Science.gov

Sample records for advanced tactical fighter

  1. Flight test of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, P. )

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the approach used in flight tests of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), the fighter which was conceived as a replacement for the F-1 Eagle and which combines stealth techologies with a supercruise capability while retaining the agility necessary in an air superiority fighter. Special attention is given to the flight test concept, flight test preparations, and test objectives. The test methods, the problems encountered, and the test results are described.

  2. Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

    1995-05-01

    The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

  3. Maneuvering technology for advanced fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, Scott H.; Byers, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    The need for increased maneuverability has its genesis from the first aerial combat engagement when two adversaries entangled themselves in a deadly aerial dance trying to gain the advantage over the other. It has only been in the past two decades that technologies have been investigated to increase aircraft control at maneuver attitudes that are typically dominated by highly separated flows. These separated flow regions are aggravated by advanced fighter aircraft shapes required to defeat an electronic enemy. This paper discusses passive and active devices that can be used to enhance the maneuverability of advanced fighter aircraft through vortex flow control, boundary layer control, and innovative flow manipulation.

  4. Artificial intelligence (AI) based tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The knowledge-based systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator, are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs.

  5. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS), a second generation TDG, is presented. The Knowledge-Based Systems used by CLAWS to aid in the tactical decision-making process are outlined in detail, and the results of tests to evaluate the performance of CLAWS versus a baseline TDG developed in FORTRAN to run in real-time in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), are presented. To date, these test results have shown significant performance gains with respect to the TDG baseline in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify and maintain than the baseline FORTRAN TDG programs. Alternate computing environments and programming approaches, including the use of parallel algorithms and heterogeneous computer networks are discussed, and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  6. Technical and Tactical Aspects that Differentiate Winning and Losing Performances in Elite Male Karate Fighters.

    PubMed

    Vidranski, Tihomir; Sertić, Hrvoje; Jukić, Josefina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the fighters' technical and tactical activity indicators in order to determine indicator significance regarding situational efficiency and designation between winning and losing performances in a karate match. We scientifically observed a sample of 274 male contesters of 137 karate matches during the 2008 World Karate Championship in Tokyo. Each individual competitor was observed in maximum of three matches. The matches were recorded using a DVD camera in order to collect data for further analysis, and the sample was further described using 48 technical and tactical indicators of situational efficiency and match outcome variables. The obtained results indicate that a karate match is composed of 91% of non-scoring techniques and 9% of scoring techniques in the total technique frequency. On this basis a significant difference in the situational efficiency between the match winners and the losing contesters has been discovered. Those two groups of fighters exhibit a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in 11 out of 21 observed variables of situational efficiency in the table of derived situational indicators. A prevalence of non-scoring techniques suggests that energy demand and technical and tactical requirements of a karate match are in the largest extent defined by non-scoring techniques. Therefore, it would be a grave mistake to disregard non-scoring karate techniques in any future situational efficiency studies. It has been discovered that the winners differ from the defeated contesters by a higher level of situational efficiency in their executed techniques, which incorporate versatility, biomechanical and structural complexity, topological diversity and a specific tactical concept of technique use in the attack phase.

  7. Countering advanced HIS marketing tactics.

    PubMed

    Ciotti, V

    1993-02-01

    An explosion of technological advances and system developments in the information systems industry pushes the envelope in both hardware and software design. Equipment breakthroughs--reduced instruction set computing chips, or RISC, and DEC's 64-bit Alpha chip--herald an exciting new era in price-performance computing. And object-oriented programming systems, or OOPS, and computer-assisted software engineering, or CASE tools, both promise a golden age in programming productivity. At the same time however, marketing mavens at healthcare information system, or HIS, vendors keep pace with their cohorts in Research and Development by blazing new trails in the science of sales and marketing. To help healthcare executives keep pace with new developments in selling, let's review a few infamous breakthroughs in marketing. They put a new twist on the old saw: "caveat emptor." Following each marketing "advance" are counters to new marketing tricks, each recommended to keep savvy CIOs a step ahead.

  8. A conceptual model for predicting pilot group G tolerance for tactical fighter aircraft.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    1986-08-01

    A static model based on eye-heart vertical distance has been developed which predicts group mean G tolerances relative to the application of any of the following anti-G methods and/or physiologic responses: a) anti-G suit, b) reclined seat, c) anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM), d) positive pressure breathing (PPB), e) gradual onset of G, f) isometric muscular contraction, and g) leg elevation. This model was validated with published data. A variation of this model (derived equation) predicts the amount of AGSM (in mm Hg) required, in combination with any of the anti-G methods/responses at any G level. This calculated effort of AGSM can be equated to level of fatigue and performance decrements. A level of 50 mm Hg or an increase of 2 G in the upright seat was the maximum AGSM recommended for routine use as an anti-G method for operational fighter pilots. PMID:3753356

  9. Safety of flight testing for advanced fighter helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, Robert T.; Brown, Randall W.; Wiley, Larry L.

    1995-05-01

    The magnitude of requirements, specifications, testing, and liability associated with producing an item for military use has, no doubt, caused many potential helmet vendors to stay away from the military customer. This is a dilemma for the military as well as the vendors. This paper is an attempt to educate people on the requirements for one aspect of advanced helmet development. That aspect is the Safety-of-Flight requirement. Safety-of-Flight encompasses every aspect of flight to include preflight and post flight. Emergency egress, high-voltage containment, helmet fit, donning and doffing, windblast protection and other aspects of protection during ejection, comfort, aural protection, and compatibility with life support equipment are a few of the items that must be evaluated prior to flying in a multi-million dollar fighter. This paper will highlight the types of testing required with a short explanation of why this testing is necessary as well as what must be accomplished in order to pass the stated requirement.

  10. Tandem Fan Applications in Advanced STOVL Fighter Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zola, Charlse L.; Wilson, Samuel B., III; Eskey, Megan A.

    1984-01-01

    The series/parallel tandem fan engine is evaluated for application in advanced STOVL supersonic fighter aircraft. Options in engine cycle parameters and design of the front fan flow diverter are examined for their effects on engine weight, dimensions, and other factors in integration of the engine with the aircraft. Operation of the engine in high-bypass flow mode during cruise and loiter flight is considered as a means of minimizizng fuel consumption. Engine thrust augmentation by burning in the front fan exhaust is discussed. Achievement of very sort takeoff with vectored thrust in briefly reviewed for tandem fan engine configurations with vectorable front fan nozzles. Examples are given of two aircraft configuration planforms, a delta-canard, and a forward-swept wing, to illustrate the major features. design considerations, and potential performance of the tandem fan installation in each. Full realization of the advantages of tandem fan propulsion are found to depend on careful selection of the aircraft configuration, since integration requirements can strongly influence the engine performance.

  11. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to tactical guidance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG against a version of AML and against human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements.

  12. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Techniques to Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined in detail and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG versus a version of AML and versus human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify than the updated FORTRAN AML programs.

  13. Euler Technology Assessment - SPLITFLOW Code Applications for Stability and Control Analysis on an Advanced Fighter Model Employing Innovative Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Keith J.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results from the NASA-Langley sponsored Euler Technology Assessment Study conducted by Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of the SPLITFLOW code using viscous and inviscid flow models to predict aerodynamic stability and control of an advanced fighter model. The inviscid flow model was found to perform well at incidence angles below approximately 15 deg, but not as well at higher angles of attack. The results using a turbulent, viscous flow model matched the trends of the wind tunnel data, but did not show significant improvement over the Euler solutions. Overall, the predictions were found to be useful for stability and control design purposes.

  14. Maneuver Performance Enhancement for an Advanced Fighter/Attack Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, Jeff; Langan, Kevin J.; Schmitz, Frederic H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A small scale wind tunnel test of a realistic fighter configuration has been completed in NASA Ames' 7'x10' wind tunnel. This test was part of the Fighter Lift and Control (FLAC) program, a joint NASA - USAF research program, involving small and large-scale wind-tunnel tests and computational analysis of unique lift augmentation and control devices. The goal of this program is to enhance the maneuver and control capability of next-generation Air Force multi-role fighter aircraft with low-observables geometries. The principal objective of this test was to determine the effectiveness of passive boundary layer control devices at increasing L/D at sustained maneuver lift coefficients. Vortex generators (VGs) were used to energize the boundary layer to prevent or delay separation. Corotating vanes, counter-rotating vanes, and Wheeler Wishbone VGs were used in the vicinity of the leading and trailing edge flap hinge lines. Principle test parameters were leading and trailing edge flap deflections, and location, size, spacing, and orientation for each VG type. Gurney flaps were also tested. Data gathered include balance force and moment data, surface pressures, and flow visualization for characterizing flow behavior and locating separation lines. Results were quite different for the two best flap configurations tested. All VG types tested showed improvement (up to 5%) in maneuver L/D with flaps at LE=20 degrees, TE=0 degrees. The same VGs degraded performance, in all but a few cases, with flaps at LE=15 degrees, TE=10 degrees.

  15. Wing planform effects at supersonic speeds for an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. M.; Miller, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Four advanced fighter configurations, which differed in wing planform and airfoil shape, were investigated in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, and 2.16. Supersonic data were obtained on the four uncambered wings, which were each attached to a single fighter fuselage. The fuselage geometry varied in cross-sectional shape and had two side-mounted, flow-through, half-axisymmetric inlets. Twin vertical tails were attached to the fuselage. The four planforms tested were a 65 deg delta wing, a combination of a 20 deg trapezoidal wing and a 45 deg horizontal tail, a 70 deg/30 deg cranked wing, and a 70 deg/66 deg crank wing, where the angle values refer to the leading-edge sweep angle of the lifting-surface planform. Planform effects on a single fuselage representative of an advanced fighter aircraft were studied. Results show that the highly swept cranked wings exceeded the aerodynamic performance levels, at low lift coefficients, of the 65 deg delta wing and the 20 deg trapezoidal wing at trimmed and untrimmed conditions.

  16. Chemotherapy and Oncolytic Virotherapy: Advanced Tactics in the War against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Andrew; Ho, Louisa; Wan, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a traitorous archenemy that threatens our survival. Its ability to evade detection and adapt to various cancer therapies means that it is a moving target that becomes increasingly difficult to attack. Through technological advancements, we have developed sophisticated weapons to fight off tumor growth and invasion. However, if we are to stand a chance in this war against cancer, advanced tactics will be required to maximize the use of our available resources. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are multi-functional cancer-fighters that can be engineered to suit many different strategies; in particular, their retooling can facilitate increased capacity for direct tumor killing (oncolytic virotherapy) and elicit adaptive antitumor immune responses (oncolytic immunotherapy). However, administration of these modified OVs alone, rarely induces successful regression of established tumors. This may be attributed to host antiviral immunity that acts to eliminate viral particles, as well as the capacity for tumors to adapt to therapeutic selective pressure. It has been shown that various chemotherapeutic drugs with distinct functional properties can potentiate the antitumor efficacy of OVs. In this review, we summarize the chemotherapeutic combinatorial strategies used to optimize virally induced destruction of tumors. With a particular focus on pharmaceutical immunomodulators, we discuss how specific therapeutic contexts may alter the effects of these synergistic combinations and their implications for future clinical use. PMID:24967214

  17. Chemotherapy and Oncolytic Virotherapy: Advanced Tactics in the War against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew; Ho, Louisa; Wan, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a traitorous archenemy that threatens our survival. Its ability to evade detection and adapt to various cancer therapies means that it is a moving target that becomes increasingly difficult to attack. Through technological advancements, we have developed sophisticated weapons to fight off tumor growth and invasion. However, if we are to stand a chance in this war against cancer, advanced tactics will be required to maximize the use of our available resources. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are multi-functional cancer-fighters that can be engineered to suit many different strategies; in particular, their retooling can facilitate increased capacity for direct tumor killing (oncolytic virotherapy) and elicit adaptive antitumor immune responses (oncolytic immunotherapy). However, administration of these modified OVs alone, rarely induces successful regression of established tumors. This may be attributed to host antiviral immunity that acts to eliminate viral particles, as well as the capacity for tumors to adapt to therapeutic selective pressure. It has been shown that various chemotherapeutic drugs with distinct functional properties can potentiate the antitumor efficacy of OVs. In this review, we summarize the chemotherapeutic combinatorial strategies used to optimize virally induced destruction of tumors. With a particular focus on pharmaceutical immunomodulators, we discuss how specific therapeutic contexts may alter the effects of these synergistic combinations and their implications for future clinical use.

  18. AFTI/SITAN (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation (SITAN) provides continuous position fixes to an inertial navigation system (INS) by real-time comparison of radar altimeter ground clearance measurements with stored digital terrain elevation data (DTED). This is accomplished by using an extended Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the errors in the reference trajectory provided by an INS. In this report, Sandia National Laboratories documents the results of a reimbursable effort funded by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) Avionics Laboratory to flight test SITAN as implemented onboard the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)F-16. 5 refs., 101 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Investigation of trailing-edge-flap, spanwise-blowing concepts on an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Quinto, P. F.; Banks, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of spanwise blowing on the trailing edge flap of an advanced fighter aircraft configuration were determined in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. A series of tests were conducted with variations in spanwise-blowing vector angle, nozzle exit area, nozzle location, thrust coefficient, and flap deflection in order to determine a superior configuration for both an underwing cascade concept and an overwing port concept. This screening phase of the testing was conducted at a nominal approach angle of attack from 12 deg to 16 deg; and then the superior configurations were tested over a more complete angle of attack range from 0 deg to 20 deg at tunnel free stream dynamic pressures from 20 to 40 lbf/sq ft at thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.

  20. Development of a tactical guidance research and evaluation system (TGRES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The ongoing development of a tool for tactical guidance research and the analysis of airplane system performance in a tactically significant environment are described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to high-performance airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic, and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying fighter agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and, thus, be of interest to a number of potential users.

  1. X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

    1997-01-01

    The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

  2. Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

  3. Design and Optimization of a Composite Canard Control Surface of an Advanced Fighter Aircraft under Static Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sachin; Mohite, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    The minimization of weight and maximization of payload is an ever challenging design procedure for air vehicles. The present study has been carried out with an objective to redesign control surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft. In this study, the structure made up of high strength aluminum, titanium and ferrous alloys has been attempted to replace by carbon fiber composite (CFC) skin, ribs and stiffeners. This study presents an approach towards development of a methodology for optimization of first-ply failure index (FI) in unidirectional fibrous laminates using Genetic-Algorithms (GA) under quasi-static loading. The GAs, by the application of its operators like reproduction, cross-over, mutation and elitist strategy, optimize the ply-orientations in laminates so as to have minimum FI of Tsai-Wu first-ply failure criterion. The GA optimization procedure has been implemented in MATLAB and interfaced with commercial software ABAQUS using python scripting. FI calculations have been carried out in ABAQUS with user material subroutine (UMAT). The GA's application gave reasonably well-optimized ply-orientations combination at a faster convergence rate. However, the final optimized sequence of ply-orientations is obtained by tweaking the sequences given by GA's based on industrial practices and experience, whenever needed. The present study of conversion of an all metallic structure to partial CFC structure has led to 12% of weight reduction. Therefore, the approach proposed here motivates designer to use CFC with a confidence.

  4. An evaluation of the relative merits of wing-canard, wing-tail, and tailless arrangements for advanced fighter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, W. U.; Naville, G. L.; Hoffschwelle, J. E.; Huffman, J. K.; Covell, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Two sets of wind tunnel tests were performed to examine the relative merits of wing-canard, wing-tail and tailless configurations for advanced fighters. Both sessions focused on variable camber using automated, prescheduled leading and trailing edge flap positioning. The trials considered a modified F-16 tail and canard configuration at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds, a 60 deg delta wing sweep, a 44 deg leading edge trapezoidal wing at subsonic and supersonic speeds, vortex flow effects, and flow interactions in the canard-wing-tail-tailless variations. The results showed that large negative stabilities would need to be tolerated in wing-canard arrangements to make them competitive with wing-tail arrangements. Subsonic polar shapes for canard and tailless designs were more sensitive to static design margins than were wing-tail arrangements. Canards provided better stability at supersonic speeds. The static margin limits were a critical factor in control surface selection. Finally, a tailless delta wing configuration exhibited the lowest projected gross take-off weight and drag values.

  5. Redesigning of a Canard Control Surface of an Advanced Fighter Aircraft: Effect on Buckling and Aerodynamic Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Sachin; Mohite, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    A redesign of canard control-surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft was carried out by using carbon fibre composite (CFC) for ribs and panels. In this study ply-orientations of CFC structure are optimized using a Genetic-Algorithm (GA) with an objective function to have minimum failure index (FI) according to Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The redesigned CFC structure was sufficiently strong to withstand aerodynamic loads from stress and deflection points of view. Now, in the present work CFC canard structure has been studied for its buckling strength in comparison to existing metallic design. In this study, the existing metallic design was found to be weak in buckling. Upon a detailed investigation, it was revealed that there are reported failures in the vicinity of zones where initial buckling modes are excited as predicted by the finite element based buckling analysis. In view of buckling failures, the redesigned CFC structure is sufficiently reinforced with stringers at specific locations. After providing reinforcements against buckling, the twist and the camber variations of the airfoil are checked and compared with existing structure data. Finally, the modal analysis has been carried out to compare the variation in excitation frequency due to material change. The CFC structure thus redesigned is safe from buckling and aerodynamic aspects as well.

  6. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.

    1987-01-01

    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  7. Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

  8. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  9. Tactical STOL moment balance through innovative configuration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckard, G. J.; Sutton, R. C.; Poth, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    Innovative and conventional thrust vectoring moment balance mechanisms, as applied to advanced tactical fighters, are examined. The innovative mechanisms include thrust line translation, life line translation, and auxiliary power control; the conventional mechanisms under investigation are horizontal tails, canards, and variable sweep wings. These mechanisms are tested for their ability to provide negative static margins for landing approach or relocation of the vectored thrust line nearer the aircraft's center of gravity. The net pitching moment due to wing, flaps, and vectored thrust lift would then be small, making possible beneficial trim forces from small trimming devices. These innovative mechanisms are, however, possibly heavy and must be evaluated on their complexity, reliability, maintainability, and STOL capabilities. Several candidate fighter configurations are compared and evaluated.

  10. Large-Scale V/STOL Experimental Investigations of an Ejector-Lift Fighter and a Twin Tilt-Nacelle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s NASA Aeronautics was actively involved in full-scale wind tunnel testing of promising VSTOL aircraft concepts. This presentation looks at two, a multi-role fighter and a subsonic tactical transport. Their strengths and weaknesses are discussed with some of the rationale that ultimately led to the selection of competing concepts for production, namely the V-22 Osprey and the F-35 Lightning. The E7-A STOVL multi-role fighter was the product of an aircraft development program in the late 1980s by NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Canadian Department of Industry Science and Technology (DIST), and industry partners General Dynamics and Boeing Dehavilland. The program was conducted an in response to increasing US-UK interest in supersonic STOVL fighters. The objective was to design an aircraft that could replace most existing close air support-air combat fighters with a single aircraft that had some of the qualities of an air superiority fighter and the deployment flexibility of a VSTOL aircraft. The resulting E7-A concept was a delta-wing supersonic fighter that used a fuselage-mounted thrust augmenting ejector and a ventral deflecting jet nozzle for vertical lift. The Grumman Aircraft Company, the Navy, and NASA developed the Design-698 (D-698) subsonic tactical transport in response to the Navy's Type A VSTOL utility aircraft requirement. The objective was to develop a subsonic utility transport with the operational flexibility of a helicopter, but with greater speed and range. The D-698 employs two high-bypass turbofan engines mounted on a dumbbell that rotates through ninety degrees for vertical takeoff and cruise flight. Movable vanes positioned in the exhaust flow provide control in hover with the need for reaction control jets. The presentations concluding comments suggest that technology advances in the last thirty-years may justify the value of revisiting some of these concepts.

  11. Advancement of photonics for space and other platforms: open optical interconnect architecture (OOIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaydeski, Michael S.

    1997-07-01

    Continuous investigation of new technologies for avionics and space processing has led to the improvement of applications capabilities and processing for tactical platforms (commercial and government satellites, tactical asset such as the USN Reconnaissance Fighter F/A-18R, USAF Fighter F-16, various helicopters, etc.,) and surveillance platforms (commercial and government satellites, Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System, Advanced Warning and Control System). This paper focuses on the potential benefits of inserting optical interconnect technology into these platforms while subscribing an Open Optical Interconnect Architecture concept and a methodology for systems development and integration.

  12. Program Fighter: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, David G.; Fowler, Wallace T.

    A computer program for the sizing of subsonic and supersonic fighter planes was adapted for use in an aerospace engineering course at the University of Texas at Austin. FIGHTER uses classroom notation and separate subroutines for different disciplines to implement the conceptual design process. Input consists of a set of design variables and a set…

  13. Advanced Strategic and Tactical Relay Request Management for the Mars Relay Operations Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    This software provides a new set of capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) in support of Strategic and Tactical relay, including a highly interactive relay request Web user interface, mission control over relay planning time periods, and mission management of allowed strategic vs. tactical request parameters. Together, these new capabilities expand the scope of the system to include all elements critical for Tactical relay operations. Planning of replay activities spans a time period that is split into two distinct phases. The first phase is called Strategic, which begins at the time that relay opportunities are identified, and concludes at the point that the orbiter generates the flight sequences for on board execution. Any relay request changes from this point on are called Tactical. Tactical requests, otherwise called Orbit - er Relay State Changes (ORSC), are highly restricted in terms of what types of changes can be made, and the types of parameters that can be changed may differ from one orbiter to the next. For example, one orbiter may be able to delay the start of a relay request, while another may not. The legacy approach to ORSC management involves exchanges of e-mail with "requests for change" and "acknowledgement of approval," with no other tracking of changes outside of e-mail folders. MaROS Phases 1 and 2 provided the infrastructure for strategic relay for all supported missions. This new version, 3.0, introduces several capabilities that fully expand the scope of the system to include tactical relay. One new feature allows orbiter users to manage and "lock" Planning Periods, which allows the orbiter team to formalize the changeover from Strategic to Tactical operations. Another major feature allows users to interactively submit tactical request changes via a Web user interface. A third new feature allows orbiter missions to specify allowed tactical updates, which are automatically incorporated into the tactical change process

  14. Impulsiveness in professional fighters.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah J; Mayer, Brittany; Obuchowski, Nancy; Shin, Wanyong; Lowe, Mark; Phillips, Michael; Modic, Michael; Bernick, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sports involving repeated head trauma are associated with risk of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Among the behavioral manifestations of CTE is increased impulsiveness. Here, the authors investigate the relationship between impulsiveness and exposure to head trauma in a large group of active professional fighters. Fighters tended to report less impulsiveness than did non-fighting control respondents. Overall, greater fight exposure was associated with higher levels of a specific form of impulsiveness, although there were differences between mixed martial arts fighters and boxers. Fight exposure was associated with reduction in volume of certain brain structures, and these changes were also associated with impulsiveness patterns. Longitudinal studies of professional fighters are important to understand the risk for neuropsychiatric problems. PMID:24515676

  15. X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability aircraft in flight over California's Mojave desert during a 1992 test flight. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat

  16. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  17. Sonic boom focal zones due to tactical aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1990-10-01

    A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study is that focus factors and footprint areas for high-g fighter maneuvers are substantially smaller than those for gentle maneuvers associated with larger aircraft.

  18. An investigation of fighter aircraft agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory during the period January 1989 through December 1993. New metrics proposed by pilots and the research community to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. The report develops a framework for understanding the context into which the various proposed fighter agility metrics fit in terms of application and testing. Since new metrics continue to be proposed, this report does not claim to contain every proposed fighter agility metric. Flight test procedures, test constraints, and related criteria are developed. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is considered, as is the sensitivity of the candidate metrics to deviations from nominal pilot command inputs, which is studied in detail. Instead of supplying specific, detailed conclusions about the relevance or utility of one candidate metric versus another, the authors have attempted to provide sufficient data and analyses for readers to formulate their own conclusions. Readers are therefore ultimately responsible for judging exactly which metrics are 'best' for their particular needs. Additionally, it is not the intent of the authors to suggest combat tactics or other actual operational uses of the results and data in this report. This has been left up to the user community. Twenty of the candidate agility metrics were selected for evaluation with high fidelity, nonlinear, non real-time flight simulation computer programs of the F-5A Freedom Fighter, F-16A Fighting Falcon, F-18A Hornet, and X-29A. The information and data presented on the 20 candidate metrics which were evaluated will assist interested readers in conducting their own extensive investigations. The report provides a definition and analysis of each metric; details

  19. PAN AIR analysis of the NASA/MCAIR 279-3: An advanced supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Michael D.; Erickson, Larry L.

    1986-01-01

    PAN AIR is a computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flow about arbitrary configurations. The program was applied to a highly complex single-engine-cruise V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft. Complexities include a close-coupled canard/wing, large inlets, and four exhaust nozzles mounted directly under the wing and against the fuselage. Modeling uncertainties involving canard wake location and flow-through approximation through the inlet and the exhaust nozzles were investigated. The recently added streamline capability of the program was utilized to evaluate visually the predicted flow over the model. PAN AIR results for Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and angles of attack of 0, 5, and 10 deg. were compared with data obtained in the Ames 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind tunnel, at a Reynolds number of 3.69 x 10 to the 6th power based on c bar.

