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Sample records for advanced supersonic cruise

  1. Advanced supersonic cruise aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Driver, C.

    1977-01-01

    A multidiscipline approach is taken to the application of the latest technology to supersonic cruise aircraft concept definition, and current problem areas are identified. Particular attention is given to the performance of the AST-100 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle with emphasis on aerodynamic characteristics, noise and chemical emission, and mission analysis. A recently developed aircraft sizing and performance computer program was used to determine allowable wing loading and takeoff gross weight sensitivity to structural weight reduction.

  2. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  3. Status of noise technology for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in acoustic technology applicable to advanced supersonic cruise aircraft, particularly those which relate to jet noise and its suppression are reviewed. The noise reducing potential of high radius ratio, inverted velocity profile coannular jets is demonstrated by model scale results from a wide range of nozzle geometries, including some simulated flight cases. These results were verified statistically at large scale on a variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed. A preliminary assessment of potential VCE noise sources such as fan and core noise is made, based on the testbed data. Recent advances in the understanding of flight effects are reviewed. The status of component noise prediction methods is assessed on the basis of recent test data, and the remaining problem areas are outlined.

  4. Advanced structures technology applied to a supersonic cruise arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to a promising aerodynamic configuration was explored to investigate the improved payload range characteristics over the configuration postulated during the National SST Program. The results of an analytical study performed to determine the best structural approach for design of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft are highlighted. The data conducted under the auspices of the Structures Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, established firm technical bases from which further trend studies were conducted to quantitatively assess the benefits and feasibility of using advanced structures technology to arrive at a viable advanced supersonic cruise aircraft.

  5. Progress in supersonic cruise technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program identified significant improvements in the technology areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements, when combined in a large supersonic cruise vehicle, offer a far greater technology advance than generally realized. They offer the promise of an advanced commercial family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. These same areas of technology have direct application to smaller advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft. Several possible applications will be addressed.

  6. The supersonic fan engine - An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were conducted for a novel turbofan engine concept incorporating a supersonic through-flow fan, and comparisons were made with two supersonic transport (SST) engine concepts of equivalent thrust and technological sophistication. It was found that in the case of an SST with a cruise speed of Mach 2.32, the through-flow fan engine may yield ranges 10 to 20% greater than the two alternatives considered. The engine has a conventional core, with the supersonic fan being driven by a concentric low-pressure turbine that is uncoupled with the single, high pressure turbine/compressor core spool. Among the topics discussed are the methods of analysis employed and perturbation studies concerning supersonic fan adiabatic efficiency, fan discharge characteristics and propulsion system weight.

  7. Supersonic Cruise Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, F. Edward

    1985-01-01

    The history and status of supersonic cruise research is covered. The early research efforts of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and efforts during the B-70 and SST phase are included. Technological progress made during the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research and Variable Cycle Engine programs are presented. While emphasis is on NASA's contributions to supersonic cruise research in the U.S., also noted are developments in England, France, and Russia. Written in nontechnical language, this book presents the most critical technology issues and research findings.

  8. The supersonic fan engine: An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were carried out for turbofan engines equipped with supersonic through-flow fans. The mission was for a commercial supersonic transport with a Mach 2.32 capability. The advantages of the supersonic fan engines are discussed in terms of mission range comparisons with other engine types. The effects of fan efficiency, inlet losses, and engine weight on engine performance and mission range are shown. The range of a supersonic transport with supersonic fan engines could be 10 to 20 percent better than with other types having the same technology core.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of advanced titanium structural panels for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L.

    1977-01-01

    Flightworthy primary structural panels were designed, fabricated, and tested to investigate two advanced fabrication methods for titanium alloys. Skin-stringer panels fabricated using the weldbraze process, and honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated using a diffusion bonding process, were designed to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 research aircraft. The investigation included ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale panels, and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Test results obtained on full-scale panels and structural element specimens indicate that both of the fabrication methods investigated are suitable for primary structural applications on future civil and military supersonic cruise aircraft.

  10. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  11. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  12. Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis James R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief overview of the research underway in the Cruise Efficiency -- Propulsion technical challenge area of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics project. The research involves both computational and experimental efforts in the areas of Advanced Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wide Operability Fan and Compressors, Advanced Nozzle Concepts and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The work consists of both internal NASA research and external efforts funded through the NASA Research Announcement process.

  13. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, and environmental factors of the supersonic cruise aircraft are discussed. Other topics include airframe structures and materials, systems integration, and economics.

  14. Overview of NASA's Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The research in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Propulsion (SCE-P) Technical Challenge area of NASA's Supersonics project is discussed. The research in SCE-P is being performed to enable efficient supersonic flight over land. Research elements in this area include: Advance Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wider Operability Fan and Compressor, Advanced Nozzle Concepts, and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The research under each of these elements is briefly discussed.

  15. Titanium and advanced composite structures for a supersonic cruise arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Hoy, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Structural design studies were made, based on current technology and on an estimate of technology to be available in the mid 1980's, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced arrow wing configuration cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, and define an efficient structural arrangement. Material and concept selection, detailed structural analysis, structural design and airplane mass analysis were completed based on current technology. Based on estimated future technology, structural sizing for strength and a preliminary assessment of the flutter of a strength designed composite structure were completed. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members.

  16. Effect of advanced technology and fuel efficient engine on a supersonic-cruise executive jet with a small cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study of a supersonic-cruise, executive, jet aircraft indicated the effects of using advanced technology. The twin-engine, arrow-wing vehicle was configured with a cabin of minimum practical size to hold one pilot, eight passengers, and their baggage. The primary differences between this configuration that of a previous report were the reduction in cabin size and the use of engines that are more fuel-efficient. Both conceptual vehicles are capable of forming the same mission. The current vehicle has a range of 3,350 nautical miles at Mach 2.3 cruise and 2,700 nautical miles at Mach 0.9. The concept description includes configuration definition, aerodynamic and propulsion-system characteristics, and mass properties. Performance analyses are documented for intercontinental and transcontinental flight profiles. In the latter case, a reduction in sonic-boom overpressure from 1.3 to 1.0 pounds per square foot was achieved by varying the flight profile slightly from that for optimum performance.

  17. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  18. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  19. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a 1/10-scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration designed for cruise at Mach 2.2. [Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics from wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic-cruise transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Tests have been conducted to extend the existing low speed aerodynamic data base of advanced supersonic-cruise arrow wing configurations. Principle configuration variables included wing leading-edge flap deflection, wing trailing-edge flap deflection, horizontal tail effectiveness, and fuselage forebody strakes. A limited investigation was also conducted to determine the low speed aerodynamic effects due to slotted training-edge flaps. Results of this investigation demonstrate that deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps downward to suppress the wing apex vortices provides improved static longitudinal stability; however, it also results in significantly reduced static directional stability. The use of a selected fuselage forebody strakes is found to be effective in increasing the level of positive static directional stability. Drooping the fuselage nose, which is required for low-speed pilot vision, significantly improves the later-directional trim characteristics.

  1. Development and analysis of a STOL supersonic cruise fighter concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Morris, S. J., Jr.; Walkley, K. B.; Swanson, E. E.; Robins, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The application of advanced and emerging technologies to a fighter aircraft concept is described. The twin-boom fighter (TBF-1) relies on a two dimensional vectoring/reversing nozzle to provide STOL performance while also achieving efficient long range supersonic cruise. A key feature is that the propulsion package is placed so that the nozzle hinge line is near the aircraft center-of-gravity to allow large vector angles and, thus, provide large values of direct lift while minimizing the moments to be trimmed. The configurations name is derived from the long twin booms extending aft of the engine to the twin vertical tails which have a single horizontal tail mounted atop and between them. Technologies utilized were an advanced engine (1985 state-of-the-art), superplastic formed/diffusion bonded titanium structure, advanced controls/avionics/displays, supersonic wing design, and conformal weapons carriage. The integration of advanced technologies into this concept indicate that large gains in takeoff and landing performance, maneuver, acceleration, supersonic cruise speed, and range can be acieved relative to current fighter concepts.

  2. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  3. Preliminary design of a supersonic cruise aircraft high-pressure turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aceto, L. D.; Calderbank, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of the supersonic cruise aircraft engine continued in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored Pratt and Whitney program for the Preliminary Design of an Advanced High-Pressure Turbine. Airfoil cooling concepts and the technology required to implement these concepts received particular emphasis. Previous supersonic cruise aircraft mission studies were reviewed and the Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) was chosen as the candidate or the preliminary turbine design. The design was evaluated for the supersonic cruise mission. The advanced technology to be generated from these designs showed benefits in the supersonic cruise application and subsonic cruise application. The preliminary design incorporates advanced single crystal materials, thermal barrier coatings, and oxidation resistant coatings for both the vane and blade. The 1990 technology vane and blade designs have cooled turbine efficiency of 92.3 percent, 8.05 percent Wae cooling and a 10,000 hour life. An alternate design with 1986 technology has 91.9 percent efficiency and 12.43 percent Wae cooling at the same life. To achieve these performance and life results, technology programs must be pursued to provide the 1990's technology assumed for this study.

  4. A study of altitude-constrained supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, David C.; Martin, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of restricting maximum cruise altitude on the mission performance of two supersonic transport concepts across a selection of cruise Mach numbers is studied. Results indicate that a trapezoidal wing concept can be competitive with an arrow wing depending on the altitude and Mach number constraints imposed. The higher wing loading of trapezoidal wing configurations gives them an appreciably lower average cruise altitude than the lower wing loading of the arrow wing configurations, and this advantage increases as the maximum allowable cruise altitude is reduced.

  5. Fabrication research for supersonic cruise aircraft. [YF-12 skin structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Bales, T. T.; Payne, L.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. Full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to meet the criteria of an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program consists of laboratory testing and Mach 3 flight service of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Borsic/aluminum honeycomb-core, titanium clad Borsic/aluminum skin-stringer, graphite/PMR-15 polyimide honeycomb-core, and titanium superplastically formed/diffusion bonded panels have been designed, fabricated, and tested. Graphite/LARC-160 polyimide skin-stringer panels have been designed, and fabrication methods are being developed.

  6. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

  7. Minimum energy, liquid hydrogen supersonic cruise vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential was examined of hydrogen-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing energy expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid hydrogen for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and energy utilization.

  8. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  9. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  10. Cooperative airframe/propulsion control for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Berry, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    Interactions between propulsion systems and flight controls have emerged as a major control problem on supersonic cruise aircraft. This paper describes the nature and causes of these interactions and the approaches to predicting and solving the problem. Integration of propulsion and flight control systems appears to be the most promising solution if the interaction effects can be adequately predicted early in the vehicle design. Significant performance, stability, and control improvements may be realized from a cooperative control system.

  11. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  12. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1980 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) Programs is presented. An annotated bibliography for the last 123 formal reports and a listing of titles for 44 articles and presentations is included. The studies identifies technologies for producing efficient supersonic commercial jet transports for cruise Mach numbers from 2.0 to 2.7.

  13. Flying qualities design criteria applicable to supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalk, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive set of flying qualities design criteria was prepared for use in the supersonic cruise research program. The framework for stating the design criteria is established and design criteria are included which address specific failures, approach to dangerous flight conditions, flight at high angle of attack, longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control, the primary flight control system, and secondary flight controls. Examples are given of lateral directional design criteria limiting lateral accelerations at the cockpit, time to roll through 30 deg of bank, and time delay in the pilot's command path. Flight test data from the Concorde certification program are used to substantiate a number of the proposed design criteria.

  14. Advanced supersonic technology and its implications for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program is presented. The SCR program has identified significant improvements in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements tend to overcome most of the problems which led to the cancellation of the National SST program. They offer the promise of an advanced SST family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. The areas of technology addressed by the SCR program have direct application to advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft.

  15. Some unique characteristics of supersonic cruise vehicles and their effect on airport community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the differences between the supersonic and subsonic commercial aircraft in terms of their configuration, aerodynamic characteristics, propulsion systems, and the manner of operation. The unique characteristics of supersonic cruise vehicles should provide improved airport-community noise exposures if the vehicle is permitted to operate at its most efficient and effective flight modes. It is concluded that noise exposure levels for supersonic cruise vehicles can be comparable to those of its equivalent subsonic counterpart of that time period.

  16. Ejector nozzle test results at simulated flight conditions for an advanced supersonic transport propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.

  17. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 2: Sections 7 through 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The materials and advanced producibility methods that offer potential structural mass savings in the design of the primary structure for a supersonic cruise aircraft are identified and reported. A summary of the materials and fabrication techniques selected for this analytical effort is presented. Both metallic and composite material systems were selected for application to a near-term start-of-design technology aircraft. Selective reinforcement of the basic metallic structure was considered as the appropriate level of composite application for the near-term design.

  18. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  19. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  20. A review of several propulsion integration features applicable to supersonic-cruise fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review has been made of the propulsion integration features which may impact the design of a supersonic cruise fighter type aircraft. The data used for this study were obtained from several investigations conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic and 4 by 4 foot supersonic pressure wind tunnels. Results of this study show: (1) that for conventional nozzle installations, contradictory design guidelines exist between subsonic and supersonic flight condition, (2) that substantial drag penalties can be incurred by use of dry power nozzles during supersonic cruise; and (3) that a new and unique concept, the nonaxisymmetric nozzle, offers the potential for solving many of the current propulsion installation problems.

  1. The role of finite-difference methods in design and analysis for supersonic cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Finite-difference methods for analysis of steady, inviscid supersonic flows are described, and their present state of development is assessed with particular attention to their applicability to vehicles designed for efficient cruise flight. Current work is described which will allow greater geometric latitude, improve treatment of embedded shock waves, and relax the requirement that the axial velocity must be supersonic.

  2. Investigation of a supersonic cruise fighter model flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.; Bare, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.

  3. Study of metallic structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    A structural design study was made, to assess the relative merits of various metallic structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to ensure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, select structural concepts and materials, and define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented. The effect on design methods of using the computerized structural design system was appraised, and recommendations are presented concerning further development of design tools, development of materials and structural concepts, and research on basic technology.

  4. Advanced Supersonic Technology Study: Engine Program Summary. Supersonic Propulsion: 1971 to 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Sustained supersonic cruise propulsion systems for military applications are studied. The J79-5 in the Mach 2 B-58; YJ93 in the Mach 3.0 B-70 and the current F101 in the B-1, are all examples of military propulsion systems and airplanes operated at sustained supersonic cruise speeds. The Mach 2.7 B2707 transport powered by GE4 turbojet engines was the only non-military, sustained supersonic cruise vehicle intended for commercial passenger service.

  5. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  6. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  7. Effect of emerging technology on a convertible, business/interceptor, supersonic-cruise jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of an eight-passenger, supersonic-cruise long range business jet aircraft that could be converted into a military missile carrying interceptor. The baseline passenger version has a flight crew of two with cabin space for four rows of two passenger seats plus baggage and lavatory room in the aft cabin. The ramp weight is 61,600 pounds with an internal fuel capacity of 30,904 pounds. Utilizing an improved version of a current technology low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, range is 3,622 nautical miles at Mach 2.0 cruise and standard day operating conditions. Balanced field takeoff distance is 6,600 feet and landing distance is 5,170 feet at 44,737 pounds. The passenger section from aft of the flight crew station to the aft pressure bulkhead in the cabin was modified for the interceptor version. Bomb bay type doors were added and volume is sufficient for four advanced air-to-air missiles mounted on a rotary launcher. Missile volume was based on a Phoenix type missile with a weight of 910 pounds per missile for a total payload weight of 3,640 pounds. Structural and equipment weights were adjusted and result in a ramp weight of 63,246 pounds with a fuel load of 30,938 pounds. Based on a typical intercept mission flight profile, the resulting radius is 1,609 nautical miles at a cruise Mach number of 2.0.

  8. Development of longitudinal handling qualities criteria for large advanced supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudderth, R. W.; Mcneill, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted with the aim of advancing the development of longitudinal handling qualities criteria for large supersonic cruise aircraft. The areas of study investigated included high-speed cruise maneuvering, and stall-recovery control power. Comparisons were made with existing criteria and, for the cruise condition, a time response criterion was developed which correlated well with pilot ratings and comments. For low-speed stall recovery a new criterion was developed in terms of nose-down angular acceleration capability.

  9. Feasibility and benefits of laminar flow control on supersonic cruise airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, A. G.; Agrawal, S.; Lacey, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the applicability and benefits of laminar flow control (LFC) technology to supersonic cruise airplanes. Ancillary objectives were to identify the technical issues critical to supersonic LFC application, and to determine how those issues can be addressed through flight and wind-tunnel testing. Vehicle types studied include a Mach 2.2 supersonic transport configuration, a Mach 4.0 transport, and two Mach 2-class fighter concepts. Laminar flow control methodologies developed for subsonic and transonic wing laminarization were extended and applied. No intractible aerodynamic problems were found in applying LFC to airplanes of the Mach 2 class, even ones of large size. Improvements of 12 to 17 percent in lift-drag ratios were found. Several key technical issues, such as contamination avoidance and excresence criteria were identified. Recommendations are made for their resolution. A need for an inverse supersonic wing design methodology is indicated.

  10. Multiobjective Design Optimization of Supersonic Jet Engine in Different Cruise Mach Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masamichi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Hideyuki

    The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective optimization generic algorithm (MOGA) to the conceptual design of the hypersonic/supersonic vehicles with different cruise Mach number. The pre-cooled turbojet engine is employed as a propulsion system and some engine parameters such as the precooler size, compressor size, compression ratio and fuel type are varied in the analysis. The result shows that the optimum cruise Mach number is about 4 if hydrogen fuel is used. Methane fuel instead of hydrogen reduces the vehicle gross weight by 33% in case of the Mach 2 vehicle.

  11. Low-speed wind-tunnel test of a STOL supersonic-cruise fighter concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Riley, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to examine the low-speed static stability and control characteristics of a 0.10 scale model of a STOL supersonic cruise fighter concept. The concept, referred to as a twin boom fighter, was designed as a STOL aircraft capable of efficient long range supersonic cruise. The configuration name is derived from the long twin booms extending aft of the engine to the twin vertical tails which support a high center horizontal tail. The propulsion system features a two dimensional thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle which is located so that the nozzle hinge line is near the aircraft center of gravity. This arrangement is intended to allow large thrust vector angles to be used to obtain significant values of powered lift, while minimizing pitching moment trim changes. Low speed stability and control information was obtained over an angle of attack range including the stall. A study of jet induced power effects was included.

  12. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  13. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  14. Calculation of vertical and ramp-assisted takeoffs for supersonic cruise fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure that allows rapid preliminary evaluations of the vertical, short, and normal takeoff performance of supersonic cruise aircraft concepts was developed into a numerical computer program. The program is used to determine the effects on takeoff performance of various parameters, such as thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, thrust vector angle, and flap setting. Ramp-assisted takeoffs for overloaded configurations typical of a ground-attack mission are included. The effects of wind on the takeoff performance are also considered.

  15. Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Michael H.; Cole, Stanley R.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Keller, Donald F.; Parker, Ellen C.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    1990-01-01

    The flutter characteristics of a generic arrow-wing supersonic transport configuration are studied. The wing configuration has a 3 percent biconvex airfoil and a leading-edge sweep of 73 deg out to a cranked tip with a 60 deg leading-edge sweep. The ground vibration tests and flutter test procedure are described. The effects of flutter on engine nacelles, fuel loading, wing-mounted vertical fin, wing angle-of-attack, and wing tip mass and stiffness distributions are analyzed. The data reveal that engine nacelles reduce the transonic flutter dynamic pressure by 25-30 percent; fuel loadings decrease dynamic pressures by 25 percent; 4-6 deg wing angles-of-attack cause steep transonic boundaries; and 5-10 percent changes in flutter dynamic pressures are the result of the wing-mounted vertical fin and wing-tip mass and stiffness distributions.

  16. Variable-cycle engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E.

    1976-01-01

    Progress and the current status of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) study are reviewed with emphasis placed on the impact of technology advancements and design specifications. A large variety of VCE concepts are also examined.

  17. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  18. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1977 to mid-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supersonic cruise research (SCR) program, initiated in July 1972, includes system studies and the following disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emission impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. In a coordinated effort to provide a sound basis for any future consideration that may be given by the United States to the development of an acceptable commercial supersonic transport, integration of the technical disciplines was undertaken, analytical tools were developed, and wind tunnel, flight, and laboratory investigations were conducted. The present bibliography covers the time period from 1977 to mid-1980. It is arranged according to system studies and the above five SCR disciplines. There are 306 NASA reports and 135 articles, meeting papers, and company reports cited.

  19. Fatigue of titanium alloys in a supersonic-cruise airplane environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The test programs conducted by several aerospace companies and NASA, summarized in this paper, studied several titanium materials previously identified as having high potential for application to supersonic cruise airplane structures. These studies demonstrate that the temperature (560 K) by itself produced no significant degradation of the materials. However, the fatigue resistance of titanium-alloy structures, in which thermal and loading effects are combined, has been studied insufficiently. The predominant topic for future study of fatigue problems in Mach 3 structures should be the influences of thermal stress particularly, the effects of thermal stress on failure location.

  20. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  1. Computer-aided methods for analysis and synthesis of supersonic cruise aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-aided methods are reviewed which are being developed by Langley Research Center in-house work and by related grants and contracts. Synthesis methods to size structural members to meet strength and stiffness (flutter) requirements are emphasized and described. Because of the strong interaction among the aerodynamic loads, structural stiffness, and member sizes of supersonic cruise aircraft structures, these methods are combined into systems of computer programs to perform design studies. The approaches used in organizing these systems to provide efficiency, flexibility of use in an iterative process, and ease of system modification are discussed.

  2. Cold-flow performance of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle for supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, D. E.; Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained with a 21.59 cm (8.5 in.) diameter cold-flow model in a static altitude facility to determine the thrust and pumping characteristics of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle. Tests were conducted over a range of nozzle pressure ratios simulating supersonic cruise and takeoff conditions. Primary throat area was also varied to simulate afterburner on and off. Effect of plug size, outer shroud length, primary nozzle geometry, and varying amounts of secondary flow were investigated. At a supersonic cruise pressure ratio of 27, nozzle efficiencies were 99.7 percent for the best configurations.

  3. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Installation characteristics for a Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) were studied for three advanced supersonic airplane designs. Sensitivity of the VSCE concept to change in technology projections was evaluated in terms of impact on overall installed performance. Based on these sensitivity results, critical technology requirements were reviewed, resulting in the reaffirmation of the following requirements: low-noise nozzle system; a high performance, low emissions duct burner and main burner; hot section technology; variable geometry components; and propulsion integration features, including an integrated electronic control system.

  4. Supersonic cruise research aircraft structural studies: Methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Gross, D.; Kurtze, W.; Newsom, J.; Wrenn, G.; Greene, W.

    1981-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center SCAR in-house structural studies are reviewed. In methods development, advances include a new system of integrated computer programs called ISSYS, progress in determining aerodynamic loads and aerodynamically induced structural loads (including those due to gusts), flutter optimization for composite and metal airframe configurations using refined and simplified mathematical models, and synthesis of active controls. Results given address several aspects of various SCR configurations. These results include flutter penalties on composite wing, flutter suppression using active controls, roll control effectiveness, wing tip ground clearance, tail size effect on flutter, engine weight and mass distribution influence on flutter, and strength and flutter optimization of new configurations. The ISSYS system of integrated programs performed well in all the applications illustrated by the results, the diversity of which attests to ISSYS' versatility.

  5. Noise and economic characteristics of an advanced blended supersonic transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, J. K.; Grantham, W. D.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Noise and economic characteristics were obtained for an advanced supersonic transport concept that utilized wing body blending, a double bypass variable cycle engine, superplastically formed and diffusion bonded titanium in both the primary and secondary structures, and an alternative interior arrangement that provides increased seating capacity. The configuration has a cruise Mach number of 2.62, provisions for 290 passengers, a mission range of 8.19 Mm (4423 n.mi.), and an average operating cruise lift drag ratio of 9.23. Advanced operating procedures, which have the potential to reduce airport community noise, were explored by using a simulator. Traded jet noise levels of 105.7 and 103.4 EPNdB were obtained by using standard and advanced takeoff operational procedures, respectively. A new method for predicting lateral attenuation was utilized in obtaining these jet noise levels.

  6. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  7. Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.

  8. Nacelle Integration to Reduce the Sonic Boom of Aircraft Designed to Cruise at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical method for integrating the engine nacelles on a wing-fuselage-fin(s) configuration has been described. This method is based on Whitham theory and Seebass and George sonic-boom minimization theory, With it, both reduced sonic-boom as well as high aerodynamic efficiency methods can be applied to the conceptual design of a supersonic-cruise aircraft. Two high-speed civil transport concepts were used as examples to illustrate the application of this engine-nacelle integration methodology: (1) a concept with engine nacelles mounted on the aft-fuselage, the HSCT-1OB; and (2) a concept with engine nacelles mounted under an extended-wing center section, the HSCT-11E. In both cases, the key to a significant reduction in the sonic-boom contribution from the engine nacelles was to use the F-function shape of the concept as a guide to move the nacelles further aft on the configuration.

  9. Accounting for Laminar Run & Trip Drag in Supersonic Cruise Performance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodsell, Aga M.; Kennelly, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    An improved laminar run and trip drag correction methodology for supersonic cruise performance testing was derived. This method required more careful analysis of the flow visualization images which revealed delayed transition particularly on the inboard upper surface, even for the largest trip disks. In addition, a new code was developed to estimate the laminar run correction. Once the data were corrected for laminar run, the correct approach to the analysis of the trip drag became evident. Although the data originally appeared confusing, the corrected data are consistent with previous results. Furthermore, the modified approach, which was described in this presentation, extends prior historical work by taking into account the delayed transition caused by the blunt leading edges.

  10. Flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Flight measurements of lift, drag, and angle of attack were obtained for the XB-70 airplane, a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane. This airplane had a length of over 57 meters, a takeoff gross mass of over 226,800 kilograms, and a design cruise speed of Mach 3 at an altitude of 21,340 meters. The performance measurements were made at Mach numbers from 0.72 to 3.07 and altitudes from approximately 7620 meters to 21,340 meters. The measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the techniques presently being used to design and predict the performance of aircraft in this category. Such performance characteristics as drag polars, lift-curve slopes, and maximum lift-to-drag ratios were derived from the flight data. The base drag of the airplane, changes in airplane drag with changes in engine power setting at transonic speeds, and the magnitude of the drag components of the propulsion system are also discussed.

  11. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  12. The impact of emerging technologies on an advanced supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of advances in propulsion systems, structure and materials, aerodynamics, and systems on the design and development of supersonic transport aircraft are analyzed. Efficient propulsion systems with variable-cycle engines provide the basis for improved propulsion systems; the propulsion efficienies of supersonic and subsonic engines are compared. Material advances consist of long-life damage-tolerant structures, advanced material development, aeroelastic tailoring, and low-cost fabrication. Improvements in the areas of aerodynamics and systems are examined. The environmental problems caused by engine emissions, airport noise, and sonic boom are studied. The characteristics of the aircraft designed to include these technical advances are described.

  13. Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics a of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The main objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of varying nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail angle and curvature on nozzle drag The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to nine. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4 to 8 deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags.

  14. Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The overall objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail variations on boattail drag; (2) develop an experimental data base for 2D nozzles with long divergent flaps and small boattail angles and (3) provide data for correlating computational fluid dynamic predictions of nozzle boattail drag. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 9. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4deg to 8deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags. Summary

  15. Application of advanced computational codes in the design of an experiment for a supersonic throughflow fan rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Jerry R.; Schmidt, James F.; Steinke, Ronald J.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Kunik, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Increased emphasis on sustained supersonic or hypersonic cruise has revived interest in the supersonic throughflow fan as a possible component in advanced propulsion systems. Use of a fan that can operate with a supersonic inlet axial Mach number is attractive from the standpoint of reducing the inlet losses incurred in diffusing the flow from a supersonic flight Mach number to a subsonic one at the fan face. The design of the experiment using advanced computational codes to calculate the components required is described. The rotor was designed using existing turbomachinery design and analysis codes modified to handle fully supersonic axial flow through the rotor. A two-dimensional axisymmetric throughflow design code plus a blade element code were used to generate fan rotor velocity diagrams and blade shapes. A quasi-three-dimensional, thin shear layer Navier-Stokes code was used to assess the performance of the fan rotor blade shapes. The final design was stacked and checked for three-dimensional effects using a three-dimensional Euler code interactively coupled with a two-dimensional boundary layer code. The nozzle design in the expansion region was analyzed with a three-dimensional parabolized viscous code which corroborated the results from the Euler code. A translating supersonic diffuser was designed using these same codes.

  16. A simulator study for the development and evaluation of operating procedures on a supersonic cruise research transport to minimize airport-community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted-simulator studies were conducted to determine takeoff and landing operating procedures for a supersonic cruise research transport concept that result in predicted noise levels which meet current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification standards. With the use of standard FAA noise certification test procedures, the subject simulated aircraft did not meet the FAA traded-noise-level standards during takeoff and landing. However, with the use of advanced procedures, this aircraft meets the traded-noise-level standards for flight crews with average skills. The advanced takeoff procedures developed involved violating some of the current Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), but it was not necessary to violate any FAR noise-test conditions during landing approach. Noise contours were also determined for some of the simulated takeoffs and landings in order to indicate the noise-reduction advantages of using operational procedures other than standard.

  17. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  18. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  19. Advanced materials and fabrication processes for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guess, M. K.; Kaneko, R. S.; Wald, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Research and development programs to develop high-strength aluminum alloys and low-cost materials and fabrication techniques for titanium alloys are being conducted. Thirteen aluminum alloy compositions are being evaluated. A section of a production component was fabricated using superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) and fabrication studies are being conducted on three low temperature forming beta titanium alloys. Cost studies indicate substantial structural cost reduction potentials resulting from the use of both aluminum alloys and low-cost titanium fabrication techniques. Lowest overall costs are indicated for a composite/aluminum or composite titanium structure.

  20. Real-time testing of titanium sheet and extrusion coupon specimens subjected to Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing stresses and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, T.

    1977-01-01

    The accuracy of three accelerated flight-by-flight test methods for material selection, and fatigue substantiation of supersonic cruise aircraft structure was studied. The real time stresses and temperatures applied to the specimens were representative of the service conditions in the lower surface of a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing root structure. Each real time flight lasted about 65 minutes, including about one hour at (500 F) in the cruise condition. Center notched coupon specimens from six titanium materials were tested: mill-annealed, duplex-annealed, and triplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheets; mill-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V extrusion; mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V sheet; and solution-treated and aged Ti-6Al-4V extrusion. For duplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet, specimens with single spotweld were also tested. The test results were studied in conjunction with other related data from the literature for: material selection, structural fabrication, fatigue resistance of supersonic cruise aircraft structure, and fatigue test acceleration procedures for supersonic cruise aircraft.

  1. Advanced surface paneling method for subsonic and supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, L. L.; Johnson, F. T.; Ehlers, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical results illustrating the capabilities of an advanced aerodynamic surface paneling method are presented. The method is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow, as represented by linearized potential flow theory. The method is based on linearly varying sources and quadratically varying doublets which are distributed over flat or curved panels. These panels are applied to the true surface geometry of arbitrarily shaped three dimensional aerodynamic configurations.

  2. Conceptual study of an advanced supersonic technology transport (AST-107) for transpacific range using low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, S. J., Jr.; Foss, W. E., Jr.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced supersonic technology configuration concept designated the AST-107, using a low bypass ratio turbofan engine, is described and analyzed. The aircraft had provisions for 273 passengers arranged five abreast. The cruise Mach number was 2.62. The mission range for the AST-107 was 8.48 Mm (4576 n.mi.) and an average lift drag ratio of 9.15 during cruise was achieved. The available lateral control was not sufficient for the required 15.4 m/s (30 kt) crosswind landing condition, and a crosswind landing gear or a significant reduction in dihedral effect would be necessary to meet this requirement. The lowest computed noise levels, including a mechanical suppressor noise reduction of 3 EPNdB at the flyover and sideline monitoring stations, were 110.3 EPNdB (sideline noise), 113.1 EPNdB (centerline noise) and 110.5 EPNdB (approach noise).

  3. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research model with the engines suspended above the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of upper-surface nacelle exhaust flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research configuration was investigated in a 16 foot transonic tunnel over a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. The arrow-wing transport configuration with engines suspended over the wing was tested at angles of attack from -4 deg to 6 deg and jet total pressure ratios from 1 to approximately 13. Wing-tip leading edge flap deflections of -10 deg to 10 deg were tested with the wing-body configuration. Various nacelle locations (chordwise, spanwise, and vertical) were tested over the ranges of Mach numbers, angles of attack, and jet total-pressure ratios. The results show that reflecting the wing-tip leading edge flap from 0 deg to -10 deg increased the maximum lift-drag ratio by 1.0 at subsonic speeds. Jet exhaust interference effects were negligible.

  4. User's manual: Subsonic/supersonic advanced panel pilot code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, J.; Tinoco, E. N.; Johnson, F. T.

    1978-01-01

    Sufficient instructions for running the subsonic/supersonic advanced panel pilot code were developed. This software was developed as a vehicle for numerical experimentation and it should not be construed to represent a finished production program. The pilot code is based on a higher order panel method using linearly varying source and quadratically varying doublet distributions for computing both linearized supersonic and subsonic flow over arbitrary wings and bodies. This user's manual contains complete input and output descriptions. A brief description of the method is given as well as practical instructions for proper configurations modeling. Computed results are also included to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the pilot code. The computer program is written in FORTRAN IV for the SCOPE 3.4.4 operations system of the Ames CDC 7600 computer. The program uses overlay structure and thirteen disk files, and it requires approximately 132000 (Octal) central memory words.

  5. Advanced Supersonic Technology concept AST-100 characteristics developed in a baseline-update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Swanson, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced supersonic technology configuration, AST-100, is described. The combination of wing thickness reduction, nacelle recontouring for minimum drag at cruise, and the use of the horizontal tail to produce lift during climb and cruise resulted in an increase in maximum lift-to-drag ratio. Lighter engines and lower fuel weight associated with this resizing result in a six percent reduction in takeoff gross weight. The AST-100 takeoff maximum effective perceived noise at the runway centerline and sideline measurement stations was 114.4 decibels. Since 1.5-decibels tradeoff is available from the approach noise, the required engine noise supression is 4.9 decibels. The AST-100 largest maximum overpressure would occur during transonic climb acceleration when the aircraft was at relatively low altitude. Calculated standard +8 C day range of the AST-100, with a 292 passenger payload, is 7348 km (3968 n.mi). Fuel price is the largest contributor to direct operating cost. However, if the AST-100 were flown subsonically (M = 0.9), direct operating costs would increase approximately 50 percent because of time related costs.

  6. Contracts, grants and funding summary of supersonic cruise research and variable-cycle engine technology programs, 1972 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.; Varholic, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    NASA-SCAR (AST) program was initiated in 1972 at the direct request of the Executive Office of the White House and Congress following termination of the U.S. SST program. The purpose of SCR was to conduct a focused research and technology program on those technology programs which contributed to the SST termination and, also, to provide an expanded data base for future civil and military supersonic transport aircraft. Funding for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program was initiated in fiscal year 1973 and terminated in fiscal year 1981. The program was implemented through contracts and grants with industry, universities, and by in-house investigations at the NASA/OAST centers. The studies included system studies and five disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, materials and structures, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The NASA/Lewis Variable-Cycle Engine (VCE) Component Program was initiated in 1976 to augment the SCR program in the area of propulsion. After about 2 years, the title was changed to VCE Technology program. The total number of contractors and grantees on record at the AST office in 1982 was 101 for SCR and 4 for VCE. This paper presents a compilation of all the contracts and grants as well as the funding summaries for both programs.

  7. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  8. Low-speed static and dynamic force tests of a generic supersonic cruise fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Static and dynamic force tests of a generic fighter configuration designed for sustained supersonic flight were conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-foot tunnel. The baseline configuration had a 65 deg arrow wing, twin wing mounted vertical tails and a canard. Results showed that control was available up to C sub L,max (maximum lift coefficient) from aerodynamic controls about all axes but control in the pitch and yaw axes decreased rapidly in the post-stall angle-of-attack region. The baseline configuration showed stable lateral-directional characteristics at low angles of attack but directional stability occurred near alpha = 25 deg as the wing shielded the vertical tails. The configuration showed positive effective dihedral throughout the test angle-of-attack range. Forced oscillation tests indicated that the baseline configuration had stable damping characteristics about the lateral-directional axes.

  9. The common case study: Lockheed design of a supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, J. S., Jr.; Hays, A. P.; Wilson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The objective was to compare the characteristics of SSTs designed for the same mission by Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, British Aerospace (U.K.), Aerospatiale (France), and the USSR. This comparison was to be used to calibrate parametric design studies of the tradeoff between SST direct operating cost (DOC) and noise levels at the FAR 36 certification points. The guidelines for this common case study were to design an aircraft with the following mission: payload 23 247 kg (51 250 lbm), range - 7000 km (3780 n. mi.), and cruise Mach number - 2.2. Field length was constrained to 3505 m (11 500 ft). Other airfield constraints and fuel reserves were also specified, but no noise constraints were applied.

  10. Cruise noise measurements of a scale model advanced ducted propulsor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Hall, David G.

    1993-01-01

    A scale model Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was tested in NASA Lewis Research Center's 8- by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel to obtain acoustic data at cruise conditions. The model, designed and manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Division of United Technologies, was tested with three inlet lengths. The model has 16 rotor blades and 22 stator vanes, which results in a cut-on condition with respect to rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparisons of the noise directivity of the ADP with that of a previously tested high-speed, unducted propeller showed that the ADP peak blade passing tone was about 30 dB below that of the propeller, and therefore, should not present a cabin or enroute noise problem. The maximum blade passing tone first increased with increasing helical tip Mach number, peaked, and then decreased at a higher Mach number. The ADP tests with the shortest inlet showed more noise in the inlet arc than did tests with either of the other two inlet lengths.

  11. Cruise noise measurements of a scale model advanced ducted propulsor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Hall, David G.

    1993-10-01

    A scale model Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was tested in NASA Lewis Research Center's 8- by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel to obtain acoustic data at cruise conditions. The model, designed and manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Division of United Technologies, was tested with three inlet lengths. The model has 16 rotor blades and 22 stator vanes, which results in a cut-on condition with respect to rotor-stator interaction noise. Comparisons of the noise directivity of the ADP with that of a previously tested high-speed, unducted propeller showed that the ADP peak blade passing tone was about 30 dB below that of the propeller, and therefore, should not present a cabin or enroute noise problem. The maximum blade passing tone first increased with increasing helical tip Mach number, peaked, and then decreased at a higher Mach number. The ADP tests with the shortest inlet showed more noise in the inlet arc than did tests with either of the other two inlet lengths.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.16 of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration with a design Mach number of 1.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel, over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 2.16, to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic-cruise fighter. The configuration, which is designed for efficient cruise at Mach number 1.8, is a twin-engine tailless arrow-wing concept with a single rectangular inlet beneath the fuselage and outboard vertical tails and ventral fins. It had untrimmed values of lift-drage ratio ranging from 10 at subsonic speeds to 6.4 at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable both longitudinally and laterally.

  13. Final Report for the Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period, N+3 Supersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Stelmack, Marc; Skoch, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The N+3 Final Report documents the work and progress made by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in response to the NASA sponsored program "N+3 NRA Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period." The key technical objective of this effort was to generate promising supersonic concepts for the 2030 to 2035 timeframe and to develop plans for maturing the technologies required to make those concepts a reality. The N+3 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing alternative system-level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight

  14. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  15. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx combustors for supersonic high-altitude aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    An initial rig program tested the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) and Vortex Air Blast (VAB) systems in small can combustor configurations for NOx emissions at a simulated high altitude, supersonic cruise condition. The VAB combustor demonstrated the capability of meeting the NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at the cruise condition. In addition, the program served to demonstrate the limited low-emissions range available from the lean, premixed combustor. A follow-on effort was concerned with the problem of operating these lean, premixed combustors with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle conditions. Various techniques have been demonstrated that allow satisfactory operation on both the JIC and VAB combustors at idle with CO emissions below 20 g/kg fuel. The VAB combustor was limited by flashback/autoignition phenomena at the cruise conditions to a pressure of 8 atmospheres. The JIC combustor was operated up to the full design cruise pressure of 14 atmospheres without encountering an autoignition limitation although the NOx levels, in the 2-3 g NO2/kg fuel range, exceeded the program goal.

  16. The Edge supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise airplane configuration at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.96, and 3.30. [Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.; Fournier, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.96, and 3.30 to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic cruise airplane. The configuration, with a design Mach number of 3.0, has a highly swept arrow wing with tip panels of lesser sweep, a fuselage chine, outboard vertical tails, and outboard engines mounted in nacelles beneath the wings. For wind tunnel test conditions, a trimmed value above 6.0 of the maximum lift-drag ratio was obtained at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable, both longitudinally and laterally. Data are presented for variations of vertical-tail roll-out and toe-in and for various combinations of components. Some roll control data are shown as are data for the various sand grit sizes used in fixing the boundary layer transition location.

  18. Unstructured Grid Euler Method Assessment for Longitudinal and Lateral/Directional Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of the HSR Technology Concept Airplane at Supersonic Cruise Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1999-01-01

    Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at M (sub infinity) = 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. Although all the present computations are performed for the complete TCA configuration, appropriate assumptions derived from the fundamental supersonic aerodynamic principles have been made to extract aerodynamic predictions to complement the experimental data obtained from a 1.675%-scaled truncated (aft fuselage/empennage components removed) TCA model. The validity of the computational results, derived from the latter assumptions, are thoroughly addressed and discussed in detail. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex flow structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the truncated TCA configuration are shown to correlate very well with the corresponding wind-tunnel data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The complementary computational results for the longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the complete TCA configuration are also presented along with the aerodynamic effects due to empennage components. Results are also presented to assess the computational method performance, solution sensitivity to grid refinement, and solution convergence characteristics.

  19. Model aerodynamic test results for a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.

  20. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet. [Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined where the second cone of a two cone centerbody collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  1. Performance potential of air turbo-ramjet employing supersonic through-flow fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, C. E.; Champagne, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance potential of a supersonic through-flow fan in an advanced engine designed to power a Mach-5 cruise vehicle. It included a preliminary evaluation of fan performance requirements and the desirability of supersonic versus subsonic combustion, the design and performance of supersonic fans, and the conceptual design of a single-pass air-turbo-rocket/ramjet engine for a Mach 5 cruise vehicle. The study results showed that such an engine could provide high thrust over the entire speed range from sea-level takeoff to Mach 5 cruise, especially over the transonic speed range, and high fuel specific impulse at the Mach 5 cruise condition, with the fan windmilling.

  2. A comparison of arrow, trapezoidal and M wing concepts using a Mach 2 supersonic cruise transport mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Glenn L.; Tice, David C.; Marcum, Don C., Jr.; Seidel, Jonathan A.

    1991-01-01

    The present analytic study of the potential performance of SST configurations radically differing from arrow-winged designs in lifting surface planform geometry gives attention to trapezoidal-wing and M-wing configurations; the trapezoidal wing is used as the baseline in the performance comparisons. The design mission was all-supersonic (Mach 2), carrying 248 passengers over a 5500 nautical-mile range. Design constraints encompassed approach speed, TO&L field length, and engine-out second-segment climb and missed-approach performance. Techniques for improving these configurations are discussed.

  3. Flight calibration of compensated and uncompensated pitot-static airspeed probes and application of the probes to supersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, L. D.; Washington, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Static pressure position error calibrations for a compensated and an uncompensated XB-70 nose boom pitot static probe were obtained in flight. The methods (Pacer, acceleration-deceleration, and total temperature) used to obtain the position errors over a Mach number range from 0.5 to 3.0 and an altitude range from 25,000 feet to 70,000 feet are discussed. The error calibrations are compared with the position error determined from wind tunnel tests, theoretical analysis, and a standard NACA pitot static probe. Factors which influence position errors, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, probe tip geometry, static orifice location, and probe shape, are discussed. Also included are examples showing how the uncertainties caused by position errors can affect the inlet controls and vertical altitude separation of a supersonic transport.

  4. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  5. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 2. [propulsion system performance, design analysis and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A continuation of the NASA/P and WA study to evaluate various types of propulsion systems for advanced commercial supersonic transports has resulted in the identification of two very promising engine concepts. They are the Variable Stream Control Engine which provides independent temperature and velocity control for two coannular exhaust streams, and a derivative of this engine, a Variable Cycle Engine that employs a rear flow-inverter valve to vary the bypass ratio of the cycle. Both concepts are based on advanced engine technology and have the potential for significant improvements in jet noise, exhaust emissions and economic characteristics relative to current technology supersonic engines. Extensive research and technology programs are required in several critical areas that are unique to these supersonic Variable Cycle Engines to realize these potential improvements. Parametric cycle and integration studies of conventional and Variable Cycle Engines are reviewed, features of the two most promising engine concepts are described, and critical technology requirements and required programs are summarized.

  6. Supersonic jet shock noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Shock-cell noise is identified to be a potentially significant problem for advanced supersonic aircraft at takeoff. Therefore NASA conducted fundamental studies of the phenomena involved and model-scale experiments aimed at developing means of noise reduction. The results of a series of studies conducted to determine means by which supersonic jet shock noise can be reduced to acceptable levels for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft are reviewed. Theoretical studies were conducted on the shock associated noise of supersonic jets from convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles. Laboratory studies were conducted on the influence of narrowband shock screech on broadband noise and on means of screech reduction. The usefulness of C-D nozzle passages was investigated at model scale for single-stream and dual-stream nozzles. The effect of off-design pressure ratio was determined under static and simulated flight conditions for jet temperatures up to 960 K. Annular and coannular flow passages with center plugs and multi-element suppressor nozzles were evaluated, and the effect of plug tip geometry was established. In addition to the far-field acoustic data, mean and turbulent velocity distributions were measured with a laser velocimeter, and shadowgraph images of the flow field were obtained.

  7. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced F-16 derivative aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Mike C.; Forrest, Dana K.

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on an advanced derivative configuration of the United States Air Force F-16 fighter. Longitudinal and lateral directional force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.60 to 2.16 to evaluate basic performance parameters and control effectiveness. The aerodynamic characteristics for the F-16 derivative model were compared with the data obtained for the F-16C model and also with a previously tested generic wing model that features an identical plan form shape and similar twist distribution.

  8. Design aspects of long range supersonic LFC airplanes with highly swept wings. [laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, W.; Vemuru, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on supersonic long-range LFC (laminar flow control) aircraft were performed with the aim of maximizing L/D and alleviating sonic boom during supersonic cruise. It is found that configurations with highly swept LFC wings of very high structural aspect ratio, with the sweep increasing toward the wing root and braced externally by wide chord laminarized struts, appear especially promising. In the supersonic cruise design condition the wing upper surface isobars are swept such that the flow in the direction normal to them is transonic with embedded supersonic zones and practically shock-free over most of the span, with M-perpendicular equal to the two-dimensional design values of advanced SC LFC airfoils, e.g., of the X-787 or X-6 type.

  9. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO/x/ emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments have been and continue to be sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NO/x/) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NO/x/ emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  10. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  11. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  12. Advanced low NO/x/ combustors for supersonic high-altitude aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Shekleton, J. R.; White, D. J.; Butze, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A test rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating and minimizing the exhaust emissions, in particular NO(x), of two advanced aircraft combustor concepts at a simulated, high-altitude cruise condition. The two combustor designs, both members of the lean-reaction, pre-mixed family, are known as the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) combustor and the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) combustor and were rig tested in the form of reverse flow can combustors in the 0.127-m size range. Various configuration modifications were applied to each of the initial JIC and VAB combustor model designs in an effort to reduce the emissions levels. The VAB combustor demonstrated a NO(x) level of 1.1 gm NO2/kg fuel with essentially 100 percent combustion efficiency at the simulated cruise combustor condition of 507 kPa, 833 K inlet pressure and temperature, respectively and 1778 K outlet temperature on Jet-A1 fuel. In addition, emissions data were obtained at low combustor inlet pressure and temperatures that indicate the potential performance at engine off-design conditions.

  13. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composite materials for advanced supersonic technology application, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Haskins, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Implementation of metal and resin matrix composites into supersonic vehicle usage is contingent upon accelerating the demonstration of service capacity and design technology. Because of the added material complexity and lack of extensive service data, laboratory replication of the flight service will provide the most rapid method of documenting the airworthiness of advanced composite systems. A program in progress to determine the time temperature stress capabilities of several high temperature composite materials includes thermal aging, environmental aging, fatigue, creep, fracture, and tensile tests as well as real time flight simulation exposure. The program has two parts. The first includes all the material property determinations and aging and simulation exposures up through 10,000 hours. The second continues these tests up to 50,000 cumulative hours. Results are presented of the 10,000 hour phase, which has now been completed.

  14. Towards the characterization of noise sources in a supersonic three-stream jet using advanced analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscher, Christopher; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2016-11-01

    Strict noise regulation set by governing bodies currently make supersonic commercial aviation impractical. One of the many challenges that exist in developing practical supersonic commercial aircraft is the noise produced by the engine's exhaust jet. A promising method of jet noise reduction for supersonic applications is through the addition of extra exhaust streams. Data for an axisymmetric three-stream nozzle were generated using the Naval Research Laboratory's JENRE code. This data will be compared to experimental results obtained by NASA for validation purposes. Once the simulation results show satisfactory agreement to the experiments, advanced analysis tools will be applied to the simulation data to characterize potential noise sources. The tools to be applied include methods that are based on proper orthogonal decomposition, wavelet decomposition, and stochastic estimation. Additionally, techniques such as empirical mode decomposition and momentum potential theorem will be applied to the data as well.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of a fixed arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.70, and 2.95. [Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, O. A.; Fuller, D. E.; Watson, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.30. 2.70, and 2.95 to determine the performance, static stability, and control characteristics of a model of a fixed-wing supersonic cruise aircraft with a design Mach Number of 2.70 (SCAT 15-F-9898). The configuration had a 74 deg swept warped wing with a reflexed trailing edge and four engine nacelles mounted below the reflexed portion of the wing. A number of variations in the basic configuration were investigated; they included the effect of wing leading edge radius, the effect of various model components, and the effect of model control deflections.

  16. Wing planform effects at supersonic speeds for an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. M.; Miller, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Four advanced fighter configurations, which differed in wing planform and airfoil shape, were investigated in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, and 2.16. Supersonic data were obtained on the four uncambered wings, which were each attached to a single fighter fuselage. The fuselage geometry varied in cross-sectional shape and had two side-mounted, flow-through, half-axisymmetric inlets. Twin vertical tails were attached to the fuselage. The four planforms tested were a 65 deg delta wing, a combination of a 20 deg trapezoidal wing and a 45 deg horizontal tail, a 70 deg/30 deg cranked wing, and a 70 deg/66 deg crank wing, where the angle values refer to the leading-edge sweep angle of the lifting-surface planform. Planform effects on a single fuselage representative of an advanced fighter aircraft were studied. Results show that the highly swept cranked wings exceeded the aerodynamic performance levels, at low lift coefficients, of the 65 deg delta wing and the 20 deg trapezoidal wing at trimmed and untrimmed conditions.

  17. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composite materials for advanced supersonic technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, James R.; Haskins, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced composites will play a key role in the development of the technology for the design and fabrication of future supersonic vehicles. However, incorporating the material into vehicle usage is contingent on accelerating the demonstration of service capacity and design technology. Because of the added material complexity and lack of extensive data, laboratory replication of the flight service will provide the most rapid method to document the airworthiness of advanced composite systems. Consequently, a laboratory program was conducted to determine the time-temperature-stress capabilities of several high temperature composites. Tests included were thermal aging, environmental aging, fatigue, creep, fracture, tensile, and real-time flight simulation exposure. The program had two phases. The first included all the material property determinations and aging and simulation exposures up through 10,000 hours. The second continued these tests up to 50,000 cumulative hours. This report presents the results of the Phase 1 baseline and 10,000-hr aging and flight simulation studies, the Phase 2 50,000-hr aging studies, and the Phase 2 flight simulation tests, some of which extended to almost 40,000 hours.

  18. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-70-1). 3: A comparison between characteristics predicted from wind-tunnel measurements and those measured in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Daugherty, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken by NASA to evaluate the accuracy of a method for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of large supersonic cruise airplanes. This program compared predicted and flight-measured lift, drag, angle of attack, and control surface deflection for the XB-70-1 airplane for 14 flight conditions with a Mach number range from 0.76 to 2.56. The predictions were derived from the wind-tunnel test data of a 0.03-scale model of the XB-70-1 airplane fabricated to represent the aeroelastically deformed shape at a 2.5 Mach number cruise condition. Corrections for shape variations at the other Mach numbers were included in the prediction. For most cases, differences between predicted and measured values were within the accuracy of the comparison. However, there were significant differences at transonic Mach numbers. At a Mach number of 1.06 differences were as large as 27 percent in the drag coefficients and 20 deg in the elevator deflections. A brief analysis indicated that a significant part of the difference between drag coefficients was due to the incorrect prediction of the control surface deflection required to trim the airplane.

  19. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of low-speed handling characteristics of two supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Deal, P. L.; Neubauer, M. J.; Smith, P. M.; Gregory, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and powered lift concepts for supersonic approach and landing tasks are considered. Results indicated that the transport concepts had unacceptable low-speed handling qualities with no augmentation, and that in order to achieve satisfactory handling qualities, considerable augmentation was required. The available roll-control power was acceptable for the powered-lift concept.

  20. Application of powered-lift concepts for improved cruise efficiency of long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Fournier, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies conducted to explore the use of powered lift concepts for improved low speed performance of long range subsonic and supersonic cruise vehicles are summarized. It is indicated that powered lift can provide significant improvements in low speed performance, as well as substantial increases in cruise efficiency and range for both subsonic and supersonic cruise configurations.

  1. Use of advanced particle methods in modeling space propulsion and its supersonic expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borner, Arnaud

    This research discusses the use of advanced kinetic particle methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model space propulsion systems such as electrospray thrusters and their supersonic expansions. MD simulations are performed to model an electrospray thruster for the ionic liquid (IL) EMIM--BF4 using coarse-grained (CG) potentials. The model is initially featuring a constant electric field applied in the longitudinal direction. Two coarse-grained potentials are compared, and the effective-force CG (EFCG) potential is found to predict the formation of the Taylor cone, the cone-jet, and other extrusion modes for similar electric fields and mass flow rates observed in experiments of a IL fed capillary-tip-extractor system better than the simple CG potential. Later, one-dimensional and fully transient three-dimensional electric fields, the latter solving Poisson's equation to take into account the electric field due to space charge at each timestep, are computed by coupling the MD model to a Poisson solver. It is found that the inhomogeneous electric field as well as that of the IL space-charge improve agreement between modeling and experiment. The boundary conditions (BCs) are found to have a substantial impact on the potential and electric field, and the tip BC is introduced and compared to the two previous BCs, named plate and needle, showing good improvement by reducing unrealistically high radial electric fields generated in the vicinity of the capillary tip. The influence of the different boundary condition models on charged species currents as a function of the mass flow rate is studied, and it is found that a constant electric field model gives similar agreement to the more rigorous and computationally expensive tip boundary condition at lower flow rates. However, at higher mass flow rates the MD simulations with the constant electric field produces extruded particles with higher Coulomb energy per ion, consistent with

  2. Supersonic through-flow fan assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, C. E.; Champagne, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance potential of a supersonic through-flow fan engine for supersonic cruise aircraft. It included a mean-line analysis of fans designed to operate with in-flow velocities ranging from subsonic to high supersonic speeds. The fan performance generated was used to estimate the performance of supersonic fan engines designed for four applications: a Mach 2.3 supersonic transport, a Mach 2.5 fighter, a Mach 3.5 cruise missile, and a Mach 5.0 cruise vehicle. For each application an engine was conceptualized, fan performance and engine performance calculated, weight estimates made, engine installed in a hypothetical vehicle, and mission analysis was conducted.

  3. Development of longitudinal handling qualities criteria for large advanced supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudderth, R. W.; Bohn, J. G.; Caniff, M. A.; Bennett, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Longitudinal handling qualities criteria in terms of airplane response characteristics were developed. The criteria cover high speed cruise maneuvering, landing approach, and stall recovery. Data substantiating the study results are reported.

  4. Advancements in Dual-Pump Broadband CARS for Supersonic Combustion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedder, Sarah Augusta Umberger

    Space- and time-resolved measurements of temperature and species mole fractions of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen were obtained with a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion free jet flows. These measurements were taken to provide time-resolved fluid properties of turbulent supersonic combustion for use in the creation and verification of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. CFD models of turbulent supersonic combustion flow currently facilitate the design of air- breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines. Measurements were made in supersonic axi-symmetric free jets of two scales. First, the measurement system was tested in a laboratory environment using a laboratory-scale burner (˜10 mm at nozzle exit). The flow structures of the laboratory-burner were too small to be resolved with the CARS measurements volume, but the composition and temperature of the jet allowed the performance of the system to be evaluated. Subsequently, the system was tested in a burner that was approximately 6 times larger, whose length scales are better resolved by the CARS measurement volume. During both these measurements, weaknesses of the CARS system, such as sensitivity to vibrations and beam steering and inability to measure temperature or species concentrations in hydrogen fuel injection regions were identified. Solutions were then implemented in improved CARS systems. One of these improved systems is a dual-pump broadband CARS technique called, Width Increased Dual-pump Enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The two lowest rotational energy levels of hydrogen detectable by WIDECARS are H2 S(3) and H2 S(4). The detection of these lines gives the system the capability to measure temperature and species concentrations in regions of the flow containing pure hydrogen fuel at room temperature. WIDECARS is also designed for measurements of all the major species (except water) in supersonic combustion flows fueled

  5. Advancements in Dual-Pump Broadband CARS for Supersonic Combustion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah Augusta Umberger

    2010-01-01

    Space- and time-resolved measurements of temperature and species mole fractions of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen were obtained with a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion free jet flows. These measurements were taken to provide time-resolved fluid properties of turbulent supersonic combustion for use in the creation and verification of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. CFD models of turbulent supersonic combustion flow currently facilitate the design of air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines. Measurements were made in supersonic axi-symmetric free jets of two scales. First, the measurement system was tested in a laboratory environment using a laboratory-scale burner (approx.10 mm at nozzle exit). The flow structures of the laboratory-burner were too small to be resolved with the CARS measurements volume, but the composition and temperature of the jet allowed the performance of the system to be evaluated. Subsequently, the system was tested in a burner that was approximately 6 times larger, whose length scales are better resolved by the CARS measurement volume. During both these measurements, weaknesses of the CARS system, such as sensitivity to vibrations and beam steering and inability to measure temperature or species concentrations in hydrogen fuel injection regions were indentified. Solutions were then implemented in improved CARS systems. One of these improved systems is a dual-pump broadband CARS technique called, Width Increased Dual-pump Enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The two lowest rotational energy levels of hydrogen detectable by WIDECARS are H2 S(3) and H2 S(4). The detection of these lines gives the system the capability to measure temperature and species concentrations in regions of the flow containing pure hydrogen fuel at room temperature. WIDECARS is also designed for measurements of all the major species (except water) in supersonic combustion flows

  6. Methods for comparative evaluation of propulsion system designs for supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, R. M.; Mairs, R. Y.; Halferty, F. D., Jr.; Moore, B. E.; Chaloff, D.; Knudsen, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    The propulsion system comparative evaluation study was conducted to define a rapid, approximate method for evaluating the effects of propulsion system changes for an advanced supersonic cruise airplane, and to verify the approximate method by comparing its mission performance results with those from a more detailed analysis. A table look up computer program was developed to determine nacelle drag increments for a range of parametric nacelle shapes and sizes. Aircraft sensitivities to propulsion parameters were defined. Nacelle shapes, installed weights, and installed performance was determined for four study engines selected from the NASA supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) engine studies program. Both rapid evaluation method (using sensitivities) and traditional preliminary design methods were then used to assess the four engines. The method was found to compare well with the more detailed analyses.

  7. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  8. Takeoff certification considerations for large subsonic and supersonic transport airplanes using the Ames flight simulator for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Fry, E. B.; Forrest, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Data for use in development of takeoff airworthiness standards for new aircraft designs such as the supersonic transport (SST) and the large wide-body subsonic jet transport are provided. An advanced motion simulator was used to compare the performance and handling characteristics of three representative large jet transports during specific flight certification tasks. Existing regulatory constraints and methods for determining rotation speed were reviewed, and the effects on takeoff performance of variations in rotation speed, pitch attitude, and pitch attitude rate during the rotation maneuver were analyzed. A limited quantity of refused takeoff information was obtained. The aerodynamics, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio of the subject SST resulted in takeoff speeds limited by climb (rather than lift-off) considerations. Take-off speeds based on U.S. subsonic transport requirements were found unacceptable because of the criticality of rotation-abuse effects on one-engine-inoperative climb performance. Adequate safety margin was provided by takeoff speeds based on proposed Anglo-French supersonic transport (TSS) criteria, with the limiting criterion being that takeoff safety speed be at least 1.15 times the one-engine-inoperative zero-rate-of-climb speed. Various observations related to SST certification are presented.

  9. Advanced low-NO(x) combustors for supersonic high-altitude gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of gas-turbine-engine-powered aircraft on worldwide pollution was defined within two major areas of contribution. First, the contribution of aircraft to the local air pollution of metropolitan areas and, second, the long-term effects on the chemical balance of the stratosphere of pollutants emitted from future generations of high-altitude, supersonic commercial and military aircraft. Preliminary findings indicate that stratospheric oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions may have to be limited to very low levels if, for example, ozone depletion with concomitant increases in sea-level radiation, are to be avoided. Theoretical considerations suggest that (NOx) levels as low as 1.0 gram per kilogram of fuel and less should be attainable from a idealized premixed type of combustor. Experimental rig studies were intended to explore new combustor concepts designed to minimize the formation of (NOx) in aircraft gas turbines and to define their major operational problems and limitations.

  10. The effect of swirl recovery vanes on the cruise noise of an advanced propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    The SR-7A propeller was acoustically tested with and without downstream swirl recovery vanes to determine if any extra noise was caused by the interaction of the propeller wakes and vortices with these vanes. No additional noise was observed at the cruise condition over the angular range tested. The presence of the swirl recovery vanes did unload the propeller and some small peak noise reductions were observed from lower propeller loading noise. The propeller was also tested alone to investigate the behavior of the peak propeller noise with helical tip Mach number. As observed before on other propellers, the peak noise first rose with helical tip Mach number and then leveled off or decreased at higher helical tip Mach numbers. Detailed pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This cancellation appears to be responsible for the peak noise behavior at high helical tip Mach numbers.

  11. The effect of swirl recovery vanes on the cruise noise of an advanced propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    1990-10-01

    The SR-7A propeller was acoustically tested with and without downstream swirl recovery vanes to determine if any extra noise was caused by the interaction of the propeller wakes and vortices with these vanes. No additional noise was observed at the cruise condition over the angular range tested. The presence of the swirl recovery vanes did unload the propeller and some small peak noise reductions were observed from lower propeller loading noise. The propeller was also tested alone to investigate the behavior of the peak propeller noise with helical tip Mach number. As observed before on other propellers, the peak noise first rose with helical tip Mach number and then leveled off or decreased at higher helical tip Mach numbers. Detailed pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This cancellation appears to be responsible for the peak noise behavior at high helical tip Mach numbers.

  12. The effect of swirl recovery vanes on the cruise noise of an advanced propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.

    1990-01-01

    The SR-7A propeller was acoustically tested with and without downstream swirl recovery vanes to determine if any extra noise was caused by the interaction of the propeller wakes and vortices with these vanes. No additional noise was observed at the cruise condition over the angular range tested. The presence of the swirl recovery vanes did unload the propeller and some small peak noise reductions were observed from lower propeller loading noise. The propeller was also tested alone to investigate the behavior of the peak propeller noise with helical tip Mach number. As observed before on other propellers, the peak noise first rose with helical tip Mach number and then leveled off or decreased at higher helical tip Mach numbers. Detailed pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This cancellation appears to be responsible for the peak noise behavior at high helical tip Mach numbers.

  13. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short-Takeoff and Vertical-Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. Three configurations (a lift plus lift/cruise concept, a hybrid fan vectored thrust concept, and a mixed flow vectored thrust concept) were initially investigated with one configuration selected for further design analysis. The selected configuration, the lift plus lift/cruise concept, was successfully integrated to accommodate the powered lift short takeoff and vertical landing requirements as well as the demanding supersonic cruise and point performance requirements. A supersonic fighter aircraft with a short takeoff and vertical landing capability using the lift plus lift/cruise engine concept seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  14. Results from an exploratory study of airframe noise on a small-scale model of a supersonic transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisser, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    An exploratory study of airframe noise on a small-scale model of a supersonic transport concept was made. The model was a 0.015 scale version without landing gear of Langley's Advanced Supersonic Technology configuration concept, AST-110. Noise measurements were made at positions corresponding to directly beneath the model and at 30 deg - sideline, for both cruise and the approch flaps configurations, at velocities up to 34 m/s. In general, results showed the cruise noise to be about 3dB above the background flow noise and the approach noise to be about 11 dB above. Overall sound pressure levels and spectral shapes agreed with state of the art predictive techniques.

  15. The performance evaluation of a jet flap on an advanced supersonic harrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipera, L. D.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The performance concept of a supersonic vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fighter, model 279-3, modified to utilize a jet flap was evaluated. Replacing the rear nozzles of the 279-3 with the jet flap favorably alters the pressure distribution over the airfoil and dramatically increases lift. The result is a significant decrease in takeoff distance, an increase in payload, and an improvement in combat performance. To investigate the benefit in increased payload, the 279-3 and the jet flapped 279-3JF were modeled on the NASA Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer code and flown on a 250 feet takeoff distance interdiction mission. The increase in payload weight that the 279-3JF could carry was converted into fuel in one case, and in another, converted to bomb load. When the fuel was increased, the 279-3JF penetrated into enemy territory almost four times the distance of 279-3, and therefore increased mission capability. When the bomb load was increased, the 279-3JF carried 14 bombs the same distance the 279-3 carried four. The increase in mission performance and improvements in turning rates was realized with only a small penalty in increased empty weight.

  16. Edge localized mode characteristics during edge localized mode mitigation by supersonic molecular beam injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. Y.; Hong, J. H.; Jang, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Choe, Wonho; Hahn, S. H.; Bak, J. G.; Lee, J. H.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, K. D.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. H.; Juhn, J.-W.; Kim, H. S.; Yoon, S. W.; Han, H.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2015-12-15

    It has been reported that supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) is an effective means of edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation. This paper newly reports the changes in the ELM, plasma profiles, and fluctuation characteristics during ELM mitigation by SMBI in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. During the mitigated ELM phase, the ELM frequency increased by a factor of 2–3 and the ELM size, which was estimated from the D{sub α} amplitude, the fractional changes in the plasma-stored energy and the line-averaged electron density, and divertor heat flux during an ELM burst, decreased by a factor of 0.34–0.43. Reductions in the electron and ion temperatures rather than in the electron density were observed during the mitigated ELM phase. In the natural ELM phase, frequency chirping of the plasma fluctuations was observed before the ELM bursts; however, the ELM bursts occurred without changes in the plasma fluctuation frequency in the mitigated ELM phase.

  17. Supersonic LFC: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Arthur G.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion and viewgraphs on supersonic laminar control are provided. The high fuel fractions required for long range supersonic airplanes give significant leverage to technologies for cruise drag reduction such as laminar flow control (LFC). Fuel burn benefits are further enhanced when sizing effects are considered. These effects may even be powerful enough to reduce airplane production cost over a turbulent baseline. This is an important goal for LFC technology development. The results of aerodynamics studies on the application of LFC technology to the highly swept wings of supersonic airplanes are presented. Important questions of applicability, realistic benefit, and critical application issues, addressed in a NASA-sponsored study conducted by McDonnell Douglas Corporation in 1987-88 are reviewed. Efforts aimed at establishing the feasibility of demonstrating extensive laminarization on the F-16XL-2 airplane are summarized.

  18. Cruise noise of an advanced single-rotation propeller measured from an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from flight measurements of the noise from a full-scale SR-7L advanced single-rotation turbofan model mounted on the wing of the NASA Lewis Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft (a modified Gulfstream II). Data obtained on the PTA with an outboard microphone boom and by the NASA Lewis acoustically instrumented Learjet flying along several sidelines relative to the PTA are presented in tables and graphs and briefly discussed. It is found that the PTA-boom and Learjet sound levels are in good agreement at Mach 0.69 and altitude 20,000 ft, but the Learjet values are significantly lower than the boom levels at Mach 0.79 and altitude 36,000 ft.

  19. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  20. Supersonic HLFC: Potential benefits and technology development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the potential benefits and technology development requirements of supersonic Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) are reviewed. For the last three years, Boeing has performed studies on the application of laminar flow control to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations. Large potential net benefits were identified for laminar flow control, even after accounting for the significant implementation penalties. However, the technical risks are high at this time, and an early, aggressive technology development program is required if laminar flow control (LFC) is to be incorporated in a year 2005 HSCT program. The benefits and required development effort are addressed. Of all the aerodynamic advances that are being considered for the HSCT, LFC has the largest potential for improving the supersonic lift drag ratio of a given configuration. The work accomplished to date, sponsored by NASA Langley, is summarized. This work includes studies on HLFC application to HSCT, cruise HLFC/low speed boundary layer control (BLC) compatibility, and impact of M 0.9 HLFC and high lift BLC. Requirements for production committments are listed. The need for a HSCT-HLFC Risk Reduction Program is addressed. Supersonic HLFC development planning and future applications are addressed. Laminar flow/high-lift integration is addressed.

  1. Supersonic compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having an axially oriented compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which forms a supersonic shockwave axially, between adjacent strakes. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the gas compression ramp on a strake, the shock capture lip on the adjacent strake, and captures the resultant pressure within the stationary external housing while providing a diffuser downstream of the compression ramp.

  2. An assessment of the effect of supersonic aircraft operations on the stratospheric ozone content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.; Capone, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment of the potential effect on stratospheric ozone of an advanced supersonic transport operations is presented. This assessment, which was undertaken because of NASA's desire for an up-to-date evaluation to guide programs for the development of supersonic technology and improved aircraft engine designs, uses the most recent chemical reaction rate data. From the results of the present assessment it would appear that realistic fleet sizes should not cause concern with regard to the depletion of the total ozone overburden. For example, the NOx emission of one type designed to cruise at 20 km altitude will cause the ozone overburden to increase by 0.03% to 0.12%, depending upon which vertical transport is used. These ozone changes can be compared with the predictions of a 1.74% ozone decrease (for 100 Large SST's flying at 20 km) made in 1974 by the FAA's Climatic Impact Assessment Program.

  3. Study of the supersonic propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabri, Jean; Siestrunck, Raymond

    1953-01-01

    In this paper a propeller having all sections operating at supersonic speeds is designated a supersonic propeller regardless of flight speed. Analyses assume subsonic flight speeds but very high rotational speeds. A very elementary analysis of the efficiency of a jet-propeller system is presented. A propeller analysis based on conventional vortex blade element theory is presented and reduced to a single point method which leads to an expression for optimum advance ratio in terms of hub-tip diameter ratio and airfoil fineness ratio. An expression for propeller efficiency in terms of advance ratio, hub-tip diameter ratio, and airfoil thickness ratio is also presented. Use is made of theoretical airfoil characteristics at supersonic speeds. A study of blade section interference, blade shock and expansion fields, at supersonic section speeds is presented. An example taken indicates that an efficiency of seventy percent can be obtained with a propeller having a tip Mach number of 2.3.

  4. Supersonic through-flow fan engine and aircraft mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate potential improvement to a commercial supersonic transport by powering it with supersonic through-flow fan turbofan engines. A Mach 3.2 mission was considered. The three supersonic fan engines considered were designed to operate at bypass ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 at supersonic cruise. For comparison a turbine bypass turbojet was included in the study. The engines were evaluated on the basis of aircraft takeoff gross weight with a payload of 250 passengers for a fixed range of 5000 N.MI. The installed specific fuel consumption of the supersonic fan engines was 7 to 8 percent lower than that of the turbine bypass engine. The aircraft powered by the supersonic fan engines had takeoff gross weights 9 to 13 percent lower than aircraft powered by turbine bypass engines.

  5. Supersonic jet engine and method of operating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1981-10-13

    A supersonic jet engine is disclosed that is capable not only of developing sufficient power to accelerate up to supersonic cruise and maintain efficient operation at supersonic cruise, but also arrange to cruise at subsonic velocities with a relatively low specific fuel consumption. The engine is provided with a variable bypass passageway downstream of the compressor. Flow into the bypass passageway is controlled so that during low power setting the bypass passageway is closed so that all the gaseous flow is directed through the turbine. During higher power settings, the bypass passageway is opened to the extent that a selected portion of the gaseous flow is directed through the bypass passageway to bypass the turbine, so that the corrected flow to the turbine remains substantially constant for both high and low power settings of the engine.

  6. The rebirth of supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Williams, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the aerodynamic and propulsion system technologies that will be required to make a second-generation SST, or High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) sufficiently (20 dB) quieter near airports and in supersonic cruise (sonic boom), less NO(x)-emitting, and longer-range than Concorde. NASA's Ames, Lewis, and Langley facilities are intensively concerned with the development of such an environmentally benign and economically feasible Mach 2.4 HSCT; efforts have concentrated on the design of a powerplant with the requisite specific fuel consumption, low emissions, and low noise.

  7. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-701) 2: Extrapolation of wind-tunnel data to full-scale conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Mann, M. J.; Sorrells, R. B., III; Sawyer, W. C.; Fuller, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of calculations necessary to extrapolate performance data on an XB-70-1 wind tunnel model to full scale at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 2.53 are presented. The extrapolation was part of a joint program to evaluate performance prediction techniques for large flexible supersonic airplanes similar to a supersonic transport. The extrapolation procedure included: interpolation of the wind tunnel data at the specific conditions of the flight test points; determination of the drag increments to be applied to the wind tunnel data, such as spillage drag, boundary layer trip drag, and skin friction increments; and estimates of the drag items not represented on the wind tunnel model, such as bypass doors, roughness, protuberances, and leakage drag. In addition, estimates of the effects of flexibility of the airplane were determined.

  8. The challenges and opportunities of supersonic transport propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, William C.; Morris, Shelby J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The major challenges confronting the propulsion community for civil supersonic transport applications are identified: high propulsion system efficiency at both supersonic and subsonic cruise conditions, low-cost fuel with adequate thermal stability at high temperatures, low noise cycles and exhaust systems, low emission combustion systems, and low drag installations. Both past progress and future opportunities are discussed in relation to perceived technology shortfalls for an economically successful airplane that satisfies environmental constraints.

  9. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  10. Supersonic compressor

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.; Breidenthal, Robert E.

    2016-04-12

    A supersonic compressor including a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a diffuser. The diffuser includes a plurality of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions, for deceleration of gas to subsonic conditions and then for expansion of subsonic gas, to change kinetic energy of the gas to static pressure. The aerodynamic ducts include vortex generating structures for controlling boundary layer, and structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when the aerodynamic ducts are designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of in excess of two to one, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  11. Subsonic/supersonic aerodynamic characteristics for a tactical supercruiser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Bare, E. A.; Hollenback, D.; Hutchison, R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of cooperative NASA-Langley/Boeing experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced tactical fighter designed for supersonic cruise. These investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic and Lewis 10 x 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnels at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.47. This fighter is a Mach 2.0, 49,000 pound class vehicle that features a close-coupled canard and underwing propulsion units that utilize multifunction two-dimensional exhaust nozzles. Tests were conducted to determine the basic aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration with flow-through nacelles in which the spillage effects of representative inlets were measured. The effects of thrust-induced forces on overall aerodynamic performance were evaluated with a series of multifunction nozzles installed on air-powered nacelles. An axisymmetric nozzle configuration was also tested to obtain comparative aeropropulsive performance. Trim aerodynamic characteristics for the flow-through and powered configurations and the effect of thrust vectoring at subsonic speeds are presented.

  12. Effects on inlet technology on cruise speed selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, L. H.; Santman, D. M.; Horie, G.; Miller, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of cruise speed on technology level for certain aircraft components is examined. External-compression inlets were compared with mixed compression, self starting inlets at cruise Mach numbers of 2.0 and 2.3. Inlet engine combinations that provided the greatest aircraft range were identified. Results show that increased transonic to cruise corrected air flow ratio gives decreased range for missions dominated by supersonic cruise. It is also found important that inlets be designed to minimize spillage drag at subsonic cruise, because of the need for efficient performance for overland operations. The external compression inlet emerged as the probable first choice at Mach 2.0, while the self starting inlet was the probable first choice at Mach 2.3. Airframe propulsion system interference effects were significant, and further study is needed to assess the existing design methods and to develop improvements.

  13. Adaptive Cruise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winner, Hermann; Danner, Bernd; Steinle, Joachim

    Mit Adaptive Cruise Control, abgekürzt ACC, wird eine Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung bezeichnet, die sich an die Verkehrssituation anpasst. Synonyme Bezeichnungen sind Aktive Geschwindigkeitsregelung, Automatische Distanzregelung oder Abstandsregeltempomat. Im englischen Sprachraum fnden sich die weiteren Bezeichnungen Active Cruise Control, Automatic Cruise Control oder Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control. Als markengeschützte Bezeichnungen sind Distronic und Automatische Distanz-Regelung (ADR) eingetragen.

  14. Design features of a low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel for transition research at low supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.; Reda, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    A unique, low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel is being developed at NASA-Ames to support supersonic laminar flow control research at cruise Mach numbers of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The distinctive design features of this new quiet tunnel are a low-disturbance settling chamber, laminar boundary layers along the nozzle/test section walls, and steady supersonic diffuser flow. This paper discusses these important aspects of our quiet tunnel design and the studies necessary to support this design. Experimental results from an 1/8th-scale pilot supersonic wind tunnel are presented and discussed in association with theoretical predictions. Natural laminar flow on the test section walls is demonstrated and both settling chamber and supersonic diffuser performance is examined. The full-scale wind tunnel should be commissioned by the end of 1993.

  15. Supersonic market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochte, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced supersonic transport markets of the free world were projected for the period 1985 to 2004. Passenger traffic volume and airplane range and seat capacity requirements were estimated for Mach 2.2 service by international regional area market areas and by city pairs within and between these areas. Market factors and traffic factors examined include variable loads, growth rates, supersonic transport market shares, and schedule frequencies considering the different makeup of passenger traffic and individual city pairs. Direct, indirect, and total operating costs and yield levels were economically analyzed for first class and full fare economy class traffic.

  16. A Generalized Framework for Constrained Design Optimization of General Supersonic Configurations Using Adjoint Based Sensitivity Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) sent out an NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for proposals soliciting research and technical development. The proposed research program was aimed at addressing the desired milestones and outcomes of ROA (ROA-2006) Subtopic A.4.1.1 Advanced Computational Methods. The second milestone, SUP.1.06.02 Robust, validated mesh adaptation and error quantification for near field Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was addressed by the proposed research. Additional research utilizing the direct links to geometry through a CAD interface enabled by this work will allow for geometric constraints to be applied and address the final milestone, SUP2.07.06 Constrained low-drag supersonic aerodynamic design capability. The original product of the proposed research program was an integrated system of tools that can be used for the mesh mechanics required for rapid high fidelity analysis and for design of supersonic cruise vehicles. These Euler and Navier-Stokes volume grid manipulation tools were proposed to efficiently use parallel processing. The mesh adaptation provides a systematic approach for achieving demonstrated levels of accuracy in the solutions. NASA chose to fund only the mesh generation/adaptation portion of the proposal. So this report describes the completion of the proposed tasks for mesh creation, manipulation and adaptation as it pertains to sonic boom prediction of supersonic configurations.

  17. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  18. Study of structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic transport configuration, volume 1. Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A structural design study was made, based on a 1975 level of technology, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic transport cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, to integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, to select structural concepts and materials, and to define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology and for use in future studies of aerostructural trades, and application of advanced technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented.

  19. Characteristics of the advanced supersonic technology AST-105-1 configured for transpacific range with Pratt and Whitney aircraft variable stream control engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Credence to systems weights and assurance that the noise study AST concept can be balanced were studied. Current titanium structural technology is assumed. A duct-burning turbofan variable stream control engine (VSCE), with noise reduction potential through use of a coannular nozzle was used. With 273 passengers, range of the AST-105-1 for a cruise Mach number of 2.62 is essentially transpacific. Lift-to-drag ratio is slightly higher than for previous AST configurations. It is trimmable over a center-of-gravity range of 4.7m (15.5 ft). Inherent high positive effective dihedral, typical of arrow-wing configurations in high-lift approach, would limit AST-105-1 to operating in crosswinds of 11.6 m/sec (22.4 kt), or less, with 75 percent of available lateral control. Normal power takeoff with cutback results in noise in excess of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 but less than for conventional procedure takeoff. Results of advanced (noncertificated) programmed throttle takeoff and approach procedures, not yet optimized, indicate that such can be an important additional method noise reduction.

  20. Hypersonic cruise aircraft propulsion integration study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. E.; Brewer, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    A hypersonic cruise transport conceptual design is described. The integration of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic propulsion systems with the aerodynamic design of the airframe is emphasized. An evaluation of various configurations of aircraft and propulsion integration concepts, and selection and refinement of a final design are given. This configuration was used as a baseline to compare two propulsion concepts - one using a fixed geometry dual combustion mode scramjet and the other a variable geometry ramjet engine. Both concepts used turbojet engines for takeoff, landing and acceleration to supersonic speed.

  1. Conceptual Design of a Supersonic Business Jet Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEETP) is developing a suite of technology to enhance the performance of future aircraft propulsion systems. Areas of focus for this suite of technology include: Highly Loaded Turbomachinery, Emissions Reduction, Materials and Structures, Controls, and Propulsion-Airframe Integration. The two major goals of the UEETP are emissions reduction of both landing and take-off nitrogen oxides (LTO-NO(x)) and mission carbon dioxide (CO2) through fuel burn reductions. The specific goals include a 70 percent reduction in the current LTO-NO(x) rule and an 8 percent reduction in mission CO2 emissions. In order to gain insight into the potential applications and benefits of these technologies on future aircraft, a set of representative flight vehicles was selected for systems level conceptual studies. The Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ) is one of these vehicles. The particular SBJ considered in this study has a capacity of 6 passengers, cruise Mach Number of 2.0, and a range of 4,000 nautical miles. Without the current existence of an SBJ the study of this vehicle requires a two-phased approach. Initially, a hypothetical baseline SBJ is designed which utilizes only current state of the art technology. Finally, an advanced SBJ propulsion system is designed and optimized which incorporates the advanced technologies under development within the UEETP. System benefits are then evaluated and compared to the program and design requirements. Although the program goals are only concerned with LTO-NO(x) and CO2 emissions, it is acknowledged that additional concerns for an SBJ include take-off noise, overland supersonic flight, and cruise NO(x) emissions at high altitudes. Propulsion system trade-offs in the conceptual design phase acknowledge these issues as well as the program goals. With the inclusion of UEETP technologies a propulsion system is designed which performs at 81% below the LTO-NO(x) rule, and reduces fuel burn by 23 percent

  2. Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses Advanced Aircraft configurational approaches across the speed range, which are either enabled, or greatly enhanced, by clever Flow Control. Configurations considered include Channel Wings with circulation control for VTOL (but non-hovering) operation with high cruise speed, strut-braced CTOL transports with wingtip engines and extensive ('natural') laminar flow control, a midwing double fuselage CTOL approach utilizing several synergistic methods for drag-due-to-lift reduction, a supersonic strut-braced configuration with order of twice the L/D of current approaches and a very advanced, highly engine flow-path-integrated hypersonic cruise machine. This paper indicates both the promise of synergistic flow control approaches as enablers for 'Revolutions' in aircraft performance and fluid mechanic 'areas of ignorance' which impede their realization and provide 'target-rich' opportunities for Fluids Research.

  3. A Potent Vector: Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    and Yuan 101 sea-skimming sprint vehicle that travels the last 20 km to the target at a speed of Mach 2.9. The 3M54E ASCM has a 200- kg semi-armor...attack at 7 to 10 meters . With Table 1. PLA Antiship Cruise Missiles (Major Systems) Type Manufacturer Launch Platform Range (km) Payload (kg) Speed ...post-launch counterforce attacks. The potential combination of supersonic speed , small radar signature, and very low altitude flight profile enables

  4. The Advanced Guided Weapon Testbed (AGWT) at the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Performance Fighter Twin Turbine Helicopter Supersonic Cruise Missile Boosting Theater Target Deploying Post-Boost Vehicle Strategic Reentry Vehicle...High Performance Fighter Twin Turbine Helicopter Supersonic Cruise Missile Figure 17. Air breathing and ballistic missile RTC outputs in various...radiation and convection heat loads. It also models external source effects, including solar reflection, earth shine, and plume impingement. Over the

  5. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  6. Supersonic combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, David W.; Drummond, J. Philip; Carpenter, Mark H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena involved when a supersonic flow undergoes chemical reaction are discussed. Detailed physical models of convective and diffusive mixing, and finite rate chemical reaction in supersonic flow are presented. Numerical algorithms used to solve the equations governing these processes are introduced. Computer programs using these algorithms are used to analyze the structure of the reacting mixing layer. It is concluded that, as in subsonic flow, exothermic heat release in unconfined supersonic flows retards fuel/air mixing. Non mixing is shown to be a potential problem in reducing the efficiency of supersonic as well as subsonic combustion. Techniques for enhancing fuel/air mixing and combustion are described.

  7. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory ... 100 Variances About Inspections Facts About Noroviruses on Cruise Ships Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Noroviruses Norovirus ...

  8. Supersonic naval missile sounds over San Nicolas Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Charles R.; Norman, Robert G.; Holst, Meike; Malme, Charles I.

    2003-10-01

    Vandals and other missiles are launched occasionally from San Nicolas Island, CA, during Naval exercises and tests. Pinnipeds on the island beaches are exposed to the flight sounds, some of which are sonic booms from directly overhead. Environmental concerns led the Navy to support acoustic studies of the missile sounds at the beaches. The results show flat-weighted sound pressures from Vandals as high as 150 dB re: 20 μPa(peak) [140 dB re: 20 μPa(rms)] at a near-vertical distance of 400 m. Other flat-weighted pressures from Vandals were as low as 107 dB re: 20 μPa(peak) [95 dB re: 20 μPa(rms)] at a beach 3.9 km horizontally behind the launcher. Pulse durations and sound exposure levels were also measured. One-third octave band sound exposure levels were measured. All parameters (except one-third octave band levels) were also measured with A weighting. Other missiles measured include Tomahawk cruise missiles, Rolling Airframe Missile, Advanced Gun System, Terrier, and the Supersonic Sea-Skimming Target. [Work supported by U.S. Navy.

  9. Supersonic jet engine and method of operating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.

    1981-09-08

    A supersonic jet engine is disclosed capable not only of developing sufficient power to accelerate up to supersonic cruise and maintain efficient operation at supersonic cruise, but also arrange to cruise at subsonic velocities with a relatively low specific fuel consumption. The engine is provided with a variable bypass passageway downstream of the compressor. Flow into the bypass passageway is controlled so that during low power setting the bypass passageway is closed so that all the gaseous flow is directed through the turbine. During higher power settings, the bypass passageway is opened to the extent that a selected portion of the gaseous flow is directed through the bypass passageway to bypass the turbine, so that the corrected flow to the turbine remains substantially constant for both high and low power settings of the engine. The turbine has first and second stages, with the first stage receiving all of the gaseous flow that is not directed through the bypass passageway. The gaseous flow from the turbine first stage is split into first and second portions, with the first portion being directed through a coannular inner passageway to drive the turbine second stage, and the second portion of the gaseous discharge being directed toward a coannular outer passageway to be discharged in a coannular pattern radially outwardly of the first portion of gaseous flow.

  10. Computational Analysis of a Low-Boom Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2011-01-01

    A low-boom supersonic inlet was designed for use on a conceptual small supersonic aircraft that would cruise with an over-wing Mach number of 1.7. The inlet was designed to minimize external overpressures, and used a novel bypass duct to divert the highest shock losses around the engine. The Wind-US CFD code was used to predict the effects of capture ratio, struts, bypass design, and angles of attack on inlet performance. The inlet was tested in the 8-ft by 6-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results showed that the inlet had excellent performance, with capture ratios near one, a peak core total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a stable operating range much larger than that of an engine. Predictions generally compared very well with the experimental data, and were used to help interpret some of the experimental results.

  11. Spectroscopy with Supersonic Jets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Anne R.; Chandler, Dean W.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a new technique that enables spectroscopists to study gas phase molecules at temperatures below 1 K, without traditional cryogenic apparatus. This technique uses supersonic jets as samples for gas molecular spectroscopy. Highlighted are points in the theory of supersonic flow which are important for applications in molecular…

  12. Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.

  13. A corporate supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Randall; Seebass, Richard

    1996-01-01

    This talk address the market and technology for a corporate supersonic transport. It describes a candidate configuration. There seems to be a sufficient market for such an aircraft, even if restricted to supersonic operation over water. The candidate configuration's sonic boom overpressure may be small enough to allow overland operation as well.

  14. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  15. Pilot Workload Measurement and Experience on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezek, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft parameters and physiological parameters most indicative of crew workload were investigated. Recommendations were used to form the basis for a continuing study in which variations of the interval between heart beats are used as a measure of nonphysical workload. Preliminary results are presented and current efforts in further defining this physiological measure are outlined.

  16. Cruise Missile Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Williams International's F107 fanjet engine is used in two types of cruise missiles, Navy-sponsored Tomahawk and the Air Force AGM-86B Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). Engine produces about 600 pounds thrust, is one foot in diameter and weighs only 141 pounds. Design was aided by use of a COSMIC program in calculating airflows in engine's internal ducting, resulting in a more efficient engine with increased thrust and reduced fuel consumption.

  17. Supersonic laser propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rezunkov, Yurii; Schmidt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    To produce supersonic laser propulsion, a new technique based on the interaction of a laser-ablated jet with supersonic gas flow in a nozzle is proposed. It is shown that such parameters of the jet, such as gas-plasma pressure and temperature in the ablation region as well as the mass consumption rate of the ablated solid propellant, are characteristic in this respect. The results of numerical simulations of the supersonic laser propulsion are presented for two types of nozzle configuration. The feasibility to achieve the momentum coupling coefficient of C(m)∼10(-3) N/W is shown.

  18. Feasibility of Supersonic Aircraft Concepts for Low-Boom and Flight Trim Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents a process for analyzing whether a particular supersonic aircraft configuration layout and a given cruise condition are feasible to achieve a trimmed low-boom design. This process was motivated by the need to know whether a particular configuration at a given cruise condition could be reshaped to satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints. Without such a process, much effort could be wasted on shaping a configuration layout at a cruise condition that could never satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints simultaneously. The process helps to exclude infeasible configuration layouts with minimum effort and allows a designer to develop trimmed low-boom concepts more effectively. A notional low-boom supersonic demonstrator concept is used to illustrate the analysis/design process.

  19. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    4.2 Ignition, Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows ......................... 18 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding...high- speed flows), plasma -assisted combustion, flameholding (particularly in a high-speed flow), and development and application of diagnostic...Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding Key questions that have guided this

  20. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a one-tenth-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. [conducted in Langley full-scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemore, H. C.; Parett, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/10 scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. Tests were made for the clean configuration and a high-lift configuration with several combinations of leading- and trailing-edge flaps deflected for providing improved lift and longitudinal stability in the landing and takeoff modes. The tests were conducted for a range of angles of attack from about -6 deg to 30 deg, sideslip angles from -5 deg to 10 deg, and for Reynolds numbers from 6.78 x 1,000,000 to 13.85 x 1,000,000 corresponding to test velocities of 41 knots to 85 knots, respectively.

  1. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  2. A Multiple Zone Method for Supersonic Tactical Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    to missile shapes in supersonic flight. The explicit MacCormack scheme is used to advance interior points while a characteristic ...can be treated using a simple mapping. A sample zone structure for a body- wing - tail configuration is shown in Figure 3. This avoids...surface edges which models the flow in the vincinity of the edge. When the flow normal to the wing edge is sufficiently supersonic , this analysis

  3. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  4. Airframe-integrated propulsion system for hypersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Research on a new, hydrogen burning, airbreathing engine concept which offers good potential for efficient hypersonic cruise vehicles is considered. Features of the engine which lead to good performance include; extensive engine-airframe integration, fixed geometry, low cooling, and the control of heat release in the supersonic combustor by mixed-modes of fuel injection from the combustor entrance. The engine concept is described along with results from inlet tests, direct-connect combustor tests, and tests of two subscale boiler-plate research engines presently underway at conditions which simulate flight at Mach 4 and 7.

  5. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2007-11-13

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  6. Supersonic nonlinear potential analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siclari, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The NCOREL computer code was established to compute supersonic flow fields of wings and bodies. The method encompasses an implicit finite difference transonic relaxation method to solve the full potential equation in a spherical coordinate system. Two basic topic to broaden the applicability and usefulness of the present method which is encompassed within the computer code NCOREL for the treatment of supersonic flow problems were studied. The first topic is that of computing efficiency. Accelerated schemes are in use for transonic flow problems. One such scheme is the approximate factorization (AF) method and an AF scheme to the supersonic flow problem is developed. The second topic is the computation of wake flows. The proper modeling of wake flows is important for multicomponent configurations such as wing-body and multiple lifting surfaces where the wake of one lifting surface has a pronounced effect on a downstream body or other lifting surfaces.

  7. Supersonic MHD generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.A.

    1983-11-29

    An improved MHD electrical power generating system of the type having a MHD topping cycle and a steam generating bottoming cycle is disclosed. The system typically includes a combustion system, a conventional MHD generator and a first diffuser radiant boiler. The improvement comprises a first supersonic MHD generator and ramjet engine configuration operatively connected in series with each other and with the conventional MHD generator. The first supersonic MHD generator and ramjet engine configuration increase the power output and improve the operating efficiency of the electrical generating system. A diffuser system is also disclosed which is in fluid communication with the supersonic MHD generator and the ramjet engine for collecting bypass plasma gas to be used for heating a second radiant boiler adapted for powering a steam turbine generator.

  8. RTJ-303: Variable geometry, oblique wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaran, Albert; Belete, Hailu; Dryzmkowski, Mark; Higgins, James; Klenk, Alan; Rienecker, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    This document is a preliminary design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) named the RTJ-303. It is a 300 passenger, Mach 1.6 transport with a range of 5000 nautical miles. It features four mixed-flow turbofan engines, variable geometry oblique wing, with conventional tail-aft control surfaces. The preliminary cost analysis for a production of 300 aircraft shows that flyaway cost would be 183 million dollars (1992) per aircraft. The aircraft uses standard jet fuel and requires no special materials to handle aerodynamic heating in flight because the stagnation temperatures are approximately 130 degrees Fahrenheit in the supersonic cruise condition. It should be stressed that this aircraft could be built with today's technology and does not rely on vague and uncertain assumptions of technology advances. Included in this report are sections discussing the details of the preliminary design sequence including the mission to be performed, operational and performance constraints, the aircraft configuration and the tradeoffs of the final choice, wing design, a detailed fuselage design, empennage design, sizing of tail geometry, and selection of control surfaces, a discussion on propulsion system/inlet choice and their position on the aircraft, landing gear design including a look at tire selection, tip-over criterion, pavement loading, and retraction kinematics, structures design including load determination, and materials selection, aircraft performance, a look at stability and handling qualities, systems layout including location of key components, operations requirements maintenance characteristics, a preliminary cost analysis, and conclusions made regarding the design, and recommendations for further study.

  9. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  10. NASA F-16XL supersonic laminar flow control program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA supersonic laminar flow control program are provided. Successful application of laminar flow control to a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) offers significant benefits in reductions of take-off gross weight, mission fuel burn, cruise drag, structural temperatures, engine size, emissions, and sonic boom. The ultimate economic success of the proposed HSCT may depend on the successful adaption of laminar flow control, which offers the single most significant potential improvements in lift drag ratio (L/D) of all the aerodynamic technologies under consideration. The F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) Experiment was conceived based on the encouraging results of in-house and NASA supported industry studies to determine if laminar flow control is feasible for the HSCT. The primary objective is to achieve extensive laminar flow (50-60 percent chord) on a highly swept supersonic wing. Data obtained from the flight test will be used to validate existing Euler and Navier Stokes aerodynamic codes and transition prediction boundary layer stability codes. These validated codes and developed design methodology will be delivered to industry for their use in designing supersonic laminar flow control wings. Results from this experiment will establish preliminary suction system design criteria enabling industry to better size the suction system and develop improved estimates of system weight, fuel volume loss due to wing ducting, turbocompressor power requirements, etc. so that benefits and penalties can be more accurately assessed.

  11. Study of the impact of cruise speed on scheduling and productivity of commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, E. Q.; Carroll, E. A.; Flume, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made between airplane productivity and utilization levels derived from commercial airline type schedules which were developed for two subsonic and four supersonic cruise speed aircraft. The cruise speed component is the only difference between the schedules which are based on 1995 passenger demand forecasts. Productivity-to-speed relationships were determined for the three discrete route systems: North Atlantic, Trans-Pacific, and North-South America. Selected combinations of these route systems were also studied. Other areas affecting the productivity-to-speed relationship such as aircraft design range and scheduled turn time were examined.

  12. Design and analysis of a supersonic penetration/maneuvering fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design of three candidate air combat fighters which would cruise effectively at freestream Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.5 while maintaining good transonic maneuvering capability, is considered. These fighters were designed to deliver aerodynamically controlled dogfight missiles at the design Mach numbers. Studies performed by Rockwell International in May 1974 and guidance from NASA determined the shape and size of these missiles. The principle objective of this study is the aerodynamic design of the vehicles; however, configurations are sized to have realistic structures, mass properties, and propulsion systems. The results of this study show that air combat fighters in the 15,000 to 23,000 pound class would cruise supersonically on dry power and still maintain good transonic maneuvering performance.

  13. Modeling Combustion in Supersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flow-paths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

  14. Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flowpaths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

  15. Infinitesimal Conical Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    The calculation of infinitesimal conical supersonic flow has been applied first to the simplest examples that have also been calculated in another way. Except for the discovery of a miscalculation in an older report, there was found the expected conformity. The new method of calculation is limited more definitely to the conical case.

  16. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  17. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 3: Graphical data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical presentation of the aerodynamic data acquired during coannular nozzle performance wind tunnel tests is given. The graphical data consist of plots of nozzle gross thrust coefficient, fan nozzle discharge coefficient, and primary nozzle discharge coefficient. Normalized model component static pressure distributions are presented as a function of primary total pressure, fan total pressure, and ambient static pressure for selected operating conditions. In addition, the supersonic cruise configuration data include plots of nozzle efficiency and secondary-to-fan total pressure pumping characteristics. Supersonic and subsonic cruise data are given.

  18. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29

  19. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-05-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emissions scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g. economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. The base scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, lead in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm²in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWHigh Altitude Supersonic Decelerator Test Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Brant T.; Blando, Guillermo; Kennett, Andrew; Von Der Heydt, Max; Wolff, John Luke; Yerdon, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is tasked by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to advance the state of the art in Mars entry and descent technology in order to allow for larger payloads to be delivered to Mars at higher altitudes with better accuracy. The project will develop a 33.5 m Do Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute, 6m attached torus, robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R), and an 8 m attached isotensoid, exploration class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-E). The SSRS and SIAD-R should be brought to TRL-6, while the SIAD-E should be brought to TRL-5. As part of the qualification and development program, LDSD must perform a Mach-scaled Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) in order to demonstrate successful free flight dynamic deployments at Mars equivalent altitude, of all three technologies. In order to perform these tests, LDSD must design and build a test vehicle to deliver all technologies to approximately 180,000 ft and Mach 4, deploy a SIAD, free fly to approximately Mach 2, deploy the SSRS, record high-speed and high-resolution imagery of both deployments, as well as record data from an instrumentation suite capable of characterizing the technology induced vehicle dynamics. The vehicle must also be recoverable after splashdown into the ocean under a nominal flight, while guaranteeing forensic data protection in an off nominal catastrophic failure of a test article that could result in a terminal velocity, tumbling water impact.

  1. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition, and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of supersonic laminar flow with distributed heating and cooling on active control will be studied. The primary tasks of the research applying to the NASA/Ames Proof of Concept (POC) Supersonic Wind Tunnel and Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) nozzle design with laminar flow control are as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition, (2) effects of wall heating and cooling for supersonic laminar flow control, and (3) performance evaluation of POC and LFSWT nozzles design with wall heating and cooling effects applying at different locations and various length.

  2. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar stability. The effects of supersonic laminar flow with distributed heating and cooling on active control will be studied. The primary tasks of the research applying to the NASA/Ames POC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control are as follows: (1) supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition prediction; (2) effects of heating and cooling for supersonic laminar flow control; and (3) POC and LFSWT nozzle design with heating and cooling effects combining wall contour and length changes.

  3. Cruise noise of the 2/9 scale model of the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller, SR-7A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-10-01

    Noise data on the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller model SR-7A were taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8 x 6 foot Wind Tunnel. The maximum blade passing tone noise first rises with increasing helical tip Mach number to a peak level, then remains the same or decreases from its peak level when going to higher helical tip Mach numbers. This trend was observed for operation at both constant advance ratio and approximately equal thrust. This noise reduction or, leveling out at high helical tip Mach numbers, points to the use of higher propeller tip speeds as a possible method to limit airplane cabin noise while maintaining high flight speed and efficiency. Projections of the tunnel model data are made to the full scale LAP propeller mounted on the test bed aircraft and compared with predictions. The prediction method is found to be somewhat conservative in that it slightly overpredicts the projected model data at the peak.

  4. Cruise noise of the 2/9 scale model of the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller, SR-7A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Noise data on the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller model SR-7A were taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8 x 6 foot Wind Tunnel. The maximum blade passing tone noise first rises with increasing helical tip Mach number to a peak level, then remains the same or decreases from its peak level when going to higher helical tip Mach numbers. This trend was observed for operation at both constant advance ratio and approximately equal thrust. This noise reduction or, leveling out at high helical tip Mach numbers, points to the use of higher propeller tip speeds as a possible method to limit airplane cabin noise while maintaining high flight speed and efficiency. Projections of the tunnel model data are made to the full scale LAP propeller mounted on the test bed aircraft and compared with predictions. The prediction method is found to be somewhat conservative in that it slightly overpredicts the projected model data at the peak.

  5. Cruise noise of the 2/9th scale model of the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller, SR-7A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Noise data on the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller model SR-7A were taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8 x 6 foot Wind Tunnel. The maximum blade passing tone noise first rises with increasing helical tip Mach number to a peak level, then remains the same or decreases from its peak level when going to higher helical tip Mach numbers. This trend was observed for operation at both constant advance ratio and approximately equal thrust. This noise reduction or, leveling out at high helical tip Mach numbers, points to the use of higher propeller tip speeds as a possible method to limit airplane cabin noise while maintaining high flight speed and efficiency. Projections of the tunnel model data are made to the full scale LAP propeller mounted on the test bed aircraft and compared with predictions. The prediction method is found to be somewhat conservative in that it slightly overpredicts the projected model data at the peak.

  6. Cruise noise of the 2/9th scale model of the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller, SR-7A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-09-01

    Noise data on the Large-scale Advanced Propfan (LAP) propeller model SR-7A were taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 8 x 6 foot Wind Tunnel. The maximum blade passing tone noise first rises with increasing helical tip Mach number to a peak level, then remains the same or decreases from its peak level when going to higher helical tip Mach numbers. This trend was observed for operation at both constant advance ratio and approximately equal thrust. This noise reduction or, leveling out at high helical tip Mach numbers, points to the use of higher propeller tip speeds as a possible method to limit airplane cabin noise while maintaining high flight speed and efficiency. Projections of the tunnel model data are made to the full scale LAP propeller mounted on the test bed aircraft and compared with predictions. The prediction method is found to be somewhat conservative in that it slightly overpredicts the projected model data at the peak.

  7. BENCAL Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather; Silulwane, Nonkqubela; Engel, Hermann; Aiken, James; Fishwick, James; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Morel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the South African Fisheries Research Ship (FRS) Africana during an ocean color calibration and validation cruise in the Benguela upwelling ecosystem (BEN-CAL), 4-17 October 2002. The cruise, denoted Afncana voyage 170, was staged in the southern Benguela between Cape Town and the Orange River within the region 14-18.5 deg E,29-34 deg S, with 15 scientists participat- ing from seven different international organizations. Uniquely in October 2002, four high-precision ocean color sensors were operational, and these included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). SeaWiFS imagery was transmitted daily to the ship to assist in choosing the vessel's course and selecting stations for bio-optical deployments. There were four primary objectives of the cruise. The first was to conduct bio-optical measurements with above- and in-water optical instruments to vicariously calibrate the satellite sensors. The second was to interrelate diverse measurements of the apparent optical properties (AOPs) at satellite sensor wavelengths with inherent optical properties (IOPs) and bio-optically active constituents of seawater such as particles, pigments, and dissolved compounds. The third was to determine the interrelationships between optical properties, phytoplankton pigment composition, photosynthetic rates, and primary production, while the fourth objective was to collect samples for a second pigment round-robin intercalibration experiment. Weather conditions were generally very favorable, and a range of hyperspectral and fixed wavelength AOP instruments were deployed during daylight hours. Various IOP instruments were used to determine the absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering properties of particulate matter and dissolved substances, while

  8. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Die adaptive Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung (ACC, Adaptive Cruise Control) ist eine Weiterentwicklung der konventionellen Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung, die eine konstante Fahrgeschwindigkeit einstellt. ACC überwacht mittels eines Radarsensors den Bereich vor dem Fahrzeug und passt die Geschwindigkeit den Gegebenheiten an. ACC reagiert auf langsamer vorausfahrende oder einscherende Fahrzeuge mit einer Reduzierung der Geschwindigkeit, sodass der vorgeschriebene Mindestabstand zum vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug nicht unterschritten wird. Hierzu greift ACC in Antrieb und Bremse ein. Sobald das vorausfahrende Fahrzeug beschleunigt oder die Spur verlässt, regelt ACC die Geschwindigkeit wieder auf die vorgegebene Sollgeschwindigkeit ein (Bild 1). ACC steht somit für eine Geschwindigkeitsregelung, die sich dem vorausfahrenden Verkehr anpasst.

  9. Mineral find highlights cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Heavy minerals with potential commercial value were discovered last month by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in seafloor deposits off the coasts of Virginia and Georgia. The USGS sent the research vessel J. W. Powell on a 25-day cruise along the East Coast to assess the concentrations of commercially important minerals in that segment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).Assistant Secretary of the Interior Robert Broadbent called the findings of the Powell “promising” and said they served as a “reminder of just how little we do know about the seafloor resources just a few miles offshore.”

  10. Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

    1987-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

  11. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Borchers, Paul; Gomer, Charlie; Henderson, Dean; Jacobs, Tavis; Lawson, Todd; Peterson, Eric; Ross, Tweed, III; Bellmard, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design study of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. A brief historical survey of powered lift vehicles was presented, followed by a technology assessment of the latest supersonic STOVL engine cycles under consideration by industry and government in the U.S. and UK. A survey of operational fighter/attack aircraft and the modern battlefield scenario were completed to develop, respectively, the performance requirements and mission profiles for the study. Three configurations were initially investigated with the following engine cycles: a hybrid fan vectored thrust cycle, a lift+lift/cruise cycle, and a mixed flow vectored thrust cycle. The lift+lift/cruise aircraft configuration was selected for detailed design work which consisted of: (1) a material selection and structural layout, including engine removal considerations, (2) an aircraft systems layout, (3) a weapons integration model showing the internal weapons bay mechanism, (4) inlet and nozzle integration, (5) an aircraft suckdown prediction, (6) an aircraft stability and control analysis, including a takeoff, hover, and transition control analysis, (7) a performance and mission capability study, and (8) a life cycle cost analysis. A supersonic fighter aircraft with STOVL capability with the lift+lift/cruise engine cycle seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  12. Cruise Ship Port Planning Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    The cruise ship industry started off like a healthy plant in a small pot. When it was small, it struggled, survived and flourished in the small pot... cruise ship port planning issues, and demonstrates that the market demand will continue to increase in the future. This increase in demand will be driven

  13. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  14. Cruise-ship astronomy lecturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, Garry

    2005-06-01

    In December 2004 I was invited to present a series of lectures in Astronomy aboard "Discovery", a cruise-ship operated by World Discovery Cruises Ltd of London. Discovery left Tahiti on 15th of February 2005, and arrived in Auckland on 2nd of March 2005.

  15. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  16. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  17. A parametric investigation of an existing supersonic relative tip speed propeller noise model. [turboprop aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A high tip speed turboprop is being considered as a future energy conservative airplane. The high tip speed of the propeller combined with the cruise speed of the airplane may result in supersonic relative flow on the propeller tips. These supersonic blade sections could generate noise that is a cabin environment problem. An existing supersonic propeller noise model was parametrically investigated to identify and evaluate the noise reduction variables. Both independent and interdependent parameter variations (constant propeller thrust) were performed. The noise reductions indicated by the independent investigation varied from sizable in the case of reducing Mach number to minimal for adjusting the thickness and loading distributions. The noise reduction possibilities of decreasing relative Mach number were further investigated during the interdependent variations. The interdependent investigation indicated that significant noise reductions could be achieved by increasing the propeller diameter and/or increasing the number of propeller blades while maintaining a constant propeller thrust.

  18. Prediction of nacelle aerodynamic interference effects at low supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of analytical predictions of nacelle aerodynamic interference effects at low supersonic speeds are studied by means of test versus theory comparisons. Comparisons shown include: (1) isolated wing body lift, drag, and pitching moments; (2) isolated nacelle drag and pressure distributions; (3) nacelle interference shock wave patterns and pressure distributions on the wing lower surface; (4) nacelle interference effects on wing body lift, drag, and pitching moments; and (5) total installed nacelle interference effects on lift, drag, and pitching moment. The comparisons also illustrate effects of nacelle location, nacelle spillage, angle of attack, and Mach numbers on the aerodynamic interference. The initial results seem to indicate that the methods can satisfactorily predict lift, drag, pitching moment, and pressure distributions of installed engine nacelles at low supersonic Mach numbers with mass flow ratios from 0.7 to 1.0 for configurations typical of efficient supersonic cruise airplanes.

  19. Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    8ft x 6ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test-Section showing changes made in Stainless Steel walls with 17 inch inlet model installation. The model is the ACN Nozzle model used for aircraft engines. The Supersonic Wind Tunnel is located in the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, now John H. Glenn Research Center

  20. The aerodynamic design of the oblique flying wing supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervelden, Alexander J. M.; Kroo, Ilan

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a supersonic oblique flying wing is strongly influenced by the requirement that passengers must be accommodated inside the wing. It was revealed that thick oblique wings of very high sweep angle can be efficient at supersonic speeds when transonic normal Mach numbers are allowed on the upper surface of the wing. The goals were motivated by the ability to design a maximum thickness, minimum size oblique flying wing. A 2-D Navier-Stokes solver was used to design airfoils up to 16 percent thickness with specified lift, drag and pitching moment. A new method was developed to calculate the required pressure distribution on the wing based on the airfoil loading, normal Mach number distribution and theoretical knowledge of the minimum drag of oblique configurations at supersonic speeds. The wing mean surface for this pressure distribution was calculated using an inverse potential flow solver. The lift to drag ratio of this wing was significantly higher than that of a comparable delta wing for cruise speeds up to Mach 2.

  1. Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between "cruising" (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior…

  2. 76 FR 30231 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... for attendees. The purpose of the meeting is to raise public awareness of the continuing technological advancements in supersonic aircraft technology aimed at reducing the intensity of sonic boom. DATES: The public... to all interested parties; however, for building security requirements, please register by June...

  3. Evaluation of a ducted-fan power plant designed for high output and good cruise fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behun, M; Rom, F E; Hensley, R V

    1950-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of performance of a ducted-fan power plant designed both for high-output, high-altitude operation at low supersonic Mach numbers and for good fuel economy at lower fight speeds is presented. Performance of ducted fan is compared with performance (with and without tail-pipe burner) of two hypothetical turbojet engines. At maximum power, the ducted fan has propulsive thrust per unit of frontal area between thrusts obtained by turbojet engines with and without tail-pipe burners. At cruise, the ducted fan obtains lowest thrust specific fuel consumption. For equal maximum thrusts, the ducted fan obtains cruising flight duration and range appreciably greater than turbojet engines.

  4. Design project: LONGBOW supersonic interceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoney, Robert; Baker, Matt; Capstaff, Joseph G.; Dishman, Robert; Fick, Gregory; Frick, Stephen N.; Kelly, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A recent white paper entitled 'From the Sea' has spotlighted the need for Naval Aviation to provide overland support to joint operations. The base for this support, the Aircraft Carrier (CVN), will frequently be unable to operate within close range of the battleground because of littoral land-based air and subsurface threats. A high speed, long range, carrier capable aircraft would allow the CVN to provide timely support to distant battleground operations. Such an aircraft, operating as a Deck-Launched Interceptor (DLI), would also be an excellent counter to Next Generation Russian Naval Aviation (NGRNA) threats consisting of supersonic bombers, such as the Backfire, equipped with the next generation of high-speed, long-range missiles. Additionally, it would serve as an excellent high speed Reconnaissance airplane, capable of providing Battle Force commanders with timely, accurate pre-mission targeting information and post-mission Bomb Damage Assessment (BDA). Recent advances in computational hypersonic airflow modeling has produced a method of defining aircraft shapes that fit a conical shock flow model to maximize the efficiency of the vehicle. This 'Waverider' concept provides one means of achieving long ranges at high speeds. A Request for Proposal (RFP) was issued by Professor Conrad Newberry that contained design requirements for an aircraft to accomplish the above stated missions, utilizing Waverider technology.

  5. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  6. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  7. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  8. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  9. Supersonics--Airport Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2007-01-01

    At this, the first year-end meeting of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, an overview of the Airport Noise discipline of the Supersonics Project leads the presentation of technical plans and achievements in this area of the Project. The overview starts by defining the Technical Challenges targeted by Airport Noise efforts, and the Approaches planned to meet these challenges. These are fleshed out in Elements, namely Prediction, Diagnostics, and Engineering, and broken down into Tasks. The Tasks level is where individual researchers' work is defined and from whence the technical presentations to follow this presentation come. This overview also presents the Milestones accomplished to date and to be completed in the next year. Finally, the NASA Research Announcement cooperative agreement activities are covered and tied to the Tasks and Milestones.

  10. Cruise Speed Sensitivity Study for Transonic Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's investment and research in aviation has led to new technologies and concepts that make aircraft more efficient and environmentally friendly. One aircraft design operational concept is the reduction of cruise speed to reduce fuel burned during a mission. Although this is not a new idea, it was used by all of the contractors involved in a 2008 NASA sponsored study that solicited concept and technology ideas to reduce environmental impacts for future subsonic passenger transports. NASA is currently improving and building new analysis capabilities to analyze advanced concepts. To test some of these new capabilities, a transonic truss braced wing configuration was used as a test case. This paper examines the effects due to changes in the design cruise speed and other tradeoffs in the design space. The analysis was baselined to the Boeing SUGAR High truss braced wing concept. An optimization was run at five different design cruise Mach numbers. These designs are compared to provide an initial assessment space and the parameters that should be considered when selecting a design cruise speed. A discussion of the design drivers is also included. The results show that the wing weight in the current analysis has more influence on the takeoff gross weight than expected. This effect caused lower than expected wing sweep angle values for higher cruise speed designs.

  11. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition, and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof of Concept (PoC) and Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition, (2) effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control, (3) performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths, and (4) effects of a conducted versus pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT.

  12. Supersonic reacting internal flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip

    1989-01-01

    The national program to develop a trans-atmospheric vehicle has kindled a renewed interest in the modeling of supersonic reacting flows. A supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, has been proposed to provide the propulsion system for this vehicle. The development of computational techniques for modeling supersonic reacting flow fields, and the application of these techniques to an increasingly difficult set of combustion problems are studied. Since the scramjet problem has been largely responsible for motivating this computational work, a brief history is given of hypersonic vehicles and their propulsion systems. A discussion is also given of some early modeling efforts applied to high speed reacting flows. Current activities to develop accurate and efficient algorithms and improved physical models for modeling supersonic combustion is then discussed. Some new problems where computer codes based on these algorithms and models are being applied are described.

  13. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  14. Performance potential of an advanced technology Mach 3 turbojet engine installed on a conceptual high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Coen, Peter G.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of an advanced technology conceptual turbojet optimized for a high-speed civil aircraft is presented. This information represents an estimate of performance of a Mach 3 Brayton (gas turbine) cycle engine optimized for minimum fuel burned at supersonic cruise. This conceptual engine had no noise or environmental constraints imposed upon it. The purpose of this data is to define an upper boundary on the propulsion performance for a conceptual commercial Mach 3 transport design. A comparison is presented demonstrating the impact of the technology proposed for this conceptual engine on the weight and other characteristics of a proposed high-speed civil transport. This comparison indicates that the advanced technology turbojet described could reduce the gross weight of a hypothetical Mach 3 high-speed civil transport design from about 714,000 pounds to about 545,000 pounds. The aircraft with the baseline engine and the aircraft with the advanced technology engine are described.

  15. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  16. Development and Testing of a New Family of Supersonic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The state of the art in Entry, Descent, and Landing systems for Mars applications is largely based on technologies developed in the late 1960's and early 1970's for the Viking Lander program. Although the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory has made advances in EDL technology, these are predominantly in the areas of entry (new thermal protection systems and guided hypersonic flight) and landing (the sky crane architecture). Increases in entry mass, landed mass, and landed altitude beyond MSL capabilities will require advances predominantly in the field of supersonic decelerators. With this in mind, a multi-year program has been initiated to advance three new types of supersonic decelerators that would enable future large-robotic and human-precursor class missions to Mars.

  17. Transonic wind tunnel test of a supersonic nozzle installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Evelyn, G. B.; Mercer, C.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the propulsion system installation affects strongly the total drag and overall performance of an aircraft, and the concept, placement, and integration details of the exhaust nozzle are major considerations in the configuration definition. As part of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program, a wind tunnel test program has been conducted to investigate exhaust nozzle-airframe interactions at transonic speeds. First phase testing is to establish guidelines for follow-on testing. A summary is provided of the results of first phase testing, taking into account the test approach, the effect of nozzle closure on aircraft aerodynamic characteristics, nozzle installation effects and nacelle interference drag, and an analytical study of the effects of nozzle closure on the aircraft.

  18. Investigations for Supersonic Transports at Transonic and Supersonic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Owens, Lewis R.; Wahls, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Several computational studies were conducted as part of NASA s High Speed Research Program. Results of turbulence model comparisons from two studies on supersonic transport configurations performed during the NASA High-Speed Research program are given. The effects of grid topology and the representation of the actual wind tunnel model geometry are also investigated. Results are presented for both transonic conditions at Mach 0.90 and supersonic conditions at Mach 2.48. A feature of these two studies was the availability of higher Reynolds number wind tunnel data with which to compare the computational results. The transonic wind tunnel data was obtained in the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley, and the supersonic data was obtained in the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel. The computational data was acquired using a state of the art Navier-Stokes flow solver with a wide range of turbulence models implemented. The results show that the computed forces compare reasonably well with the experimental data, with the Baldwin-Lomax with Degani-Schiff modifications and the Baldwin-Barth models showing the best agreement for the transonic conditions and the Spalart-Allmaras model showing the best agreement for the supersonic conditions. The transonic results were more sensitive to the choice of turbulence model than were the supersonic results.

  19. Tesseract supersonic business transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, Eli; Garbinski, Gary; Fellenstein, James; Botting, Mary; Hooper, Joan; Ryan, Michael; Struk, Peter; Taggart, Ben; Taillon, Maggie; Warzynski, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This year, the senior level Aerospace Design class at Case Western Reserve University developed a conceptual design of a supersonic business transport. Due to the growing trade between Asia and the United States, a transpacific range was chosen for the aircraft. A Mach number of 2.2 was chosen, too, because it provides reasonable block times and allows the use of a large range of materials without a need for active cooling. A payload of 2,500 lbs. was assumed corresponding to a complement of nine passengers and crew, plus some light cargo. With these general requirements set, the class was broken down into three groups. The aerodynamics of the aircraft were the responsibility of the first group. The second developed the propulsion system. The efforts of both the aerodynamics and propulsion groups were monitored and reviewed for weight considerations and structural feasibility by the third group. Integration of the design required considerable interaction between the groups in the final stages. The fuselage length of the final conceptual design was 107.0 ft, while the diameter of the fuselage was 7.6 ft. The delta wing design consisted of an aspect ratio of 1.9 with a wing span of 47.75 ft and mid-chord length of 61.0 ft. A SNECMA MCV 99 variable-cycle engine design was chosen for this aircraft.

  20. Tesseract: Supersonic business transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, Eli; Garbinski, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This year, the senior level Aerospace Design class at Case Western Reserve University developed a conceptual design of a supersonic business transport. Due to the growing trade between Asia and the United States, a transpacific range has been chosen for the aircraft. A Mach number of 2.2 was chosen too because it provides reasonable block times and allows the use of a large range of materials without a need for active cooling. A payload of 2500 lbs. has been assumed corresponding to a complement of nine (passengers and crew) plus some light cargo. With these general requirements set, the class was broken down into three groups. The aerodynamics of the aircraft were the responsibility of the first group. The second developed the propulsion system. The efforts of both the aerodynamics and propulsion groups were monitored and reviewed for weight considerations and structural feasibility by the third group. Integration of the design required considerable interaction between the groups in the final stages. The fuselage length of the final conceptual design was 107.0 ft. while the diameter of the fuselage was 7.6 ft. The delta wing design consisted of an aspect ratio of 1.9 with a wing span of 47.75 ft and midcord length of 61.0 ft. A SNEMCA MCV 99 variable-cycle engine design was chosen for this aircraft.

  1. Advanced supersonic technology fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Status of the fuel tank simulation and YF-12A flight tests utilizing a fluorosilicone sealant is described. New elastomer sealant development is detailed, and comparisons of high and low temperature characteristics are made to baseline fluorosilicone sealants.

  2. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1 Cruise sales. As the general practice, the Bureau will sell timber on a tree cruise basis....

  3. Diagnostic experiments on supersonic jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments and computations on the flowfield and radiated noise of supersonic model jets are discussed. The shock associated noise produced by large scale instabilities in underexpanded supersonic jets, the nonlinear propagation distortion phenomenon in the noise radiated by supersonic model jets, and computations of instability evolution and radiated noise using the LSNOIS computer code are addressed.

  4. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  5. Jet Noise Modeling for Supersonic Business Jet Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the development of an improved predictive model for coannular jet noise, including noise suppression modifications applicable to small supersonic-cruise aircraft such as the Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ), for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). For such aircraft a wide range of propulsion and integration options are under consideration. Thus there is a need for very versatile design tools, including a noise prediction model. The approach used is similar to that used with great success by the Modern Technologies Corporation (MTC) in developing a noise prediction model for two-dimensional mixer ejector (2DME) nozzles under the High Speed Research Program and in developing a more recent model for coannular nozzles over a wide range of conditions. If highly suppressed configurations are ultimately required, the 2DME model is expected to provide reasonable prediction for these smaller scales, although this has not been demonstrated. It is considered likely that more modest suppression approaches, such as dual stream nozzles featuring chevron or chute suppressors, perhaps in conjunction with inverted velocity profiles (IVP), will be sufficient for the SBJ.

  6. Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; Effects of a conducted-vs-pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.

  7. Supersonic laminar flow control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques will be developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique will be studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames PoC and LFSWT's nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control; (3) performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; and (4) effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT.

  8. Supersonic Dislocation Bursts in Silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Hahn, E. N.; Zhao, S.; Bringa, E. M.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Dislocations are the primary agents of permanent deformation in crystalline solids. Since the theoretical prediction of supersonic dislocations over half a century ago, there is a dearth of experimental evidence supporting their existence. Here we use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of shocked silicon to reveal transient supersonic partial dislocation motion at approximately 15 km/s, faster than any previous in-silico observation. Homogeneous dislocation nucleation occurs near the shock front and supersonic dislocation motion lasts just fractions of picoseconds before the dislocations catch the shock front and decelerate back to the elastic wave speed. Applying a modified analytical equation for dislocation evolutionmore » we successfully predict a dislocation density of 1.5 x 10(12) cm(-2) within the shocked volume, in agreement with the present simulations and realistic in regards to prior and on-going recovery experiments in silicon.« less

  9. Supersonic Dislocation Bursts in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, E. N.; Zhao, S.; Bringa, E. M.; Meyers, M. A.

    2016-06-06

    Dislocations are the primary agents of permanent deformation in crystalline solids. Since the theoretical prediction of supersonic dislocations over half a century ago, there is a dearth of experimental evidence supporting their existence. Here we use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of shocked silicon to reveal transient supersonic partial dislocation motion at approximately 15 km/s, faster than any previous in-silico observation. Homogeneous dislocation nucleation occurs near the shock front and supersonic dislocation motion lasts just fractions of picoseconds before the dislocations catch the shock front and decelerate back to the elastic wave speed. Applying a modified analytical equation for dislocation evolution we successfully predict a dislocation density of 1.5 x 10(12) cm(-2) within the shocked volume, in agreement with the present simulations and realistic in regards to prior and on-going recovery experiments in silicon.

  10. Properties of Supersonic Evershed Downflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelo, S. Esteban; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2016-12-01

    We study supersonic Evershed downflows in a sunspot penumbra by means of high spatial resolution spectropolarimetric data acquired in the Fe i 617.3 nm line with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. Physical observables, such as Dopplergrams calculated from line bisectors and Stokes V zero-crossing wavelengths, and Stokes V maps in the far red-wing, are used to find regions where supersonic Evershed downflows may exist. We retrieve the line-of-sight velocity and the magnetic field vector in these regions using two-component inversions of the observed Stokes profiles with the help of the SIR code. We follow these regions during their lifetime to study their temporal behavior. Finally, we carry out a statistical analysis of the detected supersonic downflows to characterize their physical properties. Supersonic downflows are contained in compact patches moving outward, which are located in the mid- and outer penumbra. They are observed as bright, roundish structures at the outer end of penumbral filaments that resemble penumbral grains. The patches may undergo fragmentations and mergings during their lifetime; some of them are recurrent. Supersonic downflows are associated with strong and rather vertical magnetic fields with a reversed polarity compared to that of the sunspot. Our results suggest that downflows returning back to the solar surface with supersonic velocities are abruptly stopped in dense deep layers and produce a shock. Consequently, this shock enhances the temperature and is detected as a bright grain in the continuum filtergrams, which could explain the existence of outward-moving grains in the mid- and outer penumbra.

  11. Supersonic laminar-flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed, up to date systems studies of the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to various supersonic missions and/or vehicles, both civilian and military, are not yet available. However, various first order looks at the benefits are summarized. The bottom line is that laminar flow control may allow development of a viable second generation SST. This follows from a combination of reduced fuel, structure, and insulation weight permitting operation at higher altitudes, thereby lowering sonic boom along with improving performance. The long stage lengths associated with the emerging economic importance of the Pacific Basin are creating a serious and renewed requirement for such a vehicle. Supersonic LFC techniques are discussed.

  12. The aeroacoustics of supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.

    1995-01-01

    This research project was a joint experimental/computational study of noise in supersonic jets. The experiments were performed in a low to moderate Reynolds number anechoic supersonic jet facility. Computations have focused on the modeling of the effect of an external shroud on the generation and radiation of jet noise. This report summarizes the results of the research program in the form of the Masters and Doctoral theses of those students who obtained their degrees with the assistance of this research grant. In addition, the presentations and publications made by the principal investigators and the research students is appended.

  13. Parametric Inlet Tested in Glenn's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Davis, David O.; Solano, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The Parametric Inlet is an innovative concept for the inlet of a gas-turbine propulsion system for supersonic aircraft. The concept approaches the performance of past inlet concepts, but with less mechanical complexity, lower weight, and greater aerodynamic stability and safety. Potential applications include supersonic cruise aircraft and missiles. The Parametric Inlet uses tailored surfaces to turn the incoming supersonic flow inward toward an axis of symmetry. The terminal shock spans the opening of the subsonic diffuser leading to the engine. The external cowl area is smaller, which reduces cowl drag. The use of only external supersonic compression avoids inlet unstart--an unsafe shock instability present in previous inlet designs that use internal supersonic compression. This eliminates the need for complex mechanical systems to control unstart, which reduces weight. The conceptual design was conceived by TechLand Research, Inc. (North Olmsted, OH), which received funding through NASA s Small-Business Innovation Research program. The Boeing Company (Seattle, WA) also participated in the conceptual design. The NASA Glenn Research Center became involved starting with the preliminary design of a model for testing in Glenn s 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10 10 SWT). The inlet was sized for a speed of Mach 2.35 while matching requirements of an existing cold pipe used in previous inlet tests. The parametric aspects of the model included interchangeable components for different cowl lip, throat slot, and sidewall leading-edge shapes and different vortex generator configurations. Glenn researchers used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools for three-dimensional, turbulent flow analysis to further refine the aerodynamic design.

  14. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  15. Nonlinear potential analysis techniques for supersonic aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Szema, K. Y.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical method based on the conservation form of the full potential equation has been applied to the problem of three-dimensional supersonic flows with embedded subsonic regions. The governing equation is cast in a nonorthogonal coordinate system, and the theory of characteristics is used to accurately monitor the type-dependent flow field. A conservative switching scheme is employed to transition from the supersonic marching procedure to a subsonic relaxation algorithm and vice versa. The newly developed computer program can handle arbitrary geometries with fuselage, canard, wing, flow through nacelle, vertical tail and wake components at combined angles of attack and sideslip. Results are obtained for a variety of configurations that include a Langley advanced fighter concept with fuselage centerline nacelle, Rockwell's Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) with wing mounted nacelles, and the Shuttle Orbiter configuration. Comparisons with available experiments were good.

  16. Design and testing of an oblique all-wing supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Christopher A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design of an Oblique All-Wing (OAW) supersonic transport and a corresponding wind-tunnel model that was tested in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot supersonic wind tunnel. The main goal was the determination of the cruise performance (lift/drag ratio) of a realistically configured OAW. To achieve an acceptable level of realism, it was necessary to consider many issues of design practicality such as the need for a viable propulsion system, adequate control surfaces, landing gear, provisions for 450 passengers, and fuel to fly 5,000 nautical miles. The aircraft had to be stable, structurally sound, and needed to fit into airports across the world. Support was directed primarily towards integration of the propulsion system, however, there were notable contributions to many aspects of the configuration design, wind tunnel model, and wind tunnel test.

  17. Summary and recent results from the NASA advanced High Speed Propeller Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Mikkelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced high-speed propellers offer large performance improvements for aircraft that cruise in the Mach 0.7 to 0.8 speed regime. The current status of the NASA research program on high-speed propeller aerodynamics, acoustics, and aeroelastics is described. Recent wind tunnel results for five 8- to 10-blade advanced models are compared with analytical predictions. Test results show that blade sweep was important in achieving net efficiencies near 80 percent at Mach 0.8 and reducing near-field cruise noise by dB. Lifting line and lifting surface aerodynamic analysis codes are under development and some initial lifting line results are compared with propeller force and probe data. Some initial laser velocimeter measurements of the flow field velocities of an 8-bladed 45 deg swept propeller are shown. Experimental aeroelastic results indicate that cascade effects and blade sweep strongly affect propeller aeroelastic characteristics. Comparisons of propeller near-field noise data with linear acoustic theory indicate that the theory adequate predicts near-field noise for subsonic tip speeds but overpredicts the noise for supersonic tip speeds. Potential large gains in propeller efficiency of 7 to 11 percent at Mach 0.8 may be possible with advanced counter-rotation propellers.

  18. Program Solves Euler Equations Of Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szema, Kuo-Yen; Chakravarthy, Sukumar; Shankar, Vijaya

    1992-01-01

    EMTAC (Euler Marching Technique For Accurate Computation) computer program employs Euler marching algorithm for computing supersonic flows. Enables accurate nonlinear analysis of nonlinear dynamics of supersonic flow over wide range of supersonic mach numbers and angles of attack. Based on exact equations of dynamics of inviscid gas and valid for computations of flows at low and high supersonic mach numbers exhibiting strong shocks and rotational effects. Program also used for inviscid three-dimensional flows fully subsonic or transonic (subsonic with supersonic pockets). Written in FORTRAN V.

  19. Computational Analysis of the Large Scale Low-Boom Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, ROdrick V.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes two computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses done in support of a supersonic inlet test performed at NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2010. The large-scale-low-boom supersonic inlet was designed for a small supersonic aircraft that would cruise at a Mach number of 1.6. It uses an axisymmetric, external compression spike to reduce the Mach number to 0.65 at the fan face. The inlet was tested in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel at NASA GRC using conventional pressure probes, pressure sensitive paint, and high-speed schlieren. Two CFD analyses of the inlet were performed before the test, and compared to the experimental data afterwards. Both analyses used the WIND-US code. First, an axisymmetric analysis of the inlet, diffuser, cold pipe, and mass flow plug was performed to predict the performance of the entire system in the wind tunnel. Then a 3-D analysis of the inlet with all its interior struts was performed to predict details of the flow field and effects of angle of attack. Test results showed that the inlet had excellent performance, with a peak total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a buzz point far outside the engine operating range. The computations agreed very well with the data, with predicted recoveries within 0.3 - 0.5 points of the measurements.

  20. A Supersonic Business-Jet Concept Designed for Low Sonic Boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing human-response studies of sonic-boom noise indicated that a previous level of 1.0 psf might still be too annoying. This led to studies of a Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ), which might generate lower, more acceptable ground overpressures. To determine whether methods for designing a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) could be successfully applied, a SBJ concept was designed at the langley Research Center. It would cruise at Mach 2, carry 10 passengers for 4000 nautical miles, and generate a 0.50 psf or less on the ground under the flight path at start of cruise. Results indicated that a 10-passenger, low-boom SBJ design was just as technically demanding as a 300-passenger, low-boom HSCT design. In this report, the sources of these technical problems are identified, and ideas for addressing them are discussed.

  1. Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.; Wiberg, Clark G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand supersonic laminar flow stability, transition and active control. Some prediction techniques are developed or modified to analyze laminar flow stability. The effects of distributed heating and cooling as an active boundary layer control technique are studied. The primary tasks of the research apply to the NASA/Ames Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel's (LFSWT's) nozzle design with laminar flow control and are listed as follows: (1) Predictions of supersonic laminar boundary layer stability and transition; (2) Effects of wall heating and cooling on supersonic laminar flow control on a flat plate; (3) Performance evaluation of the PoC and LFSWT nozzle designs with wall heating and cooling applied at different locations and various lengths; (4) Effects of a conducted -vs- pulse wall temperature distribution for the LFSWT; and (5) Application of wall heating and/or cooling to laminar boundary layer and flow separation control of airfoils and investigation of related active control techniques.

  2. Supersonic Wave Interference Affecting Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Eugene S.

    1958-01-01

    Some of the significant interference fields that may affect stability of aircraft at supersonic speeds are briefly summarized. Illustrations and calculations are presented to indicate the importance of interference fields created by wings, bodies, wing-body combinations, jets, and nacelles.

  3. Overview of Boeing supersonic transport efforts, 1971 - 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigalla, A.

    1980-01-01

    Following cancellation of the United States Supersonic Transport program, the status of the technology was assessed carefully and emphasis was put on finding solutions for what were considered the major technical difficulties. In particular, work on the breakthroughs needed to advance the technology was emphasized. Currently, solutions to all major technical problems are identified. Depending on the subject, either the problem is no longer a concern or the steps needed to bring about a solution are mapped out clearly. Throughout the NASA SCR program, important strides were made in the identification of design advances which would greatly improve supersonic airplane fuel efficiency, noise, and other performance and cost affecting parameters. Furthermore, these efforts created an atmosphere in which it was possible for new ideas to flourish and positive inventions to take place such as the variable cycle engine and the blended fuselage. These technical gains show that, given availability of such technology, advanced supersonic transports could be developed that would be economically successful and environmentally acceptable.

  4. Thermal Design and Analysis of the Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Sunada, Eric; Gray, Sandria

    2013-01-01

    The thermal design and analysis of the experimental Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle is presented. The SFDT vehicle is currently being designed as a platform to help demonstrate key technologies for NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project. The LDSD project is charged by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) with the task of advancing the state of the art in Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by developing and testing three new technologies required for landing heavier payloads on Mars. The enabling technologies under development consist of a large 33.5 meter diameter Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute and two different types of Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class, SIAD-R, that inflates to a 6 meter diameter torus, and an exploration class, SIAD-E, that inflates to an 8 meter diameter isotensoid. As part of the technology development effort, the various elements of the new supersonic decelerator system must be tested in a Mars-like environment. This is currently planned to be accomplished by sending a series of SFDT vehicles into Earth's stratosphere. Each SFDT vehicle will be lifted to a stable float altitude by a large helium carrier balloon. Once at altitude, the SFDT vehicles will be released from their carrier balloon and spun up via spin motors to provide trajectory stability. An onboard third stage solid rocket motor will propel each test vehicle to supersonic flight in the upper atmosphere. After main engine burnout, each vehicle will be despun and testing of the deceleration system will begin: first an inflatable decelerator will be deployed around the aeroshell to increase the drag surface area, and then the large parachute will be deployed to continue the deceleration and return the vehicle back to the Earth's surface. The SFDT vehicle thermal system must passively protect the vehicle structure and its components from cold temperatures experienced during the

  5. Year 2000 small engine technology payoffs in cruise missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B.; Benstein, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been conducted for advanced small (450-850 pounds thrust) gas turbine engines for a subsonic strategic cruise missile application, using projected year-2000 technology. Engine performance and configuration analyses were performed for two and three spool turbofan and propfan engine concepts. Mission and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analyses were performed in which the candidate engines were compared to the baseline engine over a prescribed mission. The advanced technology engines reduced system LCC up to 41 percent relative to the baseline engine. The critical aerodynamic materials and mechanical systems necessary for turbine engine technology were identified.

  6. An analysis of the impact of cabin floor angle restrictions on L/D for a typical supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radkey, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    High floor angles at cruise have been identified as a significant problem facing airline and public acceptance of a supersonic transport. In order to explore the relationship between cruise performances and floor angle, four related wing-fuselage design and integration studies have been conducted. The studies were: (1) a fuselage camber study in which perturbations in the fuselage camber distribution were examined with a baseline wing, (2) a wing optimization study in which wings were optimized for minimum drag at C sub L's less than the design C sub L. These wings were optimized as wing planform camber surfaces alone and evaluated with a baseline fuselage, (3) a second wing optimization study in which wings were optimized for minimum drag at C sub L's less than the design C sub L but for this study the wings were optimized in the presence of the baseline fuselage, and (4) a third wing optimization study in which wings were optimized for minmum drag subject to C sub M constraints designed to produce more positive C sub MO's, thereby reducing trim drag. The studies indicated that it was not possible to both improve the aircraft cruise L/D and substantially reduce the cruise floor angle. The studies did indicate that the cruise floor angle could be reduced by reducing the fuselage incidence relative to the wing, but the reduction in floor angle was accompanied by a substantial reduction in L/D.

  7. Engine design considerations for 2nd generation supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental and economic goals projected for advanced supersonic transports will require revolutionary improvements in propulsion systems. Variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate unique components and advanced technologies show promise in meeting these goals. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting conceptual design studies of variable cycle engine concepts under NASA sponsorship. This paper reviews some of the design considerations for these engine concepts. Emphasis is placed on jet noise abatement, reduction of emissions, performance improvements, installation considerations, hot-section characteristics and control system requirements. Two representative variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate these basic design considerations are described.

  8. A higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The basic integral equations of linearized supersonic theory for an advanced supersonic panel method are derived. Methods using only linear varying source strength over each panel or only quadratic doublet strength over each panel gave good agreement with analytic solutions over cones and zero thickness cambered wings. For three dimensional bodies and wings of general shape, combined source and doublet panels with interior boundary conditions to eliminate the internal perturbations lead to a stable method providing good agreement experiment. A panel system with all edges contiguous resulted from dividing the basic four point non-planar panel into eight triangular subpanels, and the doublet strength was made continuous at all edges by a quadratic distribution over each subpanel. Superinclined panels were developed and tested on s simple nacelle and on an airplane model having engine inlets, with excellent results.

  9. Flight Research and Validation Formerly Experimental Capabilities Supersonic Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Experimental Capabilities Supersonic project, that is being reorganized into Flight Research and Validation. The work of Experimental Capabilities Project in FY '09 is reviewed, and the specific centers that is assigned to do the work is given. The portfolio of the newly formed Flight Research and Validation (FRV) group is also reviewed. The various projects for FY '10 for the FRV are detailed. These projects include: Eagle Probe, Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment (CCIE), Supersonic Boundary layer Transition test (SBLT), Aero-elastic Test Wing-2 (ATW-2), G-V External Vision Systems (G5 XVS), Air-to-Air Schlieren (A2A), In Flight Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS), Dynamic Inertia Measurement Technique (DIM), and Advanced In-Flight IR Thermography (AIR-T).

  10. Liquid atomization in supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missoum, Azzedine

    An experimental investigation of the atomization of a round liquid jet by coaxial, costream injection into a supersonic, Mach 1.5 air flow is reported. Extensive flow visualization was conducted using schlieren/shadowgraph, flash photography, and short duration (ns) laser imaging. The finer details of the jet were revealed when viewed under high magnification with the help of a microscope. The liquid and air pressures were varied individually. Photographic evidence indicates the presence of three regions within the liquid jet: a primary region enclosed by the first shock cell where the primary breakup occurs, a secondary region in which the jet is totally broken because of its interaction with the supersonic wave structure, and a third, subsonic region further downstream. It was found that the breakup mechanism of liquid jets in supersonic airstreams is quite complex. The breakup seems to be initiated by the growth of the turbulent structure on the liquid surface and the subsequent detachment of the three-dimensional structure as fine droplets by the intense shear at the liquid-gas interface. This seems to confirm the boundary layer stripping mechanism. The liquid jet expands into a bubble like formation as it interacts with the first set of waves. Higher liquid injection pressures resulted in higher initial spray angles. The liquid jet displayed a geometry strongly dependent on the pressure distribution resulting from the wave structure present in the supersonic jet. Droplet size and velocity distributions were measured by the P/DPA (Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer) system. The Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) was measured at several axial and radial locations at various liquid and air pressures. The SMD shows a decrease with increase in both the air-to-liquid mass flow ratio and the Weber number. The drop size decreased towards the outer edges of the jet. The results lead one to conclude that the coaxial, coflowing configuration is very attractive for atomizing

  11. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  12. Nonaxisymmetric Body Supersonic, Aerodynamic Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    wing - tail configuration are compared in Figure 27. CN comparisons are good. C. is a sensitive computation for xcp close to x’. 7.2...Analytical and Experimental Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Forward Control Missile , AIAA Paper No. 81-0398, AIAA 19th Aerospace Sciences...body diameter. The next computational example is for a body- wing - tail configuration from Reference 32 A body-alone comparison has been made earlier in

  13. Aerodynamics of Supersonic Lifting Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    verso of front cover. 19 Y WOROS (Continue on rt.’,;erso side i recessary and identily by block number) Theoretical Aerodynamics Lifting Bodies Wind ...waverider solution, developed from the supersonic wedge flow solution, is then i Fused to fashion vertLcal stabilizer-likh control surfaces. Wind ...served as Project Engineers ror thE wind tunnel work. Important contributions were also made bv: Mr. iis±ung Miin; Lee, -M. Beom-Soo Kim, Mtr. Martin Weeks

  14. Supersonic Chordwise Bending Flutter in Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-31

    such a flutter boundary can be made by utilizing the trend lines predicted from a supersonic analysis based on supersonic cascade theory (Appendix I...bonding agent was injected via hypodermic needles after the blade tabs were properly inserted, The integrity and repeatability of the mounting of the indi...in conjunction with NASTRAN predictions and supersonic cascade aerodynamic computa- tions. Comparisons between theory and experiment are discussed. DD

  15. Low-Disturbance Flow Characteristics of the NASA-Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A unique, low-disturbance (quiet) supersonic wind tunnel has been commissioned at the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML) to support Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) research. Known as the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT), this tunnel is designed to operate at potential cruise Mach numbers and unit Reynolds numbers (Re) of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The need to better understand the receptivity of the transition phenomena on swept (HSCT) wings to attachment-line contamination and cross-flows has provided the impetus for building the LFSWT. Low-disturbance or "quiet" wind tunnels are known to be an essential part of any meaningful boundary layer transition research. In particular, the receptivity of supersonic boundary layers to wind tunnel disturbances can significantly alter the transition phenomena under investigation on a test model. Consequently, considerable effort has gone into the design of the LFSWT to provide quiet flow. The paper describes efforts to quantify the low-disturbance flows in the LFSWT operating at Mach 1.6, as a precursor to transition research on wing models. The research includes: (1) Flow measurements in both the test section and settling chamber of the LFSWT, using a full range of measurement techniques; (2) Study of the state of the test section boundary layer so far by using a single hot-wire mounted above the floor centerline, with and without boundary layer trips fitted at the test section entrance; (3) The effect of flow quality of unsteady supersonic diffuser flow, joint steps and gaps, and wall vibration.

  16. Supersonic Retropropulsion Flight Test Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.

  17. Supersonic coaxial jet noise predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    Predictions are made for the noise radiation from supersonic, coaxial jets. These predictions are based on the assumption that the noise radiation in the downstream direction of supersonic jets is dominated by sound generated by instability waves with supersonic phase velocities relative to ambient. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytical functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The compressible, Reynolds averaged, boundary layer equations are solved with a modified mixing length turbulence model. The model has been calibrated to account for compressibility and temperature effects on the rate of mixing. Both normal and inverted velocity profile jets are considered. Predictions are made for the differences between the noise radiated by coaxial jets with difference operating conditions and a single reference jet with the same thrust, mass flow, and exit area. The effects of area ratio changes and simulated enhanced mixing on noise radiation are also considered.

  18. Is ozone doomed by supersonic plume?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briebele, Elaine

    The simple desire to save time is reviving interest in supersonic flight. Travelers' demands for faster travel have compelled Congress to fund NASA's High Speed Research Program, which aims to overcome the obstacles that sent full development of the supersonic passenger plane to its demise over 25 years ago.Removing those obstacles presents substantial challenges. The current $6,000 to $9,000 fare for a supersonic trans-Atlantic trip on the Concorde lends credence to the view of supersonic aircraft as “chariots of the rich.”

  19. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1995-01-01

    Low-disturbance or 'quiet' wind tunnels are now considered an essential part of meaningful boundary layer transition research. Advances in Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) technology for swept wings depends on a better understanding of the receptivity of the transition phenomena to attachment-line contamination and cross-flows. This need has provided the impetus for building the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) at NASA-Ames, as part of the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The LFSWT was designed to provide NASA with an unequaled capability for transition research at low supersonic Mach numbers (<2.5). The following are the objectives in support of the new Fluid Mechanic Laboratory (FML) quiet supersonic wind tunnel: (I) Develop a unique injector drive system using the existing FML indraft compressor; (2) Develop an FML instrumentation capability for quiet supersonic wind tunnel evaluation and transition studies at NASA-Ames; (3) Determine the State of the Art in quiet supersonic wind tunnel design; (4) Build and commission the LFSWT; (5) Make detailed flow quality measurements in the LFSWT; (6) Perform tests of swept wing models in the LFSWT in support of the NASA HSR program; and (7) Provide documentation of research progress.

  20. Stratospheric cruise emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Reck, G. M.; Marek, C. J.; Szaniszlo, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A recently implemented NASA effort specifically aimed at reducing cruise oxides of nitrogen from high-altitude aircraft is discussed. The desired emission levels and the combustor technology required to achieve them are discussed. A brief overview of the SCERP operating plan is given. Lean premixed-prevaporized combustion and some of the potential difficulties that are associated with applying this technique to gas turbine combustors are examined. Base technology was developed in several key areas. These fundamental studies are viewed as a requirement for successful implementation of the lean premixed combustion technique.

  1. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships is appropriate in the furtherance of continuing public awareness...

  2. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships is appropriate in the furtherance of continuing public awareness...

  3. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships is appropriate in the furtherance of continuing public awareness...

  4. The effects on cruise drag of installing long-duct refan-engine nacelles on the McDonnell Douglas DC-8-50 and -61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, J. T.; Donelson, J. E.; Morelli, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A high-speed wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effect on cruise performance of installing long-duct refan-engine nacelles on the DC-8-50 and -61 models. Drag data and wing/pylon/nacelle channel pressure data are presented. At a typical cruise condition there exists a very small interference drag penalty of less than one-percent of total cruise data for the Refan installation. Pressure data indicate that some supersonic flow is present in the inboard channel of the inboard refan nacelle installation, but it is not sufficient to cause any wave drag on boundary layer separation. One pylon modification, which takes the form of pylon bumps, was tested. It resulted in a drag penalty, because its design goal of eliminating shock-related interference drag was not required and the bump thus became a source of additional parasite drag.

  5. Expanding the Natural Laminar Flow Boundary for Supersonic Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynde, Michelle N.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    A computational design and analysis methodology is being developed to design a vehicle that can support significant regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) at supersonic flight conditions. The methodology is built in the CDISC design module to be used in this paper with the flow solvers Cart3D and USM3D, and the transition prediction modules BLSTA3D and LASTRAC. The NLF design technique prescribes a target pressure distribution for an existing geometry based on relationships between modal instability wave growth and pressure gradients. The modal instability wave growths (both on- and off-axes crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting) are balanced to produce a pressure distribution that will have a theoretical maximum NLF region for a given streamwise wing station. An example application is presented showing the methodology on a generic supersonic transport wingbody configuration. The configuration has been successfully redesigned to support significant regions of NLF (approximately 40% of the wing upper surface by surface area). Computational analysis predicts NLF with transition Reynolds numbers (ReT) as high as 36 million with 72 degrees of leading-edge sweep (?LE), significantly expanding the current boundary of ReT - ?LE combinations for NLF. This NLF geometry provides a total drag savings of 4.3 counts compared to the baseline wing-body configuration (approximately 5% of total drag). Off-design evaluations at near-cruise and low-speed, high-lift conditions are discussed, as well as attachment line contamination/transition concerns. This computational NLF design effort is a part of an ongoing cooperative agreement between NASA and JAXA researchers.

  6. Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a Cruise Ship Discharge Assessment Report in response to a petition the agency received in March 2000. The petition requested that EPA assess and where necessary control discharges from cruise ships. Comments received during public hearings, in 2000, resulted in the EPA agreeing to conduct a survey to assess the discharge plumes resulting from cruise ships, operating in ocean waters off the Florida coast and to compare the results to the Alaska dispersion models. This survey report describes the daily activities of August 2001 Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey, and provides a synopsis of the observations from the survey. It also provides data that can be used to assess dispersion of cruise ship wastewater discharges, while in transit. A description of the survey methods is provided in Section 2. Survey results are presented in Section 3. Findings and conclusions are discussed in Section 4.

  7. Validation of OVERFLOW for Supersonic Retropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauerhamer, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The goal is to softly land high mass vehicles (10s of metric tons) on Mars. Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) is a potential method of deceleration. Current method of supersonic parachutes does not scale past 1 metric ton. CFD is of increasing importance since flight and experimental data at these conditions is difficult to obtain. CFD must first be validated at these conditions.

  8. Supersonic axial-flow fan flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Lane's (1957) analytical formulation of the unsteady pressure distribution on an oscillating two-dimensional flat plate cascade in supersonic axial flow has been developed into a computer code. This unsteady aerodynamic code has shown good agreement with other published data. This code has also been incorporated into an existing aeroelastic code to analyze the NASA Lewis supersonic through-flow fan design.

  9. Axisymmetric Calculations of a Low-Boom Inlet in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Reger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes axisymmetric CFD predictions made of a supersonic low-boom inlet with a facility diffuser, cold pipe, and mass flow plug within wind tunnel walls, and compares the CFD calculations with the experimental data. The inlet was designed for use on a small supersonic aircraft that would cruise at Mach 1.6, with a Mach number over the wing of 1.7. The inlet was tested in the 8-ft by 6-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2010 to demonstrate the performance and stability of a practical flight design that included a novel bypass duct. The inlet design is discussed here briefly. Prior to the test, CFD calculations were made to predict the performance of the inlet and its associated wind tunnel hardware, and to estimate flow areas needed to throttle the inlet. The calculations were done with the Wind-US CFD code and are described in detail. After the test, comparisons were made between computed and measured shock patterns, total pressure recoveries, and centerline pressures. The results showed that the dual-stream inlet had excellent performance, with capture ratios near one, a peak core total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a large stable operating range. Predicted core recovery agreed well with the experiment but predicted bypass recovery and maximum capture ratio were high. Calculations of offdesign performance of the inlet along a flight profile agreed well with measurements and previous calculations.

  10. A review of ONERA aerodynamic research in support of a future supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, J. J.; Arnal, D.

    2000-11-01

    The ONERA activities concerning the aerodynamics of the future supersonic transport aircraft are reviewed. Section 1 is devoted to the performance prediction and detailed comparisons between CFD and wind-tunnel data are presented and discussed. Section 2 addresses the problem of the drag prediction in cruise flight conditions from wind-tunnel data. Skin friction coefficients values measured in flight are compared to the results of boundary layer computations. Section 3 is devoted to wing designs with numerical optimisation techniques. Several examples are presented and discussed. Results concerning riblets and laminar flow control are given in Section 4 part which also will present experiments carried out for attachment line contamination investigation. Results from basic research on supersonic laminar flows are also be presented. Section 5 deals with activities on air intake aerodynamics. After a brief recall of supersonic air intakes operational modes and a description of the Concorde air intake, comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel data on a generic 2D intake are presented. Basic experiments on intake internal flow are described and the problem of the internal shock control is addressed.

  11. Multifidelity Analysis and Optimization for Supersonic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Willcox, Karen; March, Andrew; Haas, Alex; Rajnarayan, Dev; Kays, Cory

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft design is a computationally expensive optimization problem and multifidelity approaches over a significant opportunity to reduce design time and computational cost. This report presents tools developed to improve supersonic aircraft design capabilities including: aerodynamic tools for supersonic aircraft configurations; a systematic way to manage model uncertainty; and multifidelity model management concepts that incorporate uncertainty. The aerodynamic analysis tools developed are appropriate for use in a multifidelity optimization framework, and include four analysis routines to estimate the lift and drag of a supersonic airfoil, a multifidelity supersonic drag code that estimates the drag of aircraft configurations with three different methods: an area rule method, a panel method, and an Euler solver. In addition, five multifidelity optimization methods are developed, which include local and global methods as well as gradient-based and gradient-free techniques.

  12. Studies on nonequilibrium phenomena in supersonic chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Chandrasekhar, Rajnish

    1993-01-01

    This study deals with a systematic investigation of nonequilibrium processes in supersonic combustion. The two-dimensional, elliptic Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate supersonic flows with nonequilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics, coupled with radiation, for hydrogen-air systems. The explicit, unsplit MacCormack finite-difference scheme is used to advance the governing equations in time, until convergence is achieved. For a basic understanding of the flow physics, premixed flows undergoing finite rate chemical reactions are investigated. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the radiative interactions vary substantially, depending on reactions involving HO2 and NO species, and that this can have a noticeable influence on the flowfield. The second part of this study deals with premixed reacting flows under thermal nonequilibrium conditions. Here, the critical problem is coupling of the vibrational relaxation process with the radiative heat transfer. The specific problem considered is a premixed expanding flow in a supersonic nozzle. Results indicate the presence of nonequilibrium conditions in the expansion region of the nozzle. This results in reduction of the radiative interactions in the flowfield. Next, the present study focuses on investigation of non-premixed flows under chemical nonequilibrium conditions. In this case, the main problem is the coupled turbulence-chemistry interaction. The resulting formulation is validated by comparison with experimental data on reacting supersonic coflowing jets. Results indicate that the effect of heat release is to lower the turbulent shear stress and the mean density. The last part of this study proposes a new theoretical formulation for the coupled turbulence-radiation interactions. Results obtained for the coflowing jets experiment indicate that the effect of turbulence is to enhance the radiative interactions.

  13. Developmental continuity? Crawling, cruising, and walking.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Karen E; Berger, Sarah E; Leo, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between "cruising" (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior to walking, amassing several weeks of experience with both skills. Study 2 showed that cruising infants perceive affordances for locomotion over an adjustable gap in a handrail used for manual support, but despite weeks of cruising experience, cruisers are largely oblivious to the dangers of gaps in the floor beneath their feet. Study 3 replicated the floor-gap findings for infants taking their first independent walking steps, and showed that new walkers also misperceive affordances for locomoting between gaps in a handrail. The findings suggest that weeks of cruising do not teach infants a basic fact about walking: the necessity of a floor to support their body. Moreover, this research demonstrated that developmental milestones that are temporally contiguous and structurally similar might have important functional discontinuities.

  14. Propulsion Simulations Using Advanced Turbulence Models with the Unstructured Grid CFD Tool, TetrUSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.; Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohangna J.

    2004-01-01

    A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of TetrUSS for exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study (1) an axisymmetric supersonic jet, (2) a transonic axisymmetric boattail with solid sting operated at different Reynolds number and Mach number, and (3) an isolated non-axisymmetric nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing experimental data provided a means for measuring the ability of TetrUSS for simulating complex nozzle flows. The main objective of this paper is to validate the implementation of advanced two-equation turbulence models in the unstructured-grid CFD code USM3D for propulsion flow cases. USM3D is the flow solver of the TetrUSS system. Three different turbulence models, namely, Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), basic k epsilon, and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) are used in the present study. The results are generally in agreement with other implementations of these models in structured-grid CFD codes. Results indicate that USM3D provides accurate simulations for complex aerodynamic configurations with propulsion integration.

  15. Development of the NASA-Ames low disturbance supersonic wind tunnel for transition research up to Mach 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.; Reda, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    A unique, low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel is being developed at NASA-Ames to support supersonic laminar flow control research at cruise Mach numbers of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The distinctive aerodynamic features of this new quiet tunnel will be a low-disturbance settling chamber, laminar boundary layers on the nozzle walls and steady supersonic diffuser flow. Furthermore, this new wind tunnel will operate continuously at uniquely low compression ratios (less than unity). This feature allows an existing non-specialist compressor to be used as a major part of the drive system. In this paper, we highlight activities associated with drive system development, the establishment of natural laminar flow on the test section walls, and instrumentation development for transition detection. Experimental results from an 1/8th-scale model of the supersonic wind tunnel are presented and discussed in association with theoretical predictions. Plans are progressing to build the full-scale wind tunnel by the end of 1993.

  16. 77 FR 50511 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... 1970s as a cooperative activity with the cruise ship industry. VSP helps the cruise ship industry... schedule for sanitation inspections of passenger cruise ships by VSP was first published in the Federal... October 1, 2006. The cruise ship industry should be aware that if travel expenses for VSP increase,...

  17. Calculation of the shape of a two-dimensional supersonic nozzle in closed form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunsolo, Dante

    1953-01-01

    The idea is advanced of making a supersonic nozzle by producing one, two, or three successive turns of the whole flow; with the result that the wall contour can be calculated exactly by means of the Prandtl-Meyer "Lost Solution."

  18. Vortex Flows at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data are for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft with Mach numbers of 1.5 to 4.6. Data are presented to show the types of vortex structures that occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures on vehicle performance and control. The data show the presence of both small- and large-scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices. Data are shown that highlight the effect of leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. Finally, a discussion of a design approach for wings that use vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speeds is presented.

  19. Local flow measurements at the inlet spike tip of a Mach 3 supersonic cruise airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. J.; Montoya, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The flow field at the left inlet spike tip of a YF-12A airplane was examined using at 26 deg included angle conical flow sensor to obtain measurements at free-stream Mach numbers from 1.6 to 3.0. Local flow angularity, Mach number, impact pressure, and mass flow were determined and compared with free-stream values. Local flow changes occurred at the same time as free-stream changes. The local flow usually approached the spike centerline from the upper outboard side because of spike cant and toe-in. Free-stream Mach number influenced the local flow angularity; as Mach number increased above 2.2, local angle of attack increased and local sideslip angle decreased. Local Mach number was generally 3 percent less than free-stream Mach number. Impact-pressure ratio and mass flow ratio increased as free-stream Mach number increased above 2.2, indicating a beneficial forebody compression effect. No degradation of the spike tip instrumentation was observed after more than 40 flights in the high-speed thermal environment encountered by the airplane. The sensor is rugged, simple, and sensitive to small flow changes. It can provide accurate imputs necessary to control an inlet.

  20. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composites for supersonic cruise aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, J. F.; Kerr, J. R.; Stein, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    A range of baseline properties was determined for representatives of 5 composite materials systems: B/Ep, Gr/Ep, B/PI, Gr/PI, and B/Al. Long-term exposures are underway in static thermal environments and in ones which simultaneously combine programmed thermal histories and mechanical loading histories. Selected results from the environmental exposure studies with emphasis placed on the 10,000-hour thermal aging data are presented. Results of residual strength determinations and changes in physcial and chemical properties during high temperature aging are discussed and illustrated using metallographic, fractographic and thermomechanical analyses. Some initial results of the long-term flight simulation tests are also included.

  1. Evaluation of high temperature structural adhesives for extended service. [supersonic cruise aircraft research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different Ti-6Al-4V surface treatments were investigated for each of 10 candidate resins. Primers (two for each resin) were studied for appropriate cure and thickness and initial evaluation of bond joints began using various combinations of the adhesive resins and surface treatments. Surface failure areas of bonded titanium coupons were analyzed by electron microscopy and surface chemical analysis techniques. Results of surface characterization and failure analysis are described for lap shear bond joints occurring with adhesive systems consisting of: (1) LARC-13 adhesive, Pasa jell surface treatment; (2) LARC-13 adhesive, 10 volt CAA treatment; (3) PPQ adhesive, 10 volt CAA treatment; and (4) PPQ adhesive, 5 volt CAA treatment. The failure analysis concentrated on the 10,000 hr 505K (450 F) exposed specimens which exhibited adhesive failure. Environmental exposure data being generated on the PPQ-10 volt CAA and the LARC-TPI-10 volt CAA adhesive systems is included.

  2. Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions decreased with increasing altitude, and increased with increasing flight speed. NOX emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude, and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  3. Prey detection in a cruising copepod

    PubMed Central

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Small cruising zooplankton depend on remote prey detection and active prey capture for efficient feeding. Direct, passive interception of prey is inherently very inefficient at low Reynolds numbers because the viscous boundary layer surrounding the approaching predator will push away potential prey. Yet, direct interception has been proposed to explain how rapidly cruising, blind copepods feed on non-motile phytoplankton prey. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in a cruising copepod, and describe how motile and non-motile prey are discovered by hydromechanical and tactile or, likely, chemical cues, respectively. PMID:22158738

  4. Prey detection in a cruising copepod.

    PubMed

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-06-23

    Small cruising zooplankton depend on remote prey detection and active prey capture for efficient feeding. Direct, passive interception of prey is inherently very inefficient at low Reynolds numbers because the viscous boundary layer surrounding the approaching predator will push away potential prey. Yet, direct interception has been proposed to explain how rapidly cruising, blind copepods feed on non-motile phytoplankton prey. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in a cruising copepod, and describe how motile and non-motile prey are discovered by hydromechanical and tactile or, likely, chemical cues, respectively.

  5. Tone noise of three supersonic helical tip speed propellers in a wind tunnel at 0.8 Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Blaha, B. J.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Three supersonic helical tip speed propellers were tested in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel. Noise data were obtained while these propellers were operating at a simulated cruise condition. The walls of this tunnel were not acoustically treated and therefore this was not an ideal location for taking noise data, but it was thought that the differences in noise among the three propellers would be meaningful. The straight bladed propeller which did not incorporate sweep was the noisiest with the aerodynamically swept propeller only slightly quieter. However, the acoustically swept propeller was significantly quieter than the straight propeller, thereby indicating the merit of this design technique.

  6. Application of laminar flow control to supersonic transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P. G.; Nagel, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility and impact of implementing a laminar flow control system on a supersonic transport configuration were investigated. A hybrid laminar flow control scheme consisting of suction controlled and natural laminar flow was developed for a double-delta type wing planform. The required suction flow rates were determined from boundary layer stability analyses using representative wing pressure distributions. A preliminary design of structural modifications needed to accommodate suction through a perforated titanium skin was carried out together with the ducting and systems needed to collect, compress and discharge the suction air. The benefits of reduced aerodynamic drag were weighed against the weight, volume and power requirement penalties of suction system installation in a mission performance and sizing program to assess the net benefits. The study showed a feasibility of achieving significant laminarization of the wing surface by use of a hybrid scheme, leading to an 8.2 percent reduction in the cruise drag. This resulted in an 8.5 percent reduction in the maximum takeoff weight and a 12 percent reduction in the fuel burn after the inclusion of the LFC system installation penalties. Several research needs were identified for a resolution of aerodynamics, structural and systems issues before these potential benefits could be realized in a practical system.

  7. Design and Analysis Tool for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN has been developed to design and analyze external-compression supersonic inlets for aircraft at cruise speeds from Mach 1.6 to 2.0. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced Busemann inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flowfield is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling and the parts are defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates and surface grids useable by grid generation methods for higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. SUPIN is demonstrated through a series of design studies and CFD analyses were performed to verify some of the analysis results.

  8. Design and Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Folk, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Computational tools are being developed for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets. The objective is to update existing tools and provide design and low-order aerodynamic analysis capability for advanced inlet concepts. The Inlet Tools effort includes aspects of creating an electronic database of inlet design information, a document describing inlet design and analysis methods, a geometry model for describing the shape of inlets, and computer tools that implement the geometry model and methods. The geometry model has a set of basic inlet shapes that include pitot, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and stream-traced inlet shapes. The inlet model divides the inlet flow field into parts that facilitate the design and analysis methods. The inlet geometry model constructs the inlet surfaces through the generation and transformation of planar entities based on key inlet design factors. Future efforts will focus on developing the inlet geometry model, the inlet design and analysis methods, a Fortran 95 code to implement the model and methods. Other computational platforms, such as Java, will also be explored.

  9. Methodology of a combined ground based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, Klaus; Karl, Sebastian; Martinez Schramm, Jan; Steelant, Johan

    2010-10-01

    In the framework of the European Commission co-funded LAPCAT (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies) project, the methodology of a combined ground-based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths was established. The approach is based on free jet testing of complete supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) configurations consisting of intake, combustor and nozzle in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and computational fluid dynamics studies utilising the DLR TAU code. The capability of the established methodology is demonstrated by applying it to the flow path of the generic HyShot II scramjet flight experiment configuration.

  10. Economic benefits of supersonic overland operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1992-01-01

    Environmental concerns are likely to impose some restrictions on the next generation of supersonic commercial transport. There is a global concern over the effects of engine emissions on the ozone layer which protects life on Earth from ultraviolet radiation. There is also some concern over community noise. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) must meet at least the current subsonic noise certification standards to be compatible with the future subsonic fleet. Concerns over sonic boom represent another environmental and marketing challenge to the HSCT program. The most attractive feature of the supersonic transport is speed, which offers the traveling public significant time-savings on long range routes. The sonic boom issue represents a major environmental and economic challenge as well. Supersonic operation overland produces the most desirable economic results. However, unacceptable overland sonic boom raise levels may force HSCT to use subsonic speeds overland. These environmental and economic challenges are likely to impose some restrictions on supersonic operation, thus introducing major changes to existing route structures and future supersonic network composition. The current subsonic route structure may have to be altered for supersonic transports to avoid sensitive areas in the stratosphere or to minimize overland flight tracks. It is important to examine the alternative route structure and the impact of these restrictions on the economic viability of the overall supersonic operation. Future market potential for HSCT fleets must be large enough to enable engine and airframe manufacturers to build the plane at a cost that provides them with an attractive return on investment and to sell it at a price that allows the airlines to operate with a reasonable margin of profit. Subsonic overland operation of a supersonic aircraft hinders its economic viability. Ways to increase the market potential of supersonic operation are described.

  11. Theoretical aspects of supersonic jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: the three components of supersonic jet noise; shock cell structure of imperfectly expanded jets; large turbulence structures/instability waves; supersonic jet noise theory; generation of turbulent mixing noise; comparisons between predicted peak noise frequency and direction of radiation with measurements; Strouhal number of maximum SPL of hot supersonic jets; near field sound pressure level contours; generation of broadband shock associated noise; calculated and measured far field shock noise spectra; generation of screech tones; and calculated and measured Strouhal number of screech tones.

  12. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P [Bellevue, WA

    2012-04-10

    A supersonic gas compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated on a rotor journaled in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. The convergent inlet is adjacent to a bleed air collector, and during acceleration of the rotor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via a collector to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is eliminated.

  13. Public Hearing on Cruise Ship Discharges: Miami

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transcripts of the presentation and comments provided at a hearing hosted by the EPA in Miami, FL on discharges from cruise ships. Stakeholder representatives were in attendance to provide information and recommendations on this issue.

  14. Public Hearing on Cruise Ship Discharges: Juneau

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transcripts of the presentation and comments provided at a hearing hosted by the EPA in Juneau, AK on discharges from cruise ships. Stakeholder representatives were in attendance to provide information and recommendations on this issue.

  15. Gastrointestinal illness on passenger cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Merson, M H; Hughes, J M; Wood, B T; Yashuk, J C; Wells, J G

    1975-02-17

    Medical logs of 2,445 cruises taken by 38 vessels over a 20-month period beginning Jan 1, 1972, were reviewed. On 92% of the cruises, the recorded incidence of gastrointestinal illness was 1% or less; on 2% of cruises, it was 5% or greater. The actual incidence of gastrointestinal illness determined by a questionnaire survey of passengers sailing on nine cruises was found to be at least four times as high as that recorded in the medical logs. Although the cause of the illnesses was not known, there was evidence that transmission took place aboard ship. A survey of food-handling practices and water systems aboard selected ships demonstrated a significant potential for transmission of foodborne and waterborne disease.

  16. A "broken heart" on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    An elderly female cruise ship passenger developed chest pain shortly after an emotionally charged incident involving shipboard authorities. The electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme profile were indicative of myocardial infarction but the final diagnosis, established after aeromedical evacuation, was stress-related cardiomyopathy. This case is an example of a relatively unknown clinical entity that is easily mistaken for acute myocardial infarction and which may be disproportionately prevalent in the cruise ship passenger population.

  17. A two-dimensional numerical simulation of a supersonic, chemically reacting mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip

    1988-01-01

    Research has been undertaken to achieve an improved understanding of physical phenomena present when a supersonic flow undergoes chemical reaction. A detailed understanding of supersonic reacting flows is necessary to successfully develop advanced propulsion systems now planned for use late in this century and beyond. In order to explore such flows, a study was begun to create appropriate physical models for describing supersonic combustion, and to develop accurate and efficient numerical techniques for solving the governing equations that result from these models. From this work, two computer programs were written to study reacting flows. Both programs were constructed to consider the multicomponent diffusion and convection of important chemical species, the finite rate reaction of these species, and the resulting interaction of the fluid mechanics and the chemistry. The first program employed a finite difference scheme for integrating the governing equations, whereas the second used a hybrid Chebyshev pseudospectral technique for improved accuracy.

  18. Design and Testing of CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Ramgen and subcontractors in pursuit of the design and construction of a 10 MW supersonic CO2 compressor and supporting facility. The compressor will demonstrate application of Ramgen’s supersonic compression technology at an industrial scale using CO2 in a closed-loop. The report includes details of early feasibility studies, CFD validation and comparison to experimental data, static test experimental results, compressor and facility design and analyses, and development of aerodynamic tools. A summary of Ramgen's ISC Engine program activity is also included. This program will demonstrate the adaptation of Ramgen's supersonic compression and advanced vortex combustion technology to result in a highly efficient and cost effective alternative to traditional gas turbine engines. The build out of a 1.5 MW test facility to support the engine and associated subcomponent test program is summarized.

  19. Numerical Studies of a Supersonic Fluidic Diverter Actuator for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis e.; Raghu, Surya

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the internal flow structure and performance of a specific fluidic diverter actuator, previously studied by time-dependent numerical computations for subsonic flow, is extended to include operation with supersonic actuator exit velocities. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted and the calculated oscillation frequencies with respect to flow rate have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. The oscillation frequency increases with Mach number, but its dependence on flow rate changes from subsonic to transonic to supersonic regimes. The delay time for the initiation of oscillations depends on the flow rate and the acoustic speed in the gaseous medium for subsonic flow, but is unaffected by the flow rate for supersonic conditions

  20. Nonlinear Stability of Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, T. R. S.; Seiner, J. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations. In this analysis the large-scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.

  1. NASA Flight Tests Explore Supersonic Laminar Flow

    NASA Video Gallery

    In partnership with Aerion Corporation of Reno, Nevada, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center’s tested supersonic airflow over a small experimental airfoil design on its F-15B Test Bed aircraft du...

  2. Streamline curvature in supersonic shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibens, V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation in which a curved shear layer was generated between supersonic flow from a rectangular converging/diverging nozzle and the freestream in a series of open channels with varying radii of curvature are reported. The shear layers exhibit unsteady large-scale activity at supersonic pressure ratios, indicating increased mixing efficiency. This effect contrasts with supersonic flow in a straight channel, for which no large-scale vortical structure development occurs. Curvature must exceed a minimum level before it begins to affect the dynamics of the supersonic shear layer appreciably. The curved channel flows are compared with reference flows consisting of a free jet, a straight channel, and wall jets without sidewalls on a flat and a curved plate.

  3. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  4. Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA recently performed a trial run on a rocket sled test fixture, powered by rockets, to replicate the forces a supersonic spacecraft would experience prior to landing. The sled tests will allow t...

  5. Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James

    1994-01-01

    An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.

  6. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  7. The Subduction Experiment - Cruise Report R/V Knorr Cruise Number 138 Leg XV Subduction 3 Mooring Recovery Cruise 13-30 June 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    deployed for a third time in October 1992 during RRS Charles Darwin cruise number 73. The surface moorings included two WHOI moorings designated Central and...Experiment, Cruise Report, RRS Charles Darwin Cruise Number 73, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report, WHO1 93- 18, 102pp. Trask, Richard P

  8. Conditions for supersonic bent Marshak waves

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qiang Ren, Xiao-dong; Li, Jing; Dan, Jia-kun; Wang, Kun-lun; Zhou, Shao-tong

    2015-03-15

    Supersonic radiation diffusion approximation is an useful method to study the radiation transportation. Considering the 2-d Marshak theory, and an invariable source temperature, conditions for supersonic radiation diffusion are proved to be coincident with that for radiant flux domination in the early time when √(ε)x{sub f}/L≪1. However, they are even tighter than conditions for radiant flux domination in the late time when √(ε)x{sub f}/L≫1, and can be expressed as M>4(1+ε/3)/3 and τ>1. A large Mach number requires the high temperature, while the large optical depth requires the low temperature. Only when the source temperature is in a proper region the supersonic diffusion conditions can be satisfied. Assuming a power-low (in temperature and density) opacity and internal energy, for a given density, the supersonic diffusion regions are given theoretically. The 2-d Marshak theory is proved to be able to bound the supersonic diffusion conditions in both high and low temperature regions, however, the 1-d theory only bounds it in low temperature region. Taking SiO{sub 2} and the Au, for example, these supersonic regions are shown numerically.

  9. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Parachute Decelerator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallon, John C.; Clark, Ian G.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project has undertaken the task of developing and testing a large supersonic ringsail parachute. The parachute under development is intended to provide mission planners more options for parachutes larger than the Mars Science Laboratory's 21.5m parachute. During its development, this new parachute will be taken through a series of tests in order to bring the parachute to a TRL-6 readiness level and make the technology available for future Mars missions. This effort is primarily focused on two tests, a subsonic structural verification test done at sea level atmospheric conditions and a supersonic flight behind a blunt body in low-density atmospheric conditions. The preferred method of deploying a parachute behind a decelerating blunt body robotic spacecraft in a supersonic flow-field is via mortar deployment. Due to the configuration constraints in the design of the test vehicle used in the supersonic testing it is not possible to perform a mortar deployment. As a result of this limitation an alternative deployment process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed. The intent in this alternate approach is to preserve the requisite features of a mortar deployment during canopy extraction in a supersonic flow. Doing so will allow future Mars missions to either choose to mortar deploy or pilot deploy the parachute that is being developed.

  10. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  11. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  12. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  13. The Subduction Experiment, Cruise Report, RRS Charles Darwin Cruise Number 73. Subduction 3 Mooring Deployment and Recovery Cruise 30 September-26 October 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    RRS Charles Darwin Cruise Number 73 Subduction 3 Mooring Deployment and Recovery Cruise 30 September -26 October 1992 * by T Richard P. Trask 1.7 i•; A...RRS Charles Darwin cruise number 73 which was the third scheduled Subduction mooring cruise. During this cruise the second setting of the moorings...14 Table A6-1 XBT Positions 82 I S "I U Im ’i i i n I Section 1: Introduction The RRS Charles Darwin departed Funchal, Madeira at 0910 UTC on

  14. Cruise report RV Inland Surveyer Cruise IS-98; the bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, August 2 through August 17, 1998, Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise IS-98 was to map the bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (Fig. 1) to fulfill a commitment made during the Lake Tahoe Presidential Forum in 1997. The only existing bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, collected in 1923, was recently compiled by Rowe and Stone (1997), but the data density is inadequate for the level of scientific studies ongoing and anticipated in the near future for Lake Tahoe. Recent advances in marine multibeam-sonar capabilities now permit a cost-effective way, to precisely map the bathymetry of large areas of the ocean floor with 100% coverage. Cruise IS-98 applied this state-of-the-art ocean technology to Lake Tahoe. The newest of these high-resolution multibeam mapping systems also simultaneously collects backscatter (similar to sidescan sonar) imagery that results in a complimentary and co-registered data set that is related to the distribution of lake-floor materials and textures. The two types of maps that resulted from this cruise provide the multidisiplinary Lake Tahoe research community an unprecedented set of base maps upon which to build their studies. This report describes the high-resolution multibeam mapping system used at Lake Tahoe, outlines the data-processing steps used to produce the maps, and includes the daily log of the cruise.

  15. Cardiovascular emergencies in cruise ship passengers.

    PubMed

    Novaro, Gian M; Bush, Howard S; Fromkin, Kenneth R; Shen, Michael Y; Helguera, Marcelo; Pinski, Sergio L; Asher, Craig R

    2010-01-15

    More than 10 million people, many elderly and likely to harbor cardiovascular (CV) disease, embark on cruise ship travel worldwide every year. The clinical presentation and outcome of CV emergencies presenting during cruise ship travel remain largely unknown. Our department provides contracted cardiology consultations to several large cruise lines. We prospectively maintained a registry of all such consultations during a 2-year period. One hundred consecutive patients were identified (age 66 +/- 14 years, range 18 to 90, 76% men). The most common symptom was chest pain (50%). The most common diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome (58%; ST elevation in 21% and non-ST elevation in 37%). On-board mortality was 3%. Overall, 73% of patients required hospital triage. Of the 25 patients triaged to our institution, 17 underwent a revascularization procedure. One patient died. Ten percent of patients had cardiac symptoms in the days or weeks before boarding; all required hospital triage. Access to a baseline electrocardiogram would have been clinically useful in 23% of cases. In conclusion, CV emergencies, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, are not uncommon on cruise ships. They are often serious, requiring hospital triage and coronary revascularization. A pretravel medical evaluation is recommended for passengers with a cardiac history or a high-risk profile. Passengers should be encouraged to bring a copy of their electrocardiogram on board if abnormal. Cruise lines should establish mechanisms for prompt consultation and triage.

  16. Robust predictive cruise control for commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junell, Jaime; Tumer, Kagan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we explore learning-based predictive cruise control and the impact of this technology on increasing fuel efficiency for commercial trucks. Traditional cruise control is wasteful when maintaining a constant velocity over rolling hills. Predictive cruise control (PCC) is able to look ahead at future road conditions and solve for a cost-effective course of action. Model- based controllers have been implemented in this field but cannot accommodate many complexities of a dynamic environment which includes changing road and vehicle conditions. In this work, we focus on incorporating a learner into an already successful model- based predictive cruise controller in order to improve its performance. We explore back propagating neural networks to predict future errors then take actions to prevent said errors from occurring. The results show that this approach improves the model based PCC by up to 60% under certain conditions. In addition, we explore the benefits of classifier ensembles to further improve the gains due to intelligent cruise control.

  17. Tone Noise of Three Supersonic Helical Tip Speed Propellers in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.; Blaha, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Three supersonic helical tip speed propellers were tested in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel. This is a perforated-wall wind tunnel but it does not have acoustic damping material on its walls. The propellers were tested at tunnel through flow Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, and 0.85 with different rotational speeds and blade setting angles. The three propellers, which had approximately the same aerodynamic performance, incorporated different plan forms and different amounts of sweep and yielded different near field noise levels. The acoustically designed propeller had 45 deg of tip sweep and was significantly quieter at M = 0.8 cruise than the straight bladed propeller. The intermediate 30 deg tip sweep propeller, which was swept for aerodynamic purposes, exhibited noise that was between the other two propellers. Noise trends with varying helical tip Mach number and blade loading were also observed.

  18. Reynolds Number Effects on Leading Edge Radius Variations of a Supersonic Transport at Transonic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. M. B.; Wahls, R. A.; Owens, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    A computational study focused on leading-edge radius effects and associated Reynolds number sensitivity for a High Speed Civil Transport configuration at transonic conditions was conducted as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes were to assess the capabilities of computational fluid dynamics to predict Reynolds number effects for a range of leading-edge radius distributions on a second-generation supersonic transport configuration, and to evaluate the potential performance benefits of each at the transonic cruise condition. Five leading-edge radius distributions are described, and the potential performance benefit including the Reynolds number sensitivity for each is presented. Computational results for two leading-edge radius distributions are compared with experimental results acquired in the National Transonic Facility over a broad Reynolds number range.

  19. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  20. Influence of propulsion system size, shape, and location on supersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Roe, M. H.; Tyson, R. M.; Mairs, R. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of various propulsion system parameters on the characteristics of a supersonic transport were investigated. The effects of arbitrarily scaling engine size on wave drag, friction drag, drag-due-to-lift, wing sizing, airplane balance, and airplane weight were studied. These evaluations were made for two families of nacelle shapes, resulting from typical turbojet and turbofan installations. Also examined were effects of nacelle location, and the wing camber plane deformations required to cancel the nacelle interference pressure field at cruise Mach number (2.7 M) were determined. The most drag-sensitive parameter is found to be nacelle shape. Similarly, wing deformation requirements are found to be primarily affected by nacelle shape. Effects of engine size variations are noted primarily in airplane gross weight.

  1. Calculation of Supersonic Combustion Using Implicit Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    One of the technology goals of NASA for advanced space transportation is to develop highly efficient propulsion systems to reduce the cost of payload for space missions. Developments of rockets for the second generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in the past several years have been focused on low-cost versions of conventional engines. However, recent changes in the Integrated Space Transportation Program to build a crew transportation vehicle to extend the life of the Space Shuttle fleet might suggest that air-breathing rockets could reemerge as a possible propulsion system for the third generation RLV to replace the Space Shuttle after 2015. The weight of the oxygen tank exceeds thirty percent of the total weight of the Space Shuttle at launch while the payload is only one percent of the total weight. The air-breathing rocket propulsion systems, which consume oxygen in the air, offer clear advantages by making vehicles lighter and more efficient. Experience in the National Aerospace Plane Program in the late 1980s indicates that scramjet engines can achieve high specific impulse for low hypersonic vehicle speeds. Whether taking a form of Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) or Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC), the scramjet is an essential mode of operation for air-breathing rockets. It is well known that fuel-air mixing and rapid combustion are of crucial importance for the success of scramjet engines since the spreading rate of the supersonic mixing layer decreases as the Mach number increases. A factored form of the Gauss-Seidel relaxation method has been widely used in hypersonic flow research since its first application to non-equilibrium flows. However, difficulties in stability and convergence have been encountered when there is strong interaction between fluid motion and chemical reaction, such as multiple fuel injection problems. The present paper reports the results from investigation of the effect of modifications to the original algorithm on the

  2. Toward Supersonic Retropropulsion CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil; Schauerhamer, D. Guy; Trumble, Kerry; Sozer, Emre; Barnhardt, Michael; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Edquist, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins the process of verifying and validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for supersonic retropropulsive flows. Four CFD codes (DPLR, FUN3D, OVERFLOW, and US3D) are used to perform various numerical and physical modeling studies toward the goal of comparing predictions with a wind tunnel experiment specifically designed to support CFD validation. Numerical studies run the gamut in rigor from code-to-code comparisons to observed order-of-accuracy tests. Results indicate that this complex flowfield, involving time-dependent shocks and vortex shedding, design order of accuracy is not clearly evident. Also explored is the extent of physical modeling necessary to predict the salient flowfield features found in high-speed Schlieren images and surface pressure measurements taken during the validation experiment. Physical modeling studies include geometric items such as wind tunnel wall and sting mount interference, as well as turbulence modeling that ranges from a RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) 2-equation model to DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) models. These studies indicate that tunnel wall interference is minimal for the cases investigated; model mounting hardware effects are confined to the aft end of the model; and sparse grid resolution and turbulence modeling can damp or entirely dissipate the unsteadiness of this self-excited flow.

  3. Quiet Supersonic Wind Tunnel Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Lyndell S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to control the extent of laminar flow on swept wings at supersonic speeds may be a critical element in developing the enabling technology for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Laminar boundary layers are less resistive to forward flight than their turbulent counterparts, thus the farther downstream that transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the wing boundary layer is extended can be of significant economic impact. Due to the complex processes involved experimental studies of boundary layer stability and transition are needed, and these are performed in "quiet" wind tunnels capable of simulating the low-disturbance environment of free flight. At Ames, a wind tunnel has been built to operate at flow conditions which match those of the HSCT laminar flow flight demonstration 'aircraft, the F-16XL, i.e. at a Mach number of 1.6 and a Reynolds number range of 1 to 3 million per foot. This will allow detailed studies of the attachment line and crossflow on the leading edge area of the highly swept wing. Also, use of suction as a means of control of transition due to crossflow and attachment line instabilities can be studied. Topics covered include: test operating conditions required; design requirements to efficiently make use of the existing infrastructure; development of an injector drive system using a small pilot facility; plenum chamber design; use of computational tools for tunnel and model design; and early operational results.

  4. Inverse Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts Using Reversed Equivalent-Area Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Rallabhand, Sriam

    2011-01-01

    A promising path for developing a low-boom configuration is a multifidelity approach that (1) starts from a low-fidelity low-boom design, (2) refines the low-fidelity design with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) equivalent-area (Ae) analysis, and (3) improves the design with sonic-boom analysis by using CFD off-body pressure distributions. The focus of this paper is on the third step of this approach, in which the design is improved with sonic-boom analysis through the use of CFD calculations. A new inverse design process for off-body pressure tailoring is formulated and demonstrated with a low-boom supersonic configuration that was developed by using the mixed-fidelity design method with CFD Ae analysis. The new inverse design process uses the reverse propagation of the pressure distribution (dp/p) from a mid-field location to a near-field location, converts the near-field dp/p into an equivalent-area distribution, generates a low-boom target for the reversed equivalent area (Ae,r) of the configuration, and modifies the configuration to minimize the differences between the configuration s Ae,r and the low-boom target. The new inverse design process is used to modify a supersonic demonstrator concept for a cruise Mach number of 1.6 and a cruise weight of 30,000 lb. The modified configuration has a fully shaped ground signature that has a perceived loudness (PLdB) value of 78.5, while the original configuration has a partially shaped aft signature with a PLdB of 82.3.

  5. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  6. 6. VIEW NORTH, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, SUPERSONIC WIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTH, INTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING 11, SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Supersonic Parachute Aerodynamic Testing and Fluid Structure Interaction Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Darley, M. G.; Marraffa, L.; Ferracina, L.

    2014-06-01

    The ESA Supersonic Parachute program expands the knowledge of parachute inflation and flying characteristics in supersonic flows using wind tunnel testing and fluid structure interaction to develop new inflation algorithms and aerodynamic databases.

  8. Time-Lapse Assembly of NASA Supersonic Model

    NASA Video Gallery

    Supersonic passenger airplanes are another step closer to reality as NASA and Lockheed Martin began the first high-speed wind tunnel tests for the Quiet Supersonic Technology, or QueSST, X-plane pr...

  9. Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.

  10. When propfans cruise, will LDN 65 fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Fred; Dickerson, William

    1990-01-01

    The type and extent of response that may be expected from the persons exposed to the noise of propfans cruising overhead is examined. The cruise mode is of particular interest because it appears that it is in this mode that the propfan airplane noise differs substantially from the noise of present jet-powered airplanes. Early test data on propfan engines suggests that noise levels on the ground under the flight track of commercial propfan transports may approach 65 decibels. To explore the reaction of the exposed population to repeated noise levels of this magnitude, it may be helpful to review some of the pertinent literature on the effects of environmental noise.

  11. SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION. VOLUME I. COST ANALYSIS PROGRAM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, *COSTS), (*AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION ), MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING, AIRFRAMES, ECONOMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, MONEY, AIRCRAFT ENGINES, FEASIBILITY STUDIES

  12. The Joint Cruise Missiles Project: An Acquisition History--Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    itilan History," Rand R-3039, Auqust 198 *_2These appendixes include: Joint Cruise Missiles Project Office Evolution ; DMA/JCMPO Interaction3 Cruise...APPENDIX A: JOINT CRUISE MISSILES PROJECT OFFICE EVOLUTION ................1 Creation of the JCMPO........................................1U:ALCM...Management Transition..................................11 JCMPO Management Evolution After ALCM Transfer...............15 B: DMA/JCMPO INTERACTION

  13. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional...

  14. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional...

  15. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional...

  16. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional...

  17. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional...

  18. Galileo early cruise, including Venus, First Earth, and Gaspra encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Oconnor, R. C.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    This article documents DSN support for the Galileo cruise to Jupiter. The mission's unique trajectory affords multiple encounters during this cruise phase. Each encounter had or will have unique requirements for data acquisition and DSN support configurations. An overview of the cruise and its encounters, up through the asteroid Gaspra encounter, is provided.

  19. Galileo early cruise, including Venus, first Earth, and Gaspra encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Oconnor, R. C.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    This article documents Deep Space Network (DSN) support for the Galileo cruise to Jupiter. The unique trajectory affords multiple encounters during this cruise phase. Each encounter had or will have unique requirements for data acquisition and DSN support configurations. An overview of the cruise and encounters through the asteroid Gaspra encounter is provided.

  20. Climb to Cruise Noise Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yamamoto, K. J.; Donelson, M. J.; Golub, R. A.; Rawls, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    A semi-empirical formula for the prediction of the broadband shock associated noise from rectangular supersonic jets in the fly-over plane has been developed. The predicted noise spectra compared very favorable with the measurement of Ponton, Manning and Seiner. Extension to side-line directions will be carried out.

  1. Low Order Equivalent System Identification for the Tu-144LL Supersonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    Low order equivalent system models were identified from flight test data for the Tu-144LL supersonic transport aircraft. Flight test maneuvers were executed by Russian and American test Pilots flying the aircraft from Zhukovsky airfield outside Moscow, Russia. Flight tests included longitudinal and lateral / directional maneuvers at supersonic cruise flight conditions. Piloted frequency sweeps and multi-step maneuvers were used to generate data for closed loop low order equivalent system modeling. Model parameters were estimated using a flexible. high accuracy Fourier transform and an equation error / output error (EE/OE) formulation in the frequency domain. Results were compared to parameter estimates obtained using spectral estimation and subsequent least squares fit to frequency response data in Bode plots. Modeling results from the two methods agreed well for both a frequency sweep and multiple concatenated multi-step maneuvers. For a single multi-step maneuvers the EE/OE method gave a better model fit with improved prediction capability. A summary of closed loop low order equivalent system identification results for the Tu-144LL, including estimated parameters, standard errors, and flying qualities level predictions, were computed and tabulated.

  2. Low Order Equivalent System for the Tu-144LL Supersonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    Low order equivalent system models were identified from flight test data for the Tu- 144LL supersonic transport aircraft. Flight test maneuvers were executed by Russian and American test pilots flying the aircraft from Zhukovsky airfield outside Moscow, Russia. Flight tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional maneuvers at supersonic cruise flight conditions. Piloted frequency sweeps and multi-step maneuvers were used to Generate data for p closed loop low order equivalent system modeling Model parameters were estimated using a flexible, high accuracy Fourier transform and an equation error output error (EE/OE) formulation in the frequency domain. Results were compared to parameter estimates obtained using spectral estimation and subsequent least squares fit to frequency response data in Bode plots. Modeling results from the two methods a-reed well for both a frequency sweep and multiple concatenated multi-step maneuvers. For a single multi-step maneuver, the EE/OE method gave a better model fit with improved prediction capability. A summary of closed loop low order equivalent system identification results for the Tu-144LL. including estimated parameters, standard errors, and flying qualities level predictions, were computed and tabulated.

  3. Investigation of supersonic chemically reacting and radiating channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mani, Mortaza; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1988-01-01

    The 2-D time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate supersonic flows undergoing finite rate chemical reaction and radiation interaction for a hydrogen-air system. The explicit multistage finite volume technique of Jameson is used to advance the governing equations in time until convergence is achieved. The chemistry source term in the species equation is treated implicitly to alleviate the stiffness associated with fast reactions. The multidimensional radiative transfer equations for a nongray model are provided for a general configuration and then reduced for a planar geometry. Both pseudo-gray and nongray models are used to represent the absorption-emission characteristics of the participating species. The supersonic inviscid and viscous, nonreacting flows are solved by employing the finite volume technique of Jameson and the unsplit finite difference scheme of MacCormack. The specified problem considered is of the flow in a channel with a 10 deg compression-expansion ramp. The calculated results are compared with those of an upwind scheme. The problem of chemically reacting and radiating flows are solved for the flow of premixed hydrogen-air through a channel with parallel boundaries, and a channel with a compression corner. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the radiative interaction can have a significant influence on the entire flow field.

  4. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  5. Drag Reduction Tests on Supersonic Transport Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley researchers recently completed supersonic tests in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on a nonlinear design for a supersonic transport. Although the drag reduction measured during the tests was not as great as that predicted using computational methods, significant drag reductions were achieved. Future tests will be conducted at a higher Reynolds number, which will be more representative of flight conditions. These tests will be used to identify a supersonic transport configuration that provides maximum drag reduction. Reducing drag decreases operating cost by improving fuel consumption and lowering aircraft weight. As a result, this research has the potential to help make a future high-speed civil transport (HSCT) an affordable means of travel for the flying public.

  6. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  7. Supersonic combustion engine testbed, heat lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoying, D.; Kelble, C.; Langenbahn, A.; Stahl, M.; Tincher, M.; Walsh, M.; Wisler, S.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic combustion engine testbed (SCET) aircraft is presented. The hypersonic waverider will utilize both supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMjet) and turbofan-ramjet engines. The waverider concept, system integration, electrical power, weight analysis, cockpit, landing skids, and configuration modeling are addressed in the configuration considerations. The subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics are presented along with the aerodynamic stability and landing analysis of the aircraft. The propulsion design considerations include: engine selection, turbofan ramjet inlets, SCRAMjet inlets and the SCRAMjet diffuser. The cooling requirements and system are covered along with the topics of materials and the hydrogen fuel tanks and insulation system. A cost analysis is presented and the appendices include: information about the subsonic wind tunnel test, shock expansion calculations, and an aerodynamic heat flux program.

  8. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P

    2013-08-06

    A supersonic gas compressor with bleed gas collectors, and a method of starting the compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated for rotary movement in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. A convergent inlet is provided adjacent to a bleed gas collector, and during startup of the compressor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via the bleed gas collector, to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is effectively eliminated.

  9. Aerodynamic and performance characterization of supersonic retropropulsion for application to planetary entry and descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.

    shock layer of a blunt body in supersonic flow. Although numerous wind tunnel tests of relevance to SRP have been conducted, the scope of the work is limited in the freestream conditions and composition, retropropulsion conditions and composition, and configurations and geometries explored. The SRP aerodynamic - propulsive interaction alters the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, and models must be developed that accurately represent the impact of SRP on system mass and performance. Work within this thesis has defined and advanced the state of the art for supersonic retropropulsion. This has been achieved through the application of systems analysis, computational analysis, and analytical methods. The contributions of this thesis include a detailed performance analysis and exploration of the design space specific to supersonic retropropulsion, establishment of the relationship between vehicle performance and the aerodynamic - propulsive interaction, and an assessment of the required fidelity and computational cost in simulating supersonic retropropulsion flowfields, with emphasis on the effort required to develop aerodynamic databases for conceptual design.

  10. Tone noise of three supersonic helical tip speed propellers in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Jeracki, R. J.; Blaha, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Three eight bladed supersonic helical tip speed propellers were tested in the NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel at through flow Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, and 0.85. Such propellers are being considered as propulsors for a future energy conservative aircraft. The three propellers of equal performance, incorporate different plan forms and different amounts of sweep in order to investigate their noise generation, which could cause a cabin environment problem. The acoustically designed propeller SR-3 had 45 deg of tip sweep and was significantly quieter at Mach 0.8 cruise than the straight bladed propeller, SR-2. An intermediate 30 deg tip sweep propeller, SR-1m exhibited a noise level between the other two. Enhanced pressure-time traces indicated that SR-2 and SR-1m exhibited shock-like pressure traces at Mach-0.8 cruise while the SR-3 did not. Noise trends with varying helical tip Mach number and blade loading were also observed.

  11. Preliminary study of supersonic-transport configurations with low values of sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A parametric study of low-boom supersonic transport airplanes with conventional configurations was made to identify the features of specific configurations that promise relatively low sonic boom overpressures (less than 47.9 N/sq m). The range of values considered was gross weight from 28,300 to 170,000 kg; cruise Mach numbers of 2 to 3.2; and wing loadings of 1436, 2870, and 4309 N/sq m. Fuselage length was varied from 49.1 to 102.4 m and fuselage diameter from 2.75 to 3.98 m. A nominal Mach 2 configuration weighing 56,700 kg and having a wing loading of 2870 N/sq m was selected; and its gross geometric, aerodynamic, and structural features were estimated. At a cruise altitude of 18,300 m, lift-drag ratio was estimated to be 7.35, while sonic boom overpressure was 41.7 N/sq m. Takeoff thrust loading using four afterburning turbojet engines at maximum dry thrust was 0.32. Payload for a 4440-km range was 16.7 percent of gross weight, giving a direct operating cost of 0.82 cent per seat statute mile.

  12. Laser transit anemometer experiences in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present examples of velocity measurements obtained in supersonic flow fields with the laser transit anemometer system. Velocity measurements of a supersonic jet exhausting in a transonic flow field, a cone boundary survey in a Mach 4 flow field, and a determination of the periodic disturbance frequencies of a sonic nozzle flow field are presented. Each of the above three cases also serves to illustrate different modes of laser transit anemometer operation. A brief description of the laser transit anemometer system is also presented.

  13. Hydrographic data from the GEF Patagonia cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charo, M.; Piola, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    The hydrographic data reported here were collected within the framework of the Coastal Contamination, Prevention and Marine Management Project (Global Environment Facility (GEF) Patagonia), which was part of the scientific agenda of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The project goal was to strengthen efforts to improve sustainable management of marine biodiversity and reduce pollution of the Patagonia marine environment. The observational component of the project included three multidisciplinary oceanographic cruises designed to improve the knowledge base regarding the marine environment and to determine the seasonal variability of physical, biological and chemical properties of highly productive regions in the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf. The cruises were carried out on board R/V ARA Puerto Deseado, in October 2005 and March and September 2006. On each cruise, hydrographic stations were occupied along cross-shelf sections spanning the shelf from nearshore to the western boundary currents between 38° and 55° S. This paper reports the quasi-continuous vertical profiles (conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles) and underway surface temperature and salinity data collected during the GEF Patagonia cruises. These data sets are available at the National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA, US, doi:10.7289/V5RN35S0.

  14. Hydrographic data from the GEF Patagonia cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charo, M.; Piola, A. R.

    2014-02-01

    The hydrographic data reported here were collected within the framework of the Coastal Contamination, Prevention and Marine Management project (GEF Patagonia), which was part of the scientific agenda of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The project goal was to strengthen efforts to improve sustainable management of marine biodiversity and reduce pollution of the Patagonia marine environment. The observational component of the project included three multi-disciplinary oceanographic cruises designed to improve the knowledge base of the marine environment and to determine the seasonal variability of physical, biological and chemical properties of highly productive regions in the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf. The cruises were carried out on board R/V Ara Puerto Deseado, in October 2005 and March and September 2006. In each cruise, hydrographic stations were occupied along cross-shelf sections spanning the shelf from near-shore to the western boundary currents between 38° and 55° S. This paper reports the quasi-continuous vertical profiles (CTD) and underway surface temperature and salinity data collected during the GEF Patagonia cruises. These data sets are available at the National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. US, doi:10.7289/V5RN35S0.

  15. Optimization on a Network-based Parallel Computer System for Supersonic Laminar Wing Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Cheung, Samson; Holst, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A set of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) routines and flow transition prediction tools are integrated into a network based parallel numerical optimization routine. Through this optimization routine, the design of a 2-D airfoil and an infinitely swept wing will be studied in order to advance the design cycle capability of supersonic laminar flow wings. The goal of advancing supersonic laminar flow wing design is achieved by wisely choosing the design variables used in the optimization routine. The design variables are represented by the theory of Fourier series and potential theory. These theories, combined with the parallel CFD flow routines and flow transition prediction tools, provide a design space for a global optimal point to be searched. Finally, the parallel optimization routine enables gradient evaluations to be performed in a fast and parallel fashion.

  16. LC-MS with electron ionization of cold molecules in supersonic molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Ori; Amirav, Aviv

    2005-06-01

    A new approach is described for the combination of electron ionization and LC-MS based on sample ionization as vibrationally cold molecules in a supersonic molecular beam (Cold EI). Cold EI of sample compounds in liquid solutions (methanol, acetonitrile, water, etc.) is achieved through spray formation, followed by soft thermal vaporization of the sample particles prior to their supersonic expansion and direct electron ionization of the sample compounds while they are contained in a supersonic molecular beam (SMB). Cold EI mass spectra were demonstrated to combine an enhanced molecular ion and improved mass spectral information (in comparison with standard EI), plus all the library searchable fragments. Cold EI enables the ionization of a broad range of compounds, including the full range of non-polar samples. Four orders of magnitude linear dynamic range is demonstrated and a detection limit of 2 pg was achieved for a 774 amu compound in single ion monitoring mode at m/z = 774. The method and apparatus are under continuous development and we feel that it can excel particularly in the analysis of unknown samples, while enabling fast LC-MS analysis through automated mass spectral deconvolution of coeluting LC peaks. In addition, the same MS system can also serve as an advanced GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams.

  17. A supersonic fan equipped variable cycle engine for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavares, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a variable cycle turbofan engine with an axially supersonic fan stage as powerplant for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport was evaluated. Quantitative cycle analysis was used to assess the effects of the fan inlet and blading efficiencies on engine performance. Thrust levels predicted by cycle analysis are shown to match the thrust requirements of a representative aircraft. Fan inlet geometry is discussed and it is shown that a fixed geometry conical spike will provide sufficient airflow throughout the operating regime. The supersonic fan considered consists of a single stage comprising a rotor and stator. The concept is similar in principle to a supersonic compressor, but differs by having a stator which removes swirl from the flow without producing a net rise in static pressure. Operating conditions peculiar to the axially supersonic fan are discussed. Geometry of rotor and stator cascades are presented which utilize a supersonic vortex flow distribution. Results of a 2-D CFD flow analysis of these cascades are presented. A simple estimate of passage losses was made using empirical methods.

  18. Investigation of chemically reacting and radiating supersonic internal flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mani, M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    The two-dimensional spatially elliptic Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate the chemically reacting and radiating supersonic flow of the hydrogen-air system between two parallel plates and in a channel with a ten degree compression-expansion ramp at the lower boundary. The explicit unsplit finite-difference technique of MacCormack is used to advance the governing equations in time until convergence is achieved. The chemistry source term in the species equation is treated implicitly to alleviate the stiffness associated with fast reactions. The tangent slab approximation is employed in the radiative flux formation. Both pseudo-gray and nongray models are used to represent the absorption characteristics of the participating species. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the radiative interaction can have a significant influence on the flow field.

  19. Supersonic flow with feeding of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaremba, W.

    1985-01-01

    The present work discusses the results of some experimental studies on the possibility of attenuating shock waves in a supersonic flow. The shock waves were formed by an external source of electrical energy. An electromechanical method is described that permits partial recovery of the expended energy.

  20. Supersonic Injection of Aerated Liquid Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, Abhijit; Sallam, Khaled

    2016-11-01

    A computational study of the exit flow of an aerated two-dimensional jet from an under-expanded supersonic nozzle is presented. The liquid sheet is operating within the annular flow regime and the study is motivated by the application of supersonic nozzles in air-breathing propulsion systems, e.g. scramjet engines, ramjet engines and afterburners. The simulation was conducted using VOF model and SST k- ω turbulence model. The test conditions included: jet exit of 1 mm and mass flow rate of 1.8 kg/s. The results show that air reaches transonic condition at the injector exit due to the Fanno flow effects in the injector passage. The aerated liquid jet is alternately expanded by Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan and compressed by oblique shock waves due to the difference between the back (chamber) pressure and the flow pressure. The process then repeats itself and shock (Mach) diamonds are formed at downstream of injector exit similar to those typical of exhaust plumes of propulsion system. The present results, however, indicate that the flow field of supersonic aerated liquid jet is different from supersonic gas jets due to the effects of water evaporation from the liquid sheet. The contours of the Mach number, static pressure of both cases are compared to the theory of gas dynamics.

  1. Pulsed supersonic expansion of nonvolatile solids

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Wolfgang; Geggier, Stephanie; Grigorenko, Svitlana; Rademann, Klaus

    2004-11-01

    A compact apparatus for transferring nonvolatile particles into the gas phase and depositing them on a solid surface has been built and tested successfully. As initial experiment, solid caffeine with a vanishingly low vapor pressure has been dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide, expanded into vacuum using a pulsed, supersonic molecular beam, and detected using a simple residual gas analyzer.

  2. The Aeroacoustics of Supersonic Coaxial Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    1994-01-01

    Instability waves have been established as the dominant source of mixing noise radiating into the downstream arc of a supersonic jet when the waves have phase velocities that are supersonic relative to ambient conditions. Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used the concepts of growing and decaying linear instability waves for predicting radiated noise. This analysis is extended to the prediction of noise radiation from supersonic coaxial jets. Since the analysis requires a known mean flow and the coaxial jet mean flow is not described easily in terms of analytic functions, a numerical prediction is made for its development. The Reynolds averaged, compressible, boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number. Both normal and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. Comparisons with measurements for both single and coaxial jets show good agreement. The results from mean flow and stability calculations are used to predict the noise radiation from coaxial jets with different operating conditions. Comparisons are made between different coaxial jets and a single equivalent jet with the same total thrust, mass flow, and exit area. Results indicate that normal velocity profile jets can have noise reductions compared to the single equivalent jet. No noise reductions are found for inverted velocity profile jets operated at the minimum noise condition compared to the single equivalent jet. However, it is inferred that changes in area ratio may provide noise reduction benefits for inverted velocity profile jets.

  3. Development of Supersonic Retro-Propulsion for Future Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Studak, Joseph W.; Tiggers, Michael A.; Kipp, Devin M.; Prakash, Ravi; Trumble, Kerry A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that Viking-era entry system technologies are reaching their practical limits and must be succeeded by new methods capable of delivering large payloads (greater than 10 metric tons) required for human exploration of Mars. One such technology, termed Supersonic Retro-Propulsion, has been proposed as an enabling deceleration technique. However, in order to be considered for future NASA flight projects, this technology will require significant maturation beyond its current state. This paper proposes a roadmap for advancing the component technologies to a point where Supersonic Retro-Propulsion can be reliably used on future Mars missions to land much larger payloads than are currently possible using Viking-based systems. The development roadmap includes technology gates that are achieved through testing and/or analysis, culminating with subscale flight tests in Earth atmosphere that demonstrate stable and controlled flight. The component technologies requiring advancement include large engines capable of throttling, computational models for entry vehicle aerodynamic/propulsive force and moment interactions, aerothermodynamic environments modeling, entry vehicle stability and control methods, integrated systems engineering and analyses, and high-fidelity six degree-of-freedom trajectory simulations. Quantifiable metrics are also proposed as a means to gage the technical progress of Supersonic Retro-Propulsion. Finally, an aggressive schedule is proposed for advancing the technology through sub-scale flight tests at Earth by 2016.

  4. Supersonic biplane design via adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rui

    In developing the next generation supersonic transport airplane, two major challenges must be resolved. The fuel efficiency must be significantly improved, and the sonic boom propagating to the ground must be dramatically reduced. Both of these objectives can be achieved by reducing the shockwaves formed in supersonic flight. The Busemann biplane is famous for using favorable shockwave interaction to achieve nearly shock-free supersonic flight at its design Mach number. Its performance at off-design Mach numbers, however, can be very poor. This dissertation studies the performance of supersonic biplane airfoils at design and off-design conditions. The choked flow and flow-hysteresis phenomena of these biplanes are studied. These effects are due to finite thickness of the airfoils and non-uniqueness of the solution to the Euler equations, creating over an order of magnitude more wave drag than that predicted by supersonic thin airfoil theory. As a result, the off-design performance is the major barrier to the practical use of supersonic biplanes. The main contribution of this work is to drastically improve the off-design performance of supersonic biplanes by using an adjoint based aerodynamic optimization technique. The Busemann biplane is used as the baseline design, and its shape is altered to achieve optimal wave drags in series of Mach numbers ranging from 1.1 to 1.7, during both acceleration and deceleration conditions. The optimized biplane airfoils dramatically reduces the effects of the choked flow and flow-hysteresis phenomena, while maintaining a certain degree of favorable shockwave interaction effects at the design Mach number. Compared to a diamond shaped single airfoil of the same total thickness, the wave drag of our optimized biplane is lower at almost all Mach numbers, and is significantly lower at the design Mach number. In addition, by performing a Navier-Stokes solution for the optimized airfoil, it is verified that the optimized biplane improves

  5. Findings from the Supersonic Qualification Program of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Steltzner, Adam; Witkowski, Allen; Candler, Graham; Pantano, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL) will deploy NASA's largest extra-terrestrial parachute, a technology integral to the safe landing of its advanced robotic explorer on the surface. The supersonic parachute system is a mortar deployed 21.5 m disk-gap-band (DGB) parachute, identical in geometric scaling to the Viking era DGB parachutes of the 1970's. The MSL parachute deployment conditions are Mach 2.3 at a dynamic pressure of 750 Pa. The Viking Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) successfully demonstrated a maximum of 700 Pa at Mach 2.2 for a 16.1 m DGB parachute in its AV4 flight. All previous Mars deployments have derived their supersonic qualification from the Viking BLDT test series, preventing the need for full scale high altitude supersonic testing. The qualification programs for Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, and Phoenix Scout Missions were all limited to subsonic structural qualification, with supersonic performance and survivability bounded by the BLDT qualification. The MSL parachute, at the edge of the supersonic heritage deployment space and 33% larger than the Viking parachute, accepts a certain degree of risk without addressing the supersonic environment in which it will deploy. In addition, MSL will spend up to 10 seconds above Mach 1.5, an aerodynamic regime that is associated with a known parachute instability characterized by significant canopy projected area fluctuation and dynamic drag variation. This aerodynamic instability, referred to as "area oscillations" by the parachute community has drag performance, inflation stability, and structural implications, introducing risk to mission success if not quantified for the MSL parachute system. To minimize this risk and as an alternative to a prohibitively expensive high altitude test program, a multi-phase qualification program using computation simulation validated by subscale test was developed and implemented for MSL. The first phase consisted of 2% of fullscale

  6. The impact of materials technology and operational constraints on the economics of cruise speed selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, J. S., Jr.; Bruckman, F. A.; Horning, D. L.; Johnston, R. H.; Werner, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Six material concepts at Mach 2.0 and three material concepts at Mach 2.55 were proposed. The resulting evaluations, based on projected development, production, and operating costs, indicate that aircraft designs with advanced composites as the primary material ingredient have the lowest fare premiums at both Mach 2.0 and 2.55. Designs having advanced metallics as the primary material ingredient are not economical. Advanced titanium, employing advanced manufacturing methods such as SFF/DB, requires a fare premium of about 30 percent at both Mach 2.0 and 2.55. Advanced aluminum, usable only at the lower Mach number, requires a fare premium of 20 percent. Cruise speeds in the Mach 2.0-2.3 regime are preferred because of the better economics and because of the availability of two material concepts to reduce program risk - advanced composites and advanced aluminums. This cruise speed regime also avoids the increase in risk associated with the more complex inlets and airframe systems and higher temperature composite matrices required at the higher Mach numbers typified by Mach 2.55.

  7. [Hemodialysis on a cruise ship: our logbook].

    PubMed

    Valiño Pazos, Cristina; Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana

    2013-05-01

    After a diet and hydric restriction, travelling is one of the most limiting and worrying activities for patients under chronic renal replacement therapy. The vital dependency on the hemodialysis machine makes travelling an extremely difficult experience. In order to prove the legitimacy of our patients' fears, we embarked on to a cruise-liner with them. This confirmed their limitations when travelling thanks to the reliable data input. This study describes our personal and professional experience as nurses, specialized in hemodialysis, embarking onto a cruise-liner with twelve patients suffering from ESRD. Our goal is to share that experience with professional nurses as well as patients who seek information in regards to this type of trip with a specialized nurse. A summary of this work was presented as a communication oral in the XXXVI Congress of the Spanish Society of Nephrology Nursing.

  8. Worry and its correlates onboard cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein; Marnburg, Einar; Øgaard, Torvald

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined job-specific worry, as well as possible predictors of such worry, namely job-specific self-efficacy and supervisor dispositionism. 133 non-supervising crew members at different departments onboard upmarket cruise ships filled in a questionnaire during one of their journeys. Findings show that employees report moderate amounts of job-specific worry and the galley crew reports significantly greater amounts of worry than the other departments. Results also indicate that cruise ship crews worry somewhat more than workers in the land based service sector. Furthermore it was found that supervisor dispositionism, i.e. supervisors with fixed mindsets, was related to greater amounts of worry among the crew. Surprisingly, job-specific self-efficacy was unrelated to job-specific worry.

  9. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Interplanetary Cruise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung-Han; Graat, Eric; Halsell, Allen; Highsmith, Dolan; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Demcak, Stuart; Higa, Earl; Mottinger, Neil; Jah, Moriba

    2007-01-01

    Carrying six science instruments and three engineering payloads, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the first mission in a low Mars orbit to characterize the surface, subsurface, and atmospheric properties with unprecedented detail. After a seven-month interplanetary cruise, MRO arrived at Mars executing a 1.0 km/s Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver. MRO achieved a 430 km periapsis altitude with the final orbit solution indicating that only 10 km was attributable to navigation prediction error. With the last interplanetary maneuver performed four months before MOI, this was a significant accomplishment. This paper describes the navigation analyses and results during the 210-day interplanetary cruise. As of August 2007 MRO has returned more than 18 Terabits of scientific data in support of the objectives set by the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). The robust and exceptional interplanetary navigation performance paved the way for a successful MRO mission.

  10. Tom Cruise is dangerous and irresponsible

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Ushma S.

    2005-01-01

    Yes, even the JCI can weigh in on celebrity gossip, but hopefully without becoming a tabloid. Rather, we want to shine a light on the reckless comments actor Tom Cruise has recently made that psychiatry is a “quack” field and his belief that postpartum depression cannot be treated pharmacologically. We can only hope that his influence as a celebrity does not hold back those in need of psychiatric treatment. PMID:16075033

  11. Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.

    1993-01-01

    Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of

  12. Turbulence Model Comparisons for Supersonic Transports at Transonic and Supersonic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. M. B.; Wahls, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of turbulence model comparisons from two studies on supersonic transport configurations performed during the NASA High-speed Research program are given. Results are presented for both transonic conditions at Mach 0.90 and supersonic conditions at Mach 2.48. A feature of these two studies was the availability of higher Reynolds number wind tunnel data with which to compare the computational results. The transonic wind tunnel data was obtained in the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley, and the supersonic data was obtained in the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel. The computational data was acquired using a state of the art Navier-Stokes flow solver with a wide range of turbulence models implemented. The results show that the computed forces compare reasonably well with the experimental data, with the Baldwin- Lomax with Degani-Schiff modifications and the Baldwin-Barth models showing the best agreement for the transonic conditions and the Spalart-Allmaras model showing the best agreement for the supersonic conditions. The transonic results were more sensitive to the choice of turbulence model than were the supersonic results.

  13. Dilution of Wastewater Discharges from Moving Cruise Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    et al. estimate that effluent discharged at a rate of 200 meters3 second-1 from a cruise ship traveling at between 6 and 10 knots would be diluted...that would elapse before this level of dilution was achieved. The Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative Science Panel has also made estimates of the dilution...field. To quantify dilution, we spiked wastewater tanks with rhodamine dye. The crew of the cruise ship then emptied the tanks while the vessel was

  14. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-05-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of supersonic propellers with realistic blade geometries is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large-blade-count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with a full numerical integration indicate that the levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations also show that, for high speed propellers, the noise radiated by the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with the noise radiated by the blade thickness and loading sources. Results from a preliminary application of the theory indicate that the peak noise level generated by a supersonic propeller initially increases with increasing tip helical Mach number, but is eventually reaches a plateau and does not increase further. The predicted trend shows qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  15. Study of active cooling for supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential benefits of using the fuel heat sink of hydrogen fueled supersonic transports for cooling large portions of the aircraft wing and fuselage are examined. The heat transfer would be accomplished by using an intermediate fluid such as an ethylene glycol-water solution. Some of the advantages of the system are: (1) reduced costs by using aluminum in place of titanium, (2) reduced cabin heat loads, and (3) more favorable environmental conditions for the aircraft systems. A liquid hydrogen fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic transport aircraft design was used for the reference uncooled vehicle. The cooled aircraft designs were analyzed to determine their heat sink capability, the extent and location of feasible cooled surfaces, and the coolant passage size and spacing.

  16. Aerodynamics of sounding rockets at supersonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vira, N. R.

    This dissertation presents a practical and low cost method of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles such as sounding rockets, high speed bombs, projectiles and guided missiles in supersonic flight. The vehicle configuration consists of a slender axisymmetric body with a conical or ogive noise, cylinders, shoulders and boattails, if any, and have sets of two, three or four fins. Geometry of the fin cross section can be single wedge, double wedge, modified single wedge or modified double wedge. First the aerodynamics of the fins and the body are analyzed separately; then fin body and fore and aft fin interferences are accounted for when they are combined to form the total vehicle. Results and formulas documented in this work are the basis of the supersonic portion of the Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program operating at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  17. Supersonic burning in separated flow regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    The trough vortex phenomena is used for combustion of hydrogen in a supersonic air stream. This was done in small sizes suitable for igniters in supersonic combustion ramjets so long as the boundary layer displacement thickness is less than 25% of the trough step height. A simple electric spark, properly positioned, ignites the hydrogen in the trough corner. The resulting flame is self sustaining and reignitable. Hydrogen can be injected at the base wall or immediately upstream of the trough. The hydrogen is introduced at low velocity to permit it to be drawn into the corner vortex system and thus experience a long residence time in the combustion region. The igniters can be placed on a skewed back step for angles at least up to 30 deg. without affecting the igniter performance significantly. Certain metals (platinum, copper) act catalytically to improve ignition.

  18. Turbulent jet mixing in a supersonic stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Schetz, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study of turbulent, subsonic, coaxial jet mixing of air in a supersonic air stream is presented. Data taken at five axial stations downstream of the exit of the jet supply tube, which was suspended through the nozzle throat of a supersonic wind tunnel, are given in the form of total pressure, Mach number, and velocity distributions. An investigation of the effect of swirl as a mixing aid was conducted. Swirl, produced by tangential injection of 50% of the total air mass flow leaving the jet supply tube, was examined through Schlieren photographs and total pressure surveys. From a comparison of nonswirl and swirl data, it is concluded that the swirl has no discernible effect on the mixing.

  19. Supersonic Retropropulsion Technology Development in NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Kelb, Bil; Korzun, Ashley; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Zarchi, Kerry A.; Schauerhamer, Daniel G.; Post, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) space technology roadmap calls for new technologies to achieve human exploration of Mars in the coming decades [1]. One of those technologies, termed Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP), involves initiation of propulsive deceleration at supersonic Mach numbers. The potential benefits afforded by SRP to improve payload mass and landing precision make the technology attractive for future EDL missions. NASA's EDL project spent two years advancing the technological maturity of SRP for Mars exploration [2-15]. This paper summarizes the technical accomplishments from the project and highlights challenges and recommendations for future SRP technology development programs. These challenges include: developing sufficiently large SRP engines for use on human-scale entry systems; testing and computationally modelling complex and unsteady SRP fluid dynamics; understanding the effects of SRP on entry vehicle stability and controllability; and demonstrating sub-scale SRP entry systems in Earth's atmosphere.

  20. Cruise ship care: a proposed alternative to assisted living facilities.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Golub, Robert M

    2004-11-01

    Options for elderly patients who can no longer remain independent are limited. Most choices involve assisted living facilities, 24-hour caregivers, or nursing homes. State and federal assistance for payment for individual care is limited, and seniors usually pay for most costs out of pocket. For those patients who have the means to afford assisted living centers or nursing homes, "cruise ship care" is proposed. Traveling alongside traditional tourists, groups of seniors would live on cruise ships for extended periods of time. Cruise ships are similar to assisted living centers in the amenities provided, costs per month, and many other areas. This article begins with an examination of the needs of seniors in assisted living facilities and then explores the feasibility of cruise ship care in answering those needs. Similarities between cruise ship travel and assisted living care, as well as the monetary costs of both options, are defined. A decision tree with selections for non-independent care for seniors was created including cruise ship care as an alternative. Using a Markov model over 20 years, a representative cost-effectiveness analysis was performed that showed that cruises were priced similarly to assisted living centers and were more efficacious. Proposed ways that cruise ship companies could further accommodate the needs of seniors interested in this option are also suggested. Implementation for cruise ship care on the individual basis is also presented. Ultimately, it is wished to introduce a feasible and possibly more desirable option to seniors who can no longer remain independent.

  1. Large Eddy Simulation of Supersonic Inlet Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    SIMULATION OF SUPERSONIC INLET FLOWS 6. AUTHOR(S) PROF. PARVIZ MOIN PROF. SANJIVA K. LELE 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) STANFORD... Parviz Moin and Sanjiva K. Lele Stanford University Mechanical Engineering, Flow Physics & Computation Division Stanford, CA 94305-3030 Prepared...monitor. I am thankful to Professor Sanjiva Lele and Profes- sor Parviz Moin, and Keith Lucas for useful discussions! I am grateful to Professor Peter

  2. Supersonic wing design concepts employing nonlinear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Three nonlinear flow concepts for the design of supersonic wings are reviewed. The specific concepts are: leading-edge thrust, supercritical crossflow, and leading-edge vortex flow. The major results of the experimental-theoretical studies supporting the development of these concepts are presented and discussed. Also, supporting aerodynamic prediction methods are described and example applications are given. Recommendations for further development of each concept are made.

  3. CFD Prediction of Magnus Effect in Subsonic to Supersonic Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    CFD Prediction of Magnus Effect in Subsonic to Supersonic Flight by James DeSpirito ARL-TR-4929 September 2009...of Magnus Effect in Subsonic to Supersonic Flight James DeSpirito Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE CFD Prediction of Magnus Effect in Subsonic to Supersonic Flight 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0109 ELLIPTIC LENGTH SCALES IN LAMINAR, TWO- DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWS James H. Miller Vehicle Technology Branch...SUBTITLE ELLIPTIC LENGTH SCALES IN LAMINAR, TWO-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC FLOWS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ANSI Std. Z39-18 1 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

  5. Transverse jet injection into a supersonic turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Jet injection into a supersonic cross-flow is a challenging fluid dynamics problem in the field of aerospace engineering which has applications as part of a rocket thrust vector control system for noise control in cavities and fuel injection in scramjet combustion chambers. Several experimental and theoretical/numerical works have been conducted to explore this flow; however, there is a dearth of literature detailing the instantaneous flow which is vital to improve the efficiency of the mixing of fluids. In this paper, a sonic jet in a Mach 1.6 free-stream is studied using a finite volume Godunov type implicit large eddy simulations technique, which employs fifth-order accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme with modified variable extrapolation and a three-stage second-order strong-stability-preserving Runge-Kutta scheme for temporal advancement. A digital filter based turbulent inflow data generation method is implemented in order to capture the physics of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. This paper details the averaged and instantaneous flow features including vortex structures downstream of the jet injection, along with the jet penetration, jet mixing, pressure distributions, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses in the downstream flow. It demonstrates that Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities in the upper jet shear layer are primarily responsible for mixing of the two fluids. The results are compared to experimental data and recently performed classical large eddy simulations (LES) with the same initial conditions in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical methods and utility of the inflow generation method. Results here show equivalent accuracy for 1/45th of the computational resources used in the classical LES study.

  6. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  7. Experimental Supersonic Combustion Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Guy, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Experimental supersonic combustion research related to hypersonic airbreathing propulsion has been actively underway at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the mid-1960's. This research involved experimental investigations of fuel injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic flows and numerous tests of scramjet engine flowpaths in LaRC test facilities simulating flight from Mach 4 to 8. Out of this research effort has come scramjet combustor design methodologies, ground test techniques, and data analysis procedures. These technologies have progressed steadily in support of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program and the current Hyper-X flight demonstration program. During NASP nearly 2500 tests of 15 scramjet engine models were conducted in LaRC facilities. In addition, research supporting the engine flowpath design investigated ways to enhance mixing, improve and apply nonintrusive diagnostics, and address facility operation. Tests of scramjet combustor operation at conditions simulating hypersonic flight at Mach numbers up to 17 also have been performed in an expansion tube pulse facility. This paper presents a review of the LaRC experimental supersonic combustion research efforts since the late 1980's, during the NASP program, and into the Hyper-X Program.

  8. Simulating Supersonic Turbulence in Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, E.; Brüggen, M.; Pan, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present a series of simulations that study the role of supersonic turbulence in galaxy formation. First, we describe a detailed numerical study to compare the mixing rate of metals to the thermalization rate of kinetic energy in a supersonic turbulent medium. Our simulations show that the scalar mixing timescale increases modestly with Mach number, as compressible modes are less efficient in enhancing mixing than solenoidal modes. However, since most of kinetic energy is always contained in solenoidal modes, the ratio of mixing and thermalization timescales varies by only a factor of ≍ 2 over a wide range of Mach numbers. Building on these results, we present adaptive mesh simulations of galaxy outflows that use a subgrid model to track turbulent velocities and length scales. Unlike previous approaches, this method allows us to deposit energy from supernovae directly into supersonic turbulence, and we are able to simulate a starbursting galaxy, with realistic radiative cooling throughout the simulation. Pockets of hot, diffuse gas around individual stellar associations sweep up shells of material that persist for long times due to the cooling instability, and this leads to a complex, distribution of bubbles, loops and filaments as observed in outflowing galaxies. The overlapping of hot, rarefied regions leads to a collective central outflow that escapes the galaxy by eating away at the exterior gas through turbulent mixing.

  9. Turbulent mixing noise from supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Chen, Ping

    1994-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of theoretical and experimental evidence that the dominant part of the turbulent noise of supersonic jets is generated directly by the large turbulence structures/instability waves of the jet flow. Earlier, Tam and Burton provided a description of the physical mechanism by which supersonically traveling instability waves can generate sound efficiently. They used the method of matched asymptotic expansions to construct an instability wave solution which is valid in the far field. The present work is an extension of the theory of Tam and Burton. It is argued that the instability wave spectrum of the jet may be regarded as generated by stochastic white noise excitation at the nozzle lip region. The reason why the excitation has white noise characteristics is that near the nozzle lip region the flow in the jet mixing layer has no intrinsic length and time scales. The present stochastic wave model theory of supersonic jet noise contains a single unknown multiplicative constant. Comparisons between the calculated noise directivities at selected Strouhal numbers and experimental measurements of a Mach 2 jet at different jet temperatures have been carried out. Favorable agreements are found.

  10. Supersonic Decelerator on 'Right Track' for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Project Manager, Mark Adler, and Principal Investigator, Ian Clark describe the innovative testing being conducted by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project. Combining very large sup...

  11. Supersonic Air-Breathing Stage For Commercial Launch Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Concept proposed to expand use of air-breathing, reusable stages to put more payload into orbit at less cost. Stage with supersonic air-breathing engines added to carry expendable stages from subsonic airplane to supersonic velocity. Carry payload to orbit. Expendable stages and payload placed in front of supersonic air-breathing stage. After releasing expendable stages, remotely piloted supersonic air-breathing stage returns to takeoff site and land for reuse. New concept extends use of low-cost reusable hardware and increases payload delivered from B-52.

  12. Analysis of supersonic combustion flow fields with embedded subsonic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1972-01-01

    The viscous characteristic analysis for supersonic chemically reacting flows was extended to include provisions for analyzing embedded subsonic regions. The numerical method developed to analyze this mixed subsonic-supersonic flow fields is described. The boundary conditions are discussed related to the supersonic-subsonic and subsonic-supersonic transition, as well as a heuristic description of several other numerical schemes for analyzing this problem. An analysis of shock waves generated either by pressure mismatch between the injected fluid and surrounding flow or by chemical heat release is also described.

  13. Feasibility of supersonic diode pumped alkali lasers: Model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2013-04-08

    The feasibility of supersonic operation of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is studied for Cs and K atoms applying model calculations, based on a semi-analytical model previously used for studying static and subsonic flow DPALs. The operation of supersonic lasers is compared with that measured and modeled in subsonic lasers. The maximum power of supersonic Cs and K lasers is found to be higher than that of subsonic lasers with the same resonator and alkali density at the laser inlet by 25% and 70%, respectively. These results indicate that for scaling-up the power of DPALs, supersonic expansion should be considered.

  14. Wind-Tunnel Results of Advanced High-Speed Propellers at Takeoff, Climb, and Landing Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-speed wind-tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers have been completed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program. The 62.2 cm (24.5 in.) diameter adjustable-pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds (i.e., from Mach 0.10 to 0.34) at zero angle of attack in the NASA Lewis 10 by 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise-design-point operating condition of Mach 0.80, and 10.668 km (35,000 ft) I.S.A. altitude, a 243.8 m/s (800 ft/sec) tip speed, and a high power loading of 301 kW/sq m (37.5 shp/sq ft). Each model had its own integrally designed area-ruled spinner, but used the same specially contoured nacelle. These features reduced blade-section Mach numbers and relieved blade-root choking at the cruise condition. No adverse or unusual low-speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propeller. Typical efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propellers were 50.2 and 54.9 percent, respectively, at a takeoff condition of Mach 0.20 and 53.7 and 59.1 percent, respectively, at a climb condition of Mach 0.34.

  15. Supersonic rotation in the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Sarah

    The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) has been built to study the confinement of supersonically-rotating plasmas and velocity shear stabilization of MHD instabilities. Theory predicts improved stability and confinement when a strong radial electric field is introduced into a magnetic-mirror geometry. The resulting radial currents establish a stable highly sheared plasma rotating at supersonic velocities in the azimuthal direction under the influence of J x B forces. This arrangement leads to increased confinement because the supersonic rotation creates an artificial radial gravity which draws the plasma away from the mirrors, closing the mirror loss cone. The large vφ shear stabilizes the plasma and enforces laminar flow. Based on these concepts, we have designed and constructed a machine to produce supersonically rotating highly-ionized plasmas. It typically does this by introducing a radial voltage of 7 kV in a magnetic-mirror geometry, 2 kG at the midplane and 19 kG at each mirror. MCX has completed its main construction phase and is acquiring data, here analyzed primarily in terms of a circuit model which infers plasma characteristics from the radial voltage across the plasma and the total radial current. The theory and simulations supporting the MCX centrifugal confinement scheme are presented here with the data and analysis from its first nine months of operation, including a description of basic plasma characteristics and evidence for both stability and confinement. Theory simulation, and initial experimental data all indicate that this centrifugal confinement scheme provides good stability and confinement at the temperatures and densities under study, as well as at the larger temperatures, fields, and dimensions expected for a fusion reactor. In particular, spectroscopic and circuit-model data indicate rotational velocities in MCX of up to 100 km/s, ion temperatures of approximately 30 eV, and ion densities upwards of 1020m-3. These parameters give

  16. Supersonic variable-cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.; Welliver, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution and current status of selected recent variable cycle engine (VCE) studies are reviewed, and how the results were influenced by airplane requirements is described. Promising VCE concepts are described, their designs are simplified and the potential benefits in terms of aircraft performance are identified. This includes range, noise, emissions, and the time and effort it may require to ensure technical readiness of sufficient depth to satisfy reasonable economic, performance, and environmental constraints. A brief overview of closely related, ongoing technology programs in acoustics and exhaust emissions is also presented. Realistic technology advancements in critical areas combined with well matched aircraft and selected VCE concepts can lead to significantly improved economic and environmental performance relative to first generation SST predictions.

  17. Improvement of Adaptive Cruise Control Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Shigeharu; Nakagami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sei; Izumi, Tomoji; Naito, Hisayoshi; Yanou, Akira; Nakamura, Hitomi; Takehara, Shin

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC), a system which reduces the driving burden on the driver. The ACC system primarily supports four driving modes on the road and controls the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in order to maintain a set speed or to avoid a crash. This paper proposes more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by radar while cornering, with consideration for the vehicle sideslip angle, and also of controlling the distance between vehicles. By making full use of the proposed identification logic for preceding vehicles and path estimation logic, an improvement in driving stability was achieved.

  18. The Evolution of the Cruise Missile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Missile Ttiles on Soviets and B-I," Microwave System News (September 1977). 57; Kosta Tsipis, "Cruise Missdes," &ieniic American (Febuary 1977), 24; F...34 Acrazce Daki (10 August 1970), 217; US Setie , Armed Services Commirtee, Ad Hoc Research and revelopment Subcomnitte, "Fiscal 1973 Auth.rization for...capability that will help plug the window of vulnerabilfty befoeo nunr imp(essive oawerfre•wcxbiW MX= ad 0wlit s) h avfla•l•a•1• 191 EVOLUTION OF THE

  19. Atypical myocardial infarction on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A previously asymptomatic 44-year-old male crewmember on a cruise ship experienced several brief episodes of acute chest pain within a short time frame. He was ultimately diagnosed with myocardial infarction; 5 h earlier he had been discharged from the ship's medical centre after almost 8 h of monitoring to rule-out infarction. Subsequent angiography ashore revealed a 99% occlusion of the right coronary artery. This case highlights the dangers of over-reliance on shipboard cardiac enzyme testing to clear a patient with chest pain.

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  1. Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry

  2. Coupled Analysis of an Inlet and Fan for a Quiet Supersonic Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; Conners, Timothy R.; Wayman, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    A computational analysis of a Gulfstream isentropic external compression supersonic inlet coupled to a Rolls-Royce fan has been completed. The inlet was designed for a small, low sonic boom supersonic vehicle with a design cruise condition of M = 1.6 at 45,000 ft. The inlet design included an annular bypass duct that routed flow subsonically around an engine-mounted gearbox and diverted flow with high shock losses away from the fan tip. Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used for the analysis: an axisymmetric code called AVCS for the inlet and a three dimensional (3-D) code called SWIFT for the fan. The codes were coupled at a mixing plane boundary using a separate code for data exchange. The codes were used to determine the performance of the inlet/fan system at the design point and to predict the performance and operability of the system over the flight profile. At the design point the core inlet had a recovery of 96 percent, and the fan operated near its peak efficiency and pressure ratio. A large hub radial distortion generated in the inlet was not eliminated by the fan and could pose a challenge for subsequent booster stages. The system operated stably at all points along the flight profile. Reduced stall margin was seen at low altitude and Mach number where flow separated on the interior lips of the cowl and bypass ducts. The coupled analysis gave consistent solutions at all points on the flight profile that would be difficult or impossible to predict by analysis of isolated components.

  3. Coupled Analysis of an Inlet and Fan for a Quiet Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; Conners, Timothy R.; Wayman, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    A computational analysis of a Gulfstream isentropic external compression supersonic inlet coupled to a Rolls-Royce fan was completed. The inlet was designed for a small, low sonic boom supersonic vehicle with a design cruise condition of M = 1.6 at 45,000 feet. The inlet design included an annular bypass duct that routed flow subsonically around an engine-mounted gearbox and diverted flow with high shock losses away from the fan tip. Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used for the analysis: an axisymmetric code called AVCS for the inlet and a 3-D code called SWIFT for the fan. The codes were coupled at a mixing plane boundary using a separate code for data exchange. The codes were used to determine the performance of the inlet/fan system at the design point and to predict the performance and operability of the system over the flight profile. At the design point the core inlet had a recovery of 96 percent, and the fan operated near its peak efficiency and pressure ratio. A large hub radial distortion generated in the inlet was not eliminated by the fan and could pose a challenge for subsequent booster stages. The system operated stably at all points along the flight profile. Reduced stall margin was seen at low altitude and Mach number where flow separated on the interior lips of the cowl and bypass ducts. The coupled analysis gave consistent solutions at all points on the flight profile that would be difficult or impossible to predict by analysis of isolated components.

  4. Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smother, Anthony William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

  5. Developing CMMCA Flight Profiles for Cruise Missile Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    The Air Force has recently acquired two aircraft dedicated for cruise missile tracking. These aircraft, known as the Cruise Missile Mission Control ... Aircraft (CMMCA), are responsible for collecting data from the missile and United States. Due to tracking and positively controlling the missile during

  6. Design philosophy of long range LFC transports with advanced supercritical LFC airfoils. [laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, Werner; Vemuru, Chandra S.

    1988-01-01

    The achievement of 70 percent laminar flow using modest boundary layer suction on the wings, empennage, nacelles, and struts of long-range LFC transports, combined with larger wing spans and lower span loadings, could make possible an unrefuelled range halfway around the world up to near sonic cruise speeds with large payloads. It is shown that supercritical LFC airfoils with undercut front and rear lower surfaces, an upper surface static pressure coefficient distribution with an extensive low supersonic flat rooftop, a far upstream supersonic pressure minimum, and a steep subsonic rear pressure rise with suction or a slotted cruise flap could alleviate sweep-induced crossflow and attachment-line boundary-layer instability. Wing-mounted superfans can reduce fuel consumption and engine tone noise.

  7. Near-Field Acoustic Power Level Analysis of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Cruise Conditions, Technical Report II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  8. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  9. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Declerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    An overview of pre-flight aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a large helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. The first flight test (SFDT-1) delivered a 6 meter diameter robotic mission class decelerator (SIAD-R) to several seconds of flight on June 28, 2014, and was successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R. The trajectory was off-nominal, however, lofting to over 8 km higher than predicted in flight simulations. Comparisons between reconstructed flight data and aerodynamic models show that SIAD-R aerodynamic performance was in good agreement with pre-flight predictions. Similar comparisons of powered ascent phase aerodynamics show that the pre-flight model overpredicted TV pitch stability, leading to underprediction of trajectory peak altitude. Comparisons between pre-flight aerodynamic models and reconstructed flight data are shown, and changes to aerodynamic models using improved fidelity and knowledge gained from SFDT-1 are discussed.

  10. Supersonic transport vis-a-vis energy savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormery, G.

    1979-01-01

    The energy and economic saving modifications in supersonic transportation are studied. Modifications in the propulsion systems and in the aerodynamic configurations of the Concorde aircraft to reduce noise generation and increase fuel efficiency are discussed. The conversion of supersonic aircraft from fuel oils to synthetic fuels is examined.

  11. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  12. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  13. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  14. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  15. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  16. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 2: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Van Norman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of aerodynamic decelerator technologies developed by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology demonstration project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large-mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and supersonic parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The purpose of this test was to validate the test architecture for future tests. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. The Supersonic Disksail parachute developed a tear during deployment. The second flight test occurred on June 8th, 2015, and incorporated a Supersonic Ringsail parachute which was redesigned based on data from the first flight. Again, the inflatable decelerator functioned as predicted but the parachute was damaged during deployment. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, main motor thrust, atmosphere, and aerodynamics.

  17. General purpose computer program for interacting supersonic configurations: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, W.; Dale, B.

    1977-01-01

    The program ISCON (Interacting Supersonic Configuration) is described. The program is in support of the problem to generate a numerical procedure for determining the unsteady dynamic forces on interacting wings and tails in supersonic flow. Subroutines are presented along with the complete FORTRAN source listing.

  18. Turbofan Volume Dynamics Model for Investigations of Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic Effects in a Supersonic Commercial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Lemon, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan simulation has been developed for use in aero-propulso-servo-elastic coupling studies, on supersonic vehicles. A one-dimensional lumped volume approach is used whereby each component (fan, high-pressure compressor, combustor, etc.) is represented as a single volume using characteristic performance maps and conservation equations for continuity, momentum and energy. The simulation is developed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment in order to facilitate controls development, and ease of integration with a future aero-servo-elastic vehicle model being developed at NASA Langley. The complete simulation demonstrated steady state results that closely match a proposed engine suitable for a supersonic business jet at the cruise condition. Preliminary investigation of the transient simulation revealed expected trends for fuel flow disturbances as well as upstream pressure disturbances. A framework for system identification enables development of linear models for controller design. Utilizing this framework, a transfer function modeling an upstream pressure disturbance s impacts on the engine speed is developed as an illustrative case of the system identification. This work will eventually enable an overall vehicle aero-propulso-servo-elastic model

  19. Characteristics of Control Laws Tested on the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Moulin, Boris; Ritz, Erich; Chen, P. C.; Roughen, Kevin M.; Perry, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Span Supersonic Transport (S4T) is an aeroelastically scaled wind-tunnel model built to test active controls concepts for large flexible supersonic aircraft in the transonic flight regime. It is one of several models constructed in the 1990's as part of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. Control laws were developed for the S4T by M4 Engineering, Inc. and by Zona Technologies, Inc. under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contracts. The model was tested in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) four times from 2007 to 2010. The first two tests were primarily for plant identification. The third entry was used for testing control laws for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression. Whereas the third entry only tested FS subcritically, the fourth test demonstrated closed-loop operation above the open-loop flutter boundary. The results of the third entry are reported elsewhere. This paper reports on flutter suppression results from the fourth wind-tunnel test. Flutter suppression is seen as a way to provide stability margins while flying at transonic flight conditions without penalizing the primary supersonic cruise design condition. An account is given for how Controller Performance Evaluation (CPE) singular value plots were interpreted with regard to progressing open- or closed-loop to higher dynamic pressures during testing.

  20. Overview of Supersonic Aerodynamics Measurement Techniques in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of selected measurement techniques used in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace vehicles operating at supersonic speeds. A broad definition of a measurement technique is adopted in this paper and is any qualitative or quantitative experimental approach that provides information leading to the improved understanding of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics. On-surface and off-surface measurement techniques used to obtain discrete (point) and global (field) measurements and planar and global flow visualizations are described, and examples of all methods are included. The discussion is limited to recent experiences in the UPWT and is, therefore, not an exhaustive review of existing experimental techniques. The diversity and high quality of the measurement techniques and the resultant data illustrate the capabilities of a ground-based experimental facility and the key role that it plays in the advancement of our understanding, prediction, and control of supersonic aerodynamics.

  1. An extended supersonic combustion model for the dynamic analysis of hypersonic vehicles. Interim Task Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bossard, J.A.; Peck, R.E.; Schmidt, D.K.

    1993-03-01

    The development of an advanced dynamic model for aeroelastic hypersonic vehicles powered by air breathing engines requires an adequate engine model. This report provides a discussion of some of the more important features of supersonic combustion and their relevance to the analysis and design of supersonic ramjet engines. Of particular interest are those aspects of combustion that impact the control of the process. Furthermore, the report summarizes efforts to enhance the aeropropulsive/aeroelastic dynamic model developed at the Aerospace Research Center of Arizona State University by focusing on combustion and improved modeling of this flow. The expanded supersonic combustor model described here has the capability to model the effects of friction, area change, and mass addition, in addition to the heat addition process. A comparison is made of the results from four cases: (1) heat addition only; (2) heat addition plus friction; (3) heat addition, friction, and area reduction, and (4) heat addition, friction, area reduction, and mass addition. The relative impact of these effects on the Mach number, static temperature, and static pressure distributions within the combustor are then shown. Finally, the effects of frozen versus equilibrium flow conditions within the exhaust plume is discussed.

  2. Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

  3. Selected Examples of NACA/NASA Supersonic Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1995-01-01

    The present Dryden Flight Research Center, a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has a flight research history that extends back to the mid-1940's. The parent organization was a part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and was formed in 1946 as the Muroc Flight Test Unit. This document describes 13 selected examples of important supersonic flight research conducted from the Mojave Desert location of the Dryden Flight Research Center over a 4 decade period beginning in 1946. The research described herein was either obtained at supersonic speeds or enabled subsequent aircraft to penetrate or traverse the supersonic region. In some instances there accrued from these research efforts benefits which are also applicable at lower or higher speed regions. A major consideration in the selection of the various research topics was the lasting impact they have had, or will have, on subsequent supersonic flight vehicle design, efficiency, safety, and performance or upon improved supersonic research techniques.

  4. Line-vortex theory for calculation of supersonic downwash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold; Haefeli, Rudolph C

    1950-01-01

    The perturbation field induced by a line vortex in a supersonic stream and the downwash behind a supersonic lifting surface are examined to establish approximate methods for determining the downwash behind supersonic wings. Lifting-lines methods are presented for calculating supersonic downwash. A bent lifting-line method is proposed for computing the downwash field behind swept wings. When applied to triangular wings with subsonic leading edges, this method gives results that, in general, are in good agreement with the exact linearized solution. An unbent lifting-line method (horseshoe-vortex system) is proposed for unswept wings. This method is applied to determine downwash behind rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 2 and 4. Excellent agreement with exact linearized theory is obtained for both aspect ratios by placing the lifting line at the 1/2-chord point. The use of lifting-lines therefore appears promising for obtaining estimates of the downwash behind supersonic wings.

  5. Coherent Raman spectroscopy for supersonic flow measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.

    1986-01-01

    In collaboration with NASA/Langley Research Center, a truly nonintrusive and nonseeding method for measuring supersonic molecular flow parameters was proposed and developed at Colorado State University. The feasibility of this Raman Doppler Velocimetry (RDV), currently operated in a scanning mode, was demonstrated not only in a laboratory environment at Colorado State University, but also in a major wind tunnel at NASA/Langley Research Center. The research progress of the RDV development is summarized. In addition, methods of coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy and single-pulse coherent Raman spectroscopy are investigated, respectively, for measurements of high-pressure and turbulent flows.

  6. IPCS implications for future supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billig, L. O.; Kniat, J.; Schmidt, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Control System (IPCS) demonstrates control of an entire supersonic propulsion module - inlet, engine afterburner, and nozzle - with an HDC 601 digital computer. The program encompasses the design, build, qualification, and flight testing of control modes, software, and hardware. The flight test vehicle is an F-111E airplane. The L.H. inlet and engine will be operated under control of a digital computer mounted in the weapons bay. A general description and the current status of the IPCS program are given.

  7. Boundary conditions for unsteady supersonic inlet analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, David W.; Paynter, Gerald C.

    1994-06-01

    New bleed and compressor face boundary conditions have been developed to improve the accuracy of unsteady supersonic inlet calculations. The new bleed boundary conditions relate changes in the bleed hole discharge coefficient to changes in the local flow conditions; the local bleed flow rate can more than double as a shock moves forward over a bleed band in response to inlet flow disturbances. The effects of inlet flow disturbances on the flow at the compressor face are represented more realistically with this new boundary condition than with traditional fixed static pressure or mass flow conditions.

  8. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5%. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9% respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1%. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  9. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb, and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5 percent. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9 percent respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1 percent. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  10. Transonic and Low-Supersonic Aeroelastic Analysis of a Two-Degree Airfoil with a Freeplay Non-Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, DONG-HYUN; LEE, IN

    2000-07-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom airfoil with a freeplay non-linearity in the pitch and plunge directions has been analyzed in the transonic and low-supersonic flow region, where aerodynamic non-linearities also exist. The primary purpose of this study is to show aeroelastic characteristics due to freeplay structural non-linearity in the transonic and low-supersonic regions. The unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoil were evaluated using two-dimensional unsteady Euler code, and the resulting aeroelastic equations are numerically integrated to obtain the aeroelastic time responses of the airfoil motions and to investigate the dynamic instability. The present model has been considered as a simple aeroelastic model, which is equivalent to the folding fin of an advanced generic missile. From the results of the present study, characteristics of important vibration responses and aeroelastic instabilities can be observed in the transonic and supersonic regions, especially considering the effect of structural non-linearity in the pitch and plunge directions. The regions of limit-cycle oscillation are shown at much lower velocities, especially in the supersonic flow region, than the divergent flutter velocities of the linear structure model. It is also shown that even small freeplay angles can lead to severe dynamic instabilities and dangerous fatigue conditions for the flight vehicle wings and control fins.

  11. Vehicular enginee idel speed and cruise control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, A.A.; Sokalski, R.G.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a vehicular cruise and engine idling speed control system. This system consists of: 1.) An actuator adapted for engagement to a vehicular engine throttle that in a first engaged condition is operable upon receipt of a first control signal to move the throttle to regulate the vehicle speed. In a second engaged condition the engine throttle is operable upon receipt of a second control signal to regulate engine idling speed independent of the vehicle speed, 2.) A controller which responds to a sensed vehicle speed and an operator selected vehicle speed to provide the first and second control signal from at least one sensed engine operating condition upon establishment of the second engaged condition, 3.) An operator control for establishment of the first and second engaged conditions, 4.) A sensor throttle, actuated by the operator, is functionally effective for switching the controller output from the second control signal to the first control signal and causes the actuator to position the throttle at an advanced engine idle speed pick-up position, 5.) A device for differentiating between the operator selected vehicle speed throttle position and the regulated engine idle speed pick-up throttle position, 6.) A mechanism for insuring that the engine speed decreases in a uniform manner from the engine idle speed pick-up throttle position to the regulated engine idle speed throttle position.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gap Flow

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles. PMID:25635395

  13. Pressure Modulated Sonic Jet in Supersonic Crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Sonic transverse jets in supersonic crossflow are modulated using high-amplitude variations in jet stagnation pressure to enhance jet penetration and mixing. An injection/modulation apparatus combining a powered resonance tube and acoustic resonator is used to create low momentum ratio jets (J = 1 , 2) in a supersonic cross-stream (M = 3 . 5). The injector has the capability to modulate the jet supply pressure at sufficiently high frequency (> 15 kHz) and amplitude (up to 190 dB) to access relevant Strouhal numbers (St = 0 - 0 . 3) and amplitudes (up to 10% of the jet stagnation pressure) related to mixing enhancement. Planar laser Mie scattering in both side and end views allows for instantaneous imaging of the jet fluid to quantify jet trajectory, spread, and mixing behavior. For modulated J = 2 transverse jets, the recirculation zone directly downstream of the injection location is eliminated and significantly faster centerline signal decay rates are seen. For the J = 1 modulated jets, substantial increases in centerline penetration, jet spread, and centerline signal decay rate are shown. Additionally, PDF analysis of the instantaneous jet fluid signal values is performed to compare local mixing efficiencies between the modulated and un-modulated cases.

  14. Supersonic gas-liquid cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1994-02-01

    A system to perform cleaning and cleanliness verification is being developed to replace solvent flush methods using CFC 113 for fluid system components. The system is designed for two purposes: internal and external cleaning and verification. External cleaning is performed with the nozzle mounted at the end of a wand similar to a conventional pressure washer. Internal cleaning is performed with a variety of fixtures designed for specific applications. Internal cleaning includes tubes, pipes, flex hoses, and active fluid components such as valves and regulators. The system uses gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the object to be cleaned. Compressed air or any inert gas may be used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid. The converging-diverging nozzles accelerate the gas-liquid mixture to supersonic velocities. The liquid being accelerated may be any solvent including water. This system may be used commercially to replace CFC and other solvent cleaning methods widely used to remove dust, dirt, flux, and lubricants. In addition, cleanliness verification can be performed without the solvents which are typically involved. This paper will present the technical details of the system, the results achieved during testing at KSC, and future applications for this system.

  15. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  16. Characterization of supersonic radiation diffusion waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Guymer, Thomas M.; Morton, John; Williams, Benjamin; Kline, John L.; Bazin, Nicholas; Bentley, Christopher; Allan, Shelly; Brent, Katie; Comley, Andrew J.; Flippo, Kirk; Cowan, Joseph; Taccetti, J. Martin; Mussack-Tamashiro, Katie; Schmidt, Derek W.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; Obrey, Kimberly; Lanier, Nicholas E.; Workman, Jonathan B.; Stevenson, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Supersonic and diffusive radiation flow is an important test problem for the radiative transfer models used in radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes owing to solutions being accessible via analytic and numeric methods. We present experimental results with which we compare these solutions by studying supersonic and diffusive flow in the laboratory. We present results of higher-accuracy experiments than previously possible studying radiation flow through up to 7 high-temperature mean free paths of low-density, chlorine-doped polystyrene foam and silicon dioxide aerogel contained by an Au tube. Measurements of the heat front position and absolute measurements of the x-ray emission arrival at the end of the tube are used to test numerical and analytical models. We find excellent absolute agreement with simulations provided that the opacity and the equation of state are adjusted within expected uncertainties; analytical models provide a good phenomenological match to measurements but are not in quantitative agreement due to their limited scope.

  17. The Aeroacoustics of Slowly Diverging Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with utilizing the acoustic analogy approach to predict the sound from unheated supersonic jets. Previous attempts have been unsuccessful at making such predictions over the Mach number range of practical interest. The present paper, therefore, focuses on implementing the necessary refinements needed to accomplish this objective. The important effects influencing peak supersonic noise turn out to be source convection, mean flow refraction, mean flow amplification, and source non-compactness. It appears that the last two effects have not been adequately dealt with in the literature. The first of these because the usual parallel flow models produce most of the amplification in the so called critical layer where the solution becomes singular and, therefore, causes the predicted sound field to become infinite as well. We deal with this by introducing a new weakly non parallel flow analysis that eliminates the critical layer singularity. This has a strong effect on the shape of the peak noise spectrum. The last effect places severe demands on the source models at the higher Mach numbers because the retarded time variations significantly increase the sensitivity of the radiated sound to the source structure in this case. A highly refined (non-separable) source model is, therefore, introduced in this paper.

  18. Calibration of transonic and supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, T. D.; Pope, T. C.; Cooksey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    State-of-the art instrumentation and procedures for calibrating transonic (0.6 less than M less than 1.4) and supersonic (M less than or equal to 3.5) wind tunnels were reviewed and evaluated. Major emphasis was given to transonic tunnels. Continuous, blowdown and intermittent tunnels were considered. The required measurements of pressure, temperature, flow angularity, noise and humidity were discussed, and the effects of measurement uncertainties were summarized. A comprehensive review of instrumentation currently used to calibrate empty tunnel flow conditions was included. The recent results of relevant research are noted and recommendations for achieving improved data accuracy are made where appropriate. It is concluded, for general testing purposes, that satisfactory calibration measurements can be achieved in both transonic and supersonic tunnels. The goal of calibrating transonic tunnels to within 0.001 in centerline Mach number appears to be feasible with existing instrumentation, provided correct calibration procedures are carefully followed. A comparable accuracy can be achieved off-centerline with carefully designed, conventional probes, except near Mach 1. In the range 0.95 less than M less than 1.05, the laser Doppler velocimeter appears to offer the most promise for improved calibration accuracy off-centerline.

  19. Analysis of Buzz in a Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-stream, low-boom supersonic inlet designed for use on a small, Mach 1.6 aircraft was tested experimentally in the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The tests showed that the inlet had good recovery and stable operation over large mass flow range. The inlet went into buzz at mass flows well below that needed for engine operation, and the experiments generated a wealth of data during buzz. High frequency response pressure measurements and high-speed schlieren videos were recorded for many buzz events. The objective of the present work was to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict some of the experimental data taken during buzz, compare those predictions to the experimental data, and to use both datasets to explain the physics of the buzz cycle. The calculations were done with the Wind-US CFD code using a second-order time-accurate differencing scheme and the SST turbulence model. Computed Mach number contours were compared with schlieren images, and ensemble-averaged unsteady pressures were compared to data. The results showed that the buzz cycle consisted partly of spike buzz, an unsteady oscillation of the main shock at the spike tip while the inlet pressure dropped, and partly of choked flow while the inlet repressurized. Most of the results could be explained by theory proposed by Dailey in 1954, but did not support commonly used acoustic resonance explanations.

  20. Supersonic gas-liquid cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    A system to perform cleaning and cleanliness verification is being developed to replace solvent flush methods using CFC 113 for fluid system components. The system is designed for two purposes: internal and external cleaning and verification. External cleaning is performed with the nozzle mounted at the end of a wand similar to a conventional pressure washer. Internal cleaning is performed with a variety of fixtures designed for specific applications. Internal cleaning includes tubes, pipes, flex hoses, and active fluid components such as valves and regulators. The system uses gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the object to be cleaned. Compressed air or any inert gas may be used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid. The converging-diverging nozzles accelerate the gas-liquid mixture to supersonic velocities. The liquid being accelerated may be any solvent including water. This system may be used commercially to replace CFC and other solvent cleaning methods widely used to remove dust, dirt, flux, and lubricants. In addition, cleanliness verification can be performed without the solvents which are typically involved. This paper will present the technical details of the system, the results achieved during testing at KSC, and future applications for this system.

  1. Economy of flight at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Prandtl's theory is used to determine the airflow over bodies and wings adapted to supersonic flight. By making use of these results, and by incorporating in them an allowance for the probable skin friction, some estimates of expected lift-drag ratios are made for various flight speeds with the best configuration. At each speed a slender body and wings having the best angle of sweepback are considered. For the range of supersonic speeds shown an airplane of normal density and loading would be required to operate at an altitude of the order of 60,000 feet. The limiting value of 1-1/2 times the speed of sound corresponds to a flight speed of 1000 miles per hour. At this speed about 1.5 miles per gallon of fuel are expected. It is interesting to note that this value corresponds to a value of more than 15 miles per gallon when the weight is reduced to correspond to that of an ordinary automobile.

  2. Cruise flight optimization of a commercial aircraft with winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansberry, Stephen

    With high prices for fuel and airfare, companies are looking to minimize operational costs. Reducing aircraft fuel consumption is one strategy companies use to lower costs. During flights, commercial aircraft divide the cruise portion's range into cruise-steps, which are changes in altitude typically in increments of 2,000 ft. These cruise-steps allow the aircraft to ascend in a manner easily tracked by Air Traffic Control. This study focuses on the cruise portion of a commercial aircraft's flight. The number and size of the cruise-steps are free. The amount of cruise-steps corresponds to the number of segments comprising the cruise range. The free variables are the velocity and altitude profiles, and the throttle setting for the step-climbs. Optimized results are compared with the analytical range equations and an actual flight. An upper atmospheric wind model is incorporated into this scenario to determine the effects of jet streams. The main objective of this study is to show an optimized flight trajectory by minimizing fuel costs thereby reducing financial costs of flying.

  3. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  4. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as..., extending from the surface to the sea floor, within a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as..., extending from the surface to the sea floor, within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as..., extending from the surface to the sea floor, within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as..., extending from the surface to the sea floor, within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as..., extending from the surface to the sea floor, within a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that...

  9. Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program publications for fiscal year 1977 through fiscal year 1979: Preliminary bibliography. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 512 bibliographies are presented for the time period from FY 77 to FY 79. Several non-SCR publications and a few papers not included in the last publication are included. Topics include propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, materials and structure, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control.

  10. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.70 of two supersonic cruise fighter configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    Two 0.085-scale full span wind-tunnel models of a Mach 1.60 design supercruiser configuration were tested at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.70. One model incorporated a varying dihedral (swept-up) wing to obtain the desired lateral-directional characteristics; the other incorporated more conventional twin vertical tails. The data from the wind-tunnel tests are presented without analysis.

  11. Hepatitis E outbreak on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Said, Bengü; Ijaz, Samreen; Kafatos, George; Booth, Linda; Thomas, H Lucy; Walsh, Amanda; Ramsay, Mary; Morgan, Dilys

    2009-11-01

    In 2008, acute hepatitis E infection was confirmed in 4 passengers returning to the United Kingdom after a world cruise. Epidemiologic investigation showed that of 789 persons who provided blood samples, 195 (25%) were seropositive, 33 (4%) had immunoglobulin [Ig] M levels consistent with recent acute infection (11 of these persons were symptomatic), and 162 (21%) had IgG only, consistent with past infection. Passenger mean age was 68 years. Most (426/789, 54%) passengers were female, yet most with acute infection (25/33, 76%) were male. Sequencing of RNA from 3 case-patients identified hepatitis E virus genotype 3, closely homologous to genotype 3 viruses from Europe. Significant association with acute infection was found for being male, drinking alcohol, and consuming shellfish while on board (odds ratio 4.27, 95% confidence interval 1.23-26.94, p = 0.019). This was probably a common-source foodborne outbreak.

  12. The Experimental Measurement of Aerodynamic Heating About Complex Shapes at Supersonic Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 a wind tunnel test program was implemented to update the experimental data available for predicting protuberance heating at supersonic Mach numbers. For this test the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel was also used. The significant differences for this current test were the advances in the state-of-the-art in model design, fabrication techniques, instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities. This current paper provides a focused discussion of the results of an in depth analysis of unique measurements of recovery temperature obtained during the test.

  13. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  14. SPF/DB primary structure for supersonic aircraft (T-38 horizontal stabilizer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delmundo, A. R.; Mcquilkin, F. T.; Rivas, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The structural integrity and potential cost savings of superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) titanium structure for future Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and military aircraft primary structure applications was demonstrated. Using the horizontal stabilizer of the T-38 aircraft as a baseline, the structure was redesigned to the existing criteria and loads, using SPF/DB titanium technology. The general concept of using a full-depth sandwich structure which is attached to a steel spindle, was retained. Trade studies demonstrated that the optimum design should employ double-truss, sinewave core in the deepest section of the surface, making a transition to single-truss core in the thinner areas at the leading and trailing edges and at the tip. At the extreme thin edges of the surface, the single-truss core was changed to dot core to provide for gas passages during the SPF/DB process. The selected SPF/DB horizontal stabilizer design consisted of a one-piece SPF/DB sinewave truss core panel, a trunnion fitting, and reinforcing straps. The fitting and the straps were mechanically fastened to the SPF/DB panel.

  15. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Dual-Stream Supersonic Plug Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.; Park, Michael A.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape optimization was performed on an isolated axisymmetric plug nozzle sized for a supersonic business jet. The dual-stream concept was tailored to attenuate nearfield pressure disturbances without compromising nozzle performance. Adjoint-based anisotropic mesh refinement was applied to resolve nearfield compression and expansion features in the baseline viscous grid. Deformed versions of the adapted grid were used for subsequent adjoint-driven shape optimization. For design, a nonlinear gradient-based optimizer was coupled to the discrete adjoint formulation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. All nozzle surfaces were parameterized using 3rd order B-spline interpolants and perturbed axisymmetrically via free-form deformation. Geometry deformations were performed using 20 design variables shared between the outer cowl, shroud and centerbody nozzle surfaces. Interior volume grid deformation during design was accomplished using linear elastic mesh morphing. The nozzle optimization was performed at a design cruise speed of Mach 1.6, assuming core and bypass pressure ratios of 6.19 and 3.24, respectively. Ambient flight conditions at design were commensurate with 45,000-ft standard day atmosphere.

  16. Design of Supersonic Transport Flap Systems for Thrust Recovery at Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Michael J.; Carlson, Harry W.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the subsonic aerodynamics of hinged flap systems for supersonic cruise commercial aircraft has been conducted using linear attached-flow theory that has been modified to include an estimate of attainable leading edge thrust and an approximate representation of vortex forces. Comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental results show that the theory gives a reasonably good and generally conservative estimate of the performance of an efficient flap system and provides a good estimate of the leading and trailing-edge deflection angles necessary for optimum performance. A substantial reduction in the area of the inboard region of the leading edge flap has only a minor effect on the performance and the optimum deflection angles. Changes in the size of the outboard leading-edge flap show that performance is greatest when this flap has a chord equal to approximately 30 percent of the wing chord. A study was also made of the performance of various combinations of individual leading and trailing-edge flaps, and the results show that aerodynamic efficiencies as high as 85 percent of full suction are predicted.

  17. Screech Noise Generation From Supersonic Underexpanded Jets Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    2000-01-01

    Many supersonic military aircraft and some of the modern civilian aircraft (such as the Boeing 777) produce shock-associated noise. This noise is generated from the jet engine plume when the engine nozzle is operated beyond the subsonic operation limit to gain additional thrust. At these underexpanded conditions, a series of shock waves appear in the plume. The turbulent vortices present in the jet interact with the shock waves and produce the additional shock-associated noise. Screech belongs to this noise category, where sound is generated in single or multiple pure tones. The high dynamic load associated with screech can damage the tailplane. One purpose of this study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field was to provide an accurate data base for validating various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes will be used to predict the frequency and amplitude of screech tones. A second purpose was to advance the fundamental physical understanding of how shock-turbulence interactions generate sound. Previously, experiments on shock-turbulence interaction were impossible to perform because no suitable technique was available. As one part of this program, an optical Rayleigh-scattering measurement technique was devised to overcome this difficulty.

  18. Radiative interactions in chemically reacting supersonic internal flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Chandrasekhar, R.

    1991-01-01

    The two-dimensional, elliptic Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate supersonic flows with finite-rate chemistry and radiation for hydrogen-air systems. The chemistry source terms in the species equation is treated implicitly to alleviate the stiffness associated with fast reactions. The explicit, unsplit MacCormack finite-difference scheme is used to advance the governing equations in time, until convergence is achieved. The specific problem considered is the premixed flow in a channel with a ten-degree compression ramp. Three different chemistry models are used, accounting for increasing number of reactions and participating species. Two chemistry models assure nitrogen as inert, while the third model accounts for nitrogen reactions and NO(x) formation. The tangent slab approximation is used in the radiative flux formulation. A pseudo-gray model is used to represent the absorption-emission characteristics of the participating species. Results obtained for specific conditions indicate that the radiative interactions vary substantially, depending on reactions involving HO2 and NO species and that this can have a significant influence on the flowfield.

  19. NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft flies in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E as par

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft recently flew in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E in support of the F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) project, part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program. The flights originated from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. Four flights were flown in order to measure the F-5E's near-field (close-up) sonic boom signature at Mach 1.4, during which more than 50 shockwave patterns were measured at distances as close as 100 feet below the F-5E.

  20. Supersonic Retropropulsion Experimental Results from the NASA Ames 9- x 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic retropropulsion was experimentally examined in the Ames Research Center 9x7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 1.8 and 2.4. The experimental model, previously designed for and tested in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach 2.4, 3.5 and 4.6, was a 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody with a 9.55-in long cylindrical aftbody. The forebody was designed to accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, one on the model centerline and the other three on the half radius spaced 120-deg apart. Surface pressure and flow visualization were the primary measurements, including high-speed data to investigate the dynamics of the interactions between the bow and nozzle shocks. Three blowing configurations were tested with thrust coefficients up to 10 and angles of attack up to 20-deg. Preliminary results and observations from the test are provided

  1. Preliminary Investigation of a New Type of Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio; Nucci, Louis M

    1952-01-01

    A supersonic inlet with supersonic deceleration of the flow entirely outside of the inlet is considered a particular arrangement with fixed geometry having a central body with a circular annular intake is analyzed, and it is shown theoretically that this arrangement gives high pressure recovery for a large range of Mach number and mass flow and, therefore, is practical for use on supersonic airplanes and missiles. Experimental results confirming the theoretical analysis give pressure recoveries which vary from 95 percent for Mach number 1.33 to 86 percent for number 2.00. These results were originally presented in a classified document of the NACA in 1946.

  2. Supersonic Test of the 10-Inch Bifurcated Two-Stage Supersonic Inlet (BTSSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, C. M.; Frisch, I.; Kolden, J. J.; Koncsek, J. L.; Marrs, K. J.; Mayer, D. W.; McMahon, S. L.; Milligan, K. H.; Sommerfield, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results from testing of a novel supersonic inlet model in NASA Glenn Research Center's 10- by 10-foot supersonic wind tunnel are presented. The patented inlet concept, called Two-Stage Supersonic Inlet (TSSI), incorporates a large cavity, or throat slot, in the supersonic diffuser intended to enhance the stability of the normal shock. The present embodiment of the concept is a bifurcated twin-duct) design. During the course of testing an unusual 'semi-started' mode of operation was encountered. The inlet was able to spill up to 30 percent of the captured airstream without fully expelling the normal shock. In this mode, the total pressure recovery dropped approximately 6 percent without increasing steady-state distortion. Dynamic instrumentation at the cowl lip station indicates the semi-start mode may be a series of unstart/restart cycles with frequency ranging from 0.2 to 20 Hz. Engine face total pressure measurements indicate a modest impact due to this event. However, since the current test article does not have a representative subsonic diffuser (and is in fact separated), it is unclear how this mode of operation would effect an engine. Further investigation of this phenomenon is required before it is fully understood. Prior testing of the TSSI concept allowed extension of fully started inlet operation to regions of significantly reduced supply flow without reducing recovery. The test article was a smaller scale than the present test and was a single duct design. In the present test, the expanded range of stable operation with high recovery was not realized.

  3. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx aircraft gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.; Butze, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experimental test rig program designed to define and demonstrates techniques which would allow the jet-induced circulation and vortex air blast combustors to operate stably with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle without compromise to the low NOx emissions under the high-altitude supersonic cruise condition. The discussion focuses on the test results of the key combustor modifications for both the simulated engine idle and cruise conditions. Several range-augmentation techniques are demonstrated that allow the lean-reaction premixed aircraft gas turbine combustor to operate with low NOx emissons at engine cruise and acceptable CO and UHC levels at engine idle. These techniques involve several combinations, including variable geometry and fuel switching designs.

  4. AOFA- THREE-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC VISCOUS FLOW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakich, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    This program, which is called 'AOFA', determines the complete viscous and inviscid flow around a body of revolution at a given angle of attack and traveling at supersonic speeds. The viscous calculations from this program agree with experimental values for surface and pitot pressures and with surface heating rates. At high speeds, lee-side flows are important because the local heating is difficult to correlate and because the shed vortices can interact with vehicle components such as a canopy or a vertical tail. This program should find application in the design analysis of any high speed vehicle. Lee-side flows are difficult to calculate because thin-boundary-layer theory is not applicable and the concept of matching inviscid and viscous flow is questionable. This program uses the parabolic approximation to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and solves for the complete inviscid and viscous regions of flow, including the pressure. The parabolic approximation results from the assumption that the stress derivatives in the streamwise direction are small in comparison with derivatives in the normal and circumferential directions. This assumption permits the equation to be solved by an implicit finite difference marching technique which proceeds downstream from the initial data point, provided the inviscid portion of flow is supersonic. The viscous cross-flow separation is also determined as part of the solution. To use this method it is necessary to first determine an initial data point in a region where the inviscid portion of the flow is supersonic. Input to this program consists of two parts. Problem description is conveyed to the program by namelist input. Initial data is acquired by the program as formatted data. Because of the large amount of run time this program can consume the program includes a restart capability. Output is in printed format and magnetic tape for further processing. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on a CDC

  5. A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Full-Scale Supersonic-Type Three-blade Propeller at Mach Numbers to 0.96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Albert J; Liner, George

    1958-01-01

    An investigation of the characteristics of a full-scale supersonic-type propeller has been made in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel with the 6000-horsepower propeller dynamometer. The tests covered a range of blade angles from 20.2 degrees to 60.2 degrees at forward Mach numbers up to 0.96. The results showed that envelope efficiency at an advance ratio of 2.8 decreased from 86 percent to 72 percent when the forward Mach number was increased from 0.70 to 0.96. A comparison of the experimental results with calculated results showed that maximum propeller efficiency can be calculated with good accuracy by using ordinary subsonic strip theory when the blade-section speeds are supersonic. The investigation also showed favorable power-absorption properties of the supersonic-type propeller at high speeds.

  6. Public Hearing on Cruise Ship Discharges: Los Angeles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transcripts of the presentation and comments provided at a hearing hosted by the EPA in Los Angeles, CA on discharges from cruise ships. Stakeholder representatives were in attendance to provide information and recommendations on this issue.

  7. Cruise control: prevention and management of sexual violence at sea.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mike

    2015-03-01

    The drug-related death of Dianne Brimble on the P&O cruise liner Pacific Sky in 2002 triggered a wide-ranging review of the safety on board cruise ships operating in the Australian market. This column assesses the frequency of recent sexual assaults on cruise ships and examines the findings and recommendations of the Brimble inquest, focusing on the Commonwealth government's response to those recommendations. The problem of jurisdiction on flag of convenience registered ships is discussed, with emphasis on a possible co-operative arrangement between Australian police and foreign flag states. It seems likely that the United States and Canadian models of cruise ship regulation to enhance passenger safety will in part be introduced in Australia.

  8. An outbreak of Cyclospora infection on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R A; Nanyonjo, R; Pingault, N M; Combs, B G; Mazzucchelli, T; Armstrong, P; Tarling, G; Dowse, G K

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain.

  9. Modeling the seakeeping performance of luxury cruise ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Yu, Bao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Fang

    2010-09-01

    The seakeeping performance of a luxury cruise ship was evaluated during the concept design phase. By comparing numerical predictions based on 3-D linear potential flow theory in the frequency domain with the results of model tests, it was shown that the 3-D method predicted the seakeeping performance of the luxury cruise ship well. Based on the model, the seakeeping features of the luxury cruise ship were analyzed, and then the influence was seen of changes to the primary design parameters (center of gravity, inertial radius, etc.). Based on the results, suggestions were proposed to improve the choice of parameters for luxury cruise ships during the concept design phase. They should improve seakeeping performance.

  10. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  11. Cruise-ship--associated Legionnaires disease, November 2003-May 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-11-18

    More than 9.4 million passengers traveled on pleasure cruises departing from North American ports in 2004, an increase of 13% since 2003 and 41% since 2001. Cruise ships typically transport closed populations of thousands of persons, often from diverse parts of the world. Travelers are at risk for becoming ill while on board, most commonly from person-to-person spread of viral gastrointestinal illnesses. Certain environmental organisms, such as Legionella spp., pose a risk to vulnerable passengers. During November 2003-May 2004, eight cases of Legionnaires disease (LD) among persons who had recently traveled on cruise ships were reported to CDC. This report describes these cases to raise clinician awareness of the potential for cruise-ship--associated LD and to emphasize the need for identification and reporting of cases to facilitate investigation.

  12. Galileo post-Gaspra cruise and Earth-2 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Andrews, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This article documents DSN support for the Galileo cruise after the Oct. 1991 encounter with the asteroid Gaspra. This article also details the Earth-2 encounter and the special non-DSN support provided during the Earth-2 closest approach.

  13. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Envia, Edmane

    A theory for predicting the noise field of a propeller with a realistic blade geometry is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large blade count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with full numerical integration indicate that the noise levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations based on this method also show that the radiation from the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with thickness and loading noise for high speed propellers. A preliminary application of the theory to the problem of the sensitivity of the peak noise levels generated by a supersonic propeller to the variations in its tip helical Mach number has produced a trend that is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  14. Historical development of worldwide supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Some major milestones in the progression of airplane speeds from subsonic to supersonic are traced. Historical background is included on work done prior to the Twentieth Century, but the major emphasis is on the Twentieth Century developments after the man carrying airplane became a practical reality. The techniques of increasing airplane speed revolve around means of increasing the propulsive force and means of reducing the airframe resistance (drag). With the changes in speed, the attendant changes in flow patterns due to the compressibility of air introduce some aerodynamic problems. In addition, geometric changes introduced to combat the effects of compressibility also promote aerodynamic problems. Some of the solutions to these problems are illustrated, and many design features that evolved are discussed.

  15. The resonance of twin supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the resonant interaction between twin supersonic jets. An instability wave model is used to describe the large scale coherent structures in the jet mixing layers. A linearized shock cell model is also given for the jets when operating off design. The problem's geometry admits four types of normal modes associated with each azimuthal mode number in the single jet. The stability of these modes is examined for both a vortex sheet model of the jet and a jet flow represented by realistic profiles. The growth rates of each mode number and type are found to vary with jet separation and mixing layer thickness and Strouhal number. Contours of equal pressure level are obtained for each mode. The region close to the symmetry axis is found to have the greatest pressure fluctuation amplitude.

  16. Compressible spreading rates of supersonic coaxial jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schadow, K. C.; Gutmark, E.; Wilson, K. J.

    1990-01-01

    The compressible spreading rates of two supersonic coaxial jets were studied experimentally. The center jet had a fully expanded Mach number of 3 and the outer jet of M = 1.8. The geometries of the center jet were circular and rectangular with two configurations, both with a 3:1 aspect ratio. The convective Mach numbers Mc were varied in the range between 0.25 and 2.25. The spreading rate of the center circular jet decreased with increasing Mc until it reached a constant value of 0.2 to 0.3 of the incompresible spreading rate for Mc larger than 1.4. The rectangular jets exhibited a similar drop at the same range of Mc, but their spreading rate was higher relative to the circular jet over the entire Mc range.

  17. Design of supersonic Coanda jet nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilaqua, Paul M.; Lee, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust vectoring of supersonic Coanda jets was improved by designing a nozzle to skew the initial jet velocity profile. A new nozzle design procedure, based on the method of characteristics, was developed to design a nozzle which produces a specified exit velocity profile. The thrust vectoring of a simple convergent nozzle, a convergent-divergent nozzle, and a nozzle which produces a skewed velocity profile matched to the curvature of the Coanda surface were expermentially compared over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 3.5. Elimination of the expansion shocks with the C-D nozzle is shown to greatly improve the thrust vectoring; elimination of turning shocks with the skewed profile nozzle further improves the vectoring.

  18. Laser fusion cutting using supersonic nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jun

    This research takes a systematic approach to study the flow patterns of gas jets from the conventional conical (subsonic) nozzle and the newly designed supersonic nozzle under a high-pressure gas regime by a three-dimensional mathematical model. Computer simulation was then confirmed by experimental shadowgraphic technique. The relationships between the type of nozzles, nozzle dimensions, stand-off distance, inlet stagnation pressure and the flow field distribution, incident shock and normal shock have been established. Compared with that of the subsonic nozzle, the gas jet from a supersonic nozzle possesses the desired dynamic characteristics such as uniform distribution, maximum and even momentum thrust and parallel jet boundary under the condition of the designed pressures. Then, a model calculating the three-dimensional stationary geometric shape of the cutting front obtained in the high-pressure laser fusion cutting regime was developed using numerical solution of energy balance. In this model, the energy absorbed by the workpiece includes not only the energy from the laser beam but also the energy from the multiple reflections generated by the beam impinging at the cutting front. The effects of the laser power, cutting speed, focus position, multiple reflections and inert gas pressure on the geometric shape of the cutting front have been analyzed systemically. The geometric shape of the cutting front was then used as boundary conditions in subsequent calculation of the gas flow field distribution inside a laser cut kerf. Finally, a third mathematical model was developed to calculate the distribution of the gas flow field at the entrance of the cut kerf, inside the cut kerf and at the exit of a cut kerf under the condition of a gas jet from a supersonic nozzle and the inlet stagnation pressure ≥5 bar. A two-dimensional analytical method was adopted to locate approximately the position and shape of the detached shock above the cut kerf. A method of two

  19. The noise from supersonic elliptic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of the noise radiated by a supersonic elliptic jet. The large scale structures in the jet, that are the predominant source of noise in the downstream direction, are modeled as instability waves. The evolution of the instability waves is determined by a local, linear, inviscid analysis. An expression is derived for the acoustic field outside the jet and the far field directivity associated with each instability wave. Calculations are performed for a Mach 1.5 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 elliptic jet with aspect ratio 3:1. The mean flow development is taken from experimental results. Comparisons are made with far field acoustic measurements.

  20. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-01-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of a propeller with a realistic blade geometry is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large blade count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with full numerical integration indicate that the noise levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations based on this method also show that the radiation from the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with thickness and loading noise for high speed propellers. A preliminary application of the theory to the problem of the sensitivity of the peak noise levels generated by a supersonic propeller to the variations in its tip helical Mach number has produced a trend that is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.