Nacre QUIETPRO® in-ear communications system). The

  16. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna…

  17. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The specification establishes the requirements for the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the Advanced Microwave Sounding, Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2), referred to herein as the unit. The unit is defined on Drawing 1331200. 1.2 Test procedure sequence. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown in Figure 1, but the sequence can be in any order.

  18. Vertical electric sounding of selected Arctic and Antarctic soils: advances in express field investigation of the Cryosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Physical properties of the soils of the cold environments are underestimated. Soil and permafrost border and active layer thickness are the key classification indicators for the polar soils. That is why electrophysical research has been conducted with aim to determine the soil-permafrost layer heterogeneity and the depth of the uppermost permafrost layer on examples of selected plots in Antarctic region and Russian Arctic. The electric resistivity (ER) was measured directly in the soil profiles using the vertical electrical sounding (VERS) method, which provides data on the changes in the electrical resistivity throughout the profile from the soil surface without digging pits or drilling. This method allows dividing the soil layer vertically into genetic layers, which are different on main key properties and characteristics Different soil layers have different ER values, that is why the sharp changes in ER values in soil profile can be interpreted as results of transition of one horizon to another. In our study, the resistivity measurements were performed using four-electrode (AB + MN) arrays of the AMNB configuration with use of the Schlumberger geometry. A Landmapper ERM-03 instrument (Landviser, USA) was used for the VES measurements in this study. Electrodes were situated on the soil surface, distance between M and N was fixes, while distance from A to B were changed during the sounding. Vertical Electrical Resistivity Soundings (VERS) using Schlumberger array were carried out at stations, situated on the different plots of terrestrial ecosystems of Arctic and Antarctic. The resistance readings at every VERS point were automatically displayed on the digital readout screen and then written down on the field note book. The soils had been 'sounded' thoroughly and found to vary between 5 cm and 3-5 m in A-B distances. It was shown that use of VES methodology in soil survey is quite useful for identification of the permafrost depth without digging of soil pit. This

  19. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). As-Designed Parts List: Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Designed Parts List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report comprises the Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As Designed Parts List to be used in the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. The purpose of the EEE As-Designed Parts List is to provide a listing of EEE parts identified for use on the Integrated AMSU-A. All EEE parts used on the AMSU-A must meet the parts control requirements as defined in the Parts Control Plan (POP). All part applications are reviewed by the Parts Control Board (PCB) and granted approval if POP requirements are met. The "As Designed Parts Lists" indicates PCB approval status, and thus also serves as the Program Approved Parts List.

  1. Orcas in Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    de Fuca Strait, Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia ) for a considerable time of the year, predominantly from early spring until late fall (Ford and...the south- ern part of Georgia Strait, Boundary Passage, the southern Gulf Islands and the eastern end of Juan de Fuca Strait (Heimlich- Boran 1988...Figure 2. Distribution of SRKW during September 2006 in Puget Sound and the southern Strait of Georgia (Advanced Satellite Productions, Orca Network

  2. Neue Lautzeichen im Advanced Learners Dictionary (ALD). Stellungnahmen zum Pro und Kontra (New Sound Symbols in the Advanced Learners Dictionary [ALD]. Considerations Pro and Con)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The phonetic symbols in the "Advanced Learners Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London) are discussed critically in articles by L. Alfes, H. Arndt, E. Bauch, G. Dahlmann-Resing, W. Friedrich, E. Germer, B. Haycraft, H. P. Kelz. Reference is made to an earlier article "Neue Zeichen", by H. G. Hoffmann. (Text is in German.)…

  3. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be a sign of early bowel obstruction. Causes Most of the sounds you hear in your stomach and intestines are ... a list of more serious conditions that can cause abnormal bowel sounds. Hyperactive, hypoactive, or missing bowel sounds may be ...

  4. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Reports: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N: 1356006-1, S.N: 202/A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report. the process specification establishes the requirements for the comprehensive performance test (CPT) and limited performance test (LPT) of the earth observing system advanced microwave sounding unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A2), referred to as the unit. The unit is defined on drawing 1356006.

  5. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, R. J.; Bolton, J. S.; Gardner, B.; Mickol, J.; Mollo, C.; Bruer, C.

    1986-01-01

    Progress was made in the following areas: development of a numerical/empirical noise source identification procedure using bondary element techniques; identification of structure-borne noise paths using structural intensity and finite element methods; development of a design optimization numerical procedure to be used to study active noise control in three-dimensional geometries; measurement of dynamic properties of acoustical foams and incorporation of these properties in models governing three-dimensional wave propagation in foams; and structure-borne sound path identification by use of the Wigner distribution.

  6. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  7. Sound transmission through the walls of light aircraft: An investigation of structure-borne noise in a Handley Page 137 Jetstream 3 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, R. J.; Wohlever, C.

    1988-01-01

    This study indicates that the structureborne noise due to wing/vortex interation for the Handley Page-137 Jetstream may be significant at frequencies above 500 Hz. It was found that by preventing such interaction, noise reductions between 1 to 3 dB were attainable. However, this study did not show any significant contribution due to this phenomena at the first blade passage tone. It is suspected that the wing/vortex interaction effect varies from plane to plane.

  8. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: AMSU-A1 Antenna Drive Subsystem, PN 1331720-2, S/N 106

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, AMSU-A1 Antenna Drive Subsystem, P/N 1331720-2, S/N 106, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The antenna drive subsystem of the METSAT AMSU-A1, S/N 106, P/N 1331720-2, completed acceptance testing per A-ES Test Procedure AE-26002/lD. The test included: Scan Motion and Jitter, Pulse Load Bus Peak Current and Rise Time, Resolver Reading and Position Error, Gain/ Phase Margin, and Operational Gain Margin. The drive motors and electronic circuitry were also tested at the component level. The drive motor test includes: Starting Torque Test, Motor Commutation Test, Resolver Operation/ No-Load Speed Test, and Random Vibration. The electronic circuitry was tested at the Circuit Card Assembly (CCA) level of production; each test exercised all circuit functions. The transistor assembly was tested during the W3 cable assembly (1356941-1) test.

  9. The Imagery of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Automated Analysis Corporation's COMET is a suite of acoustic analysis software for advanced noise prediction. It analyzes the origin, radiation, and scattering of noise, and supplies information on how to achieve noise reduction and improve sound characteristics. COMET's Structural Acoustic Foam Engineering (SAFE) module extends the sound field analysis capability of foam and other materials. SAFE shows how noise travels while airborne, how it travels within a structure, and how these media interact to affect other aspects of the transmission of noise. The COMET software reduces design time and expense while optimizing a final product's acoustical performance. COMET was developed through SBIR funding and Langley Research Center for Automated Analysis Corporation.

  10. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331720-2TST, S/N 105/A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Final Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) Report, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). This specification establishes the requirements for the CPT and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the AMSU-1A, referred to here in as the unit. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown.

  11. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... are believed to occur when air opens closed air spaces. Rales can be further described as moist, dry, fine, and coarse. Rhonchi. Sounds that resemble snoring. They occur when air is blocked or air flow becomes rough through ...

  12. Sound Advice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the planning and decision-making process in acquiring sound equipment for sports stadiums that will help make the experience of fans more pleasurable. The bidding process and use of consultants is explored. (GR)

  13. Sound Guard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lubrication technology originally developed for a series of NASA satellites has produced a commercial product for protecting the sound fidelity of phonograph records. Called Sound Guard, the preservative is a spray-on fluid that deposits a microscopically thin protective coating which reduces friction and prevents the hard diamond stylus from wearing away the softer vinyl material of the disc. It is marketed by the Consumer Products Division of Ball Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. The lubricant technology on which Sound Guard is based originated with NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO), an Earth-orbiting satellite designed and built by Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado, also a division of Ball Corporation. Ball Brothers engineers found a problem early in the OSO program: known lubricants were unsuitable for use on satellite moving parts that would be exposed to the vacuum of space for several months. So the company conducted research on the properties of materials needed for long life in space and developed new lubricants. They worked successfully on seven OSO flights and attracted considerable attention among other aerospace contractors. Ball Brothers now supplies its "Vac Kote" lubricants and coatings to both aerospace and non-aerospace industries and the company has produced several hundred variations of the original technology. Ball Corporation expanded its product line to include consumer products, of which Sound Guard is one of the most recent. In addition to protecting record grooves, Sound Guard's anti-static quality also retards particle accumulation on the stylus. During comparison study by a leading U.S. electronic laboratory, a record not treated by Sound Guard had to be cleaned after 50 plays and the stylus had collected a considerable number of small vinyl particles. The Sound Guard-treated disc was still clean after 100 plays, as was its stylus.

  14. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  15. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  16. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  17. Analysis of the dominant vibration frequencies of rail bridges for structure-borne noise using a power flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The use of concrete bridges in urban rail transit systems has raised many concerns regarding low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-borne noise due to the vibration of bridges when subjected to moving trains. Understanding the mechanism that determines the dominant frequencies of bridge vibrations is essential for both vibration and noise reduction. This paper presents a general procedure based on the force method to obtain the power flows within a coupled vehicle-track-bridge system, the point mobility of the system and the dynamic interaction forces connecting various components. The general coupling system consists of multi-rigid-bodies for the vehicles, infinite Euler beams representing the rails, two-dimensional or three-dimensional elements of the concrete bridges, and spring-dashpot pairs to model the wheel-rail contacts, the vehicle suspensions, the rail pads and the bridge bearings. The dynamic interaction of the coupled system is solved in the frequency domain by assuming the combined wheel-rail roughness moves forward relative to the stationary vehicles. The proposed procedure is first applied to a rail on discrete supports and then to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge. The computed results show that the wheel-rail contact forces, the power flows to the rail/bridge subsystem and the accelerations of the bridge are primarily dominated by the contents around the natural frequency of a single wheel adhered to the elastically supported rail. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same rigid body, then δmnab(ω) can be expressed as δmnab(ω)=-{(}/{Mlω}, where Ml is the mass of the lth rigid body. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same infinite rail, δmnab(ω) can be expressed as [8] δmnab(ω)=-j{((e-je)}/{4EIk}, where xm and xn are the x-coordinates of the mth and nth spring

  18. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A. Engineering Report: Electromagnetic Interface (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), for the METSAT/METOP AMSU-A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Susceptibility, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) qualification test for the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) and the Meteorological Operation Platform (METOP) projects. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/5D. This document describes the EMI/EMC test performed by Aerojet and it is presented in the following manner: Section-1 contains introductory material and a brief summary of the test results. Section 2 contains more detailed descriptions of the test plan, test procedure, and test results for each type of EMI/EMC test conducted. Section 3 contains supplementary information that includes test data sheets, plots, and calculations collected during the qualification testing.

  20. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Reliability prediction report for module A1 (channels 3 through 15) and module A2 (channels 1 and 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geimer, W.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the final reliability prediction performed on the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A). The A1 Module contains Channels 3 through 15, and is referred to herein as 'EOS/AMSU-A1'. The A2 Module contains Channels 1 and 2, and is referred herein as 'EOS/AMSU-A2'. The 'specified' figures were obtained from Aerojet Reports 8897-1 and 9116-1. The predicted reliability figure for the EOS/AMSU-A1 meets the specified value and provides a Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of 74,390 hours. The predicted reliability figure for the EOS/AMSU-A2 meets the specified value and provides a MTBF of 193,110 hours.

  1. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  2. Calculating Speed of Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  3. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  4. The Sound of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  5. Making Sound Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  6. Respiratory sounds compression.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Azadeh; Moussavi, Zahra

    2008-04-01

    Recently, with the advances in digital signal processing, compression of biomedical signals has received great attention for telemedicine applications. In this paper, an adaptive transform coding-based method for compression of respiratory and swallowing sounds is proposed. Using special characteristics of respiratory sounds, the recorded signals are divided into stationary and nonstationary portions, and two different bit allocation methods (BAMs) are designed for each portion. The method was applied to the data of 12 subjects and its performance in terms of overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values was calculated at different bit rates. The performance of different quantizers was also considered and the sensitivity of the quantizers to initial conditions has been alleviated. In addition, the fuzzy clustering method was examined for classifying the signal into different numbers of clusters and investigating the performance of the adaptive BAM with increasing the number of classes. Furthermore, the effects of assigning different numbers of bits for encoding stationary and nonstationary portions of the signal were studied. The adaptive BAM with variable number of bits was found to improve the SNR values of the fixed BAM by 5 dB. Last, the possibility of removing the training part for finding the parameters of adaptive BAMs for each individual was investigated. The results indicate that it is possible to use a predefined set of BAMs for all subjects and remove the training part completely. Moreover, the method is fast enough to be implemented for real-time application.

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 109) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409 S/N F06, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  8. The Sounds of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Flying board Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. The cover of each gold plated aluminum jacket, designed to protect the record from micrometeorite bombardment, also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  9. Hearing in three dimensions: Sound localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to localize a source of sound in space is a fundamental component of the three dimensional character of the sound of audio. For over a century scientists have been trying to understand the physical and psychological processes and physiological mechanisms that subserve sound localization. This research has shown that important information about sound source position is provided by interaural differences in time of arrival, interaural differences in intensity and direction-dependent filtering provided by the pinnae. Progress has been slow, primarily because experiments on localization are technically demanding. Control of stimulus parameters and quantification of the subjective experience are quite difficult problems. Recent advances, such as the ability to simulate a three dimensional sound field over headphones, seem to offer potential for rapid progress. Research using the new techniques has already produced new information. It now seems that interaural time differences are a much more salient and dominant localization cue than previously believed.

  10. The use of Digital Sound in Health.

    PubMed

    Labrada, Luis; Pereira, Samáris Ramiro; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of computing and micro computing, several applications based on Digital Sound have emerged around the world. Much analog equipment and electronics have gained new functions due to evolution and the low cost of microprocessors and integrated circuits. The rapidly expanding user community of such equipment allowed the advancement of research and development of numerous applications in which the Digital Sound participates actively, including, tests, treatments and therapies. In addition to solutions for use in laboratories, clinics and hospitals, there emerged devices for domestic use and handling, enabling faster dissemination and exploitation of advances, and providing the necessary feedback in the evolution of technologies applied. The massive use of Digital Sound encouraged research involving frequency bands used widely in health equipment (infrasounds and ultrasounds). Through the methodology of literature review, this paper seeks to explain the evolution of different applications of Digital Sound in Health, as well as indicate future research.

  11. Early sound symbolism for vowel sounds.

    PubMed

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki) to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba) to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound-shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound-shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat) and four rounded-jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko) rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba). Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01). The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  12. Sound wave transmission (image)

    MedlinePlus

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  13. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Test Report, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation(EMR) and Electromagnetic Capability (EMC) for the EOS/AMSU-A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paliwoda, L.

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project, assembly part number 1356008-1, serial number 202, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Susceptibility (EMC) qualification test. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/8B, dated 10 September 1998. Aerojet intends that the presentation and submittal of this document, prepared in accordance with the objectives established by the aforementioned Test Plan/Procedure, document number AE-26151/8B, will satisfy the data requirement with respect to the AMSU-A/EOS instrument operational compliance of the EMI/EMC test requirement. Test for the AMSU-A/EOS instrument have been completed and all the requirements per General Interface Requirement Document (GIRD), GSFC 422-11-12-01, for EOS Common Spacecraft/Instruments, paragraph 10.11, were met with the exceptions of the test methods CE03, RE01, and RE02, as described in this document.

  14. Sound of sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elze, H.-Thomas; Kodama, Takeshi; Rafelski, Johann

    1998-04-01

    We consider an air bubble in water under conditions of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) and evaluate the emitted sound field nonperturbatively for subsonic gas-liquid interface motion. Sound emission being the dominant damping mechanism, we also implement the nonperturbative sound damping in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for the interface motion. We evaluate numerically the sound pulse emitted during bubble collapse and compare the nonperturbative and perturbative results, showing that the usual perturbative description leads to an overestimate of the maximal surface velocity and maximal sound pressure. The radius vs time relation for a full SBSL cycle remains deceptively unaffected.

  15. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  16. Students' Learning of a Generalized Theory of Sound Transmission from a Teaching-Learning Sequence about Sound, Hearing and Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Eva; Wallin, Anita

    2013-04-01

    Learning abstract concepts such as sound often involves an ontological shift because to conceptualize sound transmission as a process of motion demands abandoning sound transmission as a transfer of matter. Thus, for students to be able to grasp and use a generalized model of sound transmission poses great challenges for them. This study involved 199 students aged 10-14. Their views about sound transmission were investigated before and after teaching by comparing their written answers about sound transfer in different media. The teaching was built on a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS), which was developed within a framework of design research. The analysis involved interpreting students' underlying theories of sound transmission, including the different conceptual categories that were found in their answers. The results indicated a shift in students' understandings from the use of a theory of matter before the intervention to embracing a theory of process afterwards. The described pattern was found in all groups of students irrespective of age. Thus, teaching about sound and sound transmission is fruitful already at the ages of 10-11. However, the older the students, the more advanced is their understanding of the process of motion. In conclusion, the use of a TLS about sound, hearing and auditory health promotes students' conceptualization of sound transmission as a process in all grades. The results also imply some crucial points in teaching and learning about the scientific content of sound.

  17. Sound Power Determination Using Sound Intensity Measurements: Applications and Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaobo

    1995-01-01

    The determination of sound power using sound intensity measurements is one of the most important developments in acoustics since the advent of digital signal processing techniques and FFT (fast Fourier transform) techniques in 1970's. Sound power determination using sound intensity measurements is the only way to precisely determine the sound power of noise sources in operating conditions when other noise sources are operating simultaneously. Sound power determination from sound intensity measurements largely obviates the need for special purpose test facilities, such as an anechoic room or a reverberation room. The determination of sound power from sound intensity measurements has many distinct advantages over the traditional determination of the sound power from sound pressure, and it will soon become the dominant method in the determination of the sound power of noise sources in-situ. Sound intensity measurements have been successfully applied to the determination of the sound power levels of noise sources in laboratory conditions, and of small machinery noise sources. The full scale application of this new technique to industrial machinery noise sources is certainly of importance for practical purposes. This dissertation mainly describes progress made in research on the application of sound intensity measurements for the determination of the sound power of noise sources. Results concerning the sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the following areas are discussed: sound power determination from sound intensity measurements at low frequency, error analysis of sound intensity estimates at low frequency, and sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of air flow, sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of strong background noise and some practical considerations on the application of the sound intensity technique to in-situ sound power determination.

  18. 78 FR 70624 - Guidance on Supervisory Concerns and Expectations Regarding Deposit Advance Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Expectations Regarding Deposit Advance Products'' (Guidance), which addresses safe and sound banking practices... Guidance to clarify the OCC's application of principles of safe and sound banking [[Page 70625

  19. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: absorption versus transmission.

    PubMed

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound absorption behavior can affect the performance of the double panel structure.

  20. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Recent Developments in Air- and Structure-Borne Sound and Vibration (2nd) Held in Auburn University, Alabama on 4-6 March 1992. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-06

    PROBLEMS IN THE 01, GAS AND POWER GENERATION INDUSTRIES - IDENTIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS ...................... 621 M.P. Norton, University of Western...considerable practical interest for example, vibrational sources mounted on resilient isolators em often modelled as force sources acting on the support...damage. Acoustic fatigue has also been a problem in nuclear, gas and petrohenical industries [3, 91. In the early 1969Ys, P W Smith demonsuatved that the

  1. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Recent Developments in Air- and Structure-Borne Sound and Vibration (2nd) Held in Auburn University, Alabama on 4-6 March 1992. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-06

    channels of vibration data for structurally-similar locations. DATA REDUCTION For this study, data from only the highest of the seven acoustic test levels ...Reference to Figure 5 shows that the shrouded propeller at supersonic tip speed creates the highest SPL and sets the scale level at 130 dB. The...and transient settling times of uncontrolled dynamic systems. However, when strctural motion due to operational disturbances must be minimized to

  2. Sound transmission through a double panel structure periodically coupled with vibration insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Julien; Atalla, Noureddine

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, sound transmission through an aircraft sidewall representative double panel structure is investigated theoretically and parametric and validation studies are conducted. The studied configuration is composed of a trim panel (receiver side panel) attached to a ribbed skin panel (source side panel) with periodically spaced resilient mounts. The structure is considered infinite in order to use space harmonic expansion. The partition is also assumed planar for simplicity. The model allows for a 3D incident field and the panels can be metallic and/or composite. A four-pole formulation is employed for modeling of the mounts and the absorption provided by the fiberglass that fills the cavity between the leaves is addressed with an equivalent fluid model. The investigation of mount stiffness, damping and spacing show that properly designed mounts can increase the TL significantly (up to 20 dB of difference between rigid and resilient mounts). However, they can create undesirable resonances resulting from their interaction with the panels. The influence of cavity absorption is also studied and results illustrate the fact that it is not worth investing in a highly absorbent fiber if the structure-borne transmission path is not adequately insulated, and likewise that it is not worth investing in highly resilient mounts without sufficient cavity absorption. Moreover, the investigation of panel damping confirms that when structure-borne transmission is present, raising skin damping can increase the TL even below coincidence, but that on average, greater improvements are achieved by raising trim damping. Finally, comparison between the periodic model and finite element simulations for structure-borne transmission shows that the average level of transmitted energy is well reproduced with the periodic approach. However, the modes are only captured approximately due to the assumption of an infinite structure.

  3. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  4. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  5. Operational sounding algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The analytical equations used to interpret TIROS-N sounding radiances for operational applications are presented. Both the National Environmental Satellite System (NESS) Global Operational Synoptic Scale and the NESS/University of Wisconsin (UW) North American Mesoscale Sounding Production Systems are considered.

  6. Categorization of Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Roel; Sereno, Joan; Jongman, Allard

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 experiments to test the decision-bound, prototype, and distribution theories for the categorization of sounds. They used as stimuli sounds varying in either resonance frequency or duration. They created different experimental conditions by varying the variance and overlap of 2 stimulus distributions used in a training phase…

  7. The Bosstown Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Based on the argument that (contrary to critical opinion) the musicians in the various bands associated with Bosstown Sound were indeed talented, cohesive individuals and that the bands' lack of renown was partially a result of ill-treatment by record companies and the press, this paper traces the development of the Bosstown Sound from its…

  8. The sound manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  9. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  10. Radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kirchner, D L; Huff, R L; Morgan, D D; Persoon, A M; Averkamp, T F; Duru, F; Nielsen, E; Safaeinili, A; Plaut, J J; Picardi, G

    2005-12-23

    We report the first radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on board the orbiting Mars Express spacecraft. Several types of ionospheric echoes are observed, ranging from vertical echoes caused by specular reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere to a wide variety of oblique and diffuse echoes. The oblique echoes are believed to arise mainly from ionospheric structures associated with the complex crustal magnetic fields of Mars. Echoes at the electron plasma frequency and the cyclotron period also provide measurements of the local electron density and magnetic field strength.

  11. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, GiGi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with −11 to −13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that −12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs. PMID:28145486

  12. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, Gigi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with ‑11 to ‑13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that ‑12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.

  13. Photoacoustic sounds from meteors

    DOE PAGES

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; ...

    2017-02-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with –11 to –13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally.more » Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that –12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. As a result, the photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.« less

  14. Sound as artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Jeffrey L.

    A distinguishing feature of the discipline of archaeology is its reliance upon sensory dependant investigation. As perceived by all of the senses, the felt environment is a unique area of archaeological knowledge. It is generally accepted that the emergence of industrial processes in the recent past has been accompanied by unprecedented sonic extremes. The work of environmental historians has provided ample evidence that the introduction of much of this unwanted sound, or "noise" was an area of contestation. More recent research in the history of sound has called for more nuanced distinctions than the noisy/quiet dichotomy. Acoustic archaeology tends to focus upon a reconstruction of sound producing instruments and spaces with a primary goal of ascertaining intentionality. Most archaeoacoustic research is focused on learning more about the sonic world of people within prehistoric timeframes while some research has been done on historic sites. In this thesis, by way of a meditation on industrial sound and the physical remains of the Quincy Mining Company blacksmith shop (Hancock, MI) in particular, I argue for an acceptance and inclusion of sound as artifact in and of itself. I am introducing the concept of an individual sound-form, or sonifact , as a reproducible, repeatable, representable physical entity, created by tangible, perhaps even visible, host-artifacts. A sonifact is a sound that endures through time, with negligible variability. Through the piecing together of historical and archaeological evidence, in this thesis I present a plausible sonifactual assemblage at the blacksmith shop in April 1916 as it may have been experienced by an individual traversing the vicinity on foot: an 'historic soundwalk.' The sensory apprehension of abandoned industrial sites is multi-faceted. In this thesis I hope to make the case for an acceptance of sound as a primary heritage value when thinking about the industrial past, and also for an increased awareness and acceptance

  15. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of highly accurate and useful system.

  16. Sounding the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Sounding the Sun Antony Fraser-Smith STAR Laboratory Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 phone: (650) 723-3684 fax: (650) 723-9251 email...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sounding the Sun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...systems. The objective of our “Sounding the sun ” experiment is to detect earth-directed CME’s by using existing earth-based HF (3- 30 MHz) radar systems

  17. Velocity of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a method for the determination of the velocity of sound using a dual oscilloscope on which is displayed the sinusoidal input into a loudspeaker and the signal picked up by a microphone. (GS)

  18. Sound Visualization and Holography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  19. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled.

  20. Sound modes in holographic superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Yarom, Amos

    2009-11-15

    Superfluids support many different types of sound waves. We investigate the relation between the sound waves in a relativistic and a nonrelativistic superfluid by using hydrodynamics to calculate the various sound speeds. Then, using a particular holographic scalar gravity realization of a strongly interacting superfluid, we compute first, second, and fourth sound speeds as a function of the temperature. The relativistic low temperature results for second sound differ from Landau's well known prediction for the nonrelativistic, incompressible case.

  1. Experimental study using Nearfield Acoustical Holography of sound transmission fuselage sidewall structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves the development of the Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) technique (in particular its extension from single frequency to wideband noise measurement) and its application in a detailed study of the noise radiation characteristics of several samples of aircraft sidewall panels. With the extensive amount of information provided by the NAH technique, the properties of the sound field radiated by the panels may be correlated with their structure, mounting, and excitation (single frequency or wideband, spatially correlated or uncorrelated, structure-borne). The work accomplished at the beginning of this grant period included: (1) Calibration of the 256 microphone array and test of its accuracy. (2) extension of the facility to permit measurements on wideband noise sources. The extensions incuded the addition of high-speed data acquisition hardware and an array processor, and the development of new software. (3) Installation of motion picture graphics for correlating panel motion with structure, mounting, radiation, etc. (4) Development of new holographic data processing techniques.

  2. GPS Sounding Rocket Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton

    1999-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including; chemical makeup and physical processes taking place In the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in more expensive activities. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program is managed by personnel from Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, either from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia, Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico or from Canada, Norway and Sweden. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requi6ng considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. An inverse differential GPS system has been developed for Sounding Rocket. This paper addresses the NASA Wallops Island history of GPS Sounding Rocket experience since 1994 and the development of a high accurate and useful system.

  3. Meteor fireball sounds identified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keay, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Sounds heard simultaneously with the flight of large meteor fireballs are electrical in origin. Confirmation that Extra/Very Low Frequency (ELF/VLF) electromagnetic radiation is produced by the fireball was obtained by Japanese researchers. Although the generation mechanism is not fully understood, studies of the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) and other fireball data indicate that interaction with the atmosphere is definitely responsible and the cut-off magnitude of -9 found for sustained electrophonic sounds is supported by theory. Brief bursts of ELF/VLF radiation may accompany flares or explosions of smaller fireballs, producing transient sounds near favorably placed observers. Laboratory studies show that mundane physical objects can respond to electrical excitation and produce audible sounds. Reports of electrophonic sounds should no longer be discarded. A catalog of over 300 reports relating to electrophonic phenomena associated with meteor fireballs, aurorae, and lightning was assembled. Many other reports have been cataloged in Russian. These may assist the full solution of the similar long-standing and contentious mystery of audible auroral displays.

  4. Atmospheric sound propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    The propagation of sound waves at infrasonic frequencies (oscillation periods 1.0 - 1000 seconds) in the atmosphere is being studied by a network of seven stations separated geographically by distances of the order of thousands of kilometers. The stations measure the following characteristics of infrasonic waves: (1) the amplitude and waveform of the incident sound pressure, (2) the direction of propagation of the wave, (3) the horizontal phase velocity, and (4) the distribution of sound wave energy at various frequencies of oscillation. Some infrasonic sources which were identified and studied include the aurora borealis, tornadoes, volcanos, gravity waves on the oceans, earthquakes, and atmospheric instability waves caused by winds at the tropopause. Waves of unknown origin seem to radiate from several geographical locations, including one in the Argentine.

  5. Monaural Sound Localization Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1997-01-01

    Research reported during the past few decades has revealed the importance for human sound localization of the so-called 'monaural spectral cues.' These cues are the result of the direction-dependent filtering of incoming sound waves accomplished by the pinnae. One point of view about how these cues are extracted places great emphasis on the spectrum of the received sound at each ear individually. This leads to the suggestion that an effective way of studying the influence of these cues is to measure the ability of listeners to localize sounds when one of their ears is plugged. Numerous studies have appeared using this monaural localization paradigm. Three experiments are described here which are intended to clarify the results of the previous monaural localization studies and provide new data on how monaural spectral cues might be processed. Virtual sound sources are used in the experiments in order to manipulate and control the stimuli independently at the two ears. Two of the experiments deal with the consequences of the incomplete monauralization that may have contaminated previous work. The results suggest that even very low sound levels in the occluded ear provide access to interaural localization cues. The presence of these cues complicates the interpretation of the results of nominally monaural localization studies. The third experiment concerns the role of prior knowledge of the source spectrum, which is required if monaural cues are to be useful. The results of this last experiment demonstrate that extraction of monaural spectral cues can be severely disrupted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in the source spectrum. The general conclusion of the experiments is that, while monaural spectral cues are important, the monaural localization paradigm may not be the most appropriate way to study their role.

  6. Exploring Sound with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  7. Sound and Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Claims that in metrical prose, rhythm can convey sense or express and underline what a writer is saying, and sound can be exploited to add a strong aural element that provides pleasure to the ears over and above the pleasure given by the sense of story. (SRT)

  8. Creative Sound Dramatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sound propagation is not easy for children to understand because of its abstract nature, often best represented by models such as wave drawings and particle dots. Teachers Rebecca Hendrix and Charles Eick wondered how science inquiry, when combined with an unlikely discipline like drama, could produce a better understanding among their…

  9. Making Sense of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  10. Sounds of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  11. About sound mufflers sound-absorbing panels aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, A. S.; Bulbovich, R. V.; Svirshchev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The article provides a formula for calculating the frequency of sound absorbed panel with a perforated wall. And although the sound absorbing structure is a set of resonators Helmholtz, not individual resonators should be considered in acoustic calculations, and all the perforated wall panel. The analysis, showing how the parameters affect the size and sound-absorbing structures in the absorption rate.

  12. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  13. Sounds Alive: A Noise Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Donna McCord

    Sarah Screech, Danny Decibel, Sweetie Sound and Neil Noisy describe their experiences in the world of sound and noise to elementary students. Presented are their reports, games and charts which address sound measurement, the effects of noise on people, methods of noise control, and related areas. The workbook is intended to stimulate students'…

  14. THE SOUND PATTERN OF ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHOMSKY, NOAM; HALLE, MORRIS

    "THE SOUND PATTERN OF ENGLISH" PRESENTS A THEORY OF SOUND STRUCTURE AND A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE SOUND STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. IN THE PREFACE TO THIS BOOK THE AUTHORS STATE THAT THEIR "WORK IN THIS AREA HAS REACHED A POINT WHERE THE GENERAL OUTLINES AND MAJOR THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES ARE FAIRLY CLEAR" AND…

  15. Just How Does Sound Wave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    When children first hear the term "sound wave" perhaps they might associate it with the way a hand waves or perhaps the squiggly line image on a television monitor when sound recordings are being made. Research suggests that children tend to think sound somehow travels as a discrete package, a fast-moving invisible thing, and not something that…

  16. Data sonification and sound visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wiebel, E.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois

    1999-07-01

    Sound can help us explore and analyze complex data sets in scientific computing. The authors describe a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis (Diass) and a program to visualize sounds in a virtual reality environment (M4Cave). Both are part of a comprehensive music composition environment that includes additional software for computer-assisted composition and automatic music notation.

  17. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  18. Wood for sound.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  19. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  20. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  1. The Aries sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooling, D.

    1980-02-01

    A family of sounding rockets called Aries, using the motors from obsolete Minuteman ICBMs, is described. Payloads for Aries range from 1,500 to 3,500 lb (with a payload diameter of 44 in.) and include various instruments (magnetospheric tracers, X-ray and extreme ultraviolet astronomy and a large X-ray telescope). Prospects for future launching of a two and even three-stage Aries are discussed.

  2. Underwater Sound Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-04-10

    OVER SPHERICAL DIVERGENCE LOSS VERSUS HORIZONTAL RANGE 49 20 ABSORPTION IN SEA WATER 51 21 ABSORPTION IN SEA WATER IN DEEP SOUND CHANNEL 52 22...isospeed condition. In warm water , a negative temperature gradient of greater magnitude is required to balance pressure increase with depth than in...cold water . Any combination of temperature and temperature gradient above the curve produces upward refraction. Any combination below the curve produces

  3. Sound categories or phonemes?

    PubMed

    Redford, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Vihman emphasizes the importance of early word production to the emergence of phonological knowledge. This emphasis, consistent with the generative function of phonology, provides insight into the concurrent representation of phonemes and words. At the same time, Vihman's focus on phonology leads her to possibly overstate the influence of early word acquisition on the emergence of sound categories that are probably purely phonetic in nature at the outset of learning.

  4. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  5. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  6. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  7. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  8. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  9. Judging sound rotation when listeners and sounds rotate: Sound source localization is a multisystem process.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A; Zhong, Xuan; Najam, Anbar

    2015-11-01

    In four experiments listeners were rotated or were stationary. Sounds came from a stationary loudspeaker or rotated from loudspeaker to loudspeaker around an azimuth array. When either sounds or listeners rotate the auditory cues used for sound source localization change, but in the everyday world listeners perceive sound rotation only when sounds rotate not when listeners rotate. In the everyday world sound source locations are referenced to positions in the environment (a world-centric reference system). The auditory cues for sound source location indicate locations relative to the head (a head-centric reference system), not locations relative to the world. This paper deals with a general hypothesis that the world-centric location of sound sources requires the auditory system to have information about auditory cues used for sound source location and cues about head position. The use of visual and vestibular information in determining rotating head position in sound rotation perception was investigated. The experiments show that sound rotation perception when sources and listeners rotate was based on acoustic, visual, and, perhaps, vestibular information. The findings are consistent with the general hypotheses and suggest that sound source localization is not based just on acoustics. It is a multisystem process.

  10. The Sounds of Earth Record Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This gold aluminum cover was designed to protect the Voyager 1 and 2 'Sounds of Earth' gold-plated records from micrometeorite bombardment, but also serves a double purpose in providing the finder a key to playing the record. The explanatory diagram appears on both the inner and outer surfaces of the cover, as the outer diagram will be eroded in time. Flying aboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are identical 'golden' records, carrying the story of Earth far into deep space. The 12 inch gold-plated copper discs contain greetings in 60 languages, samples of music from different cultures and eras, and natural and man-made sounds from Earth. They also contain electronic information that an advanced technological civilization could convert into diagrams and photographs. Currently, both Voyager probes are sailing adrift in the black sea of interplanetary space, having left our solar system years ago.

  11. Sound naming in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chow, Maggie L; Brambati, Simona M; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L; Johnson, Julene K

    2010-04-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two neurodegenerative diseases associated with cognitive and motor deficits. Subjects were presented with 56 environmental sounds: 28 sounds were of objects that required manipulation when producing the sound, and 28 sounds were of objects that required no manipulation. Subjects were asked to provide the name of the object that produced the sound and also complete a sound-picture matching condition. Subjects included 33 individuals from four groups: CBD/PSP, Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal dementia, and normal controls. We hypothesized that CBD/PSP patients would exhibit impaired naming performance compared with controls, but the impairment would be most apparent when naming sounds associated with actions. We also explored neural correlates of naming environmental sounds using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain MRI. As expected, CBD/PSP patients scored lower on environmental sounds naming (p<0.007) compared with the controls. In particular, the CBD/PSP patients scored the lowest when naming sounds of manipulable objects (p<0.05), but did not show deficits in naming sounds of non-manipulable objects. VBM analysis across all groups showed that performance in naming sounds of manipulable objects correlated with atrophy in the left pre-motor region, extending from area six to the middle and superior frontal gyrus. These results indicate an association between impairment in the retrieval of action-related names and the motor system, and suggest that difficulty in naming manipulable sounds may be related to atrophy in the pre-motor cortex. Our results support the hypothesis that retrieval of action-related semantic knowledge involves motor

  12. Advanced Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubal, Robert C.; Helms, Robert F.; Triplett, Suzanne E.

    Leading-edge technologies, integrated with emerging educational methodologies, make the Advanced Learning Environment (ALE) model cost effective and efficient for learning. The ALE integrates virtual reality and other enabling technologies such as natural language processing, animation, video, courseware, sound, projection, CD-ROM, and distance…

  13. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N 108) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F05 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, R.; Krimchansky, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 108) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F05 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F05, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The ATP for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A, is prepared to describe in detail the configuration of the test setups and the procedures of the tests to verify that the receiver subsystem meets the specifications as required either in the AMSU-A Instrument Performance and Operation Specifications, S-480-80, or in AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem Specifications, AE-26608, derived by the Aerojet System Engineering. Test results that verify the conformance to the specifications demonstrate the acceptability of that particular receiver subsystem.

  14. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    SciTech Connect

    M. P. Jensen; Toto, T.

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.

  15. Sounding rockets utilized to support Department of Defense programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, E. R.; Seaton, D. F.

    Sounding rocket technology is utilized in the truest sense in a successful flight test program to develop advanced technology optical sensors in support of ballistic missile defenses. Single and two stage sounding rockets have been flown ballistically to lift large sensor vehicle payloads to altitudes in excess of 100 nautical miles to demonstrate and evaluate sensor performance. This paper will describe the utility of sounding rockets in the development of a major Department of Defense program and the key role demonstrated on the Designating Optical Tracker (DOT) Flight Test Program. Flight test objectives and results are discussed. This paper also defines the transition into a larger sounding rocket system with increased payload carrying capability and boost phase guidance.

  16. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  17. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  18. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Website Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    life affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound...Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does marine

  19. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A.; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Johnson, William T. K.; Jordan, Rolando L.; Kirchner, Donald L.; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

  20. Puget Sound telecommuting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, M.; Heifetz, L.; Farley, M.; Christensen, D.; Ulberg, C.; Gordon, A.; Spain, D.; Whitaker, B.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the Puget Sound Telecommuting demonstration project. This is a part-time work and transportation alternative that substitutes the normal work commute with the choice of working at home or at an office close to home. According to Link Resources, a research and consulting firm located in New York, there were 4.6 million part-time home telecommuters in the United States in 1991. This figure, which included only company employees who work at home during normal business hours, is up from 3.4 million in 1990, an increase of 35 percent in one year. Part-time telecommuters average 2.5 days per week at home. (There are also about 876,000 full-time telecommuters in the US.) The study done by Link Resources estimates that 4.5 percent of the civilian work force age 18 or older is telecommuting. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) began exploring telecommuting as an alternate route to work for Washington, first through The Governor`s Conference on Telecommuting in June 1989. The conference raised corporate and government awareness of telecommuting, and set the stage for further investigation. In 1990, WSEO launched the Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration to explore the environmental, organizational, and personal sides of telecommuting. This report presents the interim research results.

  1. Puget Sound telecommuting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Quaid, M.; Heifetz, L.; Farley, M.; Christensen, D. ); Ulberg, C.; Gordon, A.; Spain, D.; Whitaker, B. )

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the Puget Sound Telecommuting demonstration project. This is a part-time work and transportation alternative that substitutes the normal work commute with the choice of working at home or at an office close to home. According to Link Resources, a research and consulting firm located in New York, there were 4.6 million part-time home telecommuters in the United States in 1991. This figure, which included only company employees who work at home during normal business hours, is up from 3.4 million in 1990, an increase of 35 percent in one year. Part-time telecommuters average 2.5 days per week at home. (There are also about 876,000 full-time telecommuters in the US.) The study done by Link Resources estimates that 4.5 percent of the civilian work force age 18 or older is telecommuting. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) began exploring telecommuting as an alternate route to work for Washington, first through The Governor's Conference on Telecommuting in June 1989. The conference raised corporate and government awareness of telecommuting, and set the stage for further investigation. In 1990, WSEO launched the Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration to explore the environmental, organizational, and personal sides of telecommuting. This report presents the interim research results.

  2. Auditory Perception of Complex Sounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-30

    processes that underlie several aspects of complex pattern recog- nition -- whether of speech, of music , or of environmental sounds. These patterns differ...quality or timbre can play similar grouping roles in auditory steams. Most of the experimental work has concerned timing of successive sounds in sequences...auditory perceptual processes that underlie several aspects of complex pattern recognition - whether of speech, of music , or of environmental sounds

  3. Sounds like Team Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  4. Analysis of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  5. Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

  6. Combination sound and vibration isolation curb for rooftop air-handling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Thomas S.

    2005-09-01

    This paper introduces the new Model ESSR Sound and Vibration Isolation Curb manufactured by Kinetics Noise Control, Inc. This product was specially designed to address all of the common transmission paths associated with noise and vibration sources from roof-mounted air-handling equipment. These include: reduction of airborne fan noise in supply and return air ductwork, reduction of duct rumble and breakout noise, reduction of direct airborne sound transmission through the roof deck, and reduction of vibration and structure-borne noise transmission to the building structure. Upgrade options are available for increased seismic restraint and wind-load protection. The advantages of this new system over the conventional approach of installing separate duct silencers in the room ceiling space below the rooftop unit are discussed. Several case studies are presented with the emphasis on completed projects pertaining to classrooms and school auditorium applications. Some success has also been achieved by adding active noise control components to improve low-frequency attenuation. This is an innovative product designed for conformance with the new classroom acoustics standard ANSI S12.60.

  7. College Fjord, Prince Williams Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The College Fjord with its glaciers was imaged by ASTER on June 24, 2000.

    This image covers an area 20 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 24 kilometers (15 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. College Fjord is located in Prince Williams Sound, east of Seward, Alaska. Vegetation is in red, and snow and ice are white and blue. Ice bergs calved off of the glaciers can be seen as white dots in the water. At the head of the fjord, Harvard Glacier (left) is one of the few advancing glaciers in the area; dark streaks on the glacier are medial moraines: rock and dirt that indicate the incorporated margins of merging glaciers. Yale Glacier to the right is retreating, exposing (now vegetated) bedrock where once there was ice. On the west edge of the fjord, several small glaciers enter the water. This fjord is a favorite stop for cruise ships plying Alaska's inland passage.

    This image is located at 61.2 degrees north latitude and 147.7 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  8. Deep-sea soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    Bathymetric charts for many areas of the ocean are cheap and accurate, and we usually take their availability for granted. In these times of abundant information, it is easy to forget the wonder and excitement of the last century, when mechanical sounding machines revealed for the first time the major features of the ocean depths. Who would not be awed by the graceful sweep of the Blake Plateau or the plunging depths of the Puerto Rico Trench, and who could remain unimpressed by undersea mountain ranges more majestic than any in view? In his 1888 book, entitled Three Cruises of the Blake, Alexander Agassiz has this to say about the spectacular Caribbean bottom topography: “Compared to such panoramas the finest views of the range of the Alps sink into insignificance; it is only when we get a view of portions of the Andes from the sea-coast…that we get anything approximating to it in grandeur.”

  9. Sounds Clear Enough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Alan

    2004-01-01

    I'm a vice president at Line6, where we produce electronics for musical instruments. My company recently developed a guitar that can be programmed to sound like twenty-five different classic guitars - everything from a 1928 National 'Tricone' to a 1970 Martin. It is quite an amazing piece of technology. The guitar started as a research project because we needed to know if the technology was going to be viable and if the guitar design was going to be practical. I've been in this business for about twenty years now, and I still enjoy starting up projects whenever the opportunity presents itself. During the research phase, I headed up the project myself. Once we completed our preliminary research and made the decision to move into development, that's when I handed the project off - and that's where this story really begins.

  10. Sounding out science

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, M.

    1996-10-01

    The Exxon Valdez catastrophe, which soiled Alaska`s Prince William Sound in 1989, was the most studied oil spill in history. But because of how they framed their inquiries, investigators have learned less than they could about how nature heals itself. The studies of Exxon and the state of Alaska - including the departments of Fish and Game and of Environmental Conservation - conducted to prove their respective points, were kept largely secret untill legal settlements were reached. This secrecy reduced most of the pillars of science to rubble: out went scientific dialog, data sharing, and for some parties, peer view. Millions of dollars were shelled out in duplicate studies that reached opposite conclusions. Beyond the quality of science lies the public interpretation of science. Even though NOAA has shown that cleaning up can do more harm than good, demands to clean up persist. 7 figs.

  11. The monster sound pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  12. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  13. Letter Recognition and Sound Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    This lesson, which is most appropriate for kindergartners, reviews letter names and their sounds through a group letter recognition activity, a picture book activity, and alphabet practice with several online activities. During three 30-minute sessions, students will: identify the letters of the alphabet; identify the sounds of letters; identify…

  14. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  15. On the sound radiation of a rolling tyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, Wolfgang; Sabiniarz, Patrick; Brick, Haike; Beckenbauer, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The sound radiation from rolling tyres is still not very well understood. Although details such as horn effect or directivity during rolling have been investigated, it is not clear which vibrational modes of the tyre structure are responsible for the radiated sound power. In this work an advanced tyre model based on Wave Guide Finite Elements is used in connection with a contact model validated in previous work. With these tools the tyre vibrations during rolling on an ISO surface are simulated. Starting from the calculated contact forces in time the amplitudes of the modes excited during rolling are determined as function of frequency. A boundary element model also validated in previous work is applied to predict the sound pressure level on a reference surface around a tyre placed on rigid ground as function of the modal composition of the tyre vibrations. Taking into account different modes when calculating the vibrational field as input into the boundary element calculations, it is possible to identify individual modes or groups of modes of special relevance for the radiated sound power. The results show that mainly low-order modes with relative low amplitudes but high radiation efficiency in the frequency range around 1 kHz are responsible for the radiated sound power at these frequencies, while those modes which are most strongly excited in that frequency range during rolling are irrelevant for the radiated sound power. This fact is very essential when focusing on the design of quieter tyres.

  16. Full Spatial Resolution Infrared Sounding Application in the Preconvection Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, G.; Lin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced infrared (IR) sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) provide atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution and high accuracy in preconvection environments. The derived atmospheric stability indices such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) and lifted index (LI) from advanced IR soundings can provide critical information 1 ; 6 h before the development of severe convective storms. Three convective storms are selected for the evaluation of applying AIRS full spatial resolution soundings and the derived products on providing warning information in the preconvection environments. In the first case, the AIRS full spatial resolution soundings revealed local extremely high atmospheric instability 3 h ahead of the convection on the leading edge of a frontal system, while the second case demonstrates that the extremely high atmospheric instability is associated with the local development of severe thunderstorm in the following hours. The third case is a local severe storm that occurred on 7-8 August 2010 in Zhou Qu, China, which caused more than 1400 deaths and left another 300 or more people missing. The AIRS full spatial resolution LI product shows the atmospheric instability 3.5 h before the storm genesis. The CAPE and LI from AIRS full spatial resolution and operational AIRS/AMSU soundings along with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder derived product image (DPI) products were analyzed and compared. Case studies show that full spatial resolution AIRS retrievals provide more useful warning information in the preconvection environments for determining favorable locations for convective initiation (CI) than do the coarser spatial resolution operational soundings and lower spectral resolution GOES Sounder retrievals. The retrieved soundings are also tested in a regional data assimilation WRF 3D-var system to evaluate the

  17. Heart sound and lung sound separation algorithms: a review.

    PubMed

    Nersisson, Ruban; Noel, Mathew M

    2017-01-01

    Breath and cardiac sounds are two major bio sound signals. In this, heart sounds are produced by movement of some body parts such as heart valve, leaflets and the blood flow through the vessels, whereas lung sounds generates due to the air in and out flow through airways during breathing cycle. These two signals are recorded from chest region. These two signals have very high clinical importance for the patient who is critically ill. The lung functions and the cardiac cycles are continuously monitored for such patients with the help of the bio sound signal captured using suitable sensing mechanism or with auscultation techniques. But these two signals mostly superimpose with each other, so the separation of these heart sound signals (HSS) and the lung sound signals (LSS) is of great research interest. There are so many different techniques proposed for this purpose. In this paper, a study is carried out on different algorithms used for the separation of HSS from LSS, and also the results of major four separation algorithms are compared.

  18. Acoustic transistor: Amplification and switch of sound by sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bin; Kan, Wei-wei; Zou, Xin-ye; Yin, Lei-lei; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2014-08-01

    We designed an acoustic transistor to manipulate sound in a manner similar to the manipulation of electric current by its electrical counterpart. The acoustic transistor is a three-terminal device with the essential ability to use a small monochromatic acoustic signal to control a much larger output signal within a broad frequency range. The output and controlling signals have the same frequency, suggesting the possibility of cascading the structure to amplify an acoustic signal. Capable of amplifying and switching sound by sound, acoustic transistors have various potential applications and may open the way to the design of conceptual devices such as acoustic logic gates.

  19. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

  20. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  1. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  2. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-03-22

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandak, Anish

    2011-07-01

    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  4. Seismic and Biological Sources of Ambient Ocean Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Simon Eric

    . This distribution of sources could reveal small-scale spatial ecological limitations, such as the availability of food and shelter. While array-based passive acoustic sensing is well established in seismoacoustics, the technique is little utilized in the study of ambient biological sound. With the continuance of Moore's law and advances in battery and memory technology, inferring biological processes from ambient sound may become a more accessible tool in underwater ecological evaluation and monitoring.

  5. Resolution enhanced sound detecting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus is described for enhancing the resolution of a sound detector of the type which includes an acoustic mirror for focusing sound from an object onto a microphone to enable the determination of the location from which the sound arises. The enhancement apparatus includes an enclosure which surrounds the space between the mirror and microphone, and contains a gas heavier than air, such as Freon, through which sound moves slower and therefore with a shorter wavelength than in air, so that a mirror of given size has greater resolving power. An acoustically transparent front wall of the enclosure which lies forward of the mirror, can include a pair of thin sheets with pressured air between them, to form an end of the region of heavy gas into a concave shape.

  6. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. ||; Papp, A.L. III |

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one`s application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  7. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Cancer Center, Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Davis, CA ); Papp, A.L. III Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one's application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  8. Wind turbine sound power measurements.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides experimental validation of the sound power level data obtained from manufacturers for the ten wind turbine models examined in Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS). Within measurement uncertainty, the wind turbine sound power levels measured using IEC 61400-11 [(2002). (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva)] were consistent with the sound power level data provided by manufacturers. Based on measurements, the sound power level data were also extended to 16 Hz for calculation of C-weighted levels. The C-weighted levels were 11.5 dB higher than the A-weighted levels (standard deviation 1.7 dB). The simple relationship between A- and C- weighted levels suggests that there is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference between analysis based on either C- or A-weighted data.

  9. Acoustics: Motion controlled by sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neild, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    A simple technique has been developed that produces holograms made of sound waves. These acoustic landscapes are used to manipulate microscale objects, and offer great potential in medical imaging and selective heating. See Letter p.518

  10. Fourteen-month-old infants learn similar sounding words

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by testing whether the source of infants’ difficulty lies in the learning or testing phase. Infants were taught to associate two similar sounding words with two different objects, and tested using a visual choice method rather than the standard Switch task. The results reveal that 14-month-olds are capable of learning and mapping two similar sounding labels; they can apply phonetic detail in new words. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ concurrent failure, and the developmental transition to success, in the Switch task. PMID:19371365

  11. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  12. Fleet Logistics Center, Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Supply Systems Command,Fleet Logistics Center, Puget Sound,467 W Street , Bremerton ,WA,98314-5100 8... Bremerton , WA Established: October 1967 Name Changes: Naval Supply Center Puget Sound, Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Puget...or Sasebo) deployed Ships in the Western Pacific (WestPac) Naval Base Kitsap at Bremerton and Bangor (NBK at Bremerton or Bangor) Navy Region

  13. Acoustoelasticity. [sound-structure interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sound or pressure variations inside bounded enclosures are investigated. Mathematical models are given for determining: (1) the interaction between the sound pressure field and the flexible wall of a Helmholtz resonator; (2) coupled fluid-structural motion of an acoustic cavity with a flexible and/or absorbing wall; (3) acoustic natural modes in multiple connected cavities; and (4) the forced response of a cavity with a flexible and/or absorbing wall. Numerical results are discussed.

  14. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  15. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  16. Neural correlates of sound externalization.

    PubMed

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel E; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    When we listen to sounds through headphones without utilizing special transforms, sound sources seem to be located inside our heads. The sound sources are said to be lateralized to one side or the other to varying degree. This internal lateralization is different than sound source localization in the natural environment in which the sound is localized distal to the head. We used fMRI to investigate difference in neural responses between lateralization and localization. Individualized binaural recordings were used as externalized auditory stimuli and stereo recordings were used as internalized auditory stimuli. Brain activity was measured while 14 participants performed an active auditory localization task and while 12 participants performed a stimulus type identification task. Irrespective of the task condition, we observed enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior temporal gyri (pSTG) for the externalized stimuli relative to the internalized stimuli. Region of interest analysis indicated that both left and right pSTG were more sensitive to sound sources in contra- than ipsilateral hemifields. Moreover, greater back than front activity was also found in the left pSTG. Compared to impoverished spatial auditory stimuli, realistic spatial auditory stimuli enhance neural responses in the pSTG. This may be why we could observe contralateral hemifield preference in bilateral pSTG that many previous studies have failed to observe. Overall, the results indicate the importance of using ecologically valid stimuli for investigating neural processes in human cortex.

  17. Satellite sound broadcast propagation studies and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite Sound Broadcasting is an attractive satellite application. Before regulatory decisions can be made in 1992, the propagation effects encountered have to be characterized. The Electrical Engineering Research Laboratory has nearly completed a system which will allow amplitude measurements to be made over 10 MHz bandwidths in the 800 to 1800 MHz frequency range. The system uses transmission from a transportable tower, and reception inside buildings or in the shadow of trees or utility poles. The goal is to derive propagation models for use by systems engineers who are about to design satellite broadcast systems. The advance of fiber-optics technology has helped to focus future development of satellite services into areas where satellites are uniquely competitive. One of these preferred satellite applications is the broadcasting of high-quality sound for stationary or mobile reception by listeners using low-cost, consumer-grade receivers. Before such services can be provided, however, the political hurdles of spectrum allocation have to be surmounted and the technical questions of standardization for world-wide compatibility have to be resolved. In order to arrive at an optimal system design, efficient in the use of our scarce spectral resources, affordable both to the broadcaster and the listener, and providing predictable performance, the propagation effects to which the service is subjected have to be characterized. Consequently, the objective of the research project is to make basic propagation measurements for direct Satellite Sound Broadcasting Service (SSBS). The data obtained should allow the development of propagation models to be used by communications engineers designing the operational systems. Such models shall describe the effects of shadowing and multipath propagation on SSBS receivers operating in a specified environment, such as inside commercial or residential buildings of various construction and also in the shadow of trees or utility poles

  18. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  19. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  20. 46 CFR 298.14 - Economic soundness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic soundness. 298.14 Section 298.14 Shipping... Eligibility § 298.14 Economic soundness. (a) Economic Evaluation. We shall not issue a Letter Commitment for... you seek Title XI financing or refinancing, will be economically sound. The economic soundness...

  1. 46 CFR 298.14 - Economic soundness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic soundness. 298.14 Section 298.14 Shipping... Eligibility § 298.14 Economic soundness. (a) Economic Evaluation. We shall not issue a Letter Commitment for... you seek Title XI financing or refinancing, will be economically sound. The economic soundness...

  2. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area...

  7. Experimental difficulties in measuring the scattering of sound by sound

    SciTech Connect

    TenCate, J.A. )

    1994-11-01

    The question of whether one sound beam can interact with another at nonzero angle and scatter nonlinearly generated sound outside the mutual interaction region has been debated since the 1950s. Experimental work on this problem has left the question unresolved. This presentation describes experimental difficulties associated with measuring scattered sound produced by real diffracting primary beams. Optimal conditions for observing scattered sound, as outlined by Berntsen [ital et] [ital al]. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. [bold 86], 1968 (1989)] and by Darvennes and Hamilton [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. [bold 87], 1955 (1990)], are reviewed in relation to the design of our own experiments. Our experiments were performed with either two uniform circular sources in water (megahertz frequencies), or with one circular source and the other a shaded source with lower sidelobes. A variety of primary frequency ratios, interaction angles, and other parameters were considered. Comparison of the primary beam patterns with measured sum and difference frequency field patterns reveals the difficulty in identifying which components of the latter correspond to scattered'' sound. It is concluded that two Gaussian-type sources with exceedingly good sidelobe suppression are needed to perform a reasonable experiment. [Work supported by the Packard Foundation and ONR.] [sup a]Present address: Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Mail Stop D443, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545.

  8. Supersonic naval missile sounds over San Nicolas Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Charles R.; Norman, Robert G.; Holst, Meike; Malme, Charles I.

    2003-10-01

    Vandals and other missiles are launched occasionally from San Nicolas Island, CA, during Naval exercises and tests. Pinnipeds on the island beaches are exposed to the flight sounds, some of which are sonic booms from directly overhead. Environmental concerns led the Navy to support acoustic studies of the missile sounds at the beaches. The results show flat-weighted sound pressures from Vandals as high as 150 dB re: 20 μPa(peak) [140 dB re: 20 μPa(rms)] at a near-vertical distance of 400 m. Other flat-weighted pressures from Vandals were as low as 107 dB re: 20 μPa(peak) [95 dB re: 20 μPa(rms)] at a beach 3.9 km horizontally behind the launcher. Pulse durations and sound exposure levels were also measured. One-third octave band sound exposure levels were measured. All parameters (except one-third octave band levels) were also measured with A weighting. Other missiles measured include Tomahawk cruise missiles, Rolling Airframe Missile, Advanced Gun System, Terrier, and the Supersonic Sea-Skimming Target. [Work supported by U.S. Navy.

  9. Retrievals with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schlussel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Calbet, Xavier; Mango, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite was launched on October 19, 2006. The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the IASI on the MetOp satellite. IASI possesses an ultra-spectral resolution of 0.25/cm and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760/cm. Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. An advanced retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. Preliminary retrievals of atmospheric soundings, surface properties, and cloud optical/microphysical properties with the IASI observations during the JAIVEx are obtained and presented. These retrievals are further inter-compared with those obtained from airborne FTS system, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I), dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. The capabilities of satellite ultra-spectral sounder such as the IASI are investigated.

  10. Simulation studies of improved sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, H.; Wark, D.; Aumann, H.; Evans, N.; Phillips, N.; Susskind, J.; Mcmillin, L.; Goldman, A.; Chahine, M.; Crone, L.

    1989-01-01

    Two instrument designs for indirect satellite sounding of the atmosphere in the infrared are represented by the High Resolution Infra-Red Sounder, Model 2 (HIRS-2) and by the Advanced Meteorological Temperature Sounder (AMTS). The relative capabilities of the two instruments were tested by simulating satellite measurements from a group of temperature soundings, allowing the two participants to retrieve the temperature profiles from the simulated data, and comparing the results with the original temperature profiles. Four data sets were produced from radiosondes data extrapolated to a suitable altitude, representing continents and oceans, between 30S and 30N. From the information available, temperature profiles were retrieved by two different methods, statistical regression and inversion of the radiative transfer equation. Results show the consequence of greater spectral purity, concomitant increase in the number of spectral intervals, and the better spatial resolution in partly clouded areas. At the same time, the limitation of the HIRS-2 without its companion instrument leads to some results which should be ignored in comparing the two instruments. A clear superiority of AMTS results is shown.

  11. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Bersain A.; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H.

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds' amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD) for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR) can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63) breaths-per-minute (bpm) for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57) bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found. PMID:25196108

  12. Characterizing and Classifying Acoustical Ambient Sound Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    of sound . The value for the speed of sound varies depending on the medium which the sound wave travels through as well as the temperature and...Characterizing and Classifying Acoustical Ambient Sound Profiles THESIS MARCH 2015 Paul T. Gaski, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-122... SOUND PROFILES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of

  13. Sounds of a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  14. Influence of sound source width on human sound localization.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Paige, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    Free-field sound localization experiments generally assume that a loudspeaker can be approximated by a point-source; however, a large loudspeaker may extend beyond the width that two sources can be discriminated. Humans can accurately discriminate sound source locations within a few degrees, thus one might expect localization precision to decrease as a function of sound source diameter, much as precision is lower for localizing the center of a wide, blurry light source. In order to test the degree to which humans differentially localize small and large sound sources, auditory targets were presented using a single 25.4 cm by 10.2 cm elliptical loudspeaker with the primary axis oriented both horizontally and vertically in different sessions. Subjects were seated with their heads fixed by a bite bar in a darkened, echo-attenuating room facing a cylindrical, acoustically transparent screen at a distance of 2 meters. Auditory targets consisted of repeating bursts (5 Hz) of low frequency band-pass noise (0.2 - 1 kHz, 75 dB SPL). Subjects were instructed to quickly and accurately guide a laser pointer mounted on a cylindrical joystick towards targets, presented randomly within a field ± 40° in azimuth by ± 10° in elevation, with oversampled points located every ten degrees along the primary meridians. Localization accuracy and precision (mean and standard deviation of localization error at oversampled locations) were not significantly different between speaker orientations, and were comparable to baseline measurements recorded using a 7.6 cm circular speaker. We conclude that low frequency sound localization performance is not dependent upon the size of the sound source as predicted theoretically, and is well approximated by a point source.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  16. Sound Localization in the Alligator

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  17. Sound propagation in choked ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Liu, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The linearized equations describing the propagation of sound in variable area ducts containing flow are shown to be singular when the duct mean flow is sonic. The singularity is removed when previously ignored nonlinear terms are retained. The results of a numerical study, for the case of plane waves propagating in a one-dimensional converging-diverging duct, show that the sound field is adequately described by the linearized equations only when the axial mean flow Mach number at the duct throat M sub th 0.6. For M sub th 0.6, the numerical results showed that acoustic energy flux was not conserved. An attempt was made to extend the study to include the nonlinear behavior of the sound field. Meaningful results were not obtained due, primarily, to numerical difficulties.

  18. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution.

  19. Review of sound card photogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingl, Zoltán; Mingesz, Róbert; Makra, Péter; Mellár, János

    2011-07-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card--an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  20. Spatial perception of sound fields recorded by spherical microphone arrays with varying spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Avni, Amir; Ahrens, Jens; Geier, Matthias; Spors, Sascha; Wierstorf, Hagen; Rafaely, Boaz

    2013-05-01

    The area of sound field synthesis has significantly advanced in the past decade, facilitated by the development of high-quality sound-field capturing and re-synthesis systems. Spherical microphone arrays are among the most recently developed systems for sound field capturing, enabling processing and analysis of three-dimensional sound fields in the spherical harmonics domain. In spite of these developments, a clear relation between sound fields recorded by spherical microphone arrays and their perception with a re-synthesis system has not yet been established, although some relation to scalar measures of spatial perception was recently presented. This paper presents an experimental study of spatial sound perception with the use of a spherical microphone array for sound recording and headphone-based binaural sound synthesis. Sound field analysis and processing is performed in the spherical harmonics domain with the use of head-related transfer functions and simulated enclosed sound fields. The effect of several factors, such as spherical harmonics order, frequency bandwidth, and spatial sampling, are investigated by applying the repertory grid technique to the results of the experiment, forming a clearer relation between sound-field capture with a spherical microphone array and its perception using binaural synthesis regarding space, frequency, and additional artifacts. The experimental study clearly shows that a source will be perceived more spatially sharp and more externalized when represented by a binaural stimuli reconstructed with a higher spherical harmonics order. This effect is apparent from low spherical harmonics orders. Spatial aliasing, as a result of sound field capturing with a finite number of microphones, introduces unpleasant artifacts which increased with the degree of aliasing error.

  1. Subjective Reaction to Structurally Radiated Sound from Underground Railways: Field Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, E. G.; Herreros, J.; Walker, J. G.

    1996-05-01

    Structurally radiated noise from underground railways is becoming a major problem for railways administrations, due to the increase in the number of tunnels in urban areas, and to the increase in train speeds, wheelset tonnage and operation frequency. As a result, the number of complaints from residents living above railway tunnels is also increasing. Several control measures have been proposed in the past 15 years, both for the track design and for the vehicle design. Nevertheless, these measures are expensive, and not always effective. While several standards have been proposed for vibration limits in the type of problem, there are few standards to define acceptable levels for this type of structure-borne sound. This paper presents field results obtained during 1994 and 1995 in the vicinity of underground railways, where measurements of vibration and low-frequency noise were obtained during train pass-bys. These results, together with measurements of environment noise due to other sources, are considered together with the responses to a questionnaire completed by the people by the people affected. This paper complements laboratory work carried out at the ISVR [1].

  2. Atmospheric Physics and Sound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-09-01

    exposures of ’ssh.ite mica, various insects and bacteria to the intense, sound field» %£te " mice are killed in osae minute» The killing lias been...tensity sound on a species of sporeforming bacteria » It is possible to obtain very high intensities in water in a flask.;Suspend’ed over the siren...hinges and closure are standard refrigerator~type units» There i3 a double sponge rubber seal around the doors« Electrical connection to

  3. Save Our Sounds: America's Recorded Sound Heritage Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Beth Ann, Ed.; Rosenberg, Jessica, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The Fall 2002 Idea Book contains suggestions for enriched learning. "Save Our History; Save Our Sounds,""Eureka!" and "Lindbergh Flies Again" involve two or more disciplines of study and would work well for team-teaching projects . Lesson materials from the Arts and Entertainment Network teacher's guide are:…

  4. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  5. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance between the equivalent sources and measurement surfaces and for the difference in magnitude between pressure and velocity. Experimental and numerical studies have been conducted to examine the methods. The double layer velocity method seems to be more robust to noise and flanking sound than the combined pressure-velocity method, although it requires an additional measurement surface. On the whole, the separation methods can be useful when the disturbance of the incoming field is significant. Otherwise the direct reconstruction is more accurate and straightforward.

  6. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    source categorization, acoustics , psychophysics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 28 19a...multifaceted problem. To move from conceptualization to implementation, experts in psychology, acoustics , linguistics, software engineering, and user...collection of individual descriptive acoustic features but are defined by the listener in the context of the event that produced the sound they are

  7. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  8. Congruent sound can modulate odor pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Lohse, Franziska; Luckett, Curtis R; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine 1) whether certain background sounds can be matched with specific odors and 2) whether the background sounds can increase pleasantness for their congruent odors. In Experiment 1, congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness, but not odor intensity, significantly more than incongruent sounds. Experiment 2 demonstrated that certain background sounds can be paired with specific odors. For example, cinnamon, clove, and orange odors were rated significantly more congruent with a Christmas carol compared with the sound of brushing teeth and/or the beach sound. The congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness significantly more than incongruent sounds. Similarly, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was observed in Experiment 3. As participants judged the pair of odor and sound to be more congruent, they rated the odor significantly more pleasant. Congruent sound assisted participants in identifying and in being familiar with the odor, thereby leading to an increase in odor pleasantness. However, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was not obtained in all odors. In conclusion, this study provides new empirical evidence that pleasantness ratings for odors can increase in the presence of their congruent sounds.

  9. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  10. Optical Measurement Of Sound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Gaspar, Mark; Leung, Emily W.

    1989-01-01

    Noninvasive technique does not disturb field it measures. Sound field deflects laser beam proportionally to its amplitude. Knife edge intercepts undeflected beam, allowing only deflected beam to reach photodetector. Apparatus calibrated by comparing output of photodetector with that of microphone. Optical technique valuable where necessary to measure in remote, inaccessible, or hostile environment or to avoid perturbation of measured region.

  11. Rocket ozone sounding network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. U.; Krueger, A. J.; Foster, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    During the period December 1976 through February 1977, three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at Wallops Flight Center, two special soundings were taken at Antigua, West Indies, and at the Churchill Research Range, monthly activities were initiated to establish stratospheric ozone climatology. This report presents the data results and flight profiles for the period covered.

  12. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  13. Sound, Noise, and Vibration Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerges, Lyle F.

    This working guide on the principles and techniques of controlling acoustical environment is discussed in the light of human, environmental and building needs. The nature of sound and its variables are defined. The acoustical environment and its many materials, spaces and functional requirements are described, with specific methods for planning,…

  14. Review of Sound Card Photogates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Makra, Peter; Mellar, Janos

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card--an interface for analogue…

  15. Sound Stories for General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2013-01-01

    Language and music literacy share a similar process of understanding that progresses from sensory experience to symbolic representation. The author identifies Bruner’s modes of understanding as they relate to using narrative in the music classroom to enhance music reading at iconic and symbolic levels. Two sound stories are included for…

  16. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  17. Newborn Infants Orient to Sounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Darwin; Field, Jeffrey

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, the majority of 21 newborn infants who were maintained in an alert state consistently turned their heads toward a continuous sound source presented 90 degrees from midline. For most infants, this orientation response was rather slow, taking median latencies of 2.5 seconds to begin and 5.5 seconds to end. (JMB)

  18. Experimental and Computational Models for Simulating Sound Propagation Within the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Acikgoz, S.; Ozer, M. B.; Mansy, H. A.; Sandler, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    An acoustic boundary element model is used to simulate sound propagation in the lung parenchyma and surrounding chest wall. It is validated theoretically and numerically and then compared with experimental studies on lung-chest phantom models that simulate the lung pathology of pneumothorax. Studies quantify the effect of the simulated lung pathology on the resulting acoustic field measured at the phantom chest surface. This work is relevant to the development of advanced auscultatory techniques for lung, vascular, and cardiac sounds within the torso that utilize multiple noninvasive sensors to create acoustic images of the sound generation and transmission to identify certain pathologies. PMID:18568101

  19. Asymmetric sound transmission in a passive non-blocking structure with multiple ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Gu, Zhong-Ming; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Yin, Lei-lei; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2016-09-01

    We present the mechanism for breaking the symmetry in sound transmission between any two neighboring ports in a passive multi-port system. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements verify that by using judiciously designed metastructures to provide an extra wavevector without blocking the sound path, the propagating wave will travel along a preset direction at each port instead of splitting to both directions. We have also demonstrated the flexibility of this scheme to adjust the location of each port. Our design advances further the concept of one-way manipulation in passive two-port systems and may enable novel sound-steering devices for more versatile applications.

  20. Liquid mercury sound velocity measurements under high pressure and high temperature by picosecond acoustics in a diamond anvils cell.

    PubMed

    Decremps, F; Belliard, L; Couzinet, B; Vincent, S; Munsch, P; Le Marchand, G; Perrin, B

    2009-07-01

    Recent improvements to measure ultrasonic sound velocities of liquids under extreme conditions are described. Principle and feasibility of picosecond acoustics in liquids embedded in a diamond anvils cell are given. To illustrate the capability of these advances in the sound velocity measurement technique, original high pressure and high temperature results on the sound velocity of liquid mercury up to 5 GPa and 575 K are given. This high pressure technique will certainly be useful in several fundamental and applied problems in physics and many other fields such as geophysics, nonlinear acoustics, underwater sound, petrology or physical acoustics.

  1. Geometric Constraints on Human Speech Sound Inventories.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Ewan; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the idea that the languages of the world have developed coherent sound systems in which having one sound increases or decreases the chances of having certain other sounds, depending on shared properties of those sounds. We investigate the geometries of sound systems that are defined by the inherent properties of sounds. We document three typological tendencies in sound system geometries: economy, a tendency for the differences between sounds in a system to be definable on a relatively small number of independent dimensions; local symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to have relatively large numbers of pairs of sounds that differ only on one dimension; and global symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to be relatively balanced. The finding of economy corroborates previous results; the two symmetry properties have not been previously documented. We also investigate the relation between the typology of inventory geometries and the typology of individual sounds, showing that the frequency distribution with which individual sounds occur across languages works in favor of both local and global symmetry.

  2. Calibration of sound velocimeter in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Baofeng; Li, Tao; Zhu, Junchao; Xie, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of sound speed is important to calibrate a sound velocity profiler which provides real-time sound velocity to the sonar equipment in oceanographic survey. The sound velocity profiler calculates the sound speed by measuring the time-of-flight of a 1 MHz single acoustic pulse to travel over about 300 mm path. A standard sound velocimeter instrument was invited to calibrate the sound velocity profiler in pure water at temperatures of 278,283, 288, 293, 298, 303 and 308K in a thermostatic vessel at one atmosphere. The sound velocity profiler was deployed in the thermostatic vessel alongside the standard sound velocimeter instrument and two platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) which were calibrated to 0.002k by comparison with a standard PRT. Time of flight circuit board was used to measure the time-of-flight to 22 picosecond precision. The sound speed which was measured by the sound velocity profiler was compared to the standard sound speed calculated by UNESCO to give the laboratory calibration coefficients and was demonstrated agreement with CTD-derived sound speed using Del Grosso's seawater equation after removing a bias.

  3. Geometric Constraints on Human Speech Sound Inventories

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Ewan; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the idea that the languages of the world have developed coherent sound systems in which having one sound increases or decreases the chances of having certain other sounds, depending on shared properties of those sounds. We investigate the geometries of sound systems that are defined by the inherent properties of sounds. We document three typological tendencies in sound system geometries: economy, a tendency for the differences between sounds in a system to be definable on a relatively small number of independent dimensions; local symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to have relatively large numbers of pairs of sounds that differ only on one dimension; and global symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to be relatively balanced. The finding of economy corroborates previous results; the two symmetry properties have not been previously documented. We also investigate the relation between the typology of inventory geometries and the typology of individual sounds, showing that the frequency distribution with which individual sounds occur across languages works in favor of both local and global symmetry. PMID:27462296

  4. 78 FR 70552 - Guidance on Supervisory Concerns and Expectations Regarding Deposit Advance Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and sound banking practices and consumer protection in connection with deposit advance products. FOR... Guidance to clarify the FDIC's application of principles of safe and sound banking practices and consumer... safe and sound manner and does not engage in practices that would increase these risks. III....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage....

  6. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage....

  8. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  9. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  10. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Bobby J.; Needleman, Harvey C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a combined total of approximately fifty to sixty missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions are provided in support of investigations sponsored by NASA'S Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program has continued to su,pport the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payload and providing the rocket vehicle and launch operations necessary to provide the altitude/time required obtain the science objectives. The sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface, which is physically inaccessible to either balloons or satellites. A new architecture for providing this support has been introduced this year with the establishment of the NASA Sounding Rockets Contract. The Program has continued to introduce improvements into their operations and ground and flight systems. An overview of the NASA Sounding Rockets Program with special emphasis on the new support contract will be presented. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. Long duration balloon (LDB) is a prominent aspect of the program with two campaigns scheduled for this calendar year. Two flights are scheduled in the Northern Hemisphere from Fairbanks, Alaska, in June and two flights are scheduled from McMurdo, Antarctica, in the Southern Hemisphere in December. The comprehensive balloon research and development (R&D) effort has continued with advances being made across the

  11. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments N. Ross...our understanding of the interaction of sound with the ocean bottom is the frequency dependence of sound speed and attenuation in marine sediments...The long term goals of this research project are related to the investigation of dispersion of sound speed and attenuation at low frequencies (< 2

  12. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Coxon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain.

  13. An Overview of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberspeaker, Philip J.; Smith, Ira S.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 50 to 60 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community. These missions support investigations sponsored by NASA's Offices of Space Science, Life and Microgravity Sciences & Applications, and Earth Science. The Goddard Space Flight Center has management and implementation responsibility for these programs. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program provides the science community with payload development support, environmental testing, launch vehicles, and launch operations from fixed and mobile launch ranges. Sounding rockets continue to provide a cost-effective way to make in situ observations from 50 to 1500 km in the near-earth environment and to uniquely cover the altitude regime between 50 km and 130 km above the Earth's surface. New technology efforts include GPS payload event triggering, tailored trajectories, new vehicle configuration development to expand current capabilities, and the feasibility assessment of an ultra high altitude sounding rocket vehicle. The NASA Balloon Program continues to make advancements and developments in its capabilities for support of the scientific ballooning community. The Long Duration Balloon (LDB) is capable of providing flight durations in excess of two weeks and has had many successful flights since its development. The NASA Balloon Program is currently engaged in the development of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB), which will be capable of providing flight times up to 100-days. Additional development efforts are focusing on ultra high altitude balloons, station keeping techniques and planetary balloon technologies.

  14. Time frequency analysis of sound from a maneuvering rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, James H.; Tinney, Charles E.; Greenwood, Eric; Watts, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    The acoustic signatures produced by a full-scale, Bell 430 helicopter during steady-level-flight and transient roll-right maneuvers are analyzed by way of time-frequency analysis. The roll-right maneuvers comprise both a medium and a fast roll rate. Data are acquired using a single ground based microphone that are analyzed by way of the Morlet wavelet transform to extract the spectral properties and sound pressure levels as functions of time. The findings show that during maneuvering operations of the helicopter, both the overall sound pressure level and the blade-vortex interaction sound pressure level are greatest when the roll rate of the vehicle is at its maximum. The reduced inflow in the region of the rotor disk where blade-vortex interaction noise originates is determined to be the cause of the increase in noise. A local decrease in inflow reduces the miss distance of the tip vortex and thereby increases the BVI noise signature. Blade loading and advance ratios are also investigated as possible mechanisms for increased sound production, but are shown to be fairly constant throughout the maneuvers.

  15. MegaSound: Sound in Irish megalithic buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijs, Victor

    2002-11-01

    Stimulated by the studies done by Paul Deveraux and Robert Jahn, research has been conducted on the sound properties of two megalithic chambers is Ireland: Dowth South and Fourknocks I. As reference measurements two normal rooms (bed- and bathroom) have been studied. The following aspects will be covered in the presentation: some theoretical background on acoustical modes (within a passage, a chamber, and a combination of them: Helmholtz resonator); tips for doing sound experiments inside megalithic chambers (like: equipment, measurement software, power provisioning and calibrating); frequency response measurements (between 20 and 200 Hz) for the surveyed chambers/rooms; comparison of the results with other researchers' results; background on the pitch of the human (male, female, and child) voices in neolithic times and recommendations for future research. The presentation also provides insight in the aeralization (simulation) of sound in a megalithic chamber, covering: software that can do these simulations; issues in finding the basic information, e.g., acoustic absorption coefficients and provide examples of the results. I would like to thank all the people who have provided constructive feedback on my work (http://www.iol.ie/approxgeniet/eng/megasound.htm).

  16. Sound localization by echolocating bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, Murat

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies

  17. Newborns' Head Orientation toward Sounds Within Hemifields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Kimberley; And Others

    This experiment examined the accuracy with which newborn infants orient their heads toward a sound positioned off midline within hemifields. The study also evaluated newborns' ability to update the angle of their head turn to match a change in localization of an ongoing sound. Alert newborns were held in a supine position and presented a sound at…

  18. Bubbles That Change the Speed of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of bubbles on sound has long attracted the attention of physicists. In his 1920 book Sir William Bragg described sound absorption caused by foam in a glass of beer tapped by a spoon. Frank S. Crawford described and analyzed the change in the pitch of sound in a similar experiment and named the phenomenon the "hot chocolate effect."…

  19. Third Sound Amplification and Detailed Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Eddinger, J. D.; Ellis, F. M.

    2006-09-07

    Condensation of atoms from the vapor into a third sound resonance is expected to be capable of acoustic amplification. This results from normal to superfluid conversion that coherently accommodates atoms into the third sound velocity field. Consideration of third sound in light of the equilibrium detailed balance between vapor particles and the superfluid film provides further evidence that acoustic amplification is attainable.

  20. Auditory Icons: Using Sound in Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaver, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    An appoach to the use of sound in computer interfaces, proposed in this article, emphasizes the role of sound in conveying information about the world to the listener. This approach argues that auditory icons, i.e., caricatures of naturally occurring sounds, provide a natural way to represent dimensional data as well as conceptual objects in a…

  1. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  2. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  3. 47 CFR 74.603 - Sound channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sound channels. 74.603 Section 74.603... Stations § 74.603 Sound channels. (a) The frequencies listed in § 74.602(a) may be used for the simultaneous transmission of the picture and sound portions of TV broadcast programs and for cue and...

  4. 47 CFR 74.603 - Sound channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sound channels. 74.603 Section 74.603... Stations § 74.603 Sound channels. (a) The frequencies listed in § 74.602(a) may be used for the simultaneous transmission of the picture and sound portions of TV broadcast programs and for cue and...

  5. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  6. 47 CFR 74.603 - Sound channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sound channels. 74.603 Section 74.603... Stations § 74.603 Sound channels. (a) The frequencies listed in § 74.602(a) may be used for the simultaneous transmission of the picture and sound portions of TV broadcast programs and for cue and...

  7. 47 CFR 74.603 - Sound channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sound channels. 74.603 Section 74.603... Stations § 74.603 Sound channels. (a) The frequencies listed in § 74.602(a) may be used for the simultaneous transmission of the picture and sound portions of TV broadcast programs and for cue and...

  8. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  9. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  10. 47 CFR 74.603 - Sound channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sound channels. 74.603 Section 74.603... Stations § 74.603 Sound channels. (a) The frequencies listed in § 74.602(a) may be used for the simultaneous transmission of the picture and sound portions of TV broadcast programs and for cue and...

  11. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  12. The United States sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The United States sounding rocket program is discussed. The program is concerned with the fields of solar physics, galactic astronomy, fields and particles, ionospheric physics, aeronomy, and meteorology. Sounding rockets are described with respect to propulsion systems, gross weight, and capabilities. Instruments used to conduct ionospheric probing missions are examined. Results of previously conducted sounding rocket missions are included.

  13. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and Rock

  14. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William...

  15. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William...

  16. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William...

  17. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William...

  18. Listener Expertise and Sound Identification Influence the Categorization of Environmental Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Houix, Olivier; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The influence of listener's expertise and sound identification on the categorization of environmental sounds is reported in three studies. In Study 1, the causal uncertainty of 96 sounds was measured by counting the different causes described by 29 participants. In Study 2, 15 experts and 15 nonexperts classified a selection of 60 sounds and…

  19. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William...

  20. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mendillo, M. )

    1990-08-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited.

  1. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  2. Sound Localization in Multisource Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Stimuli The auditory stimuli employed in this experiment were 50 phonetically balanced (PB) monosyllabic words drawn from a single list of the PB50 word...2kHz - 16kHz), and were level normalized. They were also processed with the Pitch Synchronous Overlap and Add (PSOLA) algorithm in PRAAT to change...see Figure 1). 3.2.3 Stimuli Environmental sounds (e.g., telephone, tire screech, applause, etc.) and speech tokens (50 words from the phonetically

  3. Speedy sound and cosmic structure.

    PubMed

    Magueijo, João

    2008-06-13

    If the speed of sound were vastly larger in the early Universe, a near scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations could have been produced even if the Universe did not submit to conventional solutions to the horizon problem. We examine how the mechanism works, presenting full mathematical solutions and their heuristics. We then discuss several concrete models based on scalar fields and hydrodynamical matter that realize this mechanism, but stress that the proposed mechanism is more fundamental and general.

  4. Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attenborough, Keith

    Propagation of sound close to the ground outdoors involves geometric spreading, air absorption, interaction with the ground, barriers, vegetation and refraction associated with wind and temperature gradients. After a brief survey of historical aspects of the study of outdoor sound and its applications, this chapter details the physical principles associated with various propagation effects, reviews data that demonstrate them and methods for predicting them. The discussion is concerned primarily with the relatively short ranges and spectra of interest when predicting and assessing community noise rather than the frequencies and long ranges of concern, for example, in infrasonic global monitoring or used for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Specific phenomena that are discussed include spreading losses, atmospheric absorption, diffraction by barriers and buildings, interaction of sound with the ground (ground waves, surface waves, ground impedance associated with porosity and roughness, and elasticity effects), propagation through crops, shrubs and trees, wind and temperature gradient effects, shadow zones and incoherence due to atmospheric turbulence. The chapter concludes by suggesting a few areas that require further research.

  5. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  6. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    PubMed

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  7. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel sound-symbolic verbs whose sounds were judged to match certain actions better than others, as confirmed by adult Japanese- as well as English speakers, and by 2- and 3-year-old Japanese-speaking children. These sound-symbolic verbs, together with other novel non-sound-symbolic verbs, were used in a verb learning task with 3-year-old Japanese children. In line with the previous literature, 3-year-olds could not generalize the meaning of novel non-sound-symbolic verbs on the basis of the sameness of action. However, 3-year-olds could correctly generalize the meaning of novel sound-symbolic verbs. These results suggest that iconic scaffolding by means of sound symbolism plays an important role in early verb learning.

  8. Decentralized control of sound radiation using iterative loop recovery.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Noah H; Cabell, Randolph H; Fuller, Chris R

    2010-10-01

    A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units.

  9. Decentralized Control of Sound Radiation Using Iterative Loop Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units.

  10. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N:107) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies: P/N 1356429-1, S/N:F04, P/N 1356409-1,S/N F04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N: 107) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1, SIN: F04, P/N 1356409- 1, S/N: F04, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The AMSU-A receiver subsystem comprises two separated receiver assemblies; AMSU-A1 and AMSU-A2 (P/N 1356441-1). The AMSU-A1 receiver contains 13 channels and the AMSU-A2 receiver 2 channels. The AMSU-A receiver assembly is further divided into two parts; AMSU-A I - I (P/N 13 5 6429- 1) and AMSU-A 1 -2 (P/N 1356409-1), which contain 9 and 4 channels, respectively. The AMSU-A receiver subsystem is located in between the antenna and signal processing subsystems of the AMSU-A instrument and comprises the RF and IF components from isolators to attenuators. It receives the RF signals from the antenna subsystem, down-converts the RF signals to IF signals, amplifies and defines the IF signals to proper power level and frequency bandwidth as specified for each channel, and inputs the IF signals to the signal processing subsystem. The test reports for the METSAT AMSU-A receiver subsystem are prepared separately for Al and A2 receivers so that each receiver stands alone during integration of instruments into the spacecraft. This test report presents the test data of the N4ETSAT AMSU-A1 Flight Model No. 4 (FM-4) receiver subsystem. The tests are performed per the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A. The functional performance tests are conducted either at the component or subsystem level. While the component-level tests are performed over the entire operating temperature range predicted by thermal analysis, most subsystem-level tests are conducted at ambient temperature only. Key performances (bandpass characteristics and noise figure) of the receiver subsystem are verified over the operating temperature.

  11. Study on direct sound reduction structure for reducing noise generated by vibrating solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, M.; Kim, Y. S.

    2013-05-01

    A direct sound reduction structure is proposed as a new method for reducing noise generated by vibrating solids. The proposed method involves directly attaching a hard sound absorbing material with a honeycomb structure to the surfaces of vibrating solids to provide a moderate amount of back air space. Using a one-dimensional acoustic-field model, the fundamental sound reduction characteristics are investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the effectiveness of the proposed concept is verified. In the theoretical analysis, an analytical model with a sinusoidally excited rigid-frame sound reduction structure is considered. In the experiments, a one-dimensional acoustic tube is used to determine the sound reduction ratios for both stationary excitation and non-stationary impulsive excitation as a function of frequency. Furthermore, in order to verify the practical usefulness of this approach, an experimental study on sound reduction in a three-dimensional acoustic field is carried out using either a rigid piston plate surrounded by a baffle or a flexible flat plate with different vibration modes as vibrating bases. The results indicate that the sound reduction ratio has a quasi-periodic form that depends on the thickness of the back air space and the sound frequency, and a sound pressure reduction of approximately 80 percent (-14 dB) is observed around the minima. In addition, the average reduction in the frequency range 0.5-5 kHz is approximately 40 percent (-4.4 dB). The results obtained in this study are expected to act as useful indices for designing a nearly optimum sound reduction structure if the target frequency is known in advance.

  12. Decoupling of first sound from second sound in dilute 3He-superfluid 4He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekki, T. S.; Manninen, M. S.; Tuoriniemi, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bulk superfluid helium supports two sound modes: first sound is an ordinary pressure wave, while second sound is a temperature wave, unique to superfluid systems. These sound modes do not usually exist independently, but rather variations in pressure are accompanied by variations in temperature, and vice versa. We studied the coupling between first and second sound in dilute 3He -superfluid 4He mixtures, between 1.6 and 2.2 K, at 3He concentrations ranging from 0% to 11%, under saturated vapor pressure, using a quartz tuning fork oscillator. Second sound coupled to first sound can create anomalies in the resonance response of the fork, which disappear only at very specific temperatures and concentrations, where two terms governing the coupling cancel each other, and second sound and first sound become decoupled.

  13. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task.

    PubMed

    Itskov, Pavel M; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E

    2012-04-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions.

  14. A lexical analysis of environmental sound categories.

    PubMed

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second experimental study, 30 participants classified and described 56 sounds exclusively made by solid objects. The participants were required to concentrate on the actions causing the sounds independent of the sound source. The classifications were analyzed with a specific hierarchical cluster technique that accounted for possible cross-classifications, and the verbalizations were submitted to statistical lexical analyses. The results of the first study highlighted 4 main categories of sounds: solids, liquids, gases, and machines. The results of the second study indicated a distinction between discrete interactions (e.g., impacts) and continuous interactions (e.g., tearing) and suggested that actions and objects were not independent organizational principles. We propose a general structure of environmental sound categorization based on the sounds' temporal patterning, which has practical implications for the automatic classification of environmental sounds.

  15. Bowel sounds analysis: a novel noninvasive method for diagnosis of small-volume ascites.

    PubMed

    Liatsos, Christos; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Mavrogiannis, Christos; Patch, David; Panas, Stavros M; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2003-08-01

    Ascites is more difficult to detect when only a small quantity is present. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the optimal bowel sound characteristics in order to distinguish no ascites from small-volume ascites by advanced processing of bowel sound wave patterns. This analysis results in the definition of the normal range of bowel sound patterns, thus providing a novel, simple, and noninvasive way of determining on abnormal pattern, which may reflect presence of small volume ascites. Cirrhotic patients with radiologically proven small-volume ascites and a control group were subjected to bowel sound recordings. The latter were analyzed using a denoising wavelet transform-based filter and a higher-order crossings-based technique in a blinded fashion for linearly distinguishing the two classes. Scatter plots of third-order zero crossings reflect distinct changes seen in the denoised bowel sound pattern between patients and controls due to altered transmission path, providing a distinct separation of all cirrhotic patients with small ascites from controls (P < 0.0001). We conclude that the proposed bowel sounds analysis appears to provide new information regarding the changes of the bowel sound patterns due to the presence of small-volume ascites, potentially contributing towards a safe, effective, noninvasive, and easily implemented alternative method for the diagnosis of small volume ascites at the bedside.

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques used in respiratory sound analysis--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Rajkumar; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has recently been established as an alternative method to many conventional methods. The implementation of AI techniques for respiratory sound analysis can assist medical professionals in the diagnosis of lung pathologies. This article highlights the importance of AI techniques in the implementation of computer-based respiratory sound analysis. Articles on computer-based respiratory sound analysis using AI techniques were identified by searches conducted on various electronic resources, such as the IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, PubMed, and ACM digital library databases. Brief descriptions of the types of respiratory sounds and their respective characteristics are provided. We then analyzed each of the previous studies to determine the specific respiratory sounds/pathology analyzed, the number of subjects, the signal processing method used, the AI techniques used, and the performance of the AI technique used in the analysis of respiratory sounds. A detailed description of each of these studies is provided. In conclusion, this article provides recommendations for further advancements in respiratory sound analysis.

  17. Rudolph Koenig's workshop of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantalony, David A.

    2004-05-01

    Rudolph Koenig's workshop was a busy meeting place for instruments, ideas, experiments, demonstrations, craft traditions, and business. Starting around 1860 it was also the place in Paris where people discovered the new science of sound emerging from the studies of Hermann von Helmholtz in Germany. Koenig built Helmholtz's ideas into apparatus, created new instruments, and spread them throughout the scientific and musical world. Through his own research, he also became Helmholtz's strongest critic. This paper looks at the activities of this unique space, and, in particular, how it contributed to the protracted disputes over an elusive acoustical phenomenon called the combination tone. Many of these instruments became standard teaching and demonstration apparatus.

  18. Puget Sound Tanker Size Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    sound physical criteria. For cases having no reported amount of spillage (generally sinkings of empty tankers), a conser- vative estimate of bunker ...fuel on board is made by determining the minimum amount of bunker fuel needed for the voyage and using an average consumption rate. In addition, the...Sardinia 04-456 to 04-530 Sarroch 22. Piraeus, Greece 04-2240 to 04-2310 Piraeus 23. Genoa, Italy 04-560 to 04-570 Genoa 24. Le Havre , France 02-1745

  19. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  20. The FOXSI solar sounding rocket campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Säm.; Christe, Steven; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Courtade, Sasha; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Shourt, Van; Hoberman, Jane; Foster, Natalie; Vievering, Juliana

    2016-07-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is, in its initial form, a sounding rocket experiment designed to apply the technique of focusing hard X-ray (HXR) optics to the study of fundamental questions about the high-energy Sun. Solar HXRs arise via bremsstrahlung from energetic electrons and hot plasma produced in solar flares and thus are one of the most direct diagnostics of are-accelerated electrons and the impulsive heating of the solar corona. Previous missions have always been limited in sensitivity and dynamic range by the use of indirect (Fourier) imaging due to the lack of availability of direct focusing optics, but technological advances now make direct focusing accessible in the HXR regime (as evidenced by the NuSTAR spacecraft and several suborbital missions). The FOXSI rocket experiment develops and optimizes HXR focusing telescopes for the unique scientific requirements of the Sun. To date, FOXSI has completed two successful flights on 2012 November 02 and 2014 December 11 and is funded for a third flight. This paper gives a brief overview of the experiment, which is sensitive to solar HXRs in the 4-20 keV range, describes its first two flights, and gives a preview of plans for FOXSI-3.

  1. Sound absorption of metallic sound absorbers fabricated via the selective laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Li-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Chun; Kam, Tai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The sound absorption capability of metallic sound absorbers fabricated using the additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) method is investigated via both the experimental and theoretical approaches. The metallic sound absorption structures composed of periodic cubic cells were made of laser-melted Ti6Al4 V powder. The acoustic impedance equations with different frequency-independent and frequency-dependent end corrections factors are employed to calculate the theoretical sound absorption coefficients of the metallic sound absorption structures. The calculated sound absorption coefficients are in close agreement with the experimental results for the frequencies ranging from 2 to 13 kHz.

  2. Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2011-02-15

    The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.

  3. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    PubMed Central

    LAUNAY, JACQUES

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social. PMID:27122999

  4. Development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. B.; Taylor, J. P.; Honecker, H. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the Astrobee F sounding rocket vehicle through the first flight test at NASA-Wallops Station is described. Design and development of a 15 in. diameter, dual thrust, solid propellant motor demonstrating several new technology features provided the basis for the flight vehicle. The 'F' motor test program described demonstrated the following advanced propulsion technology: tandem dual grain configuration, low burning rate HTPB case-bonded propellant, and molded plastic nozzle. The resultant motor integrated into a flight vehicle was successfully flown with extensive diagnostic instrumentation.-

  5. Quaternary Evolution of North Core Sound Sound, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietsche, Andrew

    Northern Core Sound is a shallow lagoonal estuary located behind the Outer Banks barrier islands of eastern North Carolina. Thirty-two vibracores and 155 km of chirp and boomer seismic data have been used to define the geologic framework and establish the Holocene evolution of this back-barrier lagoon. Vibracores have been logged for lithology, and sampled to establish the distribution and abundance of foraminifera. The lithostratigraphy and biofacies could not be directly correlated but when related to the seismic data, apparent patterns could be recognized. The Quaternary stratigraphic framework of North Core Sound consists of five depositional sequences, comprising transgressive, highstand, and falling stage systems tracts. Seismic reflections are prominent and are correlated to the sequence stratigraphic surfaces within Pamlico Sound defined by Mallinson et al. (2010). The late Pleistocene paleotopographic surface dips slightly seaward and is characterized by two or three fluvial channels correlating to modern embayments. These channels are separated by a paleotopographic high that extends from Cedar Island seaward. The channels run northeast in the north and southwest in the south creating two different paleo-environments. The paleotopographic high may have contributed to differing foraminiferal assemblages found within Holocene unit. The Holocene unit is characterized by high salinity estuarine deposits dominated by the foraminifera Elphidium excavatum and Ammonia parkinsoniana. Three very similar biofacies were defined with more abundant Ammonia parkinsoniana where salinities may have been slightly lower. Only a salt marsh facies was significantly different. The biofacies may also represent the two paleo-environments illustrated in the seismic data as one is mainly found to the north of the paleotopographic high and the other to the south. Two seismic reflections, H30 and H60, are interpreted as tidal ravinement surfaces and divide the Holocene into three

  6. Sources of Underwater Sound and Their Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Michael A; de Jong, Christ A F

    2016-01-01

    Because of the history of sonar and sonar engineering, the concept of "source level" is widely used to characterize anthropogenic sound sources, but is it useful for sources other than sonar transmitters? The concept and applicability of source level are reviewed for sonar, air guns, explosions, ships, and pile drivers. International efforts toward the harmonization of the terminology for underwater sound and measurement procedures for underwater sound sources are summarized, with particular attention to the initiatives of the International Organization for Standardization.

  7. Ejectable underwater sound source recovery assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An underwater sound source is described that may be ejectably mounted on any mobile device that travels over water, to facilitate in the location and recovery of the device when submerged. A length of flexible line maintains a connection between the mobile device and the sound source. During recovery, the sound source is located be particularly useful in the recovery of spent rocket motors that bury in the ocean floor upon impact.

  8. Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L.

    2010-03-15

    We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.

  9. Magnetic Fields Can Control Heat and Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-23

    Joseph Heremans March 23 2015, 2.48pm EDT Magnetic fields can control heat and sound AUTHOR Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering...Physics, and Materials Science & Engineering at The Ohio State University Sound is carried by periodic vibrations of atoms in gases, liquids and... sound waves, which then propagate through the air until they hit a listener’s eardrums and make them vibrate as well. From these vibrations, the listener

  10. Sound Speed and Attenuation in Multiphase Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    factor for bottom loss models. Originally this research concerned the description of the low frequency, LF, radiation and scattering of sound from...observations. The quandary was: why do investigators find exponents n between 1.6 and 1.87 less than 2? Numerical studies have shown obvious factors ...Nantucket Sound Experiment sound transmission experiment [17] where roughness and internal waves are not a factor required a power exponent of n = 1.87

  11. NASA Sounding Rockets and Hi-C

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Sounding Rockets Program Office (SRPO), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, provides suborbital launch vehicles, payload development, and field operations sup...

  12. An electromechanical low frequency panel sound absorber.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daoqing; Liu, Bilong; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-08-01

    The sound absorbing properties of a thin micro-perforated plate (MPP) coated with piezoelectric material with shunt damping technology is investigated. First a theoretical model is presented to predict the sound absorption coefficients of a thin plate attached with a piezoelectric patch and electrical circuits. Then the model is extended to analyze the sound absorption for a thin plate with micro perforations and piezoelectric material. Measurements are also carried out in an impedance tube and found to be in good agreements with the theoretical model. The sound absorption of the constructions can be much improved by tuning the electrical circuits.

  13. Heart sounds: are you listening? Part 2.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kent, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    The first of this two-part article on heart sounds was in the Spring 2013 issue of the Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing (Reimer-Kent, 2013). Part 1 emphasized the importance of all nurses having an understanding of heart sounds and being proficient in cardiac auscultation. The article also focused on an overview of the fundamentals of cardiac auscultation and basic heart sounds. This article provides an overview of the anatomy and pathophysiology related to valvular heart disease and describes the array of heart sounds associated with stenotic or regurgitant aortic and mitral valve conditions.

  14. Impact of Aberrant Acoustic Properties on the Perception of Sound Quality in Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A large percentage of patients who have undergone laryngectomy to treat advanced laryngeal cancer rely on an electrolarynx (EL) to communicate verbally. Although serviceable, EL speech is plagued by shortcomings in both sound quality and intelligibility. This study sought to better quantify the relative contributions of previously identified…

  15. Is Sound Exposure Level a Convenient Metric to Characterize Fatiguing Sounds? A Study in Beluga Whales.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander; Popov, Vladimir; Nechaev, Dmitry; Sysueva, Evgenia; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav

    2016-01-01

    Both the level and duration of fatiguing sounds influence temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) in odontocetes. These two parameters were combined into a sound exposure level (SEL). In the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas, TTSs were investigated at various sound pressure level (SPL)-to-duration ratios at a specific SEL. At low SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was positive: shorter high-level sounds produced greater TTSs than long low-level sounds of the same SEL. At high SPL-to-duration ratios, the dependence was negative: long low-level sounds produced greater TTSs than short high-level sounds of the same SEL. Thus, the validity of SEL as a metric for fatiguing sound efficiency is limited.

  16. Visualization of relation between sound symbolic word and perceptual characteristics of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.; Sakamoto, M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans interact with environmental sounds by easily and quickly identifying external and natural sounds in daily life. Interestingly, we verbalize the perceived auditory information from environmental sound. Onomatopoeia, i.e. sound symbolic word, indicates the linguistic form deeply related to environmental sound. The objective of this study is to visualize the relationship between perceptual properties of onomatopoeia and affective characteristics ("pleasant - unpleasant") perceived from the environmental sound. We have mapped the correlation between perceptual properties by phonemes of onomatopoeia and "pleasant/unpleasant" evaluations of environmental sound. The results showed that many onomatopoeias are related to various perceptual and affective scales. We suggest the importance of relation between the perceptual characteristics in auditory sensation and the phonological properties of sound symbolic words.

  17. Radar Sounding of Mars with MARSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.; Picardi, G.; Orosei, R.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    MARSIS, the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding, is a radar sounder that has been observing Mars from the Mars Express orbiter since June 2005. MARSIS works in the range of 1.3 to 5.5 MHz, and includes significant onboard data summing. MARSIS also operates in an Active Ionospheric Sounding mode down to 0.1 MHz to capture echoes from the topside of the ionosphere. MARSIS signals easily penetrate the polar layered deposits (PLD), usually to their basal contact with the substrate. The typically strong echo return from the lower interface of the PLD indicates that only minor attenuation of the radar signal is occurring within the PLD, implying a composition of nearly pure water ice. MARSIS data have been used to map the bed of the polar deposits to their maximum depth of over 3.5 km in the south. In the north, MARSIS delineates the extent of the “basal unit,” a sediment-laden icy layer that makes up more than a third of the total volume of the topographic cap. In both polar regions, the bed topography does not display a regional-scale deflection that might be expected from a flexural response to the PLD load, indicating a thick elastic lithosphere in these regions. Subsurface interfaces in the low latitudes of Mars are also being mapped by MARSIS, in the equatorial Medusae Fossae Formation. MARSIS has not detected any unambiguous evidence for sizable shallow aquifers. While it is possible that such features exist, the lack of detection more likely indicates that liquid water is not abundant in the shallow (< several km) subsurface of Mars. However, water ice is abundant in the polar regions, including a large area surrounding the polar layered deposits that is associated with the Dorsa Argentea Formation. In addition, analysis of the MARSIS surface echo strength suggests that a substantial fraction of the upper km of the subsurface of the northern plains may be ice-rich. In its ionospheric mode, MARSIS has characterized the complex structure

  18. 33 CFR 167.1323 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound. 167.1323 Section 167.1323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1323 In Puget Sound and...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1323 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound. 167.1323 Section 167.1323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1323 In Puget Sound and...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1323 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound. 167.1323 Section 167.1323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1323 In Puget Sound and...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1323 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Puget Sound. 167.1323 Section 167.1323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1323 In Puget Sound and...

  2. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett; Jason Wood; Dom Tollit; Robert Cavagnaro; Andrea Copping

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbines as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  3. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): A New Operational Sensor Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-H Joseph; Leslie, R. Vince; Baker, Neal; Mo, Tsan; Sun, Ninghai; Bi, Li; Anderson, Mike; Landrum, Mike; DeAmici, Giovanni; Gu, Degui; Foo, Alex; Ibrahim, Wael; Robinson, Kris; Chidester, Lynn; Shiue, James

    2012-01-01

    ATMS is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. ATMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; and ATMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet NWP sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface

  4. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  5. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters. PMID:27312175

  6. Tuning sound with soft dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortot, Eliana; Shmuel, Gal

    2017-04-01

    Soft dielectric tubes undergo large deformations when subjected to radial voltage. Using the theory of nonlinear electroelasticity, we investigate how voltage-controlled deformations of these tubes in an array alter acoustic wave propagation through it. We show that the propagation is annihilated across a certain audible frequency range, referred to as a sonic band gap. We carry out a numerical study, to find that the band gap depends nonlinearly on the voltage, owing to geometrical and material nonlinearities. By analyzing different mechanical constraints, we demonstrate that snap-through instabilities resulting from these nonlinearities can be harnessed to achieve sharp transitions in the gap width. Our conclusions hint at a new strategy to adaptively filter sound using a simple control parameter—an applied voltage.

  7. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  8. Otolith research for Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, K.; Reisenbichler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Otoliths are hard structures located in the brain cavity of fish. These structures are formed by a buildup of calcium carbonate within a gelatinous matrix that produces light and dark bands similar to the growth rings in trees. The width of the bands corresponds to environmental factors such as temperature and food availability. As juvenile salmon encounter different environments in their migration to sea, they produce growth increments of varying widths and visible 'checks' corresponding to times of stress or change. The resulting pattern of band variations and check marks leave a record of fish growth and residence time in each habitat type. This information helps Puget Sound restoration by determining the importance of different habitats for the optimal health and management of different salmon populations. The USGS Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) provides otolith research findings directly to resource managers who put this information to work.

  9. Light and sound - emerging imaging techniques for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Knieling, Ferdinand; Waldner, Maximilian J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are known to have a high demand of recurrent evaluation for therapy and disease activity. Further, the risk of developing cancer during the disease progression is increasing from year to year. New, mostly non-radiant, quick to perform and quantitative methods are challenging, conventional endoscopy with biopsy as gold standard. Especially, new physical imaging approaches utilizing light and sound waves have facilitated the development of advanced functional and molecular modalities. Besides these advantages they hold the promise to predict personalized therapeutic responses and to spare frequent invasive procedures. Within this article we highlight their potential for initial diagnosis, assessment of disease activity and surveillance of cancer development in established techniques and recent advances such as wide-view full-spectrum endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence endoscopy, endocytoscopy, confocal laser endoscopy, multiphoton endoscopy, molecular imaging endoscopy, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, ultrasound molecular imaging, and elastography. PMID:27433080

  10. Preliminary Characterization of the Noise-Immune Stethoscope (NIS) in High Ambient Noise Environment Using a Reverberation Sound Chamber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    unlimited This report details the preliminary testing of advanced technology development for clinical auscultation in high noise environments. The Noise...represents a viable answer to the need for clinical auscultation in high noise environments across the spectrum of casualty care. stethoscope, auscultation ...sounds, and these sounds prove very useful for clinical assessment and diagnosis (Bloch, 1993). Since that time, clinical auscultation by way of a

  11. Characterization of Underwater Sounds Produced by Trailing Suction Hopper Dredges During Sand Mining and Pump-out Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    that hydraulically remove sediment from the seafloor through dragheads. The dragheads are “trailed” beneath the dredge and held in contact with the...substrate as the dredge advances. Large suction pumps transport the sediment from the seafloor and deposit the dredged material into one or more... seafloor ; 2) sounds produced by suction pipes and pumps, and the movement of dredged material through the dragarm riser to the hopper; 3) deposition sounds

  12. 12 CFR 1720.2 - Safety and soundness standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety and soundness standards. 1720.2 Section... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS § 1720.2 Safety and soundness standards. Policy guidances as may be adopted from time to time by OFHEO, addressing safety and soundness...

  13. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  14. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  15. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  16. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  17. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  18. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when...

  19. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior.

  20. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  1. 78 FR 58530 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. e. Name of Project: Baker River Hydroelectric Project f. Location: Baker...

  2. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  3. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  4. Sound Fields in Complex Listening Environments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The conditions of sound fields used in research, especially testing and fitting of hearing aids, are usually simplified or reduced to fundamental physical fields, such as the free or the diffuse sound field. The concepts of such ideal conditions are easily introduced in theoretical and experimental investigations and in models for directional microphones, for example. When it comes to real-world application of hearing aids, however, the field conditions are more complex with regard to specific stationary and transient properties in room transfer functions and the corresponding impulse responses and binaural parameters. Sound fields can be categorized in outdoor rural and urban and indoor environments. Furthermore, sound fields in closed spaces of various sizes and shapes and in situations of transport in vehicles, trains, and aircrafts are compared with regard to the binaural signals. In laboratory tests, sources of uncertainties are individual differences in binaural cues and too less controlled sound field conditions. Furthermore, laboratory sound fields do not cover the variety of complex sound environments. Spatial audio formats such as higher-order ambisonics are candidates for sound field references not only in room acoustics and audio engineering but also in audiology. PMID:21676999

  5. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart, followed by 4 environmental sound training sessions conducted on separate days in 1 week, and concluded with 2 posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Each testing session included an environmental sound test, which consisted of 40 familiar everyday sounds, each represented by 4 different tokens, as well as the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test, and Revised Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN-R) sentence test. Results Environmental sounds scores were lower than for either of the speech tests. Following training, there was a significant average improvement of 15.8 points in environmental sound perception, which persisted 1 week later after training was discontinued. No significant improvements were observed for either speech test. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that environmental sound perception, which remains problematic even for experienced CI patients, can be improved with a home-based computer training regimen. Such computer-based training may thus provide an effective low-cost approach to rehabilitation for CI users, and potentially, other hearing impaired populations. PMID:25633579

  6. Sound to Meaning Correspondences Facilitate Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Cook, Allison E.; Namy, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental assumption regarding spoken language is that the relationship between sound and meaning is essentially arbitrary. The present investigation questioned this "arbitrariness" assumption by examining the influence of potential non-arbitrary mappings between sound and meaning on word learning in adults. Native English-speaking…

  7. Waves and Sound, An Experiment that Walks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunschwig, Fernand

    An experiment on sound waves, developed for non-science majors in a college physics course, is described. The student investigates the interference of two sound waves and measures and wavelength as he uses a prerecorded tape and a cassette player. The student is tutored by the cassette tape recorder, which also produces the overlapping sound…

  8. The Sounds of Nanoscience: Acoustic STM Analogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on model of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is presented. It uses near-field imaging with sound and computer assisted visualization to create acoustic mappings of resonator arrangements. Due to the (partial) analogy of matter and sound waves the images closely resemble STM scans of atoms. Moreover, the method can be extended to build…

  9. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  10. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721,...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.)...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage....

  15. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage....

  20. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.)...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.)...

  3. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage....

  5. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.)...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage....

  7. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage....

  10. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.)...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage....

  14. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage....

  15. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759,...

  17. The fundamentals of sound and its measurement.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Larry F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide directors of animal care facilities with a basic understanding of some of the principles of acoustics and the measurement of sound. This knowledge likely will enable directors to work effectively with sound and hearing specialists at their institutions to monitor and control the acoustic environments of laboratory animal facilities.

  18. TEACHING THE "TH" SOUNDS OF ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARR, ELIZABETH B.

    A SURVEY OF REFERENCE MATERIALS ON THE ORAL PRODUCTION OF THE "TH" SOUNDS IN ENGLISH (THE INITIAL SOUNDS IN "THY" AND "THIGH") REVEALS A CERTAIN CONFUSION AND DISAGREEMENT. DIFFICULTIES ARISE CONCERNING NOT ONLY THE DESCRIPTION OF THESE TWO PHONEMES, BUT THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO NONNATIVE SPEAKERS. THE PARTICULAR PROBLEMS…

  19. 46 CFR 108.701 - Sounding equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sounding equipment. 108.701 Section 108.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.701 Sounding equipment. Each self-propelled unit must have...

  20. 46 CFR 108.701 - Sounding equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sounding equipment. 108.701 Section 108.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.701 Sounding equipment. Each self-propelled unit must have...

  1. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  2. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are...

  3. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are...

  4. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are...

  5. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are...

  6. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are...

  7. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  8. Sound Generation by Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Wang, Frank Y.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an extensive analysis of potential wake vortex noise sources that might be utilized to aid in their tracking. Several possible mechanisms of aircraft vortex sound generation are examined on the basis of discrete vortex dynamic models and characteristic acoustic signatures calculated by application of vortex sound theory. It is shown that the most robust mechanisms result in very low frequency infrasound. An instability of the vortex core structure is discussed and shown to be a possible mechanism for generating higher frequency sound bordering the audible frequency range. However, the frequencies produced are still low and cannot explain the reasonably high-pitched sound that has occasionally been observed experimentally. Since the robust mechanisms appear to generate only very low frequency sound, infrasonic tracking of the vortices may be warranted.

  9. Protecting against Noise Trauma by Sound Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NIU, X.; CANLON, B.

    2002-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that more than 12% of the world population is at risk for developing noise-induced hearing loss. At present, sound conditioning presents one means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise trauma. This phenomenon is now known to occur in a variety of mammals, including gerbils, chinchillas, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, and, of most importance, human subjects. A variety of sound conditioning paradigms have been proven successful in preventing morphological and physiological damage. Proposed mechanisms include the upregulation of endogenous antioxidants, the number of NMDA receptors, heat shock proteins, calcium buffering systems, and neurotrophic factors. Further studies are needed to understand the protective mechanisms afforded by sound conditioning. It is convincible that sound conditioning will benefit human subjects and provide a treatment for noise-induced hearing loss. The data presented in this review describe the current status and understanding of the phenomenon of sound conditioning.

  10. Representations of sound in american deaf literature.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Russell S

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and settings, have created different representations of sound. In American Deaf literature, the representations of sound are filled with altered-acoustic and extra-acoustic images of sounds. The representations reflect psychophysiological experiences that presume the existence of an acoustic world by American deaf and hard-of-hearing writers, independent of the age when their hearing was lost, and changes in American Deaf culture.

  11. Sound wave propagation through glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P.

    This work investigates the use of glow discharge plasma for acoustic wave manipulation. The broader goal is the suppression of aerodynamic noise using atmospheric glow discharge plasma as a sound barrier. Part of the effort was devoted to the development of a system for the generation of a large volume stable DC glow discharge in air both at atmospheric and at reduced pressures. The single tone sound wave propagation through the plasma was systematically studied. Attenuation of the acoustic wave passing through the glow discharge was measured for a range of experimental conditions including different discharge currents, electrode configurations, air pressures and sound frequencies including audible sound and ultrasound. Sound attenuation by glow discharge plasma as high as -28 dB was recorded in the experiments. Two types of possible mechanisms were considered that can potentially cause the observed sound attenuation. One is a global mechanism and the other is a local mechanism. The global mechanism considered is based on the reflection and refraction of acoustic wave due to the gas temperature gradients that form around the plasma. The local mechanism, on the other hand, is essentially the interaction of the acoustic wave with the plasma as it propagates inside the discharge and it can be viewed as a feedback system. Detailed temperature measurements, using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, were carried out in the glow discharge plasma in order to evaluate the role of global mechanism in the observed attenuation. These measurements were made for a range of conditions in the atmospheric glow discharge. Theoretical analysis of the sound attenuation was carried out to identify the physical mechanism for the observed sound attenuation by plasma. It was demonstrated that the global mechanism is the dominant mechanism of sound attenuation. As a result of this study, the potentials and limitations of the plasma noise suppression technology were determined and

  12. Survey of Cochlear Implant User Satisfaction with the Neptune™ Waterproof Sound Processor.

    PubMed

    Briaire, Jeroen J; Büchner, Andreas; Auletta, Gennaro; Arroyo, Helena; Zoilo, Carmen; Mancini, Patrizia; Buhagiar, Roberta; Vaid, Neelam; Mathias, Nathalie

    2016-04-20

    A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventy-eight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options.

  13. Survey of Cochlear Implant User Satisfaction with the Neptune™ Waterproof Sound Processor

    PubMed Central

    Briaire, Jeroen J.; Büchner, Andreas; Auletta, Gennaro; Arroyo, Helena; Zoilo, Carmen; Mancini, Patrizia; Buhagiar, Roberta; Vaid, Neelam; Mathias, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventy-eight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options. PMID:27588162

  14. Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and Grazing Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, Alan S.; Tam, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Two significant advances have been made in the application of computational aeroacoustics methodology to acoustic liner technology. The first is that temperature effects for discrete sound are not the same as for broadband noise. For discrete sound, the normalized resistance appears to be insensitive to temperature except at high SPL. However, reactance is lower, significantly lower in absolute value, at high temperature. The second is the numerical investigation the acoustic performance of a liner by direct numerical simulation. Liner impedance is affected by the non-uniformity of the incident sound waves. This identifies the importance of pressure gradient. Preliminary design one and two-dimensional impedance models were developed to design sound absorbing liners in the presence of intense sound and grazing flow. The two-dimensional model offers the potential to empirically determine incident sound pressure face-plate distance from resonator orifices. This represents an important initial step in improving our understanding of how to effectively use the Dean Two-Microphone impedance measurement method.

  15. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  16. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  17. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  18. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  19. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  20. Tuning the cognitive environment: Sound masking with 'natural' sounds in open-plan offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLoach, Alana

    With the gain in popularity of open-plan office design and the engineering efforts to achieve acoustical comfort for building occupants, a majority of workers still report dissatisfaction in their workplace environment. Office acoustics influence organizational effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction through meeting appropriate requirements for speech privacy and ambient sound levels. Implementing a sound masking system is one tried-and-true method of achieving privacy goals. Although each sound masking system is tuned for its specific environment, the signal -- random steady state electronic noise, has remained the same for decades. This research work explores how `natural' sounds may be used as an alternative to this standard masking signal employed so ubiquitously in sound masking systems in the contemporary office environment. As an unobtrusive background sound, possessing the appropriate spectral characteristics, this proposed use of `natural' sounds for masking challenges the convention that masking sounds should be as meaningless as possible. Through the pilot study presented in this work, we hypothesize that `natural' sounds as sound maskers will be as effective at masking distracting background noise as the conventional masking sound, will enhance cognitive functioning, and increase participant (worker) satisfaction.

  1. Listener expertise and sound identification influence the categorization of environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Houix, Olivier; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    The influence of listener's expertise and sound identification on the categorization of environmental sounds is reported in three studies. In Study 1, the causal uncertainty of 96 sounds was measured by counting the different causes described by 29 participants. In Study 2, 15 experts and 15 nonexperts classified a selection of 60 sounds and indicated the similarities they used. In Study 3, 38 participants indicated their confidence in identifying the sounds. Participants reported using either acoustical similarities or similarities of the causes of the sounds. Experts used acoustical similarity more often than nonexperts, who used the similarity of the cause of the sounds. Sounds with a low causal uncertainty were more often grouped together because of the similarities of the cause, whereas sounds with a high causal uncertainty were grouped together more often because of the acoustical similarities. The same conclusions were reached for identification confidence. This measure allowed the sound classification to be predicted, and is a straightforward method to determine the appropriate description of a sound.

  2. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  3. [The level of the musical loud sound and noise induced hearing impairment].

    PubMed

    Ono, H; Deguchi, T; Ino, T; Okamoto, K; Takyu, H

    1986-03-20

    Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports concerning hearing impairment which musical loud sound is thought to be one of the causes. We are getting more of this musical loud sound as cassette tape recorders with head phones such as Walkman and so forth get popular as well as occasions to attending rock concerts and going to discotheques increase. This hearing impairment is generally called discotheque deafness and the following three types are considered; 1) deafness which have fixed by accumulation of loud sound over a long period of time as seen in people involved in musical performance such as rock musicians and mixing engineers; 2) abrupt noise induced hearing impairment triggered by loud sound and 3) state of deafness which is a progressing stage towards recovery of noise induced temporary threshold shift (NITTS), which occurs temporarily by a loud sound stimulus, and hearing ability recovers afterward. However, it is considered that these musical loud sounds not only changes every moment according to method of performing or type of music, but the volume of the sound actually reaching the auditory sense differs largely by locations and direction of the ear and speakers. So it becomes necessary to measure the accumulation of the noise which each individual is exposed under over a long period of time and at the same time carry out the regular medical checkups including hearing test to check the initiation and advancement of the noise induced hearing impairment. Then we can examine the relationship between loudness of the environmental noise and initiation and advancement of the hearing impairment. However, there has not been a device which is compact and measures noise exposure individually over a long period of time. So we have experimentally produced ultra compact noise dosimeter which we named Noise Badge, and with it we actually measured individual noise exposure over a long time in rock music, noise in discotheque and noisy factory. Then we

  4. Radiated BPF sound measurement of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchida, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    A technique to measure radiated BPF sound from an automotive turbocharger compressor impeller is proposed in this paper. Where there are high-level background noises in the measurement environment, it is difficult to discriminate the target component from the background. Since the effort of measuring BPF sound was taken in a room with such condition in this study, no discrete BPF peak was initially found on the sound spectrum. Taking its directionality into consideration, a microphone covered with a parabolic cone was selected and using this technique, the discrete peak of BPF was clearly observed. Since the level of measured sound was amplified due to the area-integration effect, correction was needed to obtain the real level. To do so, sound measurements with and without a parabolic cone were conducted for the fixed source and their level differences were used as correction factors. Consideration is given to the sound propagation mechanism utilizing measured BPF as well as the result of a simple model experiment. The present method is generally applicable to sound measurements conducted with a high level of background noise.

  5. Visualizing Sound: Demonstrations to Teach Acoustic Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennoll, Valerie

    Interference, a phenomenon in which two sound waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude, is a key concept when learning about the physics of sound waves. Typical interference demonstrations involve students listening for changes in sound level as they move throughout a room. Here, new tools are developed to teach this concept that provide a visual component, allowing individuals to see changes in sound level on a light display. This is accomplished using a microcontroller that analyzes sound levels collected by a microphone and displays the sound level in real-time on an LED strip. The light display is placed on a sliding rail between two speakers to show the interference occurring between two sound waves. When a long-exposure photograph is taken of the light display being slid from one end of the rail to the other, a wave of the interference pattern can be captured. By providing a visual component, these tools will help students and the general public to better understand interference, a key concept in acoustics.

  6. Sound Generating Mechanism of Frog Shaped Guiros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Nobuyuki; Morikawa, Koichi

    A frog shaped guiro is a wooden percussion instrument with an open-ended cave. By rubbing dorsal fins like saw blades on a back of the guiro with a wooden stick, the guiro generates the sound like a frog's voice. The exciting force, response acceleration and radiating sound pressure were measured with accelerometers on the stick and guiro and a condenser microphone and then the relation between the impulsively exciting force and sound pressure was revealed. A three-dimensional solid model of the guiro was built by use of an X-ray CT scanner device and a finite element model composed of tetrahedral elements was then obtained. The FEM modal analysis revealed that the frog shaped guiro had four dominant modes of vibration which was characterized by motion of mouth of the guiro such as the yawn mode and grinding teeth mode. The frequency spectrum of the sound pressure radiating from the frog shaped guiro excited by sequential impulsive forces moving along the dorsal fins was theoretically estimated. Since the estimated sound pressure agreed well with the measured one, the sound radiating from the guiro like a frog's voice could be reproduced. It was also revealed that the variation of driving point mobility of the dorsal fins and amplitude of the exciting force affected to generate the sound like a frog's voice.

  7. Graphene-on-paper sound source devices.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Ren, Tian-Ling; Xie, Dan; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Feng, Ting-Ting; Fu, Di; Yang, Yi; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2011-06-28

    We demonstrate an interesting phenomenon that graphene can emit sound. The application of graphene can be expanded in the acoustic field. Graphene-on-paper sound source devices are made by patterning graphene on paper substrates. Three graphene sheet samples with the thickness of 100, 60, and 20 nm were fabricated. Sound emission from graphene is measured as a function of power, distance, angle, and frequency in the far-field. The theoretical model of air/graphene/paper/PCB board multilayer structure is established to analyze the sound directivity, frequency response, and efficiency. Measured sound pressure level (SPL) and efficiency are in good agreement with theoretical results. It is found that graphene has a significant flat frequency response in the wide ultrasound range 20-50 kHz. In addition, the thinner graphene sheets can produce higher SPL due to its lower heat capacity per unit area (HCPUA). The infrared thermal images reveal that a thermoacoustic effect is the working principle. We find that the sound performance mainly depends on the HCPUA of the conductor and the thermal properties of the substrate. The paper-based graphene sound source devices have highly reliable, flexible, no mechanical vibration, simple structure and high performance characteristics. It could open wide applications in multimedia, consumer electronics, biological, medical, and many other areas.

  8. Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

    2013-11-01

    The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105 Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean.

  9. The CODEX sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, B.; Shipley, A.; Cash, W.; Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McEntaffer, R.; Kaiser, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present the CODEX sounding rocket payload, a soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 keV) spectrometer designed to observe diffuse high-surface brightness astronomical sources. The payload is composed of two modules, each with a 3.25° x 3.25° field of view defined by a stack of wire grids that block light not coming to a 3.0 m focus and admit only nearly-collimated light onto an array of 67 diffraction gratings in an off-plane mount. After a 2.0 m throw, the spectrum is detected by offset large-format gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. CODEX will target the Vela supernova remnant later this year to measure the temperature and abundances and to determine the contributions of various soft x-ray emission mechanisms to the remnant's energy budget; resulting spectra will have resolution (E/▵E) ranging from 50 to 100 across the band. CODEX is the third-generation of similar payloads from the University of Colorado, with an increased bandpass, higher throughput, and a more robust mechanical structure than its predecessors.

  10. The OGRESS Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Thomas; Zeiger, B.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Schultz, T.; Oakley, P.; Cash, W. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS) sounding rocket payload based at the University of Iowa and University of Colorado, Boulder. The payload has been launched three times before under the names CyXESS, EXOS, and CODEX and is scheduled to fly again in February 2014. The payload is designed to observe large diffuse soft X-ray sources between ~100 - 1000 eV. OGRESS will observe the Vela supernova remnant and achieve the highest spectral resolution ever taken of this object in our bandpass. OGRESS does not use the standard optical design of a grazing incidence Wolter telescope. Instead, OGRESS uses a wire-grid collimator to remove any nonconverging light. This optical design leads to poor sensitivity to point sources, but works very well for large extended sources, for which the telescope beam is fully illuminated. The light is dispersed by an array of off-plane parallel-groove sinusoidal gratings and focused onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors.

  11. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  12. Electric field soundings through thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve balloon soundings of the electric field in thunderstorms are reported. The maximum magnitude of E in the storms averaged 96 +/-28 kV/m, with the largest being 146 kV/m. The maximum was usually observed between vertically adjacent regions of opposite charge. Using a 1D approximation to Gauss' law, four to ten charge regions in the storms are inferred. The magnitude of the density in the charge regions varied between 0.2 and 13 nC/cu m. The vertical extent of the charge regions ranged from 130 to 2100 m. None of the present 12 storms had charge distributions that fit the long-accepted model of Simpson et al. (1937, 1941) of a lower positive charge, a main negative charge, and an upper positive charge. In addition to regions similar to the Simpson model, the present storms had screening layers at the upper and lower cloud boundaries and extra charge regions, usually in the lower part of the cloud.

  13. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  14. What is that mysterious booming sound?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2011-01-01

    The residents of coastal North Carolina are occasionally treated to sequences of booming sounds of unknown origin. The sounds are often energetic enough to rattle windows and doors. A recent sequence occurred in early January 2011 during clear weather with no evidence of local thunder storms. Queries by a local reporter (Colin Hackman of the NBC affiliate WETC in Wilmington, North Carolina, personal communication 2011) seemed to eliminate common anthropogenic sources such as sonic booms or quarry blasts. So the commonly asked question, “What's making these booming sounds?” remained (and remains) unanswered.

  15. Sound Science: Taking Action with Acoustics

    ScienceCinema

    Sinha, Dipen

    2016-07-12

    From tin whistles to sonic booms, sound waves interact with each other and with the medium through which they travel. By observing these interactions, we can identify substances that are hidden in sealed containers and obtain images of buried objects. By manipulating the ability of sound to push matter around, we can create novel structures and unique materials. Join the Lab's own sound hound, Dipen Sinha, as he describes how he uses fundamental research in acoustics for solving problems in industry, security and health.

  16. Sound Science: Taking Action with Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Dipen

    2014-07-16

    From tin whistles to sonic booms, sound waves interact with each other and with the medium through which they travel. By observing these interactions, we can identify substances that are hidden in sealed containers and obtain images of buried objects. By manipulating the ability of sound to push matter around, we can create novel structures and unique materials. Join the Lab's own sound hound, Dipen Sinha, as he describes how he uses fundamental research in acoustics for solving problems in industry, security and health.

  17. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  18. Using Therapeutic Sound With Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James A.; Zaugg, Tara L.; Myers, Paula J.; Schechter, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound—broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech—resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics). PMID:18664499

  19. Sound texture perception via statistics of the auditory periphery: Evidence from sound synthesis

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Simoncelli, Eero P.

    2014-01-01

    Rainstorms, insect swarms, and galloping horses produce “sound textures” – the collective result of many similar acoustic events. Sound textures are distinguished by temporal homogeneity, suggesting they could be recognized with time-averaged statistics. To test this hypothesis, we processed real-world textures with an auditory model containing filters tuned for sound frequencies and their modulations, and measured statistics of the resulting decomposition. We then assessed the realism and recognizability of novel sounds synthesized to have matching statistics. Statistics of individual frequency channels, capturing spectral power and sparsity, generally failed to produce compelling synthetic textures. However, combining them with correlations between channels produced identifiable and natural-sounding textures. Synthesis quality declined if statistics were computed from biologically implausible auditory models. The results suggest that sound texture perception is mediated by relatively simple statistics of early auditory representations, presumably computed by downstream neural populations. The synthesis methodology offers a powerful tool for their further investigation. PMID:21903084

  20. A study of heart sound and lung sound separation by independent component analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Chien; Huang, Ming-Chuan; Lin, Yue-Der; Chong, Fok-ching

    2006-01-01

    In the hospital, using percussion and auscultation are the most common ways for physical examination. Recently, in order to develop tele-medicine and home care system and to assist physician getting better auscultation results; electric stethoscope and computer analysis have become an inevitable trend. However, two important physical signals heart sound and lung sound recorded from chest overlap on spectrum chart. Therefore, in order to reduce human factor (ex. misplace or untrained of using) and minimize correlated effect in computer analysis; it's necessary for separated heart sound and lung sound. Independent component analysis can divide these sounds efficiency. In this paper, we use two microphones to collect signals from left and right chest. We have successfully divide heart and lung sounds by fast ICA algorithm. Therefore, it can assist physician examine and also using on tele-medicine and home care by this way.

  1. A sound absorbing metasurface with coupled resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfei; Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-08-01

    An impedance matched surface is able, in principle, to totally absorb the incident sound and yield no reflection, and this is desired in many acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate a design of impedance matched sound absorbing surface with a simple construction. By coupling different resonators and generating a hybrid resonance mode, we designed and fabricated a metasurface that is impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies with subwavelength scale unit cells. With careful design of the coupled resonators, over 99% energy absorption at central frequency of 511 Hz with a 50% absorption bandwidth of 140 Hz is achieved experimentally. The proposed design can be easily fabricated, and is mechanically stable. The proposed metasurface can be used in many sound absorption applications such as loudspeaker design and architectural acoustics.

  2. Sound barriers from materials of inhomogeneous impedance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Mao, Dongxing; Yu, Wuzhou; Jiang, Zaixiu

    2015-06-01

    Sound barriers are extensively used in environmental noise protection. However, when barriers are placed in parallel on opposite sides of a sound source, their performance deteriorates markedly. This paper describes a barrier made from materials of inhomogeneous impedance which lacks this drawback. The nonuniform impedance affects the way sound undergoes multiple reflections, and in the process traps acoustic energy. A proposed realization of the barrier comprises a closely spaced array of progressively tuned hollow narrow tubes which create a phase gradient. The acoustics of the barrier is theoretically examined and its superiority over conventional barriers is calculated using finite element modeling. Structural parameters of the barrier can be changed to achieve the required sound insertion loss, and the barrier has the potential to be widely used in environmental noise control.

  3. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers: Seeing with Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explains how diagnostic medical sonographers use special equipment to direct high frequency sound waves into areas of a patient's body. Describes specialties within the occupation, working conditions, employment and outlook, earnings, and necessary training and qualifications. (JOW)

  4. Category 5: Sound Generation in Viscous Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soogab; Henderson, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Two problems are considered. Problem 1: Aeolian tones, sound generation by flow over cylinders, are relevant to airframe and power plant noise (heat exchanger, power transmission lines and chimneys). The purpose of this problem is to test the ability of a CFD/CAA code to accurately predict sound generation by viscous flows and sound propagation through interactions between acoustic wave & solid wall and between acoustic waves & shear layers. Problem 2: Sound generation by flow over a cavity.Air flows over the cavity shown below with a mean approach flow velocity of 50 m/s. The boundary layer that develops over the flat plate is turbulent with a thickness of 14 mm at the entrance to the cavity. Calculate the power spectra at the center of each cavit wall and the center of the cavity floor. Experimental data will be available for comparison.

  5. Multiple response to sound in dysfunctional children.

    PubMed

    Condon, W S

    1975-03-01

    Methods and findings derived from over a decade of linguistic-kinesic microanalysis of sound films of human behavior were appled to the analysis of sound films of 25 dysfunctional children. Of the children, 17 were markedly dysfunctional (autistic-like) while 8 had milder reading problems. All of these children appeared to respond to sound more than once: when it actually occurred and again after a delay ranging from a fraction of a second up to a full second, depending on the child. Most of the children did not seem to actually hear the sound more than once; however, there is some indication that a few children may have done so. Evidence was also found suggesting a continuum from the longer delay of autistic-like children to the briefer delay of children with reading problems.

  6. Heart sounds: are you listening? Part 1.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kent, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    All nurses should have an understanding of heart sounds and be proficient in cardiac auscultation. Unfortunately, this skill is not part of many nursing school curricula, nor is it necessarily a required skillfor employment. Yet, being able to listen and accurately describe heart sounds has tangible benefits to the patient, as it is an integral part of a complete cardiac assessment. In this two-part article, I will review the fundamentals of cardiac auscultation, how cardiac anatomy and physiology relate to heart sounds, and describe the various heart sounds. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned nurse, it is never too early or too late to add this important diagnostic skill to your assessment tool kit.

  7. NASA Now: The Speed of Sound

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about sonic booms and the speed of sound from aerospace engineer George Hatcher. Hatcher shares the excitement of physics in his description of the space shuttle re-entering Earth’s atmosph...

  8. Molybdenum Sound Velocity and Shear Strength Softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Akin, Minta; Chau, Ricky; Fratandouno, Dayne; Ambrose, Pat; Fat'yanov, Oleg; Asimow, Paul; Holmes, Neil

    2013-06-01

    We recently carried out a series of light-gas gun experiments to measure molybdenum acoustic sound speed up to 5 Mbars on the Hugoniot. Our measured sound speeds increase linearly with pressure up to 2.6 Mbars and taper off near the melting pressure. The gradual leveling off of sound speed suggests a possible loss of shear strength near the melt. A linear extrapolation of our data to zero pressure is in good agreement with the sound speed measured at ambient condition. The results indicate that molybdenum remains in the bcc phase on the Hugoniot up to the melting pressure. There is no bcc solid phase transition on the Hugoniot as previously reported. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. NASA Now Minute: The Speed of Sound

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about sonic booms and the speed of sound from aerospace engineerGeorge Hatcher as he shares the excitement of physics in hisdescription of how the space shuttles reentered Earth’s atmosph...

  10. Beyond Words: How Humans Communicate Through Sound.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Every day we communicate using complex linguistic and musical systems, yet these modern systems are the product of a much more ancient relationship with sound. When we speak, we communicate not only with the words we choose, but also with the patterns of sound we create and the movements that create them. From the natural rhythms of speech, to the precise timing characteristics of a consonant, these patterns guide our daily communication. By examining the principles of information processing that are common to speech and music, we peel back the layers to reveal the biological foundations of human communication through sound. Further, we consider how the brain's response to sound is shaped by experience, such as musical expertise, and implications for the treatment of communication disorders.

  11. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    PubMed

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made.

  12. Towards automated ingestion detection: swallow sounds.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is a cause of many major chronic diseases. In most cases, obesity is a result of an imbalance between food intake and calories burned. Steps toward automated ingestion detection are being made. In order to automate the process of capturing ingestion, a method for detecting, analyzing, and recording sounds related to ingestion is being developed. In this paper, preliminary swallow sound analysis is presented and compared with various other noises captured from a throat mounted microphone. Initial frequency analysis indicates a stronger presence at high frequency intervals for swallow sounds in relation to other captured sounds such as voice. Comparisons show that a single high-pass filter can offer similar results as wavelet decomposition. Two simple methods for event detection are given.

  13. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  14. On the timbre of chaotic algorithmic sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios A.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.; Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.

    Chaotic sound waveforms generated algorithmically are considered to study their timbre characteristics of harmonic and inharmonic overtones, loudness and onset time. Algorithms employed in the present work come from different first order iterative maps with parameters that generate chaotic sound waveforms. The generated chaotic sounds are compared with each other in respect of their waveforms' energy over the same time interval. Interest is focused in the logistic, double logistic and elliptic iterative maps. For these maps, the energy of the algorithmically synthesized sounds is obtained numerically in the chaotic region. The results show that for a specific parameter value in the chaotic region for each one of the first two maps, the calculated sound energy is the same. The energy, though, produced by the elliptic iterative map is higher than that of the other two maps everywhere in the chaotic region. Under the criterion of equal energy, the discrete Fourier transform is employed to compute for the logistic and double logistic iterative maps, a) the generated chaotic sound's power spectral density over frequency revealing the location (frequency) and relative loudness of the overtones which can be associated with fundamental frequencies of musical notes, and b) the generated chaotic sound's frequency dependent phase, which together with the overtones' frequency, yields the overtones' onset time. It is found that the synthesized overtones' loudness, frequency and onset time are totally different for the two generating algorithms (iterative maps) even though the sound's total generated power is equal. It is also demonstrated that, within each one of the iterative maps considered, the overtone characteristics are strongly affected by the choice of initial loudness.

  15. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    collisions. These mappings may also be purely imaginary such as when the motions are used to generate background music . These parameters allow a timbre ...generated: the chimes themselves, the wind, and the background music . Using the timbre tree for a wind chime discussed previously, chime sounds are produced...technique for functional composition analogous to the "shade trees" which we call timbre trees. These timbre trees are used as a part of a sound

  16. Aircraft noise propagation. [sound diffraction by wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J.; Pierce, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Sound diffraction experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to study the acoustical implications of the engine over wing configuration (noise-shielding by wing) and to provide a data base for assessing various theoretical approaches to the problem of aircraft noise reduction are described. Topics explored include the theory of sound diffraction around screens and wedges; the scattering of spherical waves by rectangular patches; plane wave diffraction by a wedge with finite impedence; and the effects of ambient flow and distribution sources.

  17. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  18. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  19. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E.

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3–10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted <2 s and, in different cells, excitability either decreased, increased or shifted in latency. Within cells, the modulatory effect of sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene. PMID:25120437

  20. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    PubMed

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted <2 s and, in different cells, excitability either decreased, increased or shifted in latency. Within cells, the modulatory effect of sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  1. Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound: A Research Plan in Support of the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    ground- water flow into Puget Sound (Staubitz and others, 1997; Washington Department of Natural Resources, 1998 ). Little is known of inputs of...that simulate marine circulation (Kawase, 1998 ); • Watershed and ground- water models that simulate freshwater discharge to Puget Sound for different...Bookheim, J. Carlton, J. Chapman, J. Cordell, L. Harris, T. Klinger , A. Kohn, C. Lambert, G. Lambert, K. Li, D. Secord and J.Toft. 1998 . Puget Sound

  2. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  3. The mechanical forces in katydid sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Chiu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Yan; He, Xingliang; Epstein, Ben; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Katydids and crickets generate their characteristic calling sound by rubbing their wings together. The mechanisms of the rubbing force, however, have not been extensively studied. The change of mechanical force with external parameters (speed and applied load) in the stridulation process has not been reported. Our current study aims to investigate the mechanical forces of katydid stridulation. Four pairs of files and plectrums from a katydid, which are responsible for the katydid's sound production, were examined with a specially designed experimental configuration. Due to the asymmetric nature of the wing motion in their opening and closing, the contact between the plectrum and file resembles that of a ratchet. Multiple frequencies were generated during experimental wing rubbing so that a calling-like sound was produced. Results showed that the morphology of the plectrum/file contact has significant effects on mechanical forces induced on the wings and resulting sound production. The roles of the mechanical forces include sound generation, tone modification, and energy consumption. The findings in this work reveal the variation trend of mechanical force with sliding speed and applied load. The frequency and amplitude of the sound wave produced in tribo-test are close to those in natural condition. By mimicking the microstructure of the plectrum and file teeth, acoustic instruments with high mechanical energy conversion rate can be developed. Our results provide new approaches in the design and improvement of micro-machines for acoustic applications, as well as in hybrid robotic systems.

  4. Salient sounds activate human visual cortex automatically

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John J.; Störmer, Viola S.; Martinez, Antigona; Feng, Wenfeng; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden changes in the acoustic environment enhance perceptual processing of subsequent visual stimuli that appear in close spatial proximity. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms by which salient sounds affect visual processing. In particular, it is unclear whether such sounds automatically activate visual cortex. To shed light on this issue, the present study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that were triggered either by peripheral sounds that preceded task-relevant visual targets (Experiment 1) or were presented during purely auditory tasks (Experiments 2, 3, and 4). In all experiments the sounds elicited a contralateral ERP over the occipital scalp that was localized to neural generators in extrastriate visual cortex of the ventral occipital lobe. The amplitude of this cross-modal ERP was predictive of perceptual judgments about the contrast of co-localized visual targets. These findings demonstrate that sudden, intrusive sounds reflexively activate human visual cortex in a spatially specific manner, even during purely auditory tasks when the sounds are not relevant to the ongoing task. PMID:23699530

  5. Concurrent sound segregation is enhanced in musicians.

    PubMed

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Alain, Claude

    2009-08-01

    The ability to segregate simultaneously occurring sounds is fundamental to auditory perception. Many studies have shown that musicians have enhanced auditory perceptual abilities; however, the impact of musical expertise on segregating concurrently occurring sounds is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether long-term musical training can improve listeners' ability to segregate sounds that occur simultaneously. Participants were presented with complex sounds that had either all harmonics in tune or the second harmonic mistuned by 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, or 16% of its original value. The likelihood of hearing two sounds simultaneously increased with mistuning, and this effect was greater in musicians than nonmusicians. The segregation of the mistuned harmonic from the harmonic series was paralleled by an object-related negativity that was larger and peaked earlier in musicians. It also coincided with a late positive wave referred to as the P400 whose amplitude was larger in musicians than in nonmusicians. The behavioral and electrophysiological effects of musical expertise were specific to processing the mistuned harmonic as the N1, the N1c, and the P2 waves elicited by the tuned stimuli were comparable in both musicians and nonmusicians. These results demonstrate that listeners' ability to segregate concurrent sounds based on harmonicity is modulated by experience and provides a basis for further studies assessing the potential rehabilitative effects of musical training on solving complex scene analysis problems illustrated by the cocktail party example.

  6. Sound For Animation And Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.

  7. Loudness of steady sounds - A new theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A new mathematical theory for calculating the loudness of steady sounds from power summation and frequency interaction, based on psychoacoustic and physiological information, assuems that loudness is a subjective measure of the electrical energy transmitted along the auditory nerve to the central nervous system. The auditory system consists of the mechanical part modeled by a bandpass filter with a transfer function dependent on the sound pressure, and the electrical part where the signal is transformed into a half-wave reproduction represented by the electrical power in impulsive discharges transmitted along neurons comprising the auditory nerve. In the electrical part the neurons are distributed among artificial parallel channels with frequency bandwidths equal to 'critical bandwidths for loudness', within which loudness is constant for constant sound pressure. The total energy transmitted to the central nervous system is the sum of the energy transmitted in all channels, and the loudness is proportional to the square root of the total filtered sound energy distributed over all channels. The theory explains many psychoacoustic phenomena such as audible beats resulting from closely spaced tones, interaction of sound stimuli which affect the same neurons affecting loudness, and of individually subliminal sounds becoming audible if they lie within the same critical band.

  8. Sound radiation from a flanged inclined duct.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Alan; Daymond-King, Alex P; Kempton, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    A simple method to calculate sound radiation from a flanged inclined duct is presented. An inclined annular duct is terminated by a rigid vertical plane. The duct termination is representative of a scarfed exit. The concept of a scarfed duct has been examined in turbofan aero-engines as a means to, potentially, shield a portion of the radiated sound from being transmitted directly to the ground. The sound field inside the annular duct is expressed in terms of spinning modes. Exterior to the duct, the radiated sound field owing to each mode can be expressed in terms of its directivity pattern, which is found by evaluating an appropriate form of Rayleigh's integral. The asymmetry is shown to affect the amplitude of the principal lobe of the directivity pattern, and to alter the proportion of the sound power radiated up or down. The methodology detailed in this article provides a simple engineering approach to investigate the sound radiation for a three-dimensional problem.

  9. Azimuthal sound localization in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): III. Comparison of sound localization measures.

    PubMed

    Feinkohl, Arne; Borzeszkowski, Katharina M; Klump, Georg M

    2016-02-01

    Sound localization studies have typically employed two types of tasks: absolute tasks that measured the localization of the angular location of a single sound and relative tasks that measured the localization of the angular location of a sound relative to the angular location of another sound from a different source (e.g., in the Minimum Audible Angle task). The present study investigates the localization of single sounds in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) with a left/right discrimination paradigm. Localization thresholds of 8-12° determined in starlings using this paradigm were much lower than the minimum audible angle thresholds determined in a previous study with the same individuals. The traditional concept of sound localization classifies the present experiment as an absolute localization task. However, we propose that the experiment presenting single sounds measured localization of the angular location of the sound relative to a non-acoustic spatial frame of reference. We discuss how the properties of the setup can determine if presentation of single sounds in a left/right discrimination paradigm comprises an absolute localization task rather than a localization task relative to a non-acoustic reference. Furthermore, the analysis methods employed may lead to quite different threshold estimates for the same data, especially in case of a response bias in left/right discrimination. We propose using an analysis method precluding effects of response bias on the threshold estimate.

  10. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This article presents the SoundCompass’s hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field. PMID:24463431

  11. SoundCompass: a distributed MEMS microphone array-based sensor for sound source localization.

    PubMed

    Tiete, Jelmer; Domínguez, Federico; da Silva, Bruno; Segers, Laurent; Steenhaut, Kris; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-23

    Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This article presents the SoundCompass's hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field.

  12. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen

    2014-12-01

    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method.

  13. High-spatial-resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    The principal contributions of this combined theoretical and experimental effort were to advance and demonstrate new and more accurate techniques for sounding atmospheric temperature, humidity, and precipitation profiles at millimeter wavelengths, and to improve the scientific basis for such soundings. Some of these techniques are being incorporated in both research and operational systems. Specific results include: (1) development of the MIT Microwave Temperature Sounder (MTS), a 118-GHz eight-channel imaging spectrometer plus a switched-frequency spectrometer near 53 GHz, for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, (2) conduct of ER-2 MTS missions in multiple seasons and locations in combination with other instruments, mapping with unprecedented approximately 2-km lateral resolution atmospheric temperature and precipitation profiles, atmospheric transmittances (at both zenith and nadir), frontal systems, and hurricanes, (3) ground based 118-GHz 3-D spectral images of wavelike structure within clouds passing overhead, (4) development and analysis of approaches to ground- and space-based 5-mm wavelength sounding of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, which supported the planning of improvements to operational weather satellites, (5) development of improved multidimensional and adaptive retrieval methods for atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, (6) development of combined nonlinear and statistical retrieval techniques for 183-GHz humidity profile retrievals, (7) development of nonlinear statistical retrieval techniques for precipitation cell-top altitudes, and (8) numerical analyses of the impact of remote sensing data on the accuracy of numerical weather predictions; a 68-km gridded model was used to study the spectral properties of error growth.

  14. Cleaning up Trumpet Sound: Some Paths to Better Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingara, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the factors used to assess trumpet players, the one that distinguishes the established professional from the student is sound quality. While a good sound may be called "full," "rich," or "dark," poor sound is often described as "constricted," "tight," "thin," or "fuzzy." Although students' concept of good sound is important, many times…

  15. AVE/VAS 4: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment is presented. Sounding were taken at 3 hr intervals. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. Some soundings were computed from raw ordinate data, while others were interpolated from significant level data.

  16. 50 CFR 27.71 - Motion or sound pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...

  17. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  18. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic...

  19. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic...

  2. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  3. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  4. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  5. 50 CFR 27.71 - Motion or sound pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...

  6. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic...

  7. 50 CFR 27.71 - Motion or sound pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motion or sound pictures. 27.71 Section 27... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Light and Sound Equipment § 27.71 Motion or sound pictures. The taking or filming of any motion or sound pictures on...

  8. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  9. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  10. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic...

  12. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  13. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  14. 33 CFR 67.30-10 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signals. 67.30-10 Section... Sound signals. (a) The owner of a Class “C” structure shall install a sound signal if: (1) The structure...) Sound signals required by paragraph (a) of this section must have rated range of at least one-half...

  15. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  16. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  17. 33 CFR 67.30-10 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signals. 67.30-10 Section... Sound signals. (a) The owner of a Class “C” structure shall install a sound signal if: (1) The structure...) Sound signals required by paragraph (a) of this section must have rated range of at least one-half...

  18. Cognitive Control of Involuntary Distraction by Deviant Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Hebrero, Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that a task-irrelevant sound (deviant sound) departing from an otherwise repetitive sequence of sounds (standard sounds) elicits an involuntary capture of attention and orienting response toward the deviant stimulus, resulting in the lengthening of response times in an ongoing task. Some have argued that this type of…

  19. 33 CFR 67.10-20 - Sound signal tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sound signal tests. 67.10-20... NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES General Requirements for Sound signals § 67.10-20 Sound signal tests. (a) Sound signal tests must: (1) Be made by the applicant in...

  20. 33 CFR 67.30-10 - Sound signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sound signals. 67.30-10 Section... Sound signals. (a) The owner of a Class “C” structure shall install a sound signal if: (1) The structure...) Sound signals required by paragraph (a) of this section must have rated range of at least one-half...