  20. Panoramic cockpit displays for tactical military cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Mark; Huffman, David

    2010-04-01

    The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) incorporates the latest technology for aerial warfighting. To support this aircraft's mission and to provide the pilot with the increased situational awareness needed in today's battlespace, a panoramic AMLCD was developed and is being deployed for the first time. This 20" by 8" display is the largest fielded to date in a tactical fighter. Key system innovations had to be employed to allow this technology to function in this demanding environment. Certain older generation aircraft are now considering incorporating a panoramic display to provide their crews with this level of increased capability. Key design issues that had to be overcome dealt with sunlight readability, vibration resistance, touchscreen operation, and reliability concerns to avoid single-point failures. A completely dual redundant system design had to be employed to ensure that the pilot would always have access to critical mission and flight data.

  1. Eunuchs as better fighters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2012-02-01

    Male-male competition for females can significantly affect a male's reproductive success and hence his fitness. Game theory predicts that an individual should avoid fighting when its future reproductive potential is high, but should fight forcefully when its future reproductive potential is insignificant. When mates are scarce, extreme competition and fatal fighting is expected. We recently showed that Nephilengys malabarensis eunuchs, i.e. sterile spider males that lost their genitals during copulation, become more aggressive during male-male contests. Here, we add crucial comparative data by exploring eunuch fighting behaviour in Nephilengys livida from Madagascar, specifically by testing the `better fighter hypotheses' in a laboratory setting. Similar to N. malabarensis, N. livida copulations resulted in total male castration with the severed palp plugging the female genitals in 70.83% cases, which mostly (63.63%) prevented subsequent copulations. Unexpectedly, however, N. livida eunuchs exhibited lower aggressiveness than virgin males. We interpret these results in the light of different mating biology between the so far studied species known for the eunuch phenomenon, which might reflect differing plug effectiveness due to variation in genital anatomy in N. livida, N. malabarensis and Herennia multipuncta. However, detected differences in aggressive behaviour of N. livida versus N. malabarensis eunuchs might also be explained by the species' ecology, with lower population densities resulting in a relaxed male-male competition making excessive aggression and mate guarding redundant. This study thus questions the generality of overt aggressiveness in mated males with no reproductive value, and highlights the importance of understanding the natural history of species in the question.

  2. Health risks to fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Matticks, C A; Westwater, J J; Himel, H N; Morgan, R F; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Fire fighters work in varied and dangerous environments and face unique health hazards that increase their risk for line-of-duty injury and death. While working with sophisticated equipment within such environments, the fire fighter is exposed to high noise levels, changing thermal conditions, and hazardous breathing atmospheres. In addition, his or her protective equipment can impose limitations on efficiency and performance. These conditions have been related to specific physical performance requirements that will reduce line-of-duty injury, disability, and even death. Physical fitness and health maintenance programs that reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal injuries have been prescribed for fire fighters. These programs are essential components of any modern fire service. PMID:1587923

  3. Automated Operator Instruction in Team Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, R. W.; And Others

    The report discusses the applicability of available advanced training technologies to the training of Navy tactical teams. An experiment was conducted to test whether there is sufficient commonality in team tasks performed in existing team tactics trainers to warrant development of a team training system for specific advanced technologies. Data…

  4. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design-Unstructured/Structured Grid NASTD Application for Aerodynamic Analysis of an Advanced Fighter/Tailless Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michal, Todd R.

    1998-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Langley sponsored project aimed at determining the viability of using Euler technology for preliminary design use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the Boeing, St. Louis unstructured grid flow field analysis system, consisting of the MACGS grid generation and NASTD flow solver codes. Euler solutions about the Aero Configuration/Weapons Fighter Technology (ACWFT) 1204 aircraft configuration were generated. Several variations of the geometry were investigated including a standard wing, cambered wing, deflected elevon, and deflected body flap. A wide range of flow conditions, most of which were in the non-linear regimes of the flight envelope, including variations in speed (subsonic, transonic, supersonic), angles of attack, and sideslip were investigated. Several flowfield non-linearities were present in these solutions including shock waves, vortical flows and the resulting interactions. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by comparing solutions with test data and Navier-Stokes solutions. The ability to accurately predict lateral-directional characteristics and control effectiveness was investigated by computing solutions with sideslip, and with deflected control surfaces. Problem set up times and computational resource requirements were documented and used to evaluate the efficiency of this approach for use in the fast paced preliminary design environment.

  5. Selection for alternative male reproductive tactics alters intralocus sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Plesnar Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Miler, Krzysztof; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) arises when fitness optima for a shared trait differ between the sexes; such conflict may help maintain genetic variation within populations. Sex-limited expression of sexually antagonistic traits may help resolve the conflict, but the extent of this resolution remains a subject of debate. In species with alternative male reproductive tactics, unresolved conflict should manifest more in a more sexually dimorphic male phenotype. We tested this prediction in the bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini), a species in which aggressive fighters coexist with benign scramblers. To do this, we established replicated lines in which we increased the proportion of each of the alternative male morphs using artificial selection. After approximately 40 generations, the proportion of fighters and scramblers stabilized at >0.9 in fighter- and scrambler-selected lines, respectively. We then measured several female fitness components. As predicted by IASC theory, female fecundity and longevity were lower in lines selected for fighters and higher in lines selected for scramblers. This finding indicates that sexually selected phenotypes are associated with an ontogenetic conflict that is not easily resolved. Furthermore, we suggest that IASC may be an important mechanism contributing to the maintenance of genetic variation in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics.

  6. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  7. Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

  8. Forebody/Inlet of the Joint Strike Fighter Tested at Low Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a national cooperative effort to develop a multinational fighter aircraft, a model of a Joint Strike Fighter concept was tested in several NASA Lewis Research Center wind tunnels at low speeds over a range of headwind velocities and model attitudes. This Joint Strike Fighter concept, which is scheduled to go into production in 2005, will greatly improve the range, capability, maneuverability, and survivability of fighter aircraft, and the production program could ultimately be worth $100 billion. The test program was a team effort between Lewis and Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems. Testing was completed in September 1997, several weeks ahead of schedule, allowing Lockheed additional time to review the results and analysis data before the next test and resulting in significant cost savings for Lockheed. Several major milestones related to dynamic and steady-state data acquisition and overall model performance were reached during this model test. Results from this program will contribute to both the concept demonstration phase and the production aircraft.

  9. Fire fighters, combustion products, and urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial cancer may be induced by different workplace chemicals, including carcinogenic aromatic amines, coke oven fumes, and cigarette smoking. The general impact of combustion products on urothelial cancer risk of exposed persons is still controversial. This raises the question whether fire fighters may have an increased risk for urothelial cancer. The present review compiles the literature on combustion products, possibly relevant for fire fighters, and the available studies on urinary bladder cancer risk in fire fighters. Chemical analyses of smoke from experimental fires as well as from fires in cities, wildlands, and industry do not indicate a generally elevated risk of bladder cancer in fire fighters. This is supported by studies on bladder cancer in fire fighters. Based on mortality studies, studies on exposures, and cancer incidence, we conclude that an elevated risk of urothelial cancer in fire fighters, in general, is not confirmed. Only in professional fire fighters more severely exposed for decades, having started their career some decades before, occupational exposure might be discussed as causative for urothelial cancer.

  10. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  11. A review of thrust-vectoring schemes for fighter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Re, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a review of thrust vectoring schemes for advanced fighter applications. Results are presented from wind tunnel and system integration studies on thrust vectoring nozzle concepts. Vectoring data are presented from wind tunnel tests of axisymmetric C-D (convergent-divergent) and nonaxisymmetric wedge, C-D, single ramp and USB (upper-surface blowing) nozzle concepts. Results from recent airframe/nozzle integration studies on the impact of thrust vectoring on weight, cooling and performance characteristics are discussed. This review indicates that the aircraft designer has, at his disposal, a wide range of thrust vectoring schemes which offer potential for added or improved aircraft capability.

  12. A Ram-Jet Engine for Fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, E; Bredt, I

    1947-01-01

    Simple and accurate calculations are made of the flow process in a continuous compressorless Lorin jet-propulsion unit. Experimental confirmation is given from towing tests on an airplane at flying speeds up to 200 miles per second. An analysis is made of the performance of a fighter-type airplane designed for utilization of this propulsion system.

  13. 1024 x 1024 tactical IR HgCdTe staring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, Steven R.; Bogosyan, Arsen; Chan, Gilbert Y.; Gubala, Michael J.; Huey, Herbert; Kwok, Raymond S.; Lawrence, Raymond G.; Muzilla, Mark; Yang, John W.

    2000-12-01

    Boeing has demonstrated Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) imaging performance of a large format tactical sensor based on a 1024x1024 focal plane array (FPA). The ultra-high density infrared (IR) sensor system consists of a 10.47 mm aperture optics, a 10242 Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) FPA, a Sterling cycle integrated cooler dewar assembly (IDA), and a pre-processor with advanced algorithms for data correction and image enhancement. In this paper, we will present measured performance parameters of the staring sensor system including minimum resolvable temperature (MRT), noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT), and noise equivalent irradiance (NEI). Key features and attributes of the integrated hardware will also be described. A similar instrument to enhance situational awareness is under evaluation as part of a panoramic camera system to demonstrate feasibility of sensor-guided landing in adverse environments for heavy transports such as the Boeing C17 aircraft. Considerations are underway to utilize the camera as part of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) sensor suite. We will introduce other system applications for which the large format imagery can be strategically employed and discuss its operational advantages.

  14. Geometry definition and grid generation for a complete fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in computing power and numerical solution procedures have enabled computational fluid dynamicists to attempt increasingly difficult problems. In particular, efforts are focusing on computations of complex three-dimensional flow fields about realistic aerodynamic bodies. To perform such computations, a very accurate and detailed description of the surface geometry must be provided, and a three-dimensional grid must be generated in the space around the body. The geometry must be supplied in a format compatible with the grid generation requirements, and must be verified to be free of inconsistencies. This paper presents a procedure for performing the geometry definition of a fighter aircraft that makes use of a commercial computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. Furthermore, visual representations of the geometry are generated using a computer graphics system for verification of the body definition. Finally, the three-dimensional grids for fighter-like aircraft are generated by means of an efficient new parabolic grid generation method. This method exhibits good control of grid quality.

  15. Structural design optimization with survivability dependent constraints application: Primary wing box of a multi-role fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolvin, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    The superior survivability of a multirole fighter is dependent upon balanced integration of technologies for reduced vulnerability and susceptability. The objective is to develop a methodology for structural design optimization with survivability dependent constraints. The design criteria for optimization will be survivability in a tactical laser environment. The following analyses are studied to establish a dependent design relationship between structural weight and survivability: (1) develop a physically linked global design model of survivability variables; and (2) apply conventional constraints to quantify survivability dependent design. It was not possible to develop an exact approach which would include all aspects of survivability dependent design, therefore guidelines are offered for solving similar problems.

  16. Test Pilots with P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Langley test pilots (from left) Mel Gough, Herb Hoover, Jack Reeder, Steve Cavallo and Bill Gray stand in front of a P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter in this 1945 photo. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 44). Also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 498).

  17. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  18. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  19. Structural complexity of the environment affects the survival of alternative male reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Lukasik, Piotr; Radwan, Jacek; Tomkins, Joseph L

    2006-02-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics in males are often associated with divergent phenotypes expressed as phenotypically plastic threshold traits. The evolution of threshold traits in these species has been modeled under the conditional evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Both strategic and genetic models predict that perturbations to the fitness trade-off between the male morphs will lead to a shift in the ESS switch point of the threshold. So far, demographic factors that influence the competitive ability of male morphs have been investigated and related to intraspecific population variation in male dimorphic thresholds. Here we reveal evidence for the theoretical prediction that abiotic features of the environment, in particular its structural complexity, are likely to influence the ESS threshold. In the male dimorphic mite Sancassania berlesei, we monitored the survival of aggressive fighter males and their benign scrambler counterparts in populations that differed in structural complexity. We found that, consistent with our prediction, the complex habitat favored fighter males, enabling them to kill a greater number of rival scramblers. We found no effect of habitat complexity on the survival of fighter males. These results demonstrate how abiotic as well as biotic aspects of the environment can be important in determining the frequencies of males adopting alternative tactics in different species or populations.

  20. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility.

  1. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  2. High-voltage (270 V) dc power-generating system for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginley, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of using high voltage, direct current advanced power generating systems in fighter aircraft are discussed. Weight reduction is achieved. Efficiency is increased 85 to 90 percent by eliminating the constant speed drive. Power interruptions are eliminated. There are no speed restrictions and no powerline constraints. Personal safety is increased by eliminating the hold on frequency, present in ac systems, which causes muscle contractions.

  3. High-voltage (270 V) dc power-generating system for fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinley, K. M.

    1983-06-01

    The advantages of using high voltage, direct current advanced power generating systems in fighter aircraft are discussed. Weight reduction is achieved. Efficiency is increased 85 to 90 percent by eliminating the constant speed drive. Power interruptions are eliminated. There are no speed restrictions and no powerline constraints. Personal safety is increased by eliminating the hold on frequency, present in ac systems, which causes muscle contractions.

  4. Certification of tactics and strategies in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelman, Hartmut

    1994-01-01

    The paper suggests that the 'tactics and strategies' notion is a highly suitable paradigm to describe the cognitive involvement of human operators in advanced aviation systems (far more suitable than classical functional analysis), and that the workload and situational awareness of operators are intimately associated with the planning and execution of their tactics and strategies. If system designers have muddled views about the collective tactics and strategies to be used during operation, they will produce sub-optimum designs. If operators use unproven and/or inappropriate tactics and strategies, the system may fail. The author wants to make a point that, beyond certification of people or system designs, there may be a need to go into more detail and examine (certify?) the set of tactics and strategies (i.e., the Operational Concept) which makes the people and systems perform as expected. The collective tactics and strategies determine the information flows and situational awareness which exists in organizations and composite human-machine systems. The available infrastructure and equipment (automation) enable these information flows and situational awareness, but are at the same time the constraining factor. Frequently, the tactics and strategies are driven by technology, whereas we would rather like to see a system designed to support an optimized Operational Concept, i.e., to support a sufficiently coherent, cooperative and modular set of anticipation and planning mechanisms. Again, in line with the view of MacLeod and Taylor (1993), this technology driven situation may be caused by the system designer's and operator job designer's over-emphasis on functional analysis (a mechanistic engineering concept), at the expense of a subject which does not seem to be well understood today: the role of the (human cognitive and/or automated) tactics and strategies which are embedded in composite human-machine systems. Research would be needed to arrive at a generally

  5. Development of a Tactical Guidance Research and Evaluation System (TGRES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a simulation tool for tactical guidance research and the evaluation of systems performance in a tactically significant environment is described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying airplane agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and thus be of interest to a number of potential users.

  6. Municipal Government Structure, Unionization, and the Wages of Fire Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    1973-01-01

    In cities with fire fighter union contracts, hourly wages are 2-18 percent higher but there is a decrease of annual hours of 2-9 percent, leaving an annual earnings increase of 0-9 percent. Hourly wages of fire fighters are lower in city manager and commission cities than in mayor-council cities. (MS)

  7. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  8. The evolution of alternative reproductive tactics in male cardiocondyla ants.

    PubMed

    Jan Oettler; Jan Oettler; Jürgen Heinz

    2010-11-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are often associated with discontinuous variation in morphology but may evolve independent from each other. Based on life-history data and a phylogeny we examine how male morphology and reproductive behavior are linked in the evolution of the ant genus Cardiocondyla. Wingless Cardiocondyla males engage in lethal fighting for access to female sexuals, whereas winged males disperse and mate away from the nest. This basic pattern shows considerable variation across species. A phylogeny based on ∼3 kbp sequence data shows that male diphenism and lethal fighting are ancestral traits tightly linked in evolution. Winged males were lost convergently in several species groups, apparently in response to the low probability of encountering female sexuals in nests without a resident fighter male. An early dichotomy separates two clades with alternative male morphologies and fighting behavior, but phenotype and fighting strategy are not correlated with the presence of winged males.

  9. Applications of advanced display technology for dismounted combatants (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, David C.

    2005-05-01

    Current military activity has made great use of small Special Tactics / Special Forces teams operating on the ground in forward areas of battle, directing Battlefield Air Operations (BAO), which include close air support, air traffic control management, and target identification and designation. A recent National Priority has been identified to improve the BAO Kit used by these Special Tactics Groups to reduce errors that may lead to unintended ground casualties. The primary objectives of the upgraded BAO Kit are to 1) improve the range and accuracy of target information; 2) eliminate opportunities for error in weapon delivery; 3) link target coordinate information directly into the weapons computer; and 4) reduce the weight carried by the warfighter by 50%. For these warfighters, L-3 Communications Display Systems and its technology partner, Universal Display Corporation, are utilizing advanced OLED display technology to create a powerful flexible display-based communication device. This will reduce the weight carried by the fighter by combining functions of the present computer, GPS equipment, and radio gear carried into the forward areas of battle. This will give the soldier a larger, higher resolution, increased battery life, and much lighter capability for the viewing of tactical information such as battlefield maps, GIS imaging data, command/control plots, and GPS-assisted navigational maps. Further integration of the device with voice and video messaging options will be explored. Both hand-held roll-up devices and wrist-worn devices are envisioned for the final product.

  10. Lift Fan Nozzle for Joint Strike Fighter Tested in NASA Lewis' Powered Lift Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Under a nonreimbursable space act agreement between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Allison Advanced Development Company, Allison tested a lift fan nozzle in Lewis' Powered Lift Rig. This test was in support of the Joint Strike Fighter program (formerly the Joint Advanced Strike Technology) sponsored by the Department of Defense, which will develop and field an affordable, multirole, next-generation, strike fighter aircraft for the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and foreign allies. Allison, along with Pratt & Whitney Company, is part of the Lockheed Martin Corporation team that is scheduled to build a concept demonstrator aircraft by fiscal year 2001. The test was initiated in April and successfully completed in mid-July of 1997. Allison supplied a one-third-scale model of the lift fan nozzle, and Lewis provided the facility and the necessary support team. Various configurations, including pitching vectored angles ranging from 15deg forward to 60deg backward, were tested over a range of nozzle pressure ratios. Nozzle flow rates, thrust, and static pressures were measured for each of the configurations. Results from the test met the design requirements for the Joint Strike Fighter program and were in agreement with Allison's internal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. Data obtained from this test will also be used in the full-scale design of the lift fan system.

  11. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  12. Enabling information management systems in tactical network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Marco; Uszok, Andrzej; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Ceccio, Philip J.; Hanna, James P.; Sinclair, Asher

    2009-05-01

    Net-Centric Information Management (IM) and sharing in tactical environments promises to revolutionize forward command and control capabilities by providing ubiquitous shared situational awareness to the warfighter. This vision can be realized by leveraging the tactical and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) which provide the underlying communications infrastructure, but, significant technical challenges remain. Enabling information management in these highly dynamic environments will require multiple support services and protocols which are affected by, and highly dependent on, the underlying capabilities and dynamics of the tactical network infrastructure. In this paper we investigate, discuss, and evaluate the effects of realistic tactical and mobile communications network environments on mission-critical information management systems. We motivate our discussion by introducing the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) which is targeted for deployment in tactical sensor systems. We present some operational requirements for AIMS and highlight how critical IM support services such as discovery, transport, federation, and Quality of Service (QoS) management are necessary to meet these requirements. Our goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of the impact of underlying assumptions of availability and performance of some of the critical services supporting tactical information management. We will also propose and describe a number of technologies and capabilities that have been developed to address these challenges, providing alternative approaches for transport, service discovery, and federation services for tactical networks.

  13. Tactical Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1990-02-01

    The ability to send photographic information to command centers is a vital element in performing effective near real-time reconnaissance and surveillance operations. This imagery, in conjunction with other battlefield data, provides the battlefield commander with up-to-date intelligence for making decisions. Until recently, the ability to provide this real-time information was severely restricted by the logistics of physically moving, developing, and then disseminating the film. This time delay resulted in out-of-date, stale intelligence. This problem situation has eased recently due to technological developments that have been instrumental in facilitating the dissemination of near real-time information to forward operating areas and behind enemy lines. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has capitalized on these developments and established the Tactical Imaging System (TIS). This miniaturized, man-pack, SATCOM/HF transmitting system provides near real-time tactical imagery. It consists of an image sensor, image intensifier, zoom lens, and image transmission processor. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications. The TIS will have potential application in areas such as identification (friend or foe), reconnaissance, surveillance, and battlefield assessment. Under the TIS program, NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed hands-on experience in still video images and related technologies, including fleet satellite communications, HF transmission, image compression algorithms, VSLI integrated circuitry design, and day/night imagery techniques. NAVAIRDEVCEN has developed a complete, miniaturized system to conduct operational demonstrations, and to demonstrate operational tactics and utilization concepts. This paper provides an overview of the TIS components, specifications, operations, and future developments and applications.

  14. Transonics and fighter aircraft: Challenges and opportunities for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Luis R.

    1989-01-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to fighter aircraft design and development is discussed. Methodology requirements for the aerodynamic design of fighter aircraft are briefly reviewed. The state-of-the-art of computational methods for transonic flows in the light of these requirements is assessed and the techniques found most adequate for the subject application are identified. Highlights from some proof-of-feasibility Euler and Navier-Stokes computations about a complete fighter aircraft configuration are presented. Finally, critical issues and opportunities for design application of CFD are discussed.

  15. The Sport Education Tactical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

    2009-01-01

    Two popular instructional models in middle and high school are the sport education model (SEM) and the tactical games model (TGM). The SEM prepares students to become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons. The TGM prepares students to be able to play games using a tactical approach. Combining the models to form a sport education…

  16. Maneuver and buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Recent research efforts in the improvement of the maneuverability of fighter aircraft in the high-subsonic and transonic speed range are reviewed with emphasis on the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice. The investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing-design parameters. These results illustrated the sensitivity of section and planform geometry to a selected design point. The incorporation of variable-geometry wing devices in the form of flaps or leading-edge slats was shown to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient, moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.

  17. Maneuver and buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The high subsonic and transonic characteristics of fighter aircraft and the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice are discussed. Investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing design parameters. These results emphasized the sensitivity to section and planform geometry at the selected design point. The incorporation of variable-wing-geometry devices in the form of leading-edge slats or flaps was shown in a number of flight and wind-tunnel studies to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.

  18. The protective effect of education on cognition in professional fighters.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah J; Obuchowski, Nancy; Shin, Wanyong; Lowe, Mark; Phillips, Michael; Modic, Michael; Bernick, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Education has a protective effect against cognitive deficits following various forms of brain insult. Professional fighting (boxing and mixed martial arts) provides a model for assessing the impact of cumulative brain injuries on cognition and brain health. In the current cross-sectional observational study, we explore whether education would be protective against cognitive loss in fighters. We tested 141 professional fighters using a computerized neurocognitive battery, in addition to structural MRI. We used automated segmentation software to compute the volumes of various brain structures. We found fighters with high school education or less to show more associations between fight exposure and cognitive test scores. The relationship between brain structure volume and exposure did not differ based on education. These results are interpreted as putatively showing a protective effect of education on functional integrity in fighters, although longitudinal data and a larger sample size are required to further understand this relationship. PMID:24191967

  19. Status review of a supersonically-biased fighter wing-design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. M.; Miller, D. S.; Hahne, D. E.; Niedling, L. G.; Klein, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Results from an ongoing supersonically-biased fighter wing-design study are summarized. The study has been conducted to explore the effects of supersonic aerodynamic performance, transonic maneuvering, low-speed/high angle-of-attack characteristics, and airframe system integration requirements on fighter aircraft wing design. The approach adopted involves the theoretical and experimental investigation of four advanced aircraft configurations which differ only in wing geometry. Supersonic and low-speed/high angle-of-attack wind tunnel results have been obtained for 20 deg trapezoidal, 65 deg delta, 70/30-deg advanced cranked, and 70/66-deg advanced cranked wing configurations. The supersonic data show that the advanced cranked wings outperform the trapezoidal and delta wings at cruise and moderate lift conditions. Low-speed/high angle-of-attack results show that all wings have significant stability problems above an angle of attack of 20 deg. Aircraft sizing analysis results show that the advanced cranked-wing configurations are significantly lighter, based upon take-off gross weight, than either the trapezoidal or the delta wings.

  20. Cohort mortality study of Seattle fire fighters: 1945-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, N.; Weiss, N.S.; Demers, P.; Rosenstock, L. )

    1990-01-01

    Fire fighters are known to be occupationally exposed to many toxic substances. However, the limited number of previous studies has not demonstrated any consistent excess mortality from diseases of a priori concern, such as lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. We studied 2,289 Seattle fire fighters from 1945 through 1983, and observed 383 deaths. Excess mortality from leukemia (SMR = 503, n = 3) and multiple myeloma (SMR = 989, n = 2) was observed among fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty. Lung cancer mortality was elevated (SMR = 177, n = 18) among fire fighters 65 years old or older. We also analyzed the data by considering fire fighters at risk only after 30 years from first exposure. In this analysis, a trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for diseases of the circulatory system. For this cause of death, fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty had a relative risk of 1.84 compared to those with less than 15 years of fire combat duty.

  1. Structure and Properties of Tactic Hydrogenated Polynorbornenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Adam B.; Register, Richard A.

    Tacticity is one of the most important structural parameters for determining the physical properties of a polymer. A high degree of steroregularity typically promotes crystallization, with different tacticities giving rise to differences in crystal structure, melting point, and degree of crystallinity. In polynorbornene (PN) made by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), tacticity is determined by the relative configuration of the nonplanar cyclopentylene rings enchained in the backbone. Traditional ROMP initiators yield atactic polymers (aPN); however, recent advances in catalyst design have produced both isotactic and syndiotactic PN. Newly reported cis,isotactic- and cis,syndiotactic-PNs were catalytically hydrogenated (abbreviated ihPN and shPN, respectively) without altering the tacticity. The thermal and structural characteristics of ihPN and shPN were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and compared to that of ahPN. Remarkably, all three polymers are semicrystalline, each with a distinct crystal structure. ihPN has a nominal melting point of 165 C, more than 20 C above that of ahPN. WAXS patterns of melt-drawn fibers of ihPN show few strong reflections indicative of either a highly symmetric unit cell or poor long-range order. ihPN fibers also exhibit a crystal-crystal transition near 130 C, which is not fully reversible on subsequent cooling. On the other hand, shPN has a nominal melting point some 15 C below that of ahPN, and shPN fibers show no evidence of polymorphism.

  2. QuickStrike ASOC Battlefield Simulation: Preparing the War Fighter to Win

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The QuickStrike ASOC (Air Support Operations Center) Battlefield Simulation fills a crucial gap in USAF and United Kingdom Close Air Support (CAS) and airspace manager training. The system now provides six squadrons with the capability to conduct total-mission training events whenever the personnel and time are available. When the 111th ASOC returned from their first deployment to Afghanistan they realized the training available prior to deployment was inadequate. They sought an organic training capability focused on the ASOC mission that was low cost, simple to use, adaptable, and available now. Using a commercial off-the-shelf simulation, they developed a complete training system by adapting the simulation to their training needs. Through more than two years of spiral development, incorporating lessons learned, the system has matured, and can now realistically replicate the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) in Kabul, Afghanistan, the TOC supporting the mission in Iraq, or can expand to support a major conflict scenario. The training system provides a collaborative workspace for the training audience and exercise control group via integrated software and workstations that can easily adapt to new mission reqUirements and TOC configurations. The system continues to mature. Based on inputs from the war fighter, new capabilities have been incorporated to add realism and simplify the scenario development process. The QuickStrike simulation can now import TBMCS Air Tasking Order air mission data and can provide air and ground tracks to a common operating picture; presented through either C2PC or JADOCS. This oranic capability to practice team processes and tasks and to conduct mission rehearsals proved its value in the 111 h ASOS's next deployment. The ease of scenario development and the simple to learn and intuitive gamelike interface enables the squadrons to develop and share scenarios incorporating lessons learned from every deployment. These war fighters have now

  3. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  4. LDV surveys over a fighter model at moderate to high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Meyers, James F.; Hepner, Timothy E.

    1988-01-01

    The vortex flowfield over an advanced twin-tailed fighter configuration has been studied in a low-speed wind tunnel at two angles of attack using LDV, along with laser light sheet and surface flow visualizations. At 15 deg angles of attack, the vortices generated by the wing leading edge extension (LEX) were found to be unburst over the model and to pass outboard of the vertical tail. At 25 deg angle of attack, the vortices were shown to burst in the vicinity of the wing-LEX intersection and to impact directly on the vertical tails.

  5. Mediator-Generated Pressure Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Joseph F.

    1978-01-01

    Two examples of bluff pressures (as opposed to real pressures) used by mediators to effect contract settlements are presented, along with advice to negotiators on avoiding or minimizing such tactics. (Author/IRT)

  6. Thermal parameters measurement on fire fighter during intense fire exposition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Gehin, C; Delhomme, G; Dittmar, A; McAdams, E

    2009-01-01

    To improve rescuer safety, coordination and efficiency, the European program ProeTEX aims at developing new equipment for the intervention staff. This equipment is based on micro and nanotechnologies and consisted of smart textile integrated sensor to monitor physiological parameters, environment of the rescuer but also acquisition module and communication module. Thermal parameters are of primer interest. Internal temperature, external temperature and heat flux are relevant parameters to prevent heat stroke in fire fighter when exposed to intense fire. These parameters are recorded during fire exposition and highlight, on one hand, that the outer garment of fire fighters' equipment insulates the fire fighter from the external environment, and on the other hand, that the thermal monitoring is relevant. PMID:19963808

  7. Design and analysis of a supersonic penetration/maneuvering fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The design of three candidate air combat fighters which would cruise effectively at freestream Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.5 while maintaining good transonic maneuvering capability, is considered. These fighters were designed to deliver aerodynamically controlled dogfight missiles at the design Mach numbers. Studies performed by Rockwell International in May 1974 and guidance from NASA determined the shape and size of these missiles. The principle objective of this study is the aerodynamic design of the vehicles; however, configurations are sized to have realistic structures, mass properties, and propulsion systems. The results of this study show that air combat fighters in the 15,000 to 23,000 pound class would cruise supersonically on dry power and still maintain good transonic maneuvering performance.

  8. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2013-01-01

    Many species in the animal kingdom are characterized by alternative mating tactics (AMTs) within a sex. In males, such tactics include mate guarding versus sneaking behaviours, or territorial versus female mimicry. Although AMTs can occur in either sex, they have been most commonly described in males. This sex bias may, in part, reflect the increased opportunity for sexual selection that typically exists in males, which can result in a higher probability that AMTs evolve in that sex. Consequently, females and polyandry can play a pivotal role in governing the reproductive success associated with male AMTs and in the evolutionary dynamics of the tactics. In this review, we discuss polyandry and the evolution of AMTs. First, we define AMTs and review game theoretical and quantitative genetic approaches used to model their evolution. Second, we review several examples of AMTs, highlighting the roles that genes and environment play in phenotype expression and development of the tactics, as well as empirical approaches to differentiating among the mechanisms. Third, ecological and genetic constraints to the evolution of AMTs are discussed. Fourth, we speculate on why female AMTs are less reported on in the literature than male tactics. Fifth, we examine the effects of AMTs on breeding outcomes and female fitness, and as a source, and possibly also a consequence, of sexual conflict. We conclude by suggesting a new model for the evolution of AMTs that incorporates both environmental and genetic effects, and discuss some future avenues of research. PMID:23339236

  9. Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H. K.

    2000-04-01

    Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to alleviate buffet loads were quite intense during the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Most of the investigations were carried out on the F/A-18 mainly because of two international programs involving countries that operate the F/A-18 in their air force. This review begins with a description of the water tunnel experiments showing some flow visualization results of the leading-edge extension (LEX) burst vortical flows. Wind tunnel studies on a 1/9 scale F/A-18 model in Australia, a 1/6.65 scale model in the United Kingdom, a 6% scale model in Canada, 12%, 16% and full-scale models in the United States are summarized. Scale effects can be deduced from the various sub- and full-scale models tested. Flight test results conducted on the High Alpha Research Vehicle in the United States and on an instrumented CF-18 test aircraft in Canada are presented. The accuracy of analytical methods utilizing wind tunnel data to predict buffet loads at flight conditions is discussed. The use of CFD to compute vertical fin buffeting is challenging and requires a large amount of computing power. A brief exposure to the methodology is given and results from the only available computational case study carried out by NASA Ames are compared with wind tunnel and flight test data. A short introduction to statistical non-stationary effects is given. Hysteresis effect of the LEX vortex burst on the buffet loads is discussed, and a statistical non-stationary buffet prediction method is outlined. This review provides a useful reference to the results collected from the High Alpha Technology Program, The Technical

  10. Power Tactics. Selected Tactics Derived from Theory and Research That Administrators Might Find Useful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes power tactics that can be used by administrators. Personal power tactics include developing self-knowledge, stimulating need for power, and cumulating expertise. Interpersonal power tactics are applications of referent power, reward power, and coercive power. Situational power tactics include use of legitimate power, power as information…

  11. Professional fighters brain health study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function. PMID:23735309

  12. Fighter Pilot Ejection Study as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Garry; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we apply the well-known equations of projectile motion to the case of a fighter pilot ejecting from an aircraft, the aim being to establish under what conditions there is danger of impact with the rear vertical stabilizer. The drag force on the pilot after ejection is assumed to vary as the velocity squared and the aircraft motion…

  13. Organizational Political Tactics in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Bahareh Azizi; Abbaszadeh, Mir Mohammad Seiied; Hassani, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups,…

  14. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  15. Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high-angle-of-attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

  16. Aerodynamic performance of a full-scale lifting ejector system in a STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Garland, Doug; Poppen, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced lifting ejector system incorporated into a full-scale, powered, fighter aircraft model were measured at statically and at transition airspeeds in the 40- by 80- and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels at NASA-Ames. The ejector system was installed in an ejector-lift/vectored thrust STOVL (Short Take-Off Vertical Landing) fighter aircraft configuration. Ejector thrust augmentation ratios approaching 1.6 were demonstrated during static testing. Changes in the internal aerodynamics and exit flow conditions of the ejector ducts are presented for a variety of wind-off and forward-flight test conditions. Wind-on test results indicate a small decrease in ejector performance and increase in exit flow nonuniformity with forward speed. Simulated ejector start-up at high speed, nose-up attitudes caused only small effects on overall vehicle forces and moments despite the fact that the ejector inlet flow was found to induce large regions of negative pressure on the upper surface of the wing apex adjacent to the inlets.

  17. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    achieved. For an effective and efficient fire fighting optimal tactics are requiered and can be divided into four fundamental tactics to control fire hazards: - Defense (digging away the coal, so that the coal can not begin to burn; or forming a barrier, so that the fire can not reach the not burning coal), - Rescue the coal (coal mining of a not burning seam), - Attack (active and direct cooling of burning seam), - Retreat (only monitoring till self-extinction of a burning seam). The last one is used when a fire exceeds the organizational and/or technical scope of a mission. In other words, "to control a coal fire" does not automatically and in all situations mean "to extinguish a coal fire". Best-practice tactics or a combination of them can be selected for control of a particular coal fire. For the extinguishing works different extinguishing agents are available. They can be applied by different application techniques and varying distinctive operating expenses. One application method may be the drilling of boreholes from the surface or covering the surface with low permeability soils. The mainly used extinction agents for coal field fire are as followed: Water (with or without additives), Slurry, Foaming mud/slurry, Inert gases, Dry chemicals and materials and Cryogenic agents. Because of its tremendous dimension and its complexity the worldwide challenge of coal fires is absolutely unique - it can only be solved with functional application methods, best fitting strategies and tactics, organisation and research as well as the dedication of the involved fire fighters, who work under extreme individual risks on the burning coal fields.

  18. Strategy for tactical cellular connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Frederick R.

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a strategy to unify four disparate networks under an Internet Protocol (IP) umbrella. The first network is the Army Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T) area common user system. The second network is an extension to the area common user system using the Mobile Ad Hoc Interoperability Networking Gateway (MAINGATE) system. The third network is the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) based wireless access network and the forth network is the 802.11 WiFi Network. It is the intent of this paper to propose a skeletal wireless strategy that at its core will create everything over IP (EoIP) and "Everything over IEEE" ("EoIEEE") standards at the tactical level of the battlefield.

  19. Knowledge-based reasoning in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time tactical decision generation system for air combat engagements, Paladin, has been developed. A pilot's job in air combat includes tasks that are largely symbolic. These symbolic tasks are generally performed through the application of experience and training (i.e. knowledge) gathered over years of flying a fighter aircraft. Two such tasks, situation assessment and throttle control, are identified and broken out in Paladin to be handled by specialized knowledge based systems. Knowledge pertaining to these tasks is encoded into rule-bases to provide the foundation for decisions. Paladin uses a custom built inference engine and a partitioned rule-base structure to give these symbolic results in real-time. This paper provides an overview of knowledge-based reasoning systems as a subset of rule-based systems. The knowledge used by Paladin in generating results as well as the system design for real-time execution is discussed.

  20. [Effect of fighter cockpit noise on pilot hearing].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Ding, C

    1998-02-01

    In order to describe quantitatively the pilots' hearing injury by noise in fighter cockpit, the noise level was measured in the cockpit. The temporary threshold shift (TTS) was studied in 20 healthy young man and permanent threshold shift was examined in 166 fighter pilots. The results showed that noise level in cockpit was 110 dBA and TTS after 2 min noise exposure decreased significantly and reached 13 dB at a certain frequency. Its recovery course is faster in low frequency part and language frequency part than that in high frequency part. It was also found that 56% of the 166 pilots suffered from high frequency hearing loss and the percentage increased with flight time. The feature of hearing loss is that it occurs in high frequency at first, then in language frequency, forming a "V" shaped depression at 6 000 Hz. It indicates that cockpit noise may cause permanent threshold shift of hearing.

  1. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, W., Jr.; Crafta, V. J., Jr.; Dannenhoffer, N.; Dellamura, F. A.; Krepski, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Vertical short takeoff aircraft capability, supersonic dash capability, and transonic agility were investigated for the development of Fighter/attack aircraft to be accommodated on ships smaller than present aircraft carriers. Topics covered include: (1) description of viable V/STOL fighter/attack configuration (a high wing, close-coupled canard, twin-engine, control configured aircraft) which meets or exceeds specified levels of vehicle performance; (2) estimates of vehicle aerodynamic characteristics and the methodology utilized to generate them; (3) description of propulsion system characteristics and vehicle mass properties; (4) identification of areas of aerodynamic uncertainty; and (5) a test program to investigate the areas of aerodynamic uncertainty in the conventional flight mode.

  2. An interactive grid generation technique for fighter aircraft geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Everton, Eric L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive procedure to construct grids about fighter aircraft using a state-of-the-art workstation. The aircraft are characterized by a fuselage with an integrated canopy over the cockpit, an engine inlet, an area ruled midsection, canards, and highly-swept cranked delta wings or strakes integrated into the wings and tail surfaces. The grid topology, configuration surface grid, exterior grid computation, and computational interactive process are addressed.

  3. Aerodynamic control of fighter aircraft by manipulation of forebody vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, Gerald N.; Ng, T. Terry

    1991-01-01

    Methods of enhancing aircraft controllability and maneuverability at high angles of attack by manipulating the forebody vortices are discussed. Pneumatic control methods including jet blowing, slot blowing, and suction, and mechanical control methods using forebody and nose tip strakes are reviewed. The potential of various control devices in controlling the forebody flow, and thus, providing controlled yawing moments at high angles of attack are illustrated using wind tunnel results from a generic fighter and water tunnel results from an F/A-18.

  4. LDV Surveys Over a Fighter Model at Moderate to High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Meyers, James F.; Hepner, Timothy E.

    2004-01-01

    The vortex flowfield over an advanced twin-tailed fighter configuration was measured in a low-speed wind tunnel at two angles of attack. The primary test data consisted of 3-component velocity surveys obtained using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter. Laser light sheet and surface flow visualization were also obtained to provide insight into the flowfield structure. Time-averaged velocities and the root mean square of the velocity fluctuations were obtained at two cross-sections above the model. At 15 degrees angle of attack, the vortices generated by the wing leading edge extension (LEX) were unburst over the model and passed outboard of the vertical tail. At 25 degrees angle of attack, the vortices burst in the vicinity of the wing-LEX intersection and impact directly on the vertical tails. The RMS levels of the velocity fluctuations reach values of approximately 30% in the region of the vertical tails.

  5. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Vertical attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, H. A.; Chen, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic technology for a vertical attitude VSTOL (VATOL) supersonic fighter/attack aircraft was studied. The selected configuration features a tailless clipped delta wing with leading-edge extension (LEX), maneuvering flaps, top-side inlet, twin dry engines and vectoring nozzles. A relaxed static stability is employed in conjunction with the maneuvering flaps to optimize transonic performance and minimize supersonic trim drag. Control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained by gimballing the nozzles in combination with wing tip jets. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel test program is proposed to resolve these uncertainties and ascertain the feasibility of the conceptual design. Ship interface, flight control integration, crew station concepts, advanced weapons, avionics, and materials are discussed.

  6. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity. PMID:25202998

  7. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity.

  8. Tactics for the New Guerilla Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mershon, Phil

    2001-01-01

    Discusses tactics for surviving as a trainer in an unfriendly organizational atmosphere. Offers a method for demonstrating to managers the connection between quality assurance and employee empowerment. (JOW)

  9. Meniere's disease: A surgeon's tactics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soldatov, I.

    1980-01-01

    Surgical procedures for treating Meniere's disease are discussed. Based on the results of 250 operations, it is concluded that interventions are sufficiently effective not only with vestibular dysfunction, but also with hearing disorders. In surgical treatment of Meniere's disease, it is expedient to adhere to by-stage tactics: to start with the simplest and least traumatic interventions - operations on the nerves of the tympanic cavity, and if these are ineffective to use more complex methods, including drainage or shunting of the endolymphatic sac.

  10. Overview of RICOR tactical cryogenic refrigerators for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Livni, Dorit; Regev, Itai; Segal, Victor; Gover, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic refrigerators represent a significant enabling technology for Earth and Space science enterprises. Many of the space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to enable the use of advanced detectors to explore a wide range of phenomena from space. RICOR refrigerators involved in various space missions are overviewed in this paper, starting in 1994 with "Clementine" Moon mission, till the latest ExoMars mission launched in 2016. RICOR tactical rotary refrigerators have been incorporated in many space instruments, after passing qualification, life time, thermal management testing and flight acceptance. The tactical to space customization framework includes an extensive characterization and qualification test program to validate reliability, the design of thermal interfacing with a detector, vibration export control, efficient heat dissipation in a vacuum environment, robustness, mounting design, compliance with outgassing requirements and strict performance screening. Current RICOR development is focused on dedicated ultra-long-life, highly reliable, space cryogenic refrigerator based on a Pulse Tube design

  11. Children's Social Desirability Judgements about Ingratiation Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, James H.; Sonnefeld, L. Joseph

    Fifty-eight children (mean age 11 years), 22 of whom were diagnosed as learning disabled, were administered a questionnaire in which scenarios were presented involving various ingratiation tactics toward three types of targets (parents, teachers, and peers) and were asked to rate each tactic as to its social desirability. Results indicated that…

  12. Tactics for Improving Parenting Skills (TIPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob, Ed.; Ysseldyke, Jim, Ed.

    This manual presents 99 one-sheet informational brochures designed to improve parenting skills. Each brochure is in a format suitable for duplicating, folding, and distributing. Each parenting "tactic" offers references to related brochures. Tactics are grouped under the following broad areas: (1) home/family involvement (e.g., accepting "The…

  13. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  14. Tactical emergency medical support: physician involvement and injury patterns in tactical teams.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Jon R; Janssen, Alan R

    2008-11-01

    Medical support provided by physicians in police tactical teams has been firmly embraced by the medical community. Our study revisited the 1995 study inquiring into injury patterns in police tactical teams. A national survey was completed by 209 members of tactical teams throughout the country over a 6-week period. An electronic survey was submitted to the National Tactical Officers Association, the International Tactical Emergency Medical Support Association, and state tactical associations. Teams reporting physician utilization were 47% of the whole (69% were presenttactical teams and a need for extensive involvement in all aspects of team health, with special attention to daily health and physical fitness.

  15. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  16. 76 FR 31613 - NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and... progress and future directions of the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program... and expectations of the U.S. fire service, and to identify ways in which the program can be...

  17. Fire fighter fatalities 1998–2001: overview with an emphasis on structure related traumatic fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Hodous, T; Pizatella, T; Braddee, R; Castillo, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the causes of all fire fighter line-of-duty-deaths from 1998 through 2001, and present recommendations for preventing fatalities within the specific subgroup of structure related events. Methods: Fire fighter fatality data from the United States Fire Administration were reviewed and classified into three main categories of injury. Investigations conducted through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program provided the basis for the recommendations presented in this paper. Results: During the time period from 1998–2001, there were 410 line-of-duty deaths among fire fighters in the United States, excluding the 343 fire fighters who died at the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001. The 410 fatalities included 191 medical (non-traumatic) deaths (47%), 75 motor vehicle related fatalities (18%), and 144 other traumatic fatalities (35%). The latter group included 68 fatalities that were associated with structures which commonly involved structural collapse, rapid fire progression, and trapped fire fighters. Conclusions: Structural fires pose particular hazards to fire fighters. Additional efforts must be directed to more effectively use what we have learned through the NIOSH investigations and recommendations from published experts in the safety community, consensus standards, and national fire safety organizations to reduce fire fighter fatalities during structural fire fighting. PMID:15314049

  18. Tactical voting in plurality elections.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Nuno A M; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2010-09-15

    How often will elections end in landslides? What is the probability for a head-to-head race? Analyzing ballot results from several large countries rather anomalous and yet unexplained distributions have been observed. We identify tactical voting as the driving ingredient for the anomalies and introduce a model to study its effect on plurality elections, characterized by the relative strength of the feedback from polls and the pairwise interaction between individuals in the society. With this model it becomes possible to explain the polarization of votes between two candidates, understand the small margin of victories frequently observed for different elections, and analyze the polls' impact in American, Canadian, and Brazilian ballots. Moreover, the model reproduces, quantitatively, the distribution of votes obtained in the Brazilian mayor elections with two, three, and four candidates.

  19. Internetting tactical security sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Bryan, W. D.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    1998-08-01

    The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an additional radio transceiver, MSSMP can also function as a gateway between existing security/surveillance sensor systems such as TASS, TRSS, and IREMBASS, and IP-based networks, to support the timely distribution of both threat detection and threat assessment information. The MSSMP system makes maximum use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. Its use of IP-based protocols allows it to freely interoperate with the Internet -- providing geographic transparency, facilitating development, and allowing fully distributed demonstration capability -- and prepares it for integration with the IP-based tactical radio networks that will evolve in the next decade. Unfortunately, the Internet's standard Transport layer protocol, TCP, is poorly matched to the requirements of security sensors and other quasi- autonomous systems in being oriented to conveying a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages. Also, its canonical 'socket' interface both conceals short losses of communications connectivity and simply gives up and forces the Application layer software to deal with longer losses. For MSSMP, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a reliable message-based Transport service. In addition, a Session layer protocol is being developed to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple control

  20. Information Management For Tactical Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James P.

    1984-12-01

    The expected battlefield tactics of the 1980's and 1990's will be fluid and dynamic. If tactical reconnaissance is to meet this challenge, it must explore all ways of accelerating the flow of information through the reconnaissance cycle, from the moment a tasking request is received to the time the mission results are delivered to the requestor. In addition to near real-time dissemination of reconnaissance information, the mission planning phase needs to be more responsive to the rapidly changing battlefield scenario. By introducing Artificial Intelligence (AI) via an expert system to the mission planning phase, repetitive and computational tasks can be more readily performed by the ground-based mission planning system, thereby permitting the aircrew to devote more of their time to target study. Transporting the flight plan, plus other mission data, to the aircraft is simple with the Fairchild Data Transfer Equipment (DTE). Aircrews are relieved of the tedious, error-prone, and time-consuming task of manually keying-in avionics initialization data. Post-flight retrieval of mission data via the DTE will permit follow-on aircrews, just starting their mission planning phase, to capitalize on current threat data collected by the returning aircrew. Maintenance data retrieved from the recently flown mission will speed-up the aircraft turn-around by providing near-real time fault detection/isolation. As future avionics systems demand more information, a need for a computer-controlled, smart data base or expert system on-board the aircraft will emerge.

  1. A transonic/supersonic CFD analysis of a generic fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodsell, Aga M.; Melton, John E.; Madson, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Flow fields about a generic fighter model have been computed using FLO57, a three-dimensional, finite-volume Euler code. Computed pressure coefficients, forces, and moments at several Mach numbers - 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 - are compared with wind tunnel data over a wide range of angles of attack in order to determine the applicability of the code for the analysis of fighter configurations. Two configurations were studied, a wing/body and a wing/body/chine. FLO57 predicted pressure distributions, forces, and moments well at low angles of attack, at which the flow was fully attached. The FLO57 predictions were also accurate for some test conditions once the leading-edge vortex became well established. At the subsonic speeds, FLO57 predicted vortex breakdown earlier than that seen in the experimental results. Placing the chine on the forebody delayed the onset of bursting and improved the correlation between numerical and experimental data at the subsonic conditions.

  2. Predicting Tail Buffet Loads of a Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Buffet loads on aft aerodynamic surfaces pose a recurring problem on most twin-tailed fighter airplanes: During maneuvers at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from various surfaces on the forward parts of such an airplane (engine inlets, wings, or other fuselage appendages) often burst, immersing the tails in their wakes. Although these vortices increase lift, the frequency contents of the burst vortices become so low as to cause the aft surfaces to vibrate destructively. Now, there exists a new analysis capability for predicting buffet loads during the earliest design phase of a fighter-aircraft program. In effect, buffet pressures are applied to mathematical models in the framework of a finite-element code, complete with aeroelastic properties and working knowledge of the spatiality of the buffet pressures for all flight conditions. The results of analysis performed by use of this capability illustrate those vibratory modes of a tail fin that are most likely to be affected by buffet loads. Hence, the results help in identifying the flight conditions during which to expect problems. Using this capability, an aircraft designer can make adjustments to the airframe and possibly the aerodynamics, leading to a more robust design.

  3. Integrated design of fighters with stores for best airforce value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bore, Clifford L.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews the development of fighters integrated with their stores. Only since an initiative in 1974 has it been recognised that fighter aircraft and their stores should be designed together, with allowance for their mutual interactions. Analysis of the factors of airforce value revealed how sensitively such parameters as drag, weapon accuracy and flying qualities affected the overall value of an air force. At that time, the main aerodynamic effects of stores were higher drag (store much reducing operational area), store trajectory disturbed at release (missing target or even colliding with aircraft), and reduced performance and agility of loaded aircraft (worsening vulnerability). Since then improved designs aided by better wind-tunnel techniques and calculation methods relying on computer-organised data, and improving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been leading to great improvements in overall airforce value/cost ratio. Catastrophic store releases have been eliminated and delivery accuracy greatly improved. More recent design aims, such as stealth, are imposing stringent constraints upon designs invoking these features, so the importance of integrated design continues, with new constraints.

  4. Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedunuri, Srinivas; Smith, Douglas R.; Cook, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Algorithm synthesis transforms a formal specification into an efficient algorithm to solve a problem. Algorithm synthesis in Specware combines the formal specification of a problem with a high-level algorithm strategy. To derive an efficient algorithm, a developer must define operators that refine the algorithm by combining the generic operators in the algorithm with the details of the problem specification. This derivation requires skill and a deep understanding of the problem and the algorithmic strategy. In this paper we introduce two tactics to ease this process. The tactics serve a similar purpose to tactics used for determining indefinite integrals in calculus, that is suggesting possible ways to attack the problem.

  5. Coping with Retrenchment: Strategies and Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabotar, Kent John; Honan, James P.

    1990-01-01

    Examples of retrenchment at colleges and universities are given as are five principles such as the need to reconsider institutional mission. Both strategic and tactical perspectives are applied to retrenchment decisions of college leadership. (DB)

  6. United States army tactical high-energy laser program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, John J.; Wilson, Gerald T.

    2013-02-01

    The tactical high energy laser (THEL) program, conducted from 1996 to 2005, successfully demonstrated the capability of a high-energy laser to counter rockets, artillery, and mortars. The program was a US/Israeli cooperative research and development effort that was designated by the Secretary of Defense as an advanced concept technology demonstration with Presidential interest. The THEL system was designed and built under an SMDC/ARSTART prime contract awarded to TRW (now, Northrop Grumman Corporation), jointly managed by the Israel Ministry of Defence Directorate of Defence Research & Development. We summarize the effort and highlight some of the "firsts" of the THEL program.

  7. Effects of varying podded nacelle-nozzle installations on transonic aeropropulsive characteristics of a supersonic fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Reubush, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin engine fighter designed for supersonic cruise was investigated in the 16 foot Transonic Tunnel. The performance characteristics of advanced nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed in various nacelle locations, the effects of thrust induced forces on overall aircraft aerodynamics, the trim characteristics, and the thrust reverser performance were evaluated. The major model variables included nozzle power setting; nozzle duct aspect ratio; forward, mid, and aft nacelle axial locations; inboard and outboard underwing nacelle locations; and underwing and overwing nacelle locations. Thrust vectoring exhaust nozzle configurations included a wedge nozzle, a two dimensional convergent divergent nozzle, and a single expansion ramp nozzle, each with deflection angles up to 30 deg. In addition to the nonaxisymmetric nozzles, an axisymmetric nozzle installation was also tested. The use of a canard for trim was also assessed.

  8. Initial radiations from tactical nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray free-field kermas and fluence spectra for ranges between 1 and 2 km are presented for three tactical nuclear weapons and are compared with nuclear radiations at Hiroshima. The three tactical weapons are modeled as near-surface bursts of a fusion explosive, a fission explosive, and a suppressed-neutron explosive represented by the Little Boy bomb used at Hiroshima.

  9. [Effect of steam bath on gastric secretion and some endocrine changes of athlete-fighters].

    PubMed

    Panov, S F; Pleshakov, A A

    2011-01-01

    The issues of adaptation of the gastric glands to thermal load (steam bath) of athlete-fighters. The differences in adaptation to thermal load of gastric glands in connection with a weight category, seniority and age of athletes. Discovered the relationship in reaction to thermal load of gastric and endocrine glands. The stability of steam bath of gastric glands in the middle weight class athlete-fighters combined with the preservation of endocrine homeostasis. The high sensitivity of athlete-fighters of light and middleweight category combined with an authentic increase in serum of blood the concentrations of gastric and aldosterone, and with decrease the concentrations of cortisol.

  10. Wilderness search strategy and tactics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person.

  11. Wilderness search strategy and tactics.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ken; Longden, Maura J; Vandergraff, Bil; Smith, William R; Weber, David C; McIntosh, Scott E; Wheeler, Albert R

    2014-06-01

    Reports of overdue persons are common for search and rescue personnel. Search incidents for missing persons are conducted following established industry standard practices, which are continuously refined through experience and the analysis of previous search operations. Throughout this process, elements of uncertainty exist, and the knowledge and experience of the searchers and search managers may influence the outcome significantly. A sound knowledge of current search tactics will help search and rescue medical providers function more effectively during search operations. Initial actions during a search incident include 3 primary tasks that must be accomplished on any search: investigation, containment, and then hasty search efforts. Concurrent with these initial actions are the establishment of the search area and a formal US National Incident Management System incident command system. That is essential for an efficient operation and will lay the groundwork for expanding the operation past the initial operational period. The goal of applying these standard search management practices is to allow searchers to maximize their efforts, reduce some of the inherent uncertainty, and most importantly, place searchers in a position to detect the missing person. PMID:24792134

  12. Training and Tactical Operationally Responsive Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, B.; Strunce, R., Jr.

    Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not exist today. The ORS communication, navigation, and ISR satellites are being designed to replace or supplement existing systems in order to enhance the current space force. These systems are expected to rapidly meet near term space needs of the tactical forces. The ORS concept includes new tactical satellites specifically designed to support contingency operations such as increased communication bandwidth and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force mission. The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that exists today specifies that in addition to operational control of the satellite, the tasking and scheduling of the ORS tactical satellite for mission data collection in support of the tactical warfighter will be accomplished within the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC). This is very similar to what is currently being accomplished in a fixed Mission Operations Center on existing traditional ISR satellites. The VMOC is merely a distributed environment and the CONOPS remain virtually the same. As a result, there is a significant drawback to the current ORS CONOPS that does not account for the full potential of the ORS paradigm for supporting tactical forces. Although the CONOPS approach may be appropriate for experimental Tactical Satellites (TacSat), it ignores the issues associated with the In-Theater Commander's need to own and operate his dedicated TacSat for most effective warfighting as well as the Warfighter specific CONOPS. What is needed

  13. Investigation into the impact of agility on conceptual fighter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbeck, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Agility Design Study was performed by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for the NASA Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of agility requirements on new fighter configurations. Global trade issues investigated were the level of agility, the mission role of the aircraft (air-to-ground, multi-role, or air-to-air), and whether the customer is Air force, Navy, or joint service. Mission profiles and design objectives were supplied by NASA. An extensive technology assessment was conducted to establish the available technologies to industry for the aircraft. Conceptual level methodology is presented to assess the five NASA-supplied agility metrics. Twelve configurations were developed to address the global trade issues. Three-view drawings, inboard profiles, and performance estimates were made and are included in the report. A critical assessment and lessons learned from the study are also presented.

  14. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  15. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  16. Microbial Efflux Pump Inhibition: Tactics and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tegos, George P.; Haynes, Mark; Strouse, J. Jacob; Khan, Mohiuddin Md. T.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Sklar, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional antimicrobials are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. To overcome these deficiencies, a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections are under investigation as potential alternative treatments. Multidrug efflux is a key target of these efforts. Efflux mechanisms are broadly recognized as major components of resistance to many classes of chemotherapeutic agents as well as antimicrobials. Efflux occurs due to the activity of membrane transporter proteins widely known as Multidrug Efflux Systems (MES). They are implicated in a variety of physiological roles other than efflux and identifying natural substrates and inhibitors is an active and expanding research discipline. One plausible alternative is the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules that block MES known as multidrug efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). An array of approaches in academic and industrial research settings, varying from high-throughput screening (HTS) ventures to bioassay guided purification and determination, have yielded a number of promising EPIs in a series of pathogenic systems. This synergistic discovery platform has been exploited in translational directions beyond the potentiation of conventional antimicrobial treatments. This venture attempts to highlight different tactical elements of this platform, identifying the need for highly informative and comprehensive EPI-discovery strategies. Advances in assay development genomics, proteomics as well as the accumulation of bioactivity and structural information regarding MES facilitates the basis for a new discovery era. This platform is expanding drastically. A combination of chemogenomics and chemoinformatics approaches will integrate data mining with virtual and physical HTS ventures and populate the chemical-biological interface with a plethora of novel chemotypes. This comprehensive step will expedite the

  17. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration. PMID:23439336

  18. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  19. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-484-1754, Detroit Fire Fighters, Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters on behalf of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, Detroit, Michigan, a health hazard evaluation was made of respiratory symptoms and skin irritation in fire fighters involved in a large fire and explosion at a warehouse. Over 200 fire fighters from fire-fighting organizations in three communities were involved in the incident. Site runoff water contained chlordane and malathion in low parts per million; other samples were negative. Nose and throat irritation, cough, and shortness of breath were experienced by a large proportion of fire fighters following the fire, and in 14, 15, and 17 percent, respectively, symptoms persisted over 2 months. Symptoms were significantly associated with time spent at the scene and time spent in heavy smoke. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 14 cases, ten due to obstructive lung disease, three to restrictive lung disease, and one to a combination. The authors conclude that better protective equipment is needed for fire fighters at chemical fires. Recommendations include development of a hazardous-materials response team, and implementation of a routine medical surveillance program.

  20. Distributed tactical reasoning framework for intelligent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukthankar, Rahul; Pomerleau, Dean A.; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1998-01-01

    In independent vehicle concepts for the Automated Highway System (AHS), the ability to make competent tactical-level decisions in real-time is crucial. Traditional approaches to tactical reasoning typically involve the implementation of large monolithic systems, such as decision trees or finite state machines. However, as the complexity of the environment grows, the unforeseen interactions between components can make modifications to such systems very challenging. For example, changing an overtaking behavior may require several, non-local changes to car-following, lane changing and gap acceptance rules. This paper presents a distributed solution to the problem. PolySAPIENT consists of a collection of autonomous modules, each specializing in a particular aspect of the driving task - classified by traffic entities rather than tactical behavior. Thus, the influence of the vehicle ahead on the available actions is managed by one reasoning object, while the implications of an approaching exit are managed by another. The independent recommendations form these reasoning objects are expressed in the form of votes and vetos over a 'tactical action space', and are resolved by a voting arbiter. This local independence enables PolySAPIENT reasoning objects to be developed independently, using a heterogenous implementation. PolySAPIENT vehicles are implemented in the SHIVA tactical highway simulator, whose vehicles are based on the Carnegie Mellon Navlab robots.

  1. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  2. Effects of nonlinear aerodynamics and static aeroelasticity on mission performance calculations for a fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Foss, Willard E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    During conceptual design studies of advanced aircraft, the usual practice is to use linear theory to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics of candidate rigid (nonflexible) geometric external shapes. Recent developments and improvements in computational methods, especially computational fluid dynamics (CFD), provide significantly improved capability to generate detailed analysis data for the use of all disciplines involved in the evaluation of a proposed aircraft design. A multidisciplinary application of such analysis methods to calculate the effects of nonlinear aerodynamics and static aeroelasticity on the mission performance of a fighter aircraft concept is described. The aircraft configuration selected for study was defined in a previous study using linear aerodynamics and rigid geometry. The results from the previous study are used as a basis of comparison for the data generated herein. Aerodynamic characteristics are calculated using two different nonlinear theories, potential flow and rotational (Euler) flow. The aerodynamic calculations are performed in an iterative procedure with an equivalent plate structural analysis method to obtain lift and drag data for a flexible (nonrigid) aircraft. These static aeroelastic data are then used in calculating the combat and mission performance characteristics of the aircraft.

  3. Top-mounted inlet system feasibility for transonic-subsonic fighter aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. L.; Hunt, B. L.; Smeltzer, D. B.; Nelms, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    To inlet flow field and engine inlet performance data for an advanced fighter aircraft configuration were obtained over the Mach 0.6 to 2.0 range. The studies not only provided extensive data for the baseline arrangement, but also evaluated the effects of key aircraft configuration variables (inlet location, canopy-dorsal integration, wing leading-edge extension planform area, and variable incidence canards) on top inlet performance. In order to set these data in the context of practical aircraft systems top inlet performance is compared with that of more conventional inlet/airframe integrations. The results of these evaluations show that, for the top inlet configuration tested, relatively good inlet performance and compatibility characteristics are maintained during subsonic and transonic maneuver. However, at supersonic speeds, flow expansion over the forebody and wings causes an increase in local inlet Mach number subsequently reduces inlet performance levels. These characteristics infer that although top inlets many not pose a viable design option for aircraft requiring a high degree of supersonic maneuverability, they have distinct promise for vehicles with subsonic and transonic maneuver capabilities.

  4. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. ); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. )

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  5. Tactical Maneuvering Using Immunized Sequence Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; KrishnaKumar, K.; Shung, Felix

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a tactical maneuvering system that uses an artificial immune system based approach for selecting maneuver sequences. This approach combines the problem solving abilities of genetic algorithms with the memory retention characteristics of an immune system. Of significant importance here is the fact that the tactical maneuvering system can make time-critical decisions to accomplish near-term objectives within a dynamic environment. These objectives can be received from a human operator, autonomous executive, or various flight planning specialists. Simulation tests were performed using a high performance military aircraft model. Results demonstrate the potential of using immunized sequence selection in order to accomplish tactical maneuvering objectives ranging from flying to a location while avoiding unforeseen obstacles, to performing relative positioning in support of air combat maneuvering.

  6. Motives to study and socialization tactics among university students.

    PubMed

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2002-04-01

    The authors focused on the period following students' admission to university and examined the effects of students' motives to study and socialization tactics on their academic achievement and academic satisfaction. The authors hypothesized that socialization tactics would mediate the relation of motives to study to academic achievement and satisfaction. The findings confirmed the hypotheses and highlighted the importance of students' socialization tactics in the university setting. In addition, the research provided a typology to distinguish different types of socialization tactics. PMID:11999874

  7. Physiological effects of solar heat load in a fighter cockpit.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, S A; Myhre, L G

    1976-09-01

    The use of bubble canopies to improve vision in fighter aircraft exposes the cockpit to a high radiant heat load. Incoming sunlight increases the heat stress on crewmembers, both by raising air temperature and by directly heating exposed skin and clothing. An F-15 aircraft at Edwards AFB was modified to permit cockpit ventilation by external ground carts. Eight volunteers from the Test Pilot School were studied during 1-h periods in the closed cockpit, in sun and in shade. Mean cockpit air temperatures were 35.2 degrees C in shade and 51.9 degrees C in sun with PH2O less than 10 torr. The corresponding WBGT's were 22.6 and 36.4 degrees C. Sunlight added significantly to overall heat stress, as indicated by a rising heart rate and evaporative weight loss of 284 g/m2 - h (shade value was 109 g/m2 - hr). Mean skin temperatures were 34.3 degrees C in shade and 35.8 degrees C in sun. Particularly high skin temperatures were observed on the chest, the forehead and the top of the head under the helmet. The legs remained cool due to the flow of conditioned air, and this may explain why rectal temperature showed no meaningful change. Heat stress, which alone poses no physiological hazard, may cause crew performance decrements as well as diminishing acceleration tolerance. Possible means of eliminating or ameliorating these effects are discussed.

  8. Investigation of a supersonic cruise fighter model flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.; Bare, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.

  9. Conservation: Tactics for a Constant Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of the biological and social contexts of conservation action, particularly in how both biogeography and political geography dictate different conservation tactics in different situations, is discussed. The biospatial hierarchy, the six classes of interference, the seven sources of biotic degradation, and the eight paths to biotic…

  10. Dynamic Discourse: Tactics, Designs, and Teacher Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Jerald

    High level thinking abilities extend beyond just command of facts and concepts. More crucial is idea use and refinement through discourse encounters. Thinking in classrooms is served by dialogic teachers who understand and use the right discourse tactics and designs. Effective discourse will usually be accompanied by: (1) extended idea exchanges;…

  11. Euthanasia tactics: patterns of injustice and outrage.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Struggles over euthanasia can be examined in terms of tactics used by players on each side of the issue to reduce outrage from actions potentially perceived as unjust. From one perspective, the key injustice is euthanasia itself, especially when the person or relatives oppose death. From a different perspective, the key injustice is denial of euthanasia, seen as a person's right to die. Five types of methods are commonly used to reduce outrage from something potentially seen as unjust: covering up the action; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the action, including using lying, minimising consequences, blaming others and benign framing; using official channels to give an appearance of justice; and using intimidation. Case studies considered include the Nazi T4 programme, euthanasia in contemporary jurisdictions in which it is legal, and censorship of Exit International by the Australian government. By examining euthanasia struggles for evidence of the five types of tactics, it is possible to judge whether one or both sides use tactics characteristic of perpetrators of injustice. This analysis provides a framework for examining tactics used in controversial health issues. PMID:23807915

  12. Optimal sonar tactics over uncertain sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbalzo, Donald R.; Powers, William J.; Cole, Bernie F.

    2005-09-01

    Tactical patterns for monostatic sensors were developed during the Cold War for deep, uniform underwater environments, where a simple median detection range defined a fixed spacing between search ladder legs. Acoustic conditions in littoral environments are so complex that spatial variability of bottom sediment properties destroys the simple homogeneous assumption associated with standard tactical search concepts. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been applied to this problem to produce near-optimal, non-standard search tracks for monostatic mobile sensors that maximize probability of detection in such inhomogeneous environments. The present work describes a new capability called SPEAR (search planning with environmentally adaptive response) that adds tactical adaptation to search paths in a complex, littoral environment, as new in situ backscattering and bottom loss information becomes available. This presentation reviews the GA approach and discusses tactical adaptation to uncertain bottom sediment properties. The results show that easily implemented dynamic changes in active pulse depression angles and frequencies can produce significant improvement in detection performance in a complex littoral area. [Work supported by NAVSEA.

  13. Euthanasia tactics: patterns of injustice and outrage.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Struggles over euthanasia can be examined in terms of tactics used by players on each side of the issue to reduce outrage from actions potentially perceived as unjust. From one perspective, the key injustice is euthanasia itself, especially when the person or relatives oppose death. From a different perspective, the key injustice is denial of euthanasia, seen as a person's right to die. Five types of methods are commonly used to reduce outrage from something potentially seen as unjust: covering up the action; devaluing the target; reinterpreting the action, including using lying, minimising consequences, blaming others and benign framing; using official channels to give an appearance of justice; and using intimidation. Case studies considered include the Nazi T4 programme, euthanasia in contemporary jurisdictions in which it is legal, and censorship of Exit International by the Australian government. By examining euthanasia struggles for evidence of the five types of tactics, it is possible to judge whether one or both sides use tactics characteristic of perpetrators of injustice. This analysis provides a framework for examining tactics used in controversial health issues.

  14. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Tager, I B; Balmes, J R; Harrison, R J

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters.

  15. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Tager, I.B.; Balmes, J.R.; Harrison, R.J. )

    1992-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from five U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS) Hotshot crews in Northern California and Montana completed questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing before and after an active season of fire fighting in 1989. There were significant mean individual declines of 0.09, 0.15, and 0.44 L/s in postseason values of FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75, respectively, compared with preseason values. There were no consistent significant relationships between mean individual declines of the spirometric parameters and the covariates: sex, smoking history, history of asthma or allergies, years as a fire fighter, upper/lower respiratory symptoms, or membership in a particular Hotshot crew. There was a statistically significant increase in airway responsiveness when comparing preseason methacholine dose-response slopes (DRS) with postseason dose-response slopes (p = 0.02). The increase in airway responsiveness appeared to be greatest in fire fighters with a history of lower respiratory symptoms or asthma, but it was not related to smoking history. These data suggest that wildland fire fighting is associated with decreases in lung function and increases in airway responsiveness independent of a history of cigarette smoking. Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies of municipal fire fighters.

  16. Fusion interfaces for tactical environments: An application of virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and nonvirtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory, and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multisensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion interface concepts. This new facility, the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments (FITE) Facility is a specialized flight simulator enabling efficient concept development through rapid prototyping and direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE Facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operation fighter pilots in an air combat environment. The facility is utilized by a multidisciplinary design team composed of human factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, experimental psychologists, and oeprational pilots. The FITE computational architecture is composed of twenty-five 80486-based microcomputers operating in real-time. The microcomputers generate out-the-window visuals, in-cockpit and head-mounted visuals, localized auditory presentations, haptic displays on the stick and rudder pedals, as well as executing weapons models, aerodynamic models, and threat models.

  17. The effect of deliberate play on tactical performance in basketball.

    PubMed

    Greco, Pablo; Memmert, Daniel; Morales, Juan C P

    2010-06-01

    This field-based study analyzed effects of a deliberate-play training program in basketball on tactical game intelligence and tactical creativity. 22 youth basketball players, ages 10 to 12 years, completed basketball training in one of two equal-sized groups. The deliberate-play training program contained unstructured game forms in basketball. The placebo group played in traditional structured basketball game forms. Tactical intelligence and creativity was assessed before and after an 18-lesson intervention. Analysis showed significant training improvement only for the deliberate-play group. In addition, this outperformance of the placebo group was not only observed for tactical creativity but also for tactical intelligence.

  18. Industrial approach to piezoelectric damping of large fighter aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John; Schweiger, Johannes

    1998-06-01

    Different concepts to damp structural vibrations of the vertical tail of fighter aircraft are reported. The various requirements for a vertical tail bias an integrated approach for the design. Several active vibrations suppression concepts had been investigated during the preparatory phase of a research program shared by Daimler-Benz Aerospace Military Aircraft (Dasa), Daimler-Benz Forschung (DBF) and Deutsche Forschungsandstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt (DLR). Now in the main phase of the programme, four concepts were finally chosen: two concepts with aerodynamic control surfaces and two concepts with piezoelectric components. One piezo concept approach will be described rigorously, the other concepts are briefly addressed. In the Dasa concept, thin surface piezo actuators are set out carefully to flatten the dynamic portion of the combined static and dynamic maximum bending moment loading case directly in the shell structure. The second piezo concept by DLR involves pre-loaded lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-block actuators at host structure fixtures. To this end a research apparatus was designed and built as a full scale simplified fin box with carbon fiber reinformed plastic skins and an aluminium stringer-rib substructure restrained by relevant aircraft fixtures. It constitutes a benchmark 3D-structural impedance. The engineering design incorporates 7kg of PZT surface actuators. The structural system then should be excited to more than 15mm tip displacement amplitude. This prepares the final step to total A/C integration. Typical analysis methods using cyclic thermal analogies adapted to induced load levels are compared. Commercial approaches leading onto basic state space model interpretation wrt. actuator sizing and positioning, structural integrity constraints, FE-validation and testing are described. Both piezoelectric strategies are aimed at straight open-loop performance related to concept weight penalty and input electric power. The required actuators, power

  19. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  20. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  1. 75 FR 40845 - Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational... Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires.'' The final document can be found...

  2. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  3. Control-system techniques for improved departure/spin resistance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Gilbert, W. P.; Ogburn, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some fundamental information on control system effects on controllability of highly maneuverable aircraft at high angles of attack are summarized as well as techniques for enhancing fighter aircraft departure/spin resistance using control system design. The discussion includes: (1) a brief review of pertinent high angle of attack phenomena including aerodynamics, inertia coupling, and kinematic coupling; (2) effects of conventional stability augmentation systems at high angles of attack; (3) high angle of attack control system concepts designed to enhance departure/spin resistance; and (4) the outlook for applications of these concepts to future fighters, particularly those designs which incorporate relaxed static stability.

  4. Operational space support to tactical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Owen E.

    The use of military spacecraft for supporting strategic forces is discussed emphasizing the requirements of ground mobile forces and the availability of space-based resources. Specific attention is given to the incompatibility of the Milsatcom communications network and military needs for combat situations. The need for assured access to tactical communications free of electronic jammers is identified, and the characteristics of tactical user equipment are set forth. The idea of a 'Space Hummer' is proposed which receives and processes multifrequency data in a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle. The proposed vehicle is described in terms of existing and deficient technologies required for its implementation, and scenarios for its use in covert and other operations are reviewed. Important technological challenges for the use of space support include reduced antenna sizes, data fusion, and wideband connectivity, and some of these areas are currently being investigated.

  5. The Development of the Tobacco Tactics Website

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Karen E; Flanagan, Petra S; Ronis, David L; Ewing, Lee A; Waltje, Andrea H

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based cessation interventions have been shown to reduce tobacco use, be more efficacious than self-help booklets, be more efficacious if they provide tailored messages, and enhance quit rates in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to usability test and pilot test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. Methods Both formative and summative evaluations were used across three small successive studies to develop and test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans, which was based on a prior face-to-face smoking cessation intervention. Once the website was developed, the research team and Web developers usability tested the website with 5 veteran smokers and former smokers. Feedback from the veterans was collected as they navigated each webpage, then used to revise the website. In pilot study 1, 9 veteran smokers were provided access to the website, and given a baseline and 30-day follow-up survey. In pilot study 2, 18 veteran smokers, who were also motivated to quit smoking, were recruited and randomized to either the Tobacco Tactics website plus nicotine replacement therapy or to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line. Results As a result of usability testing, more than 27 modifications were made to improve the website. In pilot study 1, 50% (3/6) veterans who entered the website had cut down on the number of cigarettes and 83% (5/6) found the website enjoyable, easy to read, easy to navigate, and would recommend the website to others. In pilot study 2, which included only smokers motivated to quit and also offered nicotine replacement therapy, seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 30-day follow-up was 40% (4/10) in the intervention group compared to 13% (1/8) in the control group. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising and suggest the need for wider-scale testing of the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. PMID:23811612

  6. Lessons Learned: Employment and Tactical Use of The Combat Medic During Stability Support Operations.

    PubMed

    Eldred, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    It is the intent of this article to define the strategy by which Combat Medics have been employed in contemporary stability operations and counterinsurgency conflicts. This article describes the advances in training based on Tactical Combat Casualty Care and how training evolved into an evidence-based model. Training platforms evolved with shifts in mission requirements, new technology, improved medical techniques, and changing protocols. The last portion of this article details recommendations in doctrine, materiel, and training that could enable optimal sustainment standards while retaining operational capability across a wide variety of combat and peace operations. Lessons learned and changes adapted for Medics that are addressed: (1) advances in training and employment of the Combat Medic necessitated by tactics and strategy of current conflicts, (2) Combat Medic regulatory requirements and centralized, just-in-time training, and (3) changes in sustainment training driven by certification requirements and use of medical simulation training centers. PMID:27215893

  7. Tactical network demonstration with free space lasercomm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, H. R.; Ferraro, M. S.; Freeman, W.; Goetz, P. G.; Mahon, R.; Moore, C. I.; Murphy, J. L.; Overfield, J.; Rabinovich, W. S.; Smith, W. R.; Suite, M. R.; Thomas, L. M.; Xu, B. B.

    2011-03-01

    As military sensors and systems become more sophisticated, tactical situations will require reliable, high data rate communications. The current RF communication systems are increasingly competing for the limited amount of RF spectrum and bandwidth. One possible way to augment the current RF communication systems is by the use of free space lasercomm in tactical networks for links in which direct line of sight is possible. Free space lasercomm has been demonstrated over horizontal distances greater than 10 nautical miles and at data rates greater than 1 gigabit/sec. Lasercomm links do not require any RF frequency allocation, nor do they have an RF signature. They are inherently low probability of intercept and detection and they are very difficult to jam due to the very narrow divergence of the communication beams and the very narrow acceptance angle of the receivers.1-6 The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has demonstrated the use of free space lasercomm in tactical networks at Trident Spectre 2009 and Empire Challenge 2010. This paper will discuss these lasercomm demonstrations and present packet error rate test data captured at both.

  8. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  9. [Prospects for improving the management tactics for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease complicated by Barrett's esophagus].

    PubMed

    Maev, I V; Trukhmanov, A S

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the new principles relative to adequate diagnosis, management tactics, and rational treatment regimens in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) complicated by the development of Barrett's esophagus. The paper contains up-to-date, mainly original information on the pathological physiology, clinical picture, and principles of diagnosis of this form of GERD. It outlines data on approaches to the early diagnosis and prevention of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus, by taking into account recent advances in pharmacotherapy.

  10. In-line fuzing development for tactical airfield attack munition (TAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.J.

    1981-03-18

    The shock-hardened new-concept safing, arming, and in-line fuzing system developed for US Air Force modular weapons is being advanced for the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM) as an alternate fuzing system. The high power slapper detonator system is being reduced in volume by an approximate factor of 10 and the energy by a factor of 3. In addition, the fuze has the capability of functioning after many hours of delay to provide area-denial capabilities.

  11. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Borchers, Paul; Gomer, Charlie; Henderson, Dean; Jacobs, Tavis; Lawson, Todd; Peterson, Eric; Ross, Tweed, III; Bellmard, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design study of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. A brief historical survey of powered lift vehicles was presented, followed by a technology assessment of the latest supersonic STOVL engine cycles under consideration by industry and government in the U.S. and UK. A survey of operational fighter/attack aircraft and the modern battlefield scenario were completed to develop, respectively, the performance requirements and mission profiles for the study. Three configurations were initially investigated with the following engine cycles: a hybrid fan vectored thrust cycle, a lift+lift/cruise cycle, and a mixed flow vectored thrust cycle. The lift+lift/cruise aircraft configuration was selected for detailed design work which consisted of: (1) a material selection and structural layout, including engine removal considerations, (2) an aircraft systems layout, (3) a weapons integration model showing the internal weapons bay mechanism, (4) inlet and nozzle integration, (5) an aircraft suckdown prediction, (6) an aircraft stability and control analysis, including a takeoff, hover, and transition control analysis, (7) a performance and mission capability study, and (8) a life cycle cost analysis. A supersonic fighter aircraft with STOVL capability with the lift+lift/cruise engine cycle seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  12. Un Deux Trois--Speak English! Young Taekwondo-Fighters' Identity Construction through Linguistic Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Lian Malai

    2008-01-01

    From an ethnographic and interaction analytical approach this paper examines how polylingual languaging is used by a group of young male Taekwondo fighters to construct an integrated streetwise and "schoolwise" persona as well as negotiate regional identities. The data discussed were collected in a Taekwondo club in a multicultural area of…

  13. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in fire fighter testing.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, G J M; Verhoogen, R A J R; Van Cauwenbergh, A F M; Godderis, L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current daily practice of aerobic capacity testing in Belgian fire fighters. The impact of personal and test-related parameters on the outcome has been evaluated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) results of 605 male fire fighters gathered between 1999 and 2010 were analysed. The maximal cardio respiratory exercise tests were performed at 22 different centres using different types of tests (tread mill or bicycle), different exercise protocols and measuring equipment. Mean VO2 max was 43.3 (SD = 9.8) ml/kg.min. Besides waist circumference and age, the type of test, the degree of performance of the test and the test centre were statistically significant determinants of maximal oxygen uptake. Test-related parameters have to be taken into account when interpreting and comparing maximal oxygen uptake tests of fire fighters. It highlights the need for standardization of aerobic capacity testing in the medical evaluation of fire fighters. PMID:24456897

  14. 78 FR 29120 - Notice of Intent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... advanced 21st-century air-to-air tactical fighter technologies and current and evolving training mission... Warning Area 570 (W-570) to the west over the Pacific Ocean; (2) proposed establishment of the...

  15. Test and evaluation of the tactical missile

    SciTech Connect

    Eichblatt, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Practical test and evaluation (T E) methods for tactical missiles are described in chapters contributed by experts. Topics addressed include missile performance criteria; flight tests; laboratory and field tests; simulations; launchers; T E of insensitive munitions; T E of reliability; testing for EM-environment effects; logistics, missile tests, and suitability evaluation; and the evaluation of weapon-system integration. To demonstrate effective T E planning strategies, the phases of a typical missile program are outlined. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  16. Information security trades in tactical wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.; Alvermann, John A.

    2015-05-01

    Wireless networks are now ubiquitous across the tactical environment. They offer unprecedented communications and data access capabilities. However, providing information security to wireless transmissions without impacting performance is a challenge. The information security requirement for each operational scenario presents a large trade space for functionality versus performance. One aspect of this trade space pertains to where information security services are integrated into the protocol stack. This paper will present an overview of the various options that exist and will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

  17. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F.; McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  18. Advanced metal mirror processing for tactical ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John P.

    2013-05-01

    Using its patented VQ™ finishing process, Raytheon EO Innovations has been producing low-scatter, low-figure and affordable aluminum 6061-based mirrors for long stand-off intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems in production since 2005. These common aperture multispectral systems require λ/30 root mean square (RMS) surface figure and sub-20Å RMS finishes for optimal visible imaging performance. This paper discusses the process results, scatter performance, and fabrication capabilities of Multispectral Reflective Lightweight Optics Technology (MeRLOT™), a new lightweight substrate material. This new technology enables lightweight, common-aperture, broadband performance that can be put in the hands of the warfighter for precision targeting and surveillance operations.

  19. AGATE: Adversarial Game Analysis for Tactical Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    AGATE generates a set of ranked strategies that enables an autonomous vehicle to track/trail another vehicle that is trying to break the contact using evasive tactics. The software is efficient (can be run on a laptop), scales well with environmental complexity, and is suitable for use onboard an autonomous vehicle. The software will run in near-real-time (2 Hz) on most commercial laptops. Existing software is usually run offline in a planning mode, and is not used to control an unmanned vehicle actively. JPL has developed a system for AGATE that uses adversarial game theory (AGT) methods (in particular, leader-follower and pursuit-evasion) to enable an autonomous vehicle (AV) to maintain tracking/ trailing operations on a target that is employing evasive tactics. The AV trailing, tracking, and reacquisition operations are characterized by imperfect information, and are an example of a non-zero sum game (a positive payoff for the AV is not necessarily an equal loss for the target being tracked and, potentially, additional adversarial boats). Previously, JPL successfully applied the Nash equilibrium method for onboard control of an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) travelling over hazardous terrain.

  20. Screening closing scenarios for tactical targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefcik, Jason A.; Lee, Harry C.; Olson, Teresa L. P.

    2002-07-01

    The first step in an automatic image target acquisition system is determining the location of candidate objects. Screening for targets must also be done within a tactical scenario timeframe. The screening process must only require a portion of the processing workload since other algorithms must execute in the same time frame. The detection of these candidate objects is allocated to two functions within the same algorithm. The first is a pre-screener and other is a clutter rejection component that will categorize the object nomination into target or non-target classes. This paper describes a screener that meets the necessary requirements for tactical operations. It uses the magnitude and direction of the image gradient. Locations are nominated by looking at local neighborhoods in this gradient space. Regions of interest are then selected and various features are extracted. These features are selected both for their information content and their ease of calculation. Using a Bayes approach, target candidates are selected as plausible targets of interest.

  1. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  2. Soft-assembled Multilevel Dynamics of Tactical Behaviors in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Ric, Angel; Torrents, Carlota; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime; Hristovski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the tactical patterns and the timescales of variables during a soccer match, allowing understanding the multilevel organization of tactical behaviors, and to determine the similarity of patterns performed by different groups of teammates during the first and second halves. Positional data from 20 professional male soccer players from the same team were collected using high frequency global positioning systems (5 Hz). Twenty-nine categories of tactical behaviors were determined from eight positioning-derived variables creating multivariate binary (Boolean) time-series matrices. Hierarchical principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the multilevel structure of tactical behaviors. The sequential reduction of each set level of principal components revealed a sole principal component as the slowest collective variable, forming the global basin of attraction of tactical patterns during each half of the match. In addition, the mean dwell time of each positioning-derived variable helped to understand the multilevel organization of collective tactical behavior during a soccer match. This approach warrants further investigations to analyze the influence of task constraints on the emergence of tactical behavior. Furthermore, PCA can help coaches to design representative training tasks according to those tactical patterns captured during match competitions and to compare them depending on situational variables. PMID:27761120

  3. Time for Europeans to Debate the Presence of Tactical Nukes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Jorma K.

    1976-01-01

    The superpowers are making decisions about tactical and nuclear weapons which may be immutable for Europe for the next 20 years. The maintenance of arsenals for tactical and nuclear weapons should be discussed by more than just the closed circle of professional strategists-by journalists, politicians, philosophers and thoughtful citizens. (BT)

  4. Physiological profile of fighters influences training organisation in combat sports: response to Del Vecchio, Hirata, and Franchini (2011).

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    The article by Del Vecchio, et al. (2011) provides relevant information to trainers about the effort-pause ratio during mixed martial arts matches. Taking into account the physiological profiles of fighters would increase interest in these findings. PMID:22403925

  5. Comparison of Hover/Ground-Effect Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig; Naumowicz, Tim; Wardwell, Douglas; Margason, Richard; Arledge, Tom; Olson, Lawrence (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Hover and ground-effect tests were conducted with the Lockheed-Martin Large Scale Powered Model (LSPM) during June-November 1995 at the NASA Ames Research Center's Outdoor Aerodynamics Research Facility (OARF). This was done in support of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program being lead by the Department of Defense. The program was previously metered to as the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) Program. The tests at the OARF included: engine thrust calibrations out of ground effect, measurements of individual nozzle jet pressure decay characteristics, and jet-induced hover force and moment measurements in and out of ground effect. The engine calibrations provide data correlating propulsion system throttle and nozzle settings to thrust forces and moments for the bare fuselage with the wings, canards, and tails removed. This provides propulsive forces and moments while minimizing any of the effects due to the presence of the airframe. The engine calibrations were used later to determine thrust for hover testing at the OARF and for transition testing which took place in the NASA Ames 80 by 120 foot Wind Tunnel. The jet decay characteristics reflect the jet entrainment properties and are related to the aircraft suckdown characteristics. The JSF program provided the opportunity to obtain model scale effects using two models; one at small scale and one at large scale. Examples of data from these tests will be presented out of ground effect which will demonstrate the effect of scale. For one JSF configuration, two small-scale models and one large-scale model were tested and obtained different values for the lift loss out of ground effect. These differences were examined and are found to be largely dependent on the jet efflux characteristics. The jet-induced hover forces and moments are presented in and out of ground effect. For the hover testing the model is methodically built up from the bare fuselage, to include the wings, canards, and vertical tails, to determine

  6. Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

  7. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 91-0190-2491, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Jersey City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Deitchman, S.

    1995-02-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, an investigation was begun into the health and safety practices used during the handling of a fire at an illegal dumpsite by Jersey City Fire Department (SIC-9224), Jersey City, New Jersey. The investigation centered around the incident command system, safety management, the arrangements for medical service, and decontamination. High winds and several directional wind shifts hampered operations at the fire scene. Some fire fighters did not wear their self contained breathing apparatus or depleted their supply of air cylinders during the fire. Several fire fighters were treated at the scene for dizziness, mucosal irritation and elevated blood pressure. Abnormalities were noted on the field cardiac monitors for several of the firemen. A total of 171 fire fighters were transported to area hospitals and three were admitted. The fire department indicated that 68 fire fighters received incident related injuries. Findings indicated that exposure to methylene-chloride (75092) may have been responsible for some of the adverse health experiences reported. The authors conclude that it was not possible to determine a definitive environment cause for the health effects experienced by fire fighters during the dumpsite fire. The authors recommend that changes be made in incident command and safety procedures.

  8. Specialisation and training for fire-fighters driving heavy rescue vehicles: consequences for the development of operators?

    PubMed

    Vidal-Gomel, Christine; Delgoulet, Catherine; Gébaï, Déborah

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken in France at the request of a local fire and rescue school in order to conduct an analysis of driving two types of heavy rescue vehicle with a view to improving training. This study took place in a context of specialisation: the drivers of these vehicles will henceforth only perform this type of task. Consequently, specific training has been designed in advance. Our study concerns the improvement of this training, taking account of the particularities of driving these vehicles in emergency situations typical to the profession of fire-fighters. The results stress first that driving of rescue vehicles in emergency situations is a multidimensional collective activity. Driving strategies identified share certain common objectives: "optimising trajectories", warn other road users, anticipate their behaviour and leave room for manoeuvre to counter and react to any unexpected behaviour. They include risks management for the potential victims of the incident and the risk of accidents during the journey. These initial results help identify certain recommendations for the training courses dealing with driving vehicles in emergency situations. They also provide a warning concerning the possible consequences of driver specialisation. PMID:22317522

  9. Recent developments in rotary-balance testing of fighter aircraft configurations at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two rotary balance apparatuses were developed for testing airplane models in a coning motion. A large scale apparatus, developed for use in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind tunnel primarily to permit testing at high Reynolds numbers, was recently used to investigate the aerodynamics of 0.05-scale model of the F-15 fighter aircraft. Effects of Reynolds number, spin rate parameter, model attitude, presence of a nose boom, and model/sting mounting angle were investigated. A smaller apparatus, which investigates the aerodynamics of bodies of revolution in a coning motion, was used in the 6-by-6 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic behavior of a simple representation of a modern fighter, the Standard Dynamic Model (SDM). Effects of spin rate parameter and model attitude were investigated. A description of the two rigs and a discussion of some of the results obtained in the respective test are presented.

  10. Fighter index of thermal stress (FITS): guidance for hot-weather aircraft operations.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, S A; Stribley, R F

    1979-06-01

    Operation of fighter and trainer aircraft at low altitude in hot weather often involves significant heat stress on aircrews. Guidance for control of this stress and its adverse consequences has not heretofore been available. The Fighter Index of Thermal Stress (FITS) was derived from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using recent in-flight data on cockpit environments and assuming a fixed contribution from solar heating. The FITS table is entered with ground dry bulb temperature and dewpoint temperature, and yields an estimate of cockpit thermal stress. Caution and Danger Zones are designated on the table, based upon typical aircrew clothing, metabolic rate, and physiological status. Appropriate protective measures are recommended, including awareness of heat stress, limitations on ground operations, allowance of adequate recovery intervals, provision for fluid intake, and cancellation of flights under severe conditions. Possible applications of FITS are discussed together with its potential impact on flight operations at 30 USAF bases.

  11. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    PubMed

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  12. Investigation of Reynolds Number Effects on a Generic Fighter Configuration in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomek, W. G.; Hall, R. M.; Wahls, R. A.; Luckring, J. M.; Owens, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of a generic fighter configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility through a cooperative agreement between NASA Langley Research Center and McDonnell Douglas. The primary purpose of the test was to assess Reynolds number scale effects on a thin-wing, fighter-type configuration up to full-scale flight conditions (that is, Reynolds numbers of the order of 60 million). The test included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at subsonic and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to flight conditions. Results are presented for three Mach numbers (0.6, 0.8, and 0.9) and three configurations: (1) Fuselage/Wing; (2) Fuselage/Wing/Centerline Vertical Tail/Horizontal Tail; and (3) Fuselage/Wing/Trailing-Edge Extension/Twin Vertical Tails. Reynolds number effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are presented herein.

  13. RecceLite tactical reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Bernd

    2001-12-01

    New generation of tactical reconnaissance pod for high performance aircraft. The pod will contain a high resolution multispectral sensor suite for day/night missions, digital solid state recorder and optional data link. The modular structure of the pod is based on the Litening targeting pod and uses the same interface to the aircraft, saving cost for new system integration and certification. The system is designed for medium to low altitude reconnaissance missions. The overall system includes modules for mission planning and image evaluation on ground. RecceLite is an affordable high performance reconnaissance system with state of the art technology. Due to the modular design it provides growth potential and easy integration of future developments.

  14. Pathogen Tactics to Manipulate Plant Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M Shahid; McCormack, Maggie E; Argueso, Cristiana T; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2016-07-11

    Cell death is a vital process for multicellular organisms. Programmed cell death (PCD) functions in a variety of processes including growth, development, and immune responses for homeostasis maintenance. In particular, plants and animals utilize PCD to control pathogen invasion and infected cell populations. Despite some similarity, there are a number of key differences between how these organisms initiate and regulate cell death. In contrast to animals, plants are sessile, lack a circulatory system, and have additional cellular structures, including cell walls and chloroplasts. Plant cells have the autonomous ability to induce localized cell death using conserved eukaryotic pathways as well as unique plant-specific pathways. Thus, in order to successfully infect host cells, pathogens must subvert immune responses and avoid detection to prevent PCD and allow infection. Here we discuss the roles of cell death in plant immune responses and the tactics pathogens utilize to avert cell death. PMID:27404256

  15. Herpes gladiatorum with ocular involvement in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    PubMed

    Meulener, Marc; Smith, Barry L

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of herpes gladiatorum (HG) in a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. The eruption appeared following a sparring session with a new partner and progressed to involve the left eye. Fever and facial rash prompted the patient to go to the hospital where he was treated with antiviral therapy. The considerable increase in popularity of MMA may lead to a greater prevalence of HG as well as other cutaneous infections contracted through skin-to-skin contact. PMID:21488573

  16. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small-and large-scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties related to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power-induced effects. Engine design configurations from several aircraft manufacturers are reviewed.

  17. Herpes gladiatorum with ocular involvement in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    PubMed

    Meulener, Marc; Smith, Barry L

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of herpes gladiatorum (HG) in a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. The eruption appeared following a sparring session with a new partner and progressed to involve the left eye. Fever and facial rash prompted the patient to go to the hospital where he was treated with antiviral therapy. The considerable increase in popularity of MMA may lead to a greater prevalence of HG as well as other cutaneous infections contracted through skin-to-skin contact.

  18. [Peculiarities of elemental composition of hair in fire fighters of Far North].

    PubMed

    Bakhtina, E A; Kiriliuk, L I; Buganov, A A

    2009-01-01

    The authors revealed peculiarities of elemental composition of hair in fire fighters of Far North, in accordance with stress level, functional resources, length of service in the North and occupational activity character. Findings are that in addition to occupational features extreme conditions of Far North influence microelemental state, causing adaptational deficit of Zn and Cu, more intensive accumulation of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni. PMID:19803356

  19. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, W. H.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design and analysis on a single engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft is completed. The aircraft combines a NASA/deHavilland ejector with vectored thrust and is capable of accomplishing the mission and point performance of type Specification 169, and a flight demonstrator could be built with an existing F101/DFE engine. The aerodynamic, aero/propulsive, and propulsive uncertainties are identified, and a wind tunnel program is proposed to address those uncertainties associated with wing borne flight.

  20. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummus, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment was made of the aerodynamic uncertainties associated with the design of a cold-deck-environment Navy VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft utilizing jet-diffuser ejectors for vertical lift and vectored-engine-over-wing blowing for supercirculation benefits. The critical aerodynamic uncertainties were determined as those associated with the constraints which size the aircraft to a specified set of requirements. A wind tunnel model and test programs are recommended for resolving these uncertainties.

  1. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small and large scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties relate to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power induced effects.

  2. Integration of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Into the National Tactical Emergency Medical Support Competency Domains.

    PubMed

    Pennardt, Andre; Kamin, Rich; Llewellyn, Craig; Shapiro, Geoff; Carmona, Philip A; Schwartz, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Tactical emergency medical support (TEMS) is a critical component of the out-of-hospital response to domestic high-threat incidents such as hostage scenarios, warrant service, active shooter or violent incidents, terrorist attacks, and other intentional mass casualty-producing acts. From its grass-roots inception in the form of medical support of select law enforcement special weapons and tactics (SWAT) units in the 1980s, the TEMS subspecialty of prehospital care has rapidly grown and evolved over the past 40 years. The National TEMS Initiative and Council (NTIC) competencies and training objectives are the only published recommendations of their kind and offer the opportunity for national standardization of TEMS training programs and a future accreditation process. Building on the previous work of the NTIC and the creation of acknowledged competency domains for TEMS and the acknowledged civilian translation of TCCC by the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC), the Joint Review Committee (JRC) has created an opportunity to bring forward the work in a form that could be operationally useful in an all-hazards and whole of community format. PMID:27450605

  3. Low-speed wind-tunnel study of the high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a cranked-arrow-wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.

    1984-01-01

    The low-speed, high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a fighter configuration incorporating a cranked arrow wing were investigated in the Langley 30- by 60-foot tunnel as part of a NASA/General Dynamics cooperative research program to investigate the application of advanced wing designs to combat aircraft. Tests were conducted on a baseline configuration and on several modified configurations. The results show that the baseline configuration exhibited a high level of maximum lift but displayed undesirable longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics at high angles of attack. Various wing modifications were made which improved the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the configuration at high angles of attack. However, most of the modifications were detrimental to maximum lift.

  4. Characterization of Tactical Departure Scheduling in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses and analyzes current day utilization and performance of the tactical departure scheduling process in the National Airspace System (NAS) to understand the benefits in improving this process. The analysis used operational air traffic data from over 1,082,000 flights during the month of January, 2011. Specific metrics included the frequency of tactical departure scheduling, site specific variances in the technology's utilization, departure time prediction compliance used in the tactical scheduling process and the performance with which the current system can predict the airborne slot that aircraft are being scheduled into from the airport surface. Operational data analysis described in this paper indicates significant room for improvement exists in the current system primarily in the area of reduced departure time prediction uncertainty. Results indicate that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft did not meet their scheduled departure slot due to departure time uncertainty. In addition to missed slots, the operational data analysis identified increased controller workload associated with tactical departures which were subject to traffic management manual re-scheduling or controller swaps. An analysis of achievable levels of departure time prediction accuracy as obtained by a new integrated surface and tactical scheduling tool is provided to assess the benefit it may provide as a solution to the identified shortfalls. A list of NAS facilities which are likely to receive the greatest benefit from the integrated surface and tactical scheduling technology are provided.

  5. Formulation of an integrated robust design and tactics optimization process for undersea weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frits, Andrew P.

    In the current Navy environment of undersea weapons development, the engineering aspect of design is decoupled from the development of the tactics with which the weapon is employed. Tactics are developed by intelligence experts, warfighters, and wargamers, while torpedo design is handled by engineers and contractors. This dissertation examines methods by which the conceptual design process of undersea weapon systems, including both torpedo systems and mine counter-measure systems, can be improved. It is shown that by simultaneously designing the torpedo and the tactics with which undersea weapons are used, a more effective overall weapon system can be created. In addition to integrating torpedo tactics with design, the thesis also looks at design methods to account for uncertainty. The uncertainty is attributable to multiple sources, including: lack of detailed analysis tools early in the design process, incomplete knowledge of the operational environments, and uncertainty in the performance of potential technologies. A robust design process is introduced to account for this uncertainty in the analysis and optimization of torpedo systems through the combination of Monte Carlo simulation with response surface methodology and metamodeling techniques. Additionally, various other methods that are appropriate to uncertainty analysis are discussed and analyzed. The thesis also advances a new approach towards examining robustness and risk: the treatment of probability of success (POS) as an independent variable. Examining the cost and performance tradeoffs between high and low probability of success designs, the decision-maker can make better informed decisions as to what designs are most promising and determine the optimal balance of risk, cost, and performance. Finally, the thesis examines the use of non-dimensionalization of parameters for torpedo design. The thesis shows that the use of non-dimensional torpedo parameters leads to increased knowledge about the

  6. Mixtures as a fungicide resistance management tactic.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Frank; Paveley, Neil; van den Berg, Femke; Hobbelen, Peter; Oliver, Richard

    2014-12-01

    We have reviewed the experimental and modeling evidence on the use of mixtures of fungicides of differing modes of action as a resistance management tactic. The evidence supports the following conclusions. 1. Adding a mixing partner to a fungicide that is at-risk of resistance (without lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide) reduces the rate of selection for fungicide resistance. This holds for the use of mixing partner fungicides that have either multi-site or single-site modes of action. The resulting predicted increase in the effective life of the at-risk fungicide can be large enough to be of practical relevance. The more effective the mixing partner (due to inherent activity and/or dose), the larger the reduction in selection and the larger the increase in effective life of the at-risk fungicide. 2. Adding a mixing partner while lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide reduces the selection for fungicide resistance, without compromising effective disease control. The very few studies existing suggest that the reduction in selection is more sensitive to lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide than to increasing the dose of the mixing partner. 3. Although there are very few studies, the existing evidence suggests that mixing two at-risk fungicides is also a useful resistance management tactic. The aspects that have received too little attention to draw generic conclusions about the effectiveness of fungicide mixtures as resistance management strategies are as follows: (i) the relative effect of the dose of the two mixing partners on selection for fungicide resistance, (ii) the effect of mixing on the effective life of a fungicide (the time from introduction of the fungicide mode of action to the time point where the fungicide can no longer maintain effective disease control), (iii) polygenically determined resistance, (iv) mixtures of two at-risk fungicides, (v) the emergence phase of resistance evolution and the effects of mixtures during this phase

  7. On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

  8. Do as we wish: Parental tactics of mate choice manipulation.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2013-08-01

    The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners.

  9. 78 FR 16757 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal... Discussion Committee Operations FAA Taskings Discussion FAA Task Groups Discussion Anticipated Issues for...

  10. 78 FR 40264 - First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal... approval: Terms of Reference--Structure, Scope, Leadership Anticipated Issues for TOC consideration...

  11. Tactical assessment in a squad of intelligent bots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołuński, Marcel; Wasiewicz, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of communication and coordination in a team of intelligent game bots (aka embodied agents). It presents a tactical decision making system controlling the behavior of an autonomous bot followed by the concept of a team tactical decision making system controlling the team of intelligent bots. The algorithms to be introduced have been implemented in the Java language by means of Pogamut 2 framework, interfacing the bot logic with Unreal Tournament 2004 virtual environment.

  12. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  13. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  14. Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HiMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

  15. External store effects on the stability of fighter and interceptor airplanes. [application to military aircraft mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Some criteria for external carriage of missiles for fighter aircraft intended for aerial combat missions and for fighter-interceptor missions are considered. The mission requirements discussed include the short-range fighter-interceptor, the short-range interceptor, the medium-range interceptor, and the long-range interceptor. Missiles types considered to be compatible with the various point mission designs include the short-range missile, the medium-range missile, and the long-range missile. From the study, it appears that point mission design aircraft can be arranged in such a way that the required external-store arrangement will not impair the stability of the aircraft. An extensive reference list of NASA external store research is included.

  16. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, H. H.; Powers, S. A.; Roush, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design analysis is performed on a single engine V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack concept powered by a series flow tandem fan propulsion system. Forward and aft mounted fans have independent flow paths for V/STOL operation and series flow in high speed flight. Mission, combat and V/STOL performance is calculated. Detailed aerodynamic estimates are made and aerodynamic uncertainties associated with the configuration and estimation methods identified. A wind tunnel research program is developed to resolve principal uncertainties and establish a data base for the baseline configuration and parametric variations.

  17. Shock capturing finite difference algorithms for supersonic flow past fighter and missile type configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, S.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of a reliable, shock capturing finite difference method to solve the Euler equations for inviscid, supersonic flow past fighter and missile type configurations is highly desirable. The numerical method must have a firm theoretical foundation and must be robust and efficient. It should be able to treat subsonic pockets in a predominantly supersonic flow. The method must also be easily applicable to the complex topologies of the aerodynamic configuration under consideration. The ongoing approach to this task is described and for steady supersonic flows is presented. This scheme is the basic numerical method. Results of work obtained during previous years are presented.

  18. Effectiveness of brief VR treatment for PTSD in war-fighters: a case study.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Sarah D; Folen, Raymond A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Schaper, Kim M

    2010-01-01

    War-fighters exposed to combat are at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and challenging condition to treat. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) have been empirically validated as effective treatments for PTSD resulting from sexual assault, vehicular accidents, and disasters. Exposure, imaginal or in vivo, to the traumatic event is a central component of successful CBT treatment. Early studies indicate that CBT with brief virtual reality exposure (VRE) is beneficial in treating PTSD. The case study examined the effectiveness of brief VRE in treating combat-related PTSD. PMID:20543300

  19. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  20. Flight Investigation of Wing-gun Fairings on a Fighter Type Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M D

    1941-01-01

    Description is given of flight tests conducted on gun fairings, designed to correct the detrimental effects of the projecting and submerged wing guns on an F4F-3 fighter. It was found that the installation of unfaired guns on a clean wing resulted in a premature stall that increased the stalling speed in the carrier-approach and landing conditions of flight by suitably fairing the guns, it was possible to reduce the stalling speeds to values approaching very nearly the clean-wing values.

  1. Subsonic characteristics of a twin-jet swept-wing fighter model with maneuvering devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E. J.; Hollingsworth, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0.06 to 0.94 to determine the effects of various combinations of leading-edge slat devices on the static aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-jet swept-wing fighter model. The study also included a determination of the effects of wing leading-edge droop, trailing-edge chord-extensions, wing fences, and wing-planform and camber modifications. The angle-of-attack range generally extended from about minus 2 deg to 24 deg and the sideslip angles ranged from about minus 6 deg to 13 deg.

  2. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Horizontal attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal attitude VSTOL (HAVSTOL) supersonic fighter attack aircraft powered by RALS turbofan propulsion system is analyzed. Reaction control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained in pitch and yaw from the RALS and roll from wingtip jets powered by bleed air from the RALS duct. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel program is shown to resolve some of the uncertainties. Aerodynamic data developed are static characteristics about all axes, control effectiveness, drag, propulsion induced effects and reaction control characteristics.

  3. Numerical simulation of viscous supersonic flow over a generic fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaussee, D. S.; Blum, G.; Wai, J.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented, as well as some results, to calculate the flow over a generic fighter configuration. A parabolized marching Navier-Stokes code is used to obtain the solution over a wing-canopy body. The flow conditions simulate supersonic cruise with a freestream Mach number of 2.169 and angles of attack of 4 and 10 deg. The body surface is considered to be an adiabatic wall and the flow is assumed to be turbulent for the given Reynolds number.

  4. Measurement and Analysis of Wing and Tail Buffeting Loads on a Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Wilber B; Skopinski, T H

    1955-01-01

    The buffeting loads measured on the wing and tail of a fighter airplane during 194 maneuvers are given in tabular form, along with the associated flight conditions. Measurements were made at altitudes of 30,000 to 10,000 feet and at speeds up to a Mach number of 0.8. Least-squares methods have been used for a preliminary analysis of the data. The agreement between the results of this analysis and the loads measured in stalls is sufficiently good to suggest the examination of the buffeting of other airplanes on the same basis.

  5. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle - It is for real. [fighter aircraft performance viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the current status of the nonaxisymmetric nozzle from a technology standpoint. Some of the potential payoffs attributed to this class of nozzles installed on twin-engine high performance fighter aircraft are addressed. These payoffs include a reduction in cruise drag through improved integration and an increase in aircraft maneuverability and agility through the application of thrust vectoring and reversing. Improved takeoff and landing characteristics also are expected through the use of thrust vectoring and reversing. Stealth and survivability aspects of the aircraft can be increased through a reduction of nozzle infrared signature and radar cross section.

  6. Design of a V/STOL propulsion system for a large-scale fighter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    Modifications were made to the existing Large-Scale STOL fighter model to simulate a V/STOL configuration. Modifications include the substitutions of two dimensional lift/cruise exhaust nozzles in the nacelles, and the addition of a third J97 engine in the fuselage to suppy a remote exhaust nozzle simulating a Remote Augmented Lift System. A preliminary design of the inlet and exhaust ducting for the third engine was developed and a detailed design was completed of the hot exhaust ducting and remote nozzle.

  7. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  8. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  9. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  10. Networked gamma radiation detection system for tactical deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Smith, Ethan; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    A networked gamma radiation detection system with directional sensitivity and energy spectral data acquisition capability is being developed by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory to support the close and intense tactical engagement of law enforcement who carry out counterterrorism missions. In the proposed design, three clusters of 2″ × 4″ × 16″ sodium iodide crystals (4 each) with digiBASE-E (for list mode data collection) would be placed on the passenger side of a minivan. To enhance localization and facilitate rapid identification of isotopes, advanced smart real-time localization and radioisotope identification algorithms like WAVRAD (wavelet-assisted variance reduction for anomaly detection) and NSCRAD (nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection) will be incorporated. We will test a collection of algorithms and analysis that centers on the problem of radiation detection with a distributed sensor network. We will study the basic characteristics of a radiation sensor network and focus on the trade-offs between false positive alarm rates, true positive alarm rates, and time to detect multiple radiation sources in a large area. Empirical and simulation analyses of critical system parameters, such as number of sensors, sensor placement, and sensor response functions, will be examined. This networked system will provide an integrated radiation detection architecture and framework with (i) a large nationally recognized search database equivalent that would help generate a common operational picture in a major radiological crisis; (ii) a robust reach back connectivity for search data to be evaluated by home teams; and, finally, (iii) a possibility of integrating search data from multi-agency responders.

  11. Trauma Tactics: Rethinking Trauma Education for Professional Nurses.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Paula; Liddil, Jessica; Eley, Scott; Winfield, Scott

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Trauma Institute (2015), trauma accounts for more than 180,000 deaths each year in the United States. Nurses play a significant role in the care of trauma patients and therefore need appropriate education and training (L. ). Although several courses exist for trauma education, many nurses have not received adequate education in trauma management (B. ; L. ). Trauma Tactics, a 2-day course that focuses on high-fidelity human patient simulation, was created to meet this educational need. This descriptive study was conducted retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the Trauma Tactics course. Pre- and postsurveys, tests, and simulation performance were used to evaluate professional nurses who participated in Trauma Tactics over a 10-month period. Fifty-five nurses were included in the study. Pre- and postsurveys revealed an increase in overall confidence, test scores increased by an average of 2.5 points, and simulation performance scores increased by an average of 16 points. Trauma Tactics is a high-quality course that provides a valuable and impactful educational experience for nurses. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of Trauma Tactics and its impacts on quality of care and patient outcomes. PMID:27414143

  12. Situation-orientated recognition of tactical patterns in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2007-10-01

    One important factor for effective operations in team sports is the team tactical behaviour. Many suggestions about appropriate players' positions in different attack or defence situations have been made. The aims of this study were to develop a classification of offensive and defensive behaviours and to identify team-specific tactical patterns in international women's volleyball. Both the classification and identification of tactical patterns is done by means of a hierarchical cluster analysis. Clusters are formed on the basis of similarities in the players' positions on the court. Time continuous data of the movements, including the start and end points during a pass from the setter, are analysed. Results show team-specific patterns of defensive moves with assessment rates of up to 80%. Furthermore, the recognition of match situations illustrates a clear classification of attack and defence situations and even within different defence conditions (approximately 100%). Thus, this approach to team tactical analysis yields classifications of selected offensive and defensive strategies as well as an identification of tactical patterns of different national teams in standardized situations. The results lead us to question training concepts that assume a team-independent optimal strategy with respect to the players' positions in team sports. PMID:17786687

  13. Enhancing The National Map Through Tactical Planning and Performance Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Tactical planning and performance monitoring are initial steps toward improving 'the way The National Map works' and supporting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Strategy. This Tactical Performance Planning Summary for The National Map combines information from The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan and The National Map Performance Milestone Matrix. The National Map 2.0 Tactical Plan is primarily a working document to guide The National Map program's execution, production, and metrics monitoring for fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2009. The Tactical Plan addresses data, products, and services, as well as supporting and enabling activities. The National Map's 2-year goal for FY 2008 and FY 2009 is to provide a range of geospatial products and services that further the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and underpin USGS science. To do this, the National Geospatial Program will develop a renewed understanding during FY 2008 of key customer needs and requirements, develop the infrastructure to support The National Map business model, modernize its business processes, and reengineer its workforce. Priorities for The National Map will be adjusted if necessary to respond to changes to the project that may impact resources, constrain timeframes, or change customer needs. The supporting and enabling activities that make it possible to produce the products and services of The National Map will include partnership activities, improved compatibility of systems, outreach, and integration of data themes.

  14. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others. PMID:26322733

  15. Parallel Nonlinear Aeroelastic Computation for Fighter Wings in the Transonic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Bradley Robert

    In this dissertation, a parallel three-dimensional aeroelastic simulation is applied to current and next generation fighter aircraft wings. The computational model is a nonlinear fluid and structural mesh coupled using the Direct Eulerian-Langrangian method. This method attaches unique local coordinates to each node and connects the fluid mesh to the structure in such a way that a transformation preserved to the global coordinates. This allows the fluid and structure to be updated in the same time step and maintains spatial accuracy at their interface. The structural mesh is modeled using modified nonlinear von Karman finite elements and is discretized using the Galerkin finite element method. The fluid mesh also used the Galerkin finite element method to discretize the unsteady Euler equations. Computational results over a large range of Mach numbers and densities are presented for two candidate fighter wing models for transonic wing tunnel testing. The FX-35 is a trapezoidal wing based on the F-35A, and the F-Wing is a truncated delta wing similar to the F-16. Both wings exhibit a variety of flutter behaviors including strong bending-torsion flutter, limit-cycle oscillations, and essentially single degree-of-freedom responses.

  16. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    PubMed

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation. PMID:23818656

  17. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others.

  18. Physiological parameters monitoring of fire-fighters by means of a wearable wireless sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Chatzistamatis, Panagiotis; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Primentas, Antonios; Kogias, Dimitris; Michailidis, Emmanouel T.; Rangoussi, Maria; Kurşun Bahadir, Senem; Atalay, Özgür; Kalaoğlu, Fatma; Sağlam, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Physiological parameter monitoring may be useful in many different groups of the population, such as infants, elderly people, athletes, soldiers, drivers, fire-fighters, police etc. This can provide a variety of information ranging from health status to operational readiness. In this article, we focus on the case of first responders and specifically fire-fighters. Firefighters can benefit from a physiological monitoring system that is used to extract multiple indications such as the present position, the possible life risk level, the stress level etc. This work presents a wearable wireless sensor network node, based on low cost, commercial-off- the-self (COTS) electronic modules, which can be easily attached on a standard fire-fighters’ uniform. Due to the low frequency wired interface between the selected electronic components, the proposed solution can be used as a basis for a textile system where all wired connections will be implemented by means of conductive yarn routing in the textile structure, while some of the standard sensors can be replaced by textile ones. System architecture is described in detail, while indicative samples of acquired signals are also presented.

  19. A Pilot Opinion Study of Lateral Control Requirements for Fighter-Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Stewart, John D.; Merrick, Robert B.; Drinkwater, Fred J., III

    1959-01-01

    As part of a continuing NASA program of research on airplane handling qualities, a pilot opinion investigation has been made on the lateral control requirements of fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range. The investigation was carried out using a stationary flight simulator and a moving flight simulator, and the flight simulator results were supplemented by research tests in actual flight. The flight simulator study was based on the presumption that the pilot rates the roll control of an airplane primarily on a single-degree-of-freedom basis; that is, control of angle of roll about the aircraft body axis being of first importance. From the assumption of a single degree of freedom system it follows that there are two fundamental parameters which govern the airplane roll response, namely the roll damping expressed as a time constant and roll control power in terms of roll acceleration. The simulator study resulted in a criterion in terms of these two parameters which defines satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable roll performance from a pilot opinion standpoint. The moving simulator results were substantiated by the in-flight investigation. The derived criterion was compared with the roll performance criterion based upon wing tip helix angle and also with other roll performance concepts which currently influence the roll performance design of military fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range.

  20. Pilot Human Factors in Stall/Spin Accidents of Supersonic Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of pilot human factors related to stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft. The military specifications for flight at high angles of attack are examined. Several pilot human factors problems related to stall/spin are discussed. These problems include (1) unsatisfactory nonvisual warning cues; (2) the inability of the pilot to quickly determine if the aircraft is spinning out of control, or to recognize the type of spin; (3) the inability of the pilot to decide on and implement the correct spin recovery technique; (4) the inability of the pilot to move, caused by high angular rotation; and (5) the tendency of pilots to wait too long in deciding to abandon the irrecoverable aircraft. Psycho-physiological phenomena influencing pilot's behavior in stall/spin situations include (1) channelization of sensory inputs, (2) limitations in precisely controlling several muscular inputs, (3) inaccurate judgment of elapsed time, and (4) disorientation of vestibulo-ocular inputs. Results are given of pilot responses to all these problems in the F14A, F16/AB, and F/A-18A aircraft. The use of departure spin resistance and automatic spin prevention systems incorporated on recent supersonic fighters are discussed. These systems should help to improve the stall/spin accident record with some compromise in maneuverability.

  1. Investigation of Aerodynamics Scale Effects for a Generic Fighter Configuration in the National Transonic Facility (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomek, W. G.; Wahls, R. A.; Owens, L. R.; Burner, A. B.; Graves, S. S.; Luckring, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Two wind tunnel tests of a generic fighter configuration have been completed in the National Transonic Facility. The primary purpose of the tests was to assess Reynolds number scale effects on a thin-wing, fighter-type configuration up to full-scale flight conditions (that is, Reynolds numbers of the order of 60 million). The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at subsonic and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to flight conditions. Results are presented for three Mach numbers (0.6, 0.8, and 0.9) and three configurations: 1) Fuselage / Wing, 2) Fuselage / Wing / Centerline Vertical Tail / Horizontal Tail, and 3) Fuselage / Wing / Trailing-Edge Extension / Twin Vertical Tails. Reynolds number effects on the lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics are presented herein, along with longitudinal data demonstrating the effects of fixing the boundary layer transition location for low Reynolds number conditions. In addition, an improved model videogrammetry system and results are discussed.

  2. Utilization of an agility assessment module in analysis and optimization of preliminary fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngan, Angelen; Biezad, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted to develop and to analyze a FORTRAN computer code for performing agility analysis on fighter aircraft configurations. This program is one of the modules of the NASA Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. The background of the agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics are discussed. The methodology, techniques, and models developed for the code are presented. The validity of the existing code was evaluated by comparing with existing flight test data. A FORTRAN program was developed for a specific metric, PM (Pointing Margin), as part of the agility module. Example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT were conducted using a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft model. Tile sensitivity of thrust loading, wing loading, and thrust vectoring on agility criteria were investigated. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations and has capability to optimize agility performance in the preliminary design process. This research provides a new and useful design tool for analyzing fighter performance during air combat engagements in the preliminary design.

  3. Working memory capacity as controlled attention in tactical decision making.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip A; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The controlled attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC, Engle 2002) suggests that WMC represents a domain free limitation in the ability to control attention and is predictive of an individual's capability of staying focused, avoiding distraction and impulsive errors. In the present paper we test the predictive power of WMC in computer-based sport decision-making tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrated that high-WMC athletes were better able at focusing their attention on tactical decision making while blocking out irrelevant auditory distraction. Experiment 2 showed that high-WMC athletes were more successful at adapting their tactical decision making according to the situation instead of relying on prepotent inappropriate decisions. The present results provide additional but also unique support for the controlled attention theory of WMC by demonstrating that WMC is predictive of controlling attention in complex settings among different modalities and highlight the importance of working memory in tactical decision making.

  4. Comparisons: Technical-Tactical and Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts by Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Vecchio, Fabrício B D; Camey, Suzi; Amtmann, John A

    2016-07-01

    Miarka, B, Vecchio, FBD, Camey, S, and Amtmann, JA. Comparisons: technical-tactical and time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts by outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1975-1984, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare time-motion and technical-tactical analysis between paired outcomes and rounds of mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. The sample consisted of 645 rounds of MMA competition paired by outcomes (first round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; second round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; third round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215). The time-motion variables were categorized into low-intensity or high-intensity, stand-up or groundwork situations. Stand-up techniques were analyzed by observing total strikes to the head and body, and takedowns. The actions on the ground were analyzed by observing submission activity, including successful choking and joint locking actions, and also positional improvements, including advances to the mount, half guard, and side and back positions. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests were conducted with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that winners had higher values for total strikes and submissions in all rounds, and also positional improvements, over losers. The standing combat with low-intensity comparisons presented differences between the rounds first, with a median of 2:33.5 (P25-P75%: 1:20-3:56) minute, second, with 2:37 (1:24-3:59) minute, and third, with 2:07 (1:06-3:39.2) minute. These data suggest a focus on the intermittent demand presented in combat phases with a special attention to the strike and ground technical-tactical skills; strength and conditioning coaches could emphasize the effort pause ratios for both standing and ground combat that mimic the requirements of MMA, especially during the third round. PMID:26670995

  5. Comparisons: Technical-Tactical and Time-Motion Analysis of Mixed Martial Arts by Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Vecchio, Fabrício B D; Camey, Suzi; Amtmann, John A

    2016-07-01

    Miarka, B, Vecchio, FBD, Camey, S, and Amtmann, JA. Comparisons: technical-tactical and time-motion analysis of mixed martial arts by outcomes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1975-1984, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare time-motion and technical-tactical analysis between paired outcomes and rounds of mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. The sample consisted of 645 rounds of MMA competition paired by outcomes (first round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; second round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215; third round, winners n = 215 and losers n = 215). The time-motion variables were categorized into low-intensity or high-intensity, stand-up or groundwork situations. Stand-up techniques were analyzed by observing total strikes to the head and body, and takedowns. The actions on the ground were analyzed by observing submission activity, including successful choking and joint locking actions, and also positional improvements, including advances to the mount, half guard, and side and back positions. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests were conducted with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that winners had higher values for total strikes and submissions in all rounds, and also positional improvements, over losers. The standing combat with low-intensity comparisons presented differences between the rounds first, with a median of 2:33.5 (P25-P75%: 1:20-3:56) minute, second, with 2:37 (1:24-3:59) minute, and third, with 2:07 (1:06-3:39.2) minute. These data suggest a focus on the intermittent demand presented in combat phases with a special attention to the strike and ground technical-tactical skills; strength and conditioning coaches could emphasize the effort pause ratios for both standing and ground combat that mimic the requirements of MMA, especially during the third round.

  6. Reproductive tactics of male bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) in anoxic and hypoxic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seivåg, Maria Larsen; Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Utne-Palm, Anne Christine; Kjesbu, Olav Si'gurd

    2016-03-01

    The bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus), a key species in the northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem, tolerates extremely low levels of oxygen. Yet little is known about how its reproduction is affected by these harsh living conditions. The distribution patterns of alternative reproductive tactics of male bearded goby across the continental shelf off Namibia were investigated. Histology and stereology were for the first time used to validate macroscopic maturity development by estimating volume fraction of the different stages of spermatogenesis using "Delesse principle", an approach so far for teleosts barely used in studies on testes but applied in advanced oocyte estimation. The macroscopic scale appeared suitable for the purpose, and the prevalence of territorial and sneaker tactics could therefore be documented. The sneakers had relative large testes and small seminal vesicles (SV), with the opposite being the case for the territorials. A third, numerous category with intermediate sized testes and SV was also recognized with unclear underlying tactical rationale, although regression analyses indicated similar investment in testes weight in relation to somatic weight as for the territorials. Low oxygen levels were the most important factor limiting spawning activity in territorial males. Our data suggested the existence of a spawning site on the outer shelf of the central Namibian shelf where the bottom water is hypoxic (oxygen saturation of 6.2-6.7%) while the anoxic middle shelf area (oxygen saturation of 1.7-2.9%) appeared to show too low oxygen levels for spawning to take place. Hence, significant parts of this large shelf area appear unsuited for successful reproduction of the bearded goby, in particular for nest building by the territorials.

  7. DETERMINATION OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER SOIL LEVELS AT A FIRE FIGHTER TRAINING STATION AND ALONG RAILROAD TRACKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the PBDE content of soils from remote rural areas along railroad tracks and from a fire fighter training site demonstrated contamination of the soil, particularly at the latter site where BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154, were found at considerable levels. The remote sites, along old r...

  8. Physiologic monitoring in extreme environments: application of microsensors and embedded processors to predict heat stress in fire fighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gelder, Carin; Pranger, L. Alex; Urias, Adrian R.; Lo, Ronalee; Wiesmann, William P.; Winchell, Robert J.; Kolka, Margaret A.; Stachenfeld, Nina; Bogucki, Sandy

    2002-05-01

    Interior structural firefighting involves heavy physical exertion under extreme environmental conditions. Personal protective clothing and equipment impose 50 lbs of weight on fire fighters and impede the evaporative cooling mechanisms normally responsible for thermoregulation during exercise. The intense heat of the fire ground further exacerbates the physiological stress on working fire fighters. Occupational morbidity and mortality statistics reflect the impact of such stressors on fire service personnel. Non-invasive physiological monitoring capabilities are needed to more precisely define the cardiovascular responses to the demands of fire fighting and identify markers of impending failure of compensatory mechanisms prior to collapse or onset of irreversible pathology. A suite of sensors designed to provide continuous remote monitoring of fire fighters has been developed. Oximetry sensors are incorporated into SCBA facemask to allow unencumbered monitoring and analysis of cardiovascular and pulmonary function. The present report also describes a model system for physiological studies of fire fighting. This system comprises a series of timed simulations of fire ground tasks performed by fire fighters in a heated environmental chamber. Preliminary testing confirms the feasibility of reliable oximetry signal acquisition under fire ground conditions.

  9. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  10. Fraud fighters gain muscle. As fraud cases mount, fledgling program aims to step up policing of Medicare contractors.

    PubMed

    Hallam, K; Taylor, M

    1999-08-16

    The use of fiscal intermediaries to police Medicare claims has come under the spotlight, mainly because many of those contractors have themselves settled Medicare or Medicaid fraud charges. One answer: the new Medicare Integrity Program, which will beef up federal fraud fighters. PMID:10557464

  11. Inflation Fighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sheldon H., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, high-voltage, two-terminal, constant-current source for student use in electrophoresis experiments (includes circuit diagram) and a simple device for the continuous registering of gas flows. Also lists seven cost-saving tips for chemical reagent, including use decorative stones (purchased from nursery stores) in place of…

  12. Cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Frilander, Heikki; Sainio, Markku; Karvala, Kirsi; Sovelius, Roope; Vehmas, Tapio; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2015-02-01

    To assess the associations of acceleration force indicators (aircraft type and flight hours) with cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched until October 2013. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review and 20 in the meta-analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of neck pain (pooled OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.33), cervical disc degeneration (OR=1.26, CI 0.81 to 1.96), low back pain (OR=0.80, CI 0.47 to 1.38) or lumbar disc degeneration (OR=0.87, CI 0.67 to 1.13) between fighter pilots and helicopter or transport/cargo pilots. Moreover, the prevalence of cervical (OR=1.14, CI 0.61 to 2.16) or lumbar (OR=1.05, CI 0.49 to 2.26) disc degeneration did not differ between fighter pilots and non-flying personnel. Most studies did not control their estimates for age and other potential confounders. Among high-performance aircraft pilots, exposure to the highest G-forces was associated with a higher prevalence of neck pain compared with exposure to lower G-forces (pooled OR=3.12, CI 2.08 to 4.67). The studies on the association between flight hours and neck pain reported inconsistent findings. Moreover, looking back over the shoulder (check six) was the most common posture associated with neck pain. Fighter pilots exposed to high G-forces may be at a greater risk for neck pain than those exposed to low G-forces. This finding should be confirmed with better control for confounding. Awkward neck posture may be an important factor in neck pain among fighter pilots.

  13. The Influence Tactic Preferred by Teaching Faculty: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Backus, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to determine the influence tactic used most often by teachers in a small college classroom. It was hypothesized that the rational persuasion tactic, which is defined as "using logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade the target". (Fu & Yukl, 2000, p. 252) would be the most commonly employed tactic by…

  14. Comparison of Three Instructional Approaches to Enhance Tactical Knowledge in Volleyball among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip; Claessens, Manu; Feys, Jos; Ceux, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the decision-making process of three instructional groups (i.e., teacher-centered, student-centered with tactical questioning and student-centered without tactical questioning) in practical courses in volleyball among university students. All students (N = 122) performed a Tactical Awareness task on the correctness of the…

  15. Review of the Instruments Most Frequently Employed to Assess Tactics in Physical Education and Youth Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Castejon, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Investigators' increased interest in teaching game tactics requires generalizable assessment instruments that are appropriate to whatever is needed by the tactic. This literature review aims to provide information about the instruments most frequently used to assess tactics in youth sports. We found that very few studies used instruments that…

  16. [Tactics of the patients management in continuing acute thrombosis of deep veins].

    PubMed

    Prasol, V A; Mishenina, E V; Okley, D V

    2015-03-01

    Experience of active tactics of treatment application in 18 patients, suffering an acute thrombosis in system of lower vena cava, is presented. Possibilities were estimated and efficacy of active surgical tactics proved in continuing deep vein thrombosis on early stage were estimated. Active tactics, using catheter--governed thrombolysis, permits to escape pulmonary thromboembolism and to reduce a severity of further chronic venous insufficiency.

  17. Speedminton: Using the Tactical Games Model in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Bullard, Susan; Hovatter, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching and learning of sport and sports-related games dominates the curriculum in most secondary physical education programs in America. For many secondary school students, playing games can be exciting and lead to a lifetime of participation in sport-related activities. Using the Tactical Games Model (TGM) (Mitchell et al., 2006) to teach the…

  18. Persuasion and Social Influence Tactics Used by Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Rick; Feldman, Michelle; Williams, Kristin; Fierstien, Jocelyn

    1998-01-01

    Members (N=499) of the American Mental Health Counselors Association were surveyed to identify persuasion and influence tactics that they utilize in their practice. Techniques reported were metaphors, noting negative consequences, pointing out benefits or rewards, using reasoning, evaluating oneself to an ideal self, and modeling. The effects of…

  19. Alternative reproductive tactics in male Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Waterman, J M; Bennett, N C

    2008-06-01

    In some animal societies, males vary in the strategies and tactics that they use for reproduction. Explanations for the evolution of alternative tactics have usually focussed on extrinsic factors such as social status, the environment or population density and have rarely examined proximate differences between individuals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that two alternative reproductive tactics occur in cooperatively breeding male Cape ground squirrels. Here we show that there is strong empirical support for physiological and behavioural differences to uphold this claim. 'Dispersed' males have higher resting metabolic rates and a heightened pituitary activity, compared with philopatric 'natal' males that have higher circulating cortisol levels. Dispersed males also spend more time moving and less time feeding than natal males. Additionally, lone males spend a greater proportion of their time vigilant and less of their time foraging than those that were in groups. The choice of whether to stay natal or become a disperser may depend on a number of factors such as age, natal group kin structure and reproductive suppression, and the likelihood of successful reproduction whilst remaining natal. Measuring proximate factors, such as behavioural and endocrine function, may provide valuable insights into mechanisms that underlie the evolution of alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:18325548

  20. Teaching Multiple Online Sections/Courses: Tactics and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan; Fortner, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of teaching online increases as the number of sections or courses increase in a semester. The tactics and techniques which enrich online instruction in the tradition of quality matters can be modified and adapted to the demands of multiple instructional needs during a semester. This paper addresses time management and instructional…

  1. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  2. Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

  3. Tactical Decision Competency of Preservice Physical Education Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margo M.; Henninger, Mary L.; Carlson, Kristin B.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent publication of the "National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education" (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2009) requires physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to demonstrate that teacher candidates display both tactical knowledge and physical competence.…

  4. Tactical nuclear weapons responsibility: Ordnance versus field artillery. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, J.A.

    1990-03-08

    There has existed and still exists an operational dichotomy in the area of the provision of tactical nuclear weapons to United States Army forces versus those allied forces in a combined theater of operations. Specifically, within the NATO environment and to a very small degree within Combined Forces Korea, there exists a condition where tactical nuclear weapons are supplied to the U.S. firing unit by an organization under the proponency of the Ordnance Corps. On the other hand, within the same theater, the non-U.S. force receives their tactical nuclear weapons by an organization under the proponency of the Field Artillery. This paper will examine the functions performed by this duplication of supply organizations and briefly list the supporting structure. It will then explore any possible purpose for the duplication which would justify this apparent mission replication. Discussion will then follow which will list the pros and cons of staying with the status quo or the possible assignment of the supply function to a single branch proponency. Conclusions are then drawn and recommendations made for improving the current system of tactical nuclear weapon support.

  5. The Intent/Effect Tactic: A Practice of Rhetorical Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship shows that teachers across English studies continue to struggle with discussions of race in their classrooms. In this article, I offer the intent/effect tactic as a tool teachers can use to analyze and respond to racially problematic assertions. By asking students to consider not only intent but also effect, we can help them…

  6. 78 FR 63279 - Third Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Tactical Operations Committee (TOC) AGENCY: Federal... Committee (TOC). The agenda will include the following: November 19, 2013 Opening of Meeting/Introduction of TOC Members Official Statement of Designated Federal Official Approval of July 23, 2013...

  7. Coq Tacticals and PVS Strategies: A Small Step Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, Florent

    2003-01-01

    The need for a small step semantics and more generally for a thorough documentation and understanding of Coq's tacticals and PVS's strategies arise with their growing use and the progressive uncovering of their subtleties. The purpose of the following study is to provide a simple and clear formal framework to describe their detailed semantics, and highlight their differences and similarities.

  8. Identification of Non-Specific Tactical Tasks in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background and significance: The notion of transferability (i.e. sampling) has been put forward as one of four core pedagogical principles for games teaching. The sampling principle was based on the premise that it may be possible to show the existence of tactical similarities between apparently dissimilar games, leading to a much better overall…

  9. Designs, Management Tactics, and Strategies in Asynchronous Learning Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Corry, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses effective designs, management tactics, and strategies to produce ideal asynchronous network discussions that allow contemplation and encourage the development of critical thinking. A model of an online collaborative learning community is applied to implement the designs. A sample of online collaborative moderation guidelines is…

  10. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  11. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  12. Situation assessment in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Paladin is a real-time tactical decision generator for air combat engagements. Paladin uses specialized knowledge-based systems and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming techniques to address the modern air combat environment and agile aircraft in a clear and concise manner. Paladin is designed to provide insight into both the tactical benefits and the costs of enhanced agility. The system was developed using the Lisp programming language on a specialized AI workstation. Paladin utilizes a set of air combat rules, an active throttle controller, and a situation assessment module that have been implemented as a set of highly specialized knowledge-based systems. The situation assessment module was developed to determine the tactical mode of operation (aggressive, defensive, neutral, evasive, or disengagement) used by Paladin at each decision point in the air combat engagement. Paladin uses the situation assessment module; the situationally dependent modes of operation to more accurately represent the complex decision-making process of human pilots. This allows Paladin to adapt its tactics to the current situation and improves system performance. Discussed here are the details of Paladin's situation assessment and modes of operation. The results of simulation testing showing the error introduced into the situation assessment module due to estimation errors in positional and geometric data for the opponent aircraft are presented. Implementation issues for real-time performance are discussed and several solutions are presented, including Paladin's use of an inference engine designed for real-time execution.

  13. The Human Dimension of Closing the Training Gap for Fifth-Generation Fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoke, Jaclyn; Postnikov, Alex; Schnell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Based on a review of the recent technical literature there is little question that a serious training gap exists for fifth-generation fighters, primarily arising from the need to provide their own red-air. There are several methods for reducing this gap, including injecting virtual and constructive threats into the live cockpit. This live-virtual-constructive (LVC) training approach provides a cost effective means for addressing training needs but faces several challenges. Technical challenges include data links and information assurance. A more serious challenge may be the human factors dimension of representing virtual and constructive entities in the cockpit while ensuring safety-of-flight. This also needs to happen without increasing pilot workload. This paper discusses the methods Rockwell Collins and the University of Iowa's Operator Performance Lab use to assess pilot workload and training fidelity measures in an LVC training environment and the research we are conducting in safety-of-flight requirements of integrated LVC symbology.

  14. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  15. Evaluating syntactic constraints to speech recognition in a fighter aircraft environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, D. B.

    1984-12-01

    A flexible software system has been developed to test the effects of adding syntactic knowledge to an isolated speech phoneme-based word recognizer. Words from seventy-word fighter plane vocabulary, spoken by five pilots at four different levels of background noise, are automatically concatenated into commands randomly chosen from a set of over seven trillion. These commands are then recognized using an existing word recognizer together with grammars of differing specificity. Results are compiled automatically. The system is flexible in that system components such as the command generator, parser, grammar, or word recognizer can be interchanged with very little software modification. Preliminary testing demonstrated that, although the modified word recognizer exhibited very poor performance, the use of more specific grammars enhanced recognition accuracy, sometimes drastically.

  16. MIMO Sliding Mode Control for a Tailless Fighter Aircraft, An Alternative to Reconfigurable Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.

  17. Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a supersonic persistence fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Wendel, Thomas R.; Boland, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    Wind-tunnel free-flight tests have been conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to examine the high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics and control law design of a supersonic persistence fighter (SSPF) at 1 g flight conditions. In addition to conventional control surfaces, the SSPF incorporated deflectable wingtips (tiperons) and pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. A direct eigenstructure assignment technique was used to design control laws to provide good flying characteristics well into the poststall angle-of-attack region. Free-flight tests indicated that it was possible to blend effectively conventional and unconventional control surfaces to achieve good flying characteristics well into the poststall angle-of-attack region.

  18. Wind tunnel test of a fighter aircraft wing/store flutter suppression system: An international effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Johnson, E. H.; Mills, G. R.; Noll, T. E.; Farmer, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A 30% scale, half span model of a lightweight fighter aircraft with an active wing/store flutter suppression system was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center sixteen foot transonic dynamics tunnel. The test featured a store configuration that was intentionally designed to exhibit a violent flutter condition. In addition to Northrop organized control laws, three European countries also contributed control laws to stabilize this condition. After the control laws were mechanized by Northrop, they were tested at the Langley facility. The model was tested up to 170% of the open loop flutter dynamic pressure in a number of cases, with the indication that a substantially greater improvement was achievable. Some special features of the test model are discussed and the design and implementation of the control laws as well as the test monitoring techniques and results are presented.

  19. Reconfigurable flight control for high angle of attack fighter aircraft, with wind tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Bilal Ahmed

    In this work we studied Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems to achieve acceptable performance of a fighter aircraft, even in the event of wing damage to the aircraft at low speeds and high angle of attack, which is typical of many combat maneuvers. Equations of motion for the damaged aircraft were derived, which helped in building simulators. A new methodology combining experimental and numerical aerodynamic prediction was proposed and implemented. For this a wind-tunnel study of a similar configuration was carried out to study the aerodynamics at low speeds and high angle of attack. A baseline control system for undamaged aircraft was developed, and finally a reconfigurable flight control scheme was implemented to keep the aircraft flyable even after the damage.

  20. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design study was performed of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter/attack aircraft. The configuration has a close-coupled canard-delta wing, side two-dimensional ramp inlets, and two augmented turbofan engines with thrust vectoring capability. Performance and sensitivities to objective requirements were calculated. Aerodynamic characteristics were estimated based on contractor and NASA wind tunnel data. Computer simulations of VATOL transitions were performed. Successful transitions can be made, even with series post-stall instabilities, if reaction controls are properly phased. Principal aerodynamic uncertainties identified were post-stall aerodynamics, transonic aerodynamics with thrust vectoring and inlet performance in VATOL transition. A wind tunnel research program was recommended to resolve the aerodynamic uncertainties.

  1. Vortex control for tail buffet alleviation on a twin-tail fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Puram, C. K.; Shah, Gautam H.

    1989-01-01

    Two aerodynamic concepts proposed for alleviating high-alpha tail buffet characteristics of a LEX (Leading Edge Extension) vortex dominated twin-tail fighter configuration were explored in low-speed tunnel tests on generic models via flow visualizations, 6-component balance measurements and monitoring of tail dynamics. Passive dorsal-fin extensions of the vertical tails, and an active LEX arrangement with up-deflected edge sections were evaluated as independent means of re-structuring the adverse vortical flow environment in the tail region. Each of these techniques successfully reduced the buffet as measured by the root-mean-square of tail accelerometer output, particularly at post-stall angles of attack when the baseline configuration was characterized by high buffet intensity. Used in combination, the two concepts indicated significant tail buffet relief with relatively minor impact on the high-alpha configuration aerodynamics.

  2. Use of linear and nonlinear vibration absorbers for buffet alleviation of twin-tailed fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Badawy, Ayman A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.

    2001-08-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the performance of linear and nonlinear vibration absorbers to suppress high-amplitude vibrations of twin-tailed fighter aircraft when subjected to a primary resonance excitation. The tail section used in the experiments is a 1/16 dynamically scaled model fo the F-15 tail assembly. Both techniques (linear and nonlinear) are based on introducing an absorber and coupling it with the tails through a sensor and an actuator, where the control signals ae either linear or quadratic. For both cases, we develop the equations governing the response of the closed-loop system and use the method of multiple scales to obtain an approximate solution. We investigated both control strategies by studying their steady-state characteristics. In addition, we compare the power requirements of both techniques and show that the linear tuned vibration absorber uses less power than the nonlinear absorber.

  3. Theoretical and experimental engine-inlet flow fields for fighter forebodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaros, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The capability of two numerical methods, one for transonic and one for supersonic flows, to predict the flow fields about representative fighter aircraft forebodies in the vicinity of the engine inlets was examined. The Mach number range covered was 0.9 to 2.5 and the angle-of-attack range was 0 deg to 25 deg. The computer progams that implement each of the numerical methods are described as to their features and usage, and results are compared with comprehensive wind tunnel data. Although both prediction methods were inviscid, results show that the aerodynamic effects of the forebody, with and without a wing, can be simulated fairly well. Futher work is needed to include the effects of viscosity, including vortex shedding.

  4. Recent Dynamic Measurements and Considerations for Aerodynamic Modeling of Fighter Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Foster, John V.

    1998-01-01

    As airplane designs have trended toward the expansion of flight envelopes into the high angle of attack and high angular rate regimes, concerns regarding modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation have arisen. Most current modeling methods still rely on traditional body axis damping coefficients that are measured using techniques which were intended for relatively benign flight conditions. This paper presents recent wind tunnel results obtained during large-amplitude pitch, roll and yaw testing of several fighter airplane configurations. A review of the similitude requirements for applying sub-scale test results to full-scale conditions is presented. Data is then shown to be a strong function of Strouhal number - both the traditional damping terms, but also the associated static stability terms. Additionally, large effects of sideslip are seen in the damping parameter that should be included in simulation math models. Finally, an example of the inclusion of frequency effects on the data in a simulation is shown.

  5. Determination of aerodynamic parameters of a fighter airplane from flight data at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.; Abbasy, I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the estimation of airplane model structure and parameters is applied to data from a modern fighter airplane operating within an angle of attack range of 5 to 60 deg. The paper briefly describes the airplane, flight and wind tunnel data available, and the estimation method. The results presented contain basic longitudinal characteristics of the airplane and the estimates of aerodynamic parameters in the yawing-moment equations. These estimates are obtained from small and large amplitude maneuvers. Because the latter set of data was not suitable for airplane identification, some of the large amplitude maneuvers were joined together and then partitioned into subsets according to the values of angle of attack. Each subset was then analyzed as a separate data set. Most of the estimated parameters and functions are in good agreement with the wind tunnel measurements. The estimated lateral parameters in the model equations also demonstrate good prediction capabilities.

  6. Design criteria for integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the US/UK STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  7. Flight demonstration of a self repairing flight control system in a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James M.; Stewart, James; Eslinger, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Battle damage causing loss of control capability can compromise mission objectives and even result in aircraft loss. The Self Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) flight development program directly addresses this issue with a flight control system design that measures the damage and immediately refines the control system commands to preserve mission potential. The system diagnostics process detects in flight the type of faults that are difficult to isolate post flight, and thus cause excessive ground maintenance time and cost. The control systems of fighter aircraft have the control power and surface displacement to maneuver the aircraft in a very large flight envelope with a wide variation in airspeed and g maneuvering conditions, with surplus force capacity available from each control surface. Digital flight control processors are designed to include built-in status of the control system components, as well as sensor information on aircraft control maneuver commands and response. In the event of failure or loss of a control surface, the SRFCS utilizes this capability to reconfigure control commands to the remaining control surfaces, thus preserving maneuvering response. Correct post-flight repair is the key to low maintainability support costs and high aircraft mission readiness. The SRFCS utilizes the large data base available with digital flight control systems to diagnose faults. Built-in-test data and sensor data are used as inputs to an Onboard Expert System process to accurately identify failed components for post-flight maintenance action. This diagnostic technique has the advantage of functioning during flight, and so is especially useful in identifying intermittent faults that are present only during maneuver g loads or high hydraulic flow requirements. A flight system was developed to test the reconfiguration and onboard maintenance diagnostics concepts on a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft.

  8. Analysis of wind tunnel test results for a 9.39-per cent scale model of a VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft. Volume 1: Study overview. [aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummus, J. R.; Joyce, G. T.; Omalley, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of current methodologies to accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics identified as uncertainties was evaluated for two aircraft configurations. The two wind tunnel models studied horizontal altitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter aircraft derivatives.

  9. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  10. Flow field over the wing of a delta-wing fighter model with vortex control devices at Mach 0.6 to 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. Ann; Reubush, David E.; Haddad, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a cooperative research program between NASA, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, and Wright Research and Development Center, a flow field investigation was conducted on a 7.52 percent scale windtunnel model of an advanced fighter aircraft design. The investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 ft Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2. Angle of attack was varied from -4 degrees to 30 degrees and the model was tested at angles of sideslip of 0, 5, and -5 degrees. Data for the over the wing flow field were obtained at four axial survey stations by the use of six 5 hole conical probes mounted on a survey mechanism. The wing leading edge primary vortex exerted the greatest influence in terms of total pressure loss on the over the wing flow field in the area surveyed. A number of vortex control devices were also investigated. They included two different apex flaps, wing leading edge vortex flaps, and small large wing fences. The vortex flap and both apex flaps were beneficial in controlling the wing leading edge primary vortex.

  11. The frequency content of the control input and airplane response obtained during service operations of fighter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, John P; Hamer, Harold A

    1957-01-01

    The frequency content of the control input and resulting airplane motions is presented as power spectral densities for one operational flight of the fighter airplane (Republic F-84G). The frequency content, which is described by the shape of the spectrum, may be useful in providing inputs for the design of power control systems. For normal load factors, the results presented for the operational flight considered are in general agreement with the results of more complete data on three fighter airplanes (Republic F-84G, Republic F-84F, and North American F-86A) . The frequency content for the three control positions was similar and the frequency content for the three angular velocities was also similar when normalized by dividing the mean-square value.

  12. On the nonlinear aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a generic chine-forebody slender-wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Brandon, Jay M.

    1987-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted of the nonlinear aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a tailless generic fighter configuration featuring a chine-shaped forebody coupled to a slender cropped delta wing in the NASA Langley Research Center's 12-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Forebody and wing vortex flow mechanisms were identified through off-body flow visualizations to explain the trends in the longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics at extreme attitudes (angles of attack and sideslip). The interactions of the vortical motions with centerline and wing-mounted vertical tail surfaces were studied and the flow phenomena were correlated with the configuration forces and moments. Single degree of freedom, free-to-roll tests were used to study the wing rock susceptibility of the generic fighter model. Modifications to the nose region of the chine forebody were examined and fluid mechanisms were established to account for their ineffectiveness in modulating the highly interactive forebody and wing vortex systems.

  13. Tactical lighting in special operations medicine: survey of current preferences.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Christopher J; Enzenauer, Robert W; Eisnor, Derek L; Laporta, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Success in Special Operations Forces medicine (SOFMED) is dependent on maximizing visual capability without compromising the provider or casualty position when under fire. There is no single ideal light source suitable for varied SOFMED environments. We present the results of an online survey of Special Operations Medical Operators in an attempt to determine strengths and weaknesses of current systems. There was no consensus ideal hue for tactical illumination. Most Operators own three or more lights, and most lights were not night vision compatible. Most importantly, nearly 25% of respondents reported that lighting issues contributed to a poor casualty outcome; conversely, a majority (50 of 74) stated their system helped prevent a poor outcome. Based on the results of this initial survey, we can affirm that the design and choice of lighting is critical to SOFMED success. We are conducting ongoing studies to further define ideal systems for tactical applications including field, aviation, and marine settings.

  14. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%.

  15. TACTIC: Trans-Agency Consortium for Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Mann, K G; Freeman, K

    2015-06-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) includes heterogeneous coagulopathic syndromes with different underlying causes, and treatment is challenged by limited diagnostic tests to discriminate between these entities in the acute setting. We provide an overview of progress in understanding the mechanisms of TIC and the context for several of the hypotheses that will be tested in 'TACTIC'. Although connected to ongoing clinical trials in trauma, TACTIC itself has no intent to conduct clinical trials. We do anticipate that 'early translation' of promising results will occur. Functions anticipated at this early translational level include: (i) basic science groundwork for future therapeutic candidates; (ii) development of acute coagulopathy scoring systems; (iii) coagulation factor composition-based computational analysis; (iv) characterization of novel analytes including tissue factor, polyphosphates, histones, meizothrombin and α-thrombin-antithrombin complexes, factor XIa, platelet and endothelial markers of activation, signatures of protein C activation and fibrinolysis markers; and (v) assessment of viscoelastic tests and new point-of-care methods.

  16. Migration costs drive convergence of threshold traits for migratory tactics.

    PubMed

    Sahashi, Genki; Morita, Kentaro

    2013-12-22

    Partial migration of some, but not all, members of a population is a common form of migration. We evaluated how migration costs influence which members migrate in 10 populations of two salmonid species. The migratory patterns of both species were evaluated based on the size at maturity for resident males, which is the threshold trait that determines the migratory tactics used within a population. In both species, this size was smaller in males located further from the sea, where migration costs are presumably higher. Moreover, the threshold sizes at maturity in males were correlated between both species. Our results suggest that migration costs are a significant convergent selective force on migratory tactics and life-history traits in nature.

  17. Strategies and tactics for optimizing the Hit-to-Lead process and beyond--a computational chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Manly, Charles J; Chandrasekhar, Jayaraman; Ochterski, Joseph W; Hammer, Jack D; Warfield, Benjamin B

    2008-02-01

    The Hit-to-Lead-to-Candidate process continues to evolve rapidly, and while technological advances offer much potential, the reality often pales to the promise. Conversely, strategies and tactics implementing existing technologies may result in more benefit in the end. This article focuses on some of the thinking and approaches that may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the beginnings of the drug discovery path. From the perspective of computational chemists, different types of strategy and philosophy of approach will be treated including: considerations of early lead choices, strategies for improving poor leads, multivariate optimization, opportunities for informatics, and engineering good decisions.

  18. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  19. Simulation and analysis of wing rock physics for a generic fighter model with three degrees-of-freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Ahmed Abdelaziz

    2000-12-01

    Modern fighter designs have been associated with lateral self-excited oscillations known as "Wing Rock". In this study, for the first time, wing rock is computationally simulated in three DoF: roll, sideslip, and vertical motion to study the effect of adding the sideslip and vertical motion. The results are for a generic fighter model consisting of a fore-body, a cropped delta wing, and a vertical fin. The effect of including the vertical fin is also studied. The interaction of aerodynamics and rigid-body dynamics during a single DoF wing rock for the wing-body configuration has been studied via snap shots of a cross-plane stagnation pressure distribution and tracing the instantaneous locations of vortex burst for an entire cycle of wing rock. An innovative explanation of the fluid mechanism that drives and sustains the motion has been introduced. The effect of adding the sideslip and vertical motion DoF to the simulations of the wing-body configuration was found to delay the onset and to reduce the amplitude of wing rock by about 50% with surprisingly no change in frequency. The wing rock simulation in three DoF was repeated for the full generic fighter model with the fin included. The aerodynamic effect of the fin was found to significantly delay the vortex burst on the upper surface of the wing. The net effect of the fin was found to augment the damping of the oscillations with significant increase in frequency.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-375-1861, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Los Angeles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, a study was made of possible toxic exposures experienced by fire fighters from the Los Angeles Fire Department, paramedics, and police officers during a chemical warehouse fire at Research Organic, Inorganic Chemical Corporation, Sun Valley, California. Numerous flammable, corrosive, and reactive compounds were stored at the warehouse at the time of the fire. Dermatological problems with rashes lasting more than 1 day after the fire were reported by 18 fire fighters and nine police officers. Neurotoxic symptoms of fatigue, forgetfulness, irritability, headaches, and difficulty sleeping were also reported. The neurotoxic symptoms lasted from a month to over a year. The authors conclude that the symptoms experienced by those working at the fire site are associated with exposures during the fire. Recommendations arising from the fire include the establishment of a response team with comprehensive training, state of the art protective equipment, protocols for addressing medical evaluation and decontamination issues, environmental sampling capability, and coordination with other emergency disaster responders.

  1. Low-speed investigation of effects of wing leading- and trailing-edge flap deflections and canard incidence on a fighter configuration equipped with a forward-swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainer, T. G.; Mann, M. J.; Huffman, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced fighter configuration with a forward-swept wing of aspect ratio 3.28 is tested in the Langley 7 by 10 Foot High Speed Tunnel at a Mach number of 0.3. The wing has 29.5 degrees of forward sweep of the quarter chord line and is equipped with 15 percent chord leading edge and 30 percent chord trailing edge flaps. The canard is sweptback 45 degrees. Tests were made through a range of angle of attack from about -2 degrees to 22 degrees. Deflecting the flaps significantly improves the lift drag characteristics at the higher angles of attack. The canard is able to trim the configurations with different flap deflections over most of the range of angle of attack. The penalty in maximum lift coefficient due to trimming is about 0.10.

  2. Technical-tactical analysis of youth olympic taekwondo combat.

    PubMed

    Tornello, Francesco; Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Chiodo, Salvatore; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the technical and tactical profiles of official youth taekwondo competitions played under the most recent rules of the International Taekwondo Federation. Tactical actions (i.e., attack, defense, and block), technical executions (from 1- to 4-point scores), kicking legs (i.e., front/rear and right/left), and overall technical effectiveness were investigated in relation to match outcome of semifinal and final competitions (n = 50) of youth (aged 13-14 years) black belt athletes during the Italian Taekwondo Cadet Championship. Differences (p < 0.001) were found among all action typologies (Attack: 50.9 ± 2.2%; Defense: 27.7 ± 1.5%; Block: 21.3 ± 1.6%), with winners showing fewer (p = 0.005) offensive actions and more (p = 0.001) defensive actions with respect to non-winners. Independently from match outcome, technical exchanges showed differences (p < 0.001) for technical executions. Winners resulted more efficient (p < 0.001) for both technical and tactical variables. In general, these findings showed that Cadets tend to adopt an offensive strategy. In considering that the adoption of the new electronic system requires athletes to execute correct technical actions to have a score assigned, coaches should emphasize the effectiveness of scoring techniques and help athletes to effectively improve their defense and counterattack capabilities. PMID:24077373

  3. Considerations for multiple hypothesis correlation on tactical platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Alan M.; Turpen, James E.

    2013-05-01

    Tactical platforms benefit greatly from the fusion of tracks from multiple sources in terms of increased situation awareness. As a necessary precursor to this track fusion, track-to-track association, or correlation, must first be performed. The related measurement-to-track fusion problem has been well studied with multiple hypothesis tracking and multiple frame assignment methods showing the most success. The track-to-track problem differs from this one in that measurements themselves are not available but rather track state update reports from the measuring sensors. Multiple hypothesis, multiple frame correlation systems have previously been considered; however, their practical implementation under the constraints imposed by tactical platforms is daunting. The situation is further exacerbated by the inconvenient nature of reports from legacy sensor systems on bandwidth- limited communications networks. In this paper, consideration is given to the special difficulties encountered when attempting the correlation of tracks from legacy sensors on tactical aircraft. Those difficulties include the following: covariance information from reporting sensors is frequently absent or incomplete; system latencies can create temporal uncertainty in data; and computational processing is severely limited by hardware and architecture. Moreover, consideration is given to practical solutions for dealing with these problems in a multiple hypothesis correlator.

  4. Technical-tactical analysis of youth olympic taekwondo combat.

    PubMed

    Tornello, Francesco; Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Chiodo, Salvatore; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the technical and tactical profiles of official youth taekwondo competitions played under the most recent rules of the International Taekwondo Federation. Tactical actions (i.e., attack, defense, and block), technical executions (from 1- to 4-point scores), kicking legs (i.e., front/rear and right/left), and overall technical effectiveness were investigated in relation to match outcome of semifinal and final competitions (n = 50) of youth (aged 13-14 years) black belt athletes during the Italian Taekwondo Cadet Championship. Differences (p < 0.001) were found among all action typologies (Attack: 50.9 ± 2.2%; Defense: 27.7 ± 1.5%; Block: 21.3 ± 1.6%), with winners showing fewer (p = 0.005) offensive actions and more (p = 0.001) defensive actions with respect to non-winners. Independently from match outcome, technical exchanges showed differences (p < 0.001) for technical executions. Winners resulted more efficient (p < 0.001) for both technical and tactical variables. In general, these findings showed that Cadets tend to adopt an offensive strategy. In considering that the adoption of the new electronic system requires athletes to execute correct technical actions to have a score assigned, coaches should emphasize the effectiveness of scoring techniques and help athletes to effectively improve their defense and counterattack capabilities.

  5. Tactical Defenses Against Systematic Variation in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of unexplained systematic variation on the reproducibility of wind tunnel test results. Sample means and variances estimated in the presence of systematic variations are shown to be susceptible to bias errors that are generally non-reproducible functions of those variations. Unless certain precautions are taken to defend against the effects of systematic variation, it is shown that experimental results can be difficult to duplicate and of dubious value for predicting system response with the highest precision or accuracy that could otherwise be achieved. Results are reported from an experiment designed to estimate how frequently systematic variations are in play in a representative wind tunnel experiment. These results suggest that significant systematic variation occurs frequently enough to cast doubts on the common assumption that sample observations can be reliably assumed to be independent. The consequences of ignoring correlation among observations induced by systematic variation are considered in some detail. Experimental tactics are described that defend against systematic variation. The effectiveness of these tactics is illustrated through computational experiments and real wind tunnel experimental results. Some tutorial information describes how to analyze experimental results that have been obtained using such quality assurance tactics.

  6. Defense and security of a wireless tactical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, Michael; Young, Stuart H.

    2001-08-01

    Recall the adage `a chain is as strong as its weakest link'- -a phrase that could serve as the official mantra of computer security. Operating Systems are difficult system to administer because it is not only complex and cantankerous but also hard to secure. They are enormous configurability, the fact that vendors don't ship secure systems, and that it requires significant amounts of time, resources, and expertise to safeguard a host are only some of the reasons that so many systems are insecure any type of network commercial or tactical. To compound the problem, like all modern operating systems it not only becomes less secure as time goes on (simply due to usage), but with the rapidly changing security field, it also requires considerably effort to stay abreast of the latest information. Army Research Labs is trying to address the security of the operating system in a tactical wireless environment. Through the use of public domain and/or commercial mans. ARL is evaluating monitoring, deployment, and auditing techniques to the wire commercial domain. By evaluating the wire domain ARL will determine what works and how they work in the tactical area. There are numerous ways to protect the wire/wireless network via public domain or commercial software.

  7. Redefining Tactical Operations for MER Using Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) includes the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which have been performing geological research and surface exploration since early 2004. The rovers' durability well beyond their original prime mission (90 sols or Martian days) has allowed them to be a valuable platform for scientific research for well over 2000 sols, but as a by-product it has produced new challenges in providing efficient and cost-effective tactical operational planning. An early stage process adaptation was the move to distributed operations as mission scientists returned to their places of work in the summer of 2004, but they would still came together via teleconference and connected software to plan rover activities a few times a week. This distributed model has worked well since, but it requires the purchase, operation, and maintenance of a dedicated infrastructure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This server infrastructure is costly to operate and the periodic nature of its usage (typically heavy usage for 8 hours every 2 days) has made moving to a cloud based tactical infrastructure an extremely tempting proposition. In this paper we will review both past and current implementations of the tactical planning application focusing on remote plan saving and discuss the unique challenges present with long-latency, distributed operations. We then detail the motivations behind our move to cloud based computing services and as well as our system design and implementation. We will discuss security and reliability concerns and how they were addressed

  8. Closed loop supply chain network design with fuzzy tactical decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mahtab; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.

  9. Structural identification and buffet alleviation of twin-tailed fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Badawy, Ayman Aly

    We tackle the problem of identifying the structural dynamics of the twin tails of the F-15 fighter plane. The objective is to first investigate and identify the different possible attractors that coexist for the same operating parameters. Second is to develop a model that simulates the experimentally determined dynamics. Third is to suppress the high-amplitude vibrations of the tails due to either principal parametric or external excitations. To understand the dynamical characteristics of the twin-tails, the model is excited parametrically. For the same excitation amplitude and frequency, five different responses are observed depending on the initial conditions. The coexisting five responses are the result of the nonlinearities. After the experimental identification of the system, we develop a model to capture the dynamics realized in the experiment. We devise a nonlinear control law based on cubic velocity feedback to suppress the response of the model to a principal parametric excitation. The performance of the control law is studied by comparing the open- and closed-loop responses of the system. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to verify the theoretical analysis. The theoretical and experimental findings indicate that the control law, not only leads to effective vibration suppression, but also to effective bifurcation control. We investigate the design of a neural-network-based adaptive control system for active vibration suppression of the model when subjected to a parametric excitation. First, an emulator neural network was trained to represent the structure and thus used to predict the future responses of the model. Second, a neurocontroller is developed to determine the necessary control action. The computer-simulation studies show great promise for artificial neural networks to control the model vibrations caused by parametric excitations. We investigate the use of four different control strategies to suppress high-amplitude responses of the F-15 fighter

  10. Laboratory automation: trajectory, technology, and tactics.

    PubMed

    Markin, R S; Whalen, S A

    2000-05-01

    modular approach, from a hardware-driven system to process control, from a one-of-a-kind novelty toward a standardized product, and from an in vitro diagnostics novelty to a marketing tool. Multiple vendors are present in the marketplace, many of whom are in vitro diagnostics manufacturers providing an automation solution coupled with their instruments, whereas others are focused automation companies. Automation technology continues to advance, acceptance continues to climb, and payback and cost justification methods are developing.

  11. Giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    PubMed

    Maerki, Jennifer; Riddle, Nicole D; Newman, Jason; Husson, Michael A; Lee, John Y K

    2012-10-01

    Background and Importance Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a rare, benign, non-neoplastic lesion of the head and neck. More common in the jaw bones, there have been few reports of the lesion arising in the temporal bone. Initially referred to as a "giant cell reparative granuloma," due to the previously accepted notion of its nature in attempting to repair areas of injury, the term "giant cell granuloma" is now more frequently used as this lesion has been found in patients without a history of trauma. In addition, several cases with a destructive nature, in contrast to a reparative one, have been observed. Clinical Presentation We report a case of GCG presenting as a head and neck tumor with dural attachments and extension into the middle cranial fossa in a mixed martial arts fighter. Conclusion Giant cell granulomas are typically treated surgically and have a good prognosis; however, care must be taken when they present in unusual locations. This case supports the theory of trauma and inflammation as risk factors for GCG. PMID:23946929

  12. Installation restoration program: Community relations plan. Minnesota Air National Guard 148th fighter wing

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Community Relations Plan has been developed as part of the Air National Guard`s Installation Restoration Program for the 148th Fighter Wing, Minnesota Air National Guard, Duluth, Minnesota. The Plan is part of the ongoing commitment by the Air National Guard to keep residents of the Duluth area informed about environmental restoration activities at the Duluth International Airport. The Plan describes the Installation Restoration Program and how it relates to the Minnesota Air National Guard, the environmental issues expressed by local residents, and the actions the Air National Guard will establish to maintain open and effective communications with its Duluth neighbors. The Air National Guard`s Installation Restoration Program is a nationwide effort to identify and resolve environmental problems that may have resulted from past practices or accidents on Air National Guard installations. These practices may have occurred years ago when the Air National Guard had limited knowledge of the environmental consequences associated with accidental spills or routine disposal of waste oils, cleaning solvents, fuels, and other substances.

  13. An occupational performance test validation program for fire fighters at the Kennedy Space Center.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, B R; Doerr, D F; Convertino, V A

    1990-07-01

    We evaluated performance of a modified Combat Task Test (CTT) and of standard fitness tests in 20 male subjects to assess the prediction of occupational performance standards for Kennedy Space Center fire fighters. The CTT consisted of stairclimbing, a chopping simulation, and a victim rescue simulation. Average CTT performance time was 3.61 +/- 0.25 min (SEM) and all CTT tasks required 93% to 97% maximal heart rate. By using scores from the standard fitness tests, a multiple linear regression model was fitted to each parameter: the stairclimb (r2 = .905, P less than .05), the chopping performance time (r2 = .582, P less than .05), the victim rescue time (r2 = .218, P = not significant), and the total performance time (r2 = .769, P less than .05). Treadmill time was the predominant variable, being the major predictor in two of four models. These results indicated that standardized fitness tests can predict performance on some CTT tasks and that test predictors were amenable to exercise training.

  14. Augmentation of fighter-aircraft performance by spanwise blowing over the wing leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.; Salomon, M.

    1983-01-01

    Spanwise blowing over the wing and canard of a 1:35 model of a close-coupled-canard fighter-airplane configuration (similar to the Kfir-C2) was investigated experimentally in low-speed flow. Tests were conducted at airspeeds of 30 m/sec (Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10 to the 5th power based on mean aerodynamic chord) with angle-of-attack sweeps from -8 deg to 60 deg, and yaw-angle sweeps from -8 deg to 36 deg at fixed angles of attack 0 deg, 10 deg, 20 deg, 25 deg, 30 deg, and 35 deg. Significant improvement in lift-curve slope, maximum lift, drag polar and lateral/directional stability was found, enlarging the flight envelope beyond its previous low-speed/maximum-lift limit. In spite of the highly swept (60 deg) leading edge, the efficiency of the lift augmentation by blowing was relatively high and was found to increase with increasing blowing momentum on the close-coupled-canard configuration. Interesting possibilities of obtaining much higher efficiencies with swirling jets were indicated.

  15. Relationship between emotional experience and resilience: an fMRI study in fire-fighters.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Guedj, Eric; Souville, Marc; Trousselard, Marion; Zendjidjian, Xavier; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Fakra, Eric; Nazarian, Bruno; Blin, Olivier; Canini, Frédéric; Khalfa, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Resilience refers to the capacity to cope effectively in stressful situations or adversity. It may involve the ability to experience emotions matching the demands of environmental circumstances. The brain mechanisms underlying resilience remain unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the relationship between the neural basis of emotional experience and resilience. Thirty-six fire-fighters were included. They performed an fMRI script-driven paradigm comprising relaxing and trauma-related scripts to evaluate the cerebral substrate of emotional experience (p<0.05, FDR-corrected). Correlations were examined between fMRI activations and the resilience DRS15 scale (p<0.05). Resilience was positively correlated with the right amygdala and left orbitofrontal activations when performing the contrast of trauma vs. relaxing script. The present study provides neural data on the mechanisms underlying resilience and their relationship with emotional reactivity, suggesting that appropriate emotional response in stressful situations is essential for coping with aversive events in daily life. PMID:23369802

  16. Fire fighters and rescuers monitoring through wearable sensors: The ProeTEX project.

    PubMed

    Magenes, Giovanni; Curone, Davide; Caldani, Laura; Secco, Emanuele Lindo

    2010-01-01

    The final generation of ProeTEX prototypes has been delivered in April 2010: it is based on two sets of sensorized garments devoted to monitor the health status of emergency operators working in harsh environments. This new release of garments shows several improvements with respect to the previous ones, and it is characterized by a major specialization to the requirements imposed by the different categories of end-users (Fire-Fighters, Civil Protection rescuers) addressed by the project. Each ProeTEX prototype is provided with a communication infrastructure allowing the real-time remote transmission of data recorded by the wearable sensors, and the presentation of such data to possible managers supervising the activities of the first line responders. After the delivery of the prototypes, an intense validation of the garments is being carried out both in laboratories, specialized in physiological measures, and in simulated fire-fighting scenarios. In such a context, this paper presents the main features characterizing the final ProeTEX prototypes and preliminary results of their laboratory assessment. PMID:21096839

  17. Injury risks of EMS responders: evidence from the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Davis, Andrea L; Barnes, Brittany; Lacovara, Alicia V; Patel, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed near-miss and injury events reported to the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) to investigate the workplace hazards and safety concerns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders in the USA. Methods We reviewed 769 ‘non-fire emergency event’ reports from the NFFNMRS using a mixed methods approach. We identified 185 emergency medical calls and analysed their narrative text fields. We assigned Mechanism of Near-Miss/Injury and Nature of Injury codes and then tabulated frequencies (quantitative). We coded major themes regarding work hazards and safety concerns reported by the EMS responders (qualitative). Results Of the 185 emergency medical calls, the most commonly identified Mechanisms of Near-Miss/Injury to EMS responders was Assaults, followed by Struck-by Motor Vehicle, and Motor Vehicle Collision. The most commonly identified weapon used in an assault was a firearm. We identified 5 major domains of workplace hazards and safety concerns: Assaults by Patients, Risks from Motor Vehicles, Personal Protective Equipment, Relationships between Emergency Responders, and Policies, Procedures and Practices. Conclusions Narrative text from the NFFNMRS is a rich source of data that can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to provide insight into near-misses and injuries sustained by EMS responders. Near-miss reporting systems are critical components for occupational hazard surveillance. PMID:26068510

  18. Transonic and supersonic Euler computations of vortex-dominated flow fields about a generic fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodsell, Aga M.; Melton, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Flow fields about a generic flighter model were computed using FL057, a 3-D, finite volume Euler code. Computed pressure coefficients, forces, and moments at several Mach numbers (0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6) are compared with wind tunnel data over a wide range of angles of attack in order to determine the applicability of the code for the analysis of fighter configurations. Two configurations were studied, a wing-body and a wing-body-chine. FL057 predicted pressure distributions, forces, and moments well at low angles of attack, at which the flow was fully attached. The FL057 predictions were also accurate for some test conditions once the leading edge vortex became well established. At the subsonic speeds, FL057 predicted vortex breakdown earlier than that seen in the experimental results. Placing the chine on the forebody delayed the onset of bursting and improved the correlation between numerical and experimental data at the subsonic conditions.

  19. An Occupational Performance Test Validation Program for Fire Fighters at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Brian R.; Doerr, Donald F.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated performance of a modified Combat Task Test (CTT) and of standard fitness tests in 20 male subjects to assess the prediction of occupational performance standards for Kennedy Space Center fire fighters. The CTT consisted of stair-climbing, a chopping simulation, and a victim rescue simulation. Average CTT performance time was 3.61 +/- 0.25 min (SEM) and all CTT tasks required 93% to 97% maximal heart rate. By using scores from the standard fitness tests, a multiple linear regression model was fitted to each parameter: the stairclimb (r(exp 2) = .905, P less than .05), the chopping performance time (r(exp 2) = .582, P less than .05), the victim rescue time (r(exp 2) = .218, P = not significant), and the total performance time (r(exp 2) = .769, P less than .05). Treadmill time was the predominant variable, being the major predictor in two of four models. These results indicated that standardized fitness tests can predict performance on some CTT tasks and that test predictors were amenable to exercise training.

  20. Transient aerodynamic forces on a fighter model during simulated approach and landing with thrust reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

  1. Augmentation of Fighter-Aircraft Performance by Spanwise Blowing over the Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.; Salomon, M.

    1983-01-01

    Spanwise blowing over the wing and canard of a 1:35 model of a close-coupled-canard fighter airplane configuration (similar to the Kfir-C2) was investigated experimentally in low-speed flow. Tests were conducted at airspeeds of 30 m/sec (Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10 to the 5th power based on mean aerodynamic chord) with angle-of-attack sweeps from -8 to 60 deg, and yaw-angle sweeps from -8 to 36 deg at fixed angles of attack 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg. Significant improvement in lift-curve slope, maximum lift, drag polar and lateral/directional stability was found, enlarging the flight envelope beyond its previous low-speed/maximum-lift limit. In spite of the highly swept (60 deg) leading edge, the efficiency of the lift augmentation by blowing was relatively high and was found to increase with increasing blowing momentum on the close-coupled-canard configuration. Interesting possibilities of obtaining much higher efficiencies with swirling jets were indicated.

  2. Comparison of Aero/Propulsion Transition Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumowicz, Tim; Margason, Richard; Wardwell, Doug; Hange, Craig; Arledge, Tom; Olson, Lawerence E. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Ames conducted a series tests of a large-scale powered model of Lockheed Martin Skunk Works' JSF STOVL configuration at the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The model uses a modified version of an F-16 fighter engine (a Pratt & Whitney F100-229 engine). To provide vertical flight capability, the Lockheed aircraft incorporates a forward fuselage mounted vertical lift fan in addition to an aft mounted vectoring nozzle all driven by a single engine. The lift fan is driven off the engine by means of a shaft and gear system. The data presented is for STOVL configuration 140, a wing-body-canard planform. The main goal of this testing was to obtain propulsion induced data for evaluating differences between small- and large-scale model testing during the transition flight regime between jet- and wing-borne flight. The data presented is from aerodynamic testing of the model in both the unpowered (engine-off) and powered (engine running) configurations. This data, when combined with the propulsion system thrust calibration data from the NASA Ames' Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility (OARF), is used to determine the propulsion induced effects during transition.

  3. Active Vortical Flow Control for Alleviation of Twin-Tail Buffet of Generic Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, E. F.; Harrand, V. J.; Huttsell, L. J.

    2001-08-01

    A multidisciplinary computational investigation has been conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the buffet problem using different active flow control methods. Tangential central blowing (TCB), tangential vortex blowing (TVB), and tangential spanwise blowing (TSB) methods were used to inject high-momentum fluid into the vortical flow of generic fighter aircraft flying at 30° angle of attack. The effect of blowing strength on the buffet responses is also investigated. The injection is aimed to strengthen the wing vortices and to delay the onset of breakdown in order to alleviate the twin-tail buffet. The results indicated that blowing directly into the core of the leading-edge vortices has more potential in controlling the buffet responses and in the reformation of unburst vortices with larger length. The TVB method produced the most favorable results with a reduction of about 43% in the buffet excitation parameter and a reduction of about 40% in the amplitude of bending deflection. This multidisciplinary investigation is conducted using the multidisciplinary computing environment (MDICE).

  4. Theoretical evaluation of a V/STOL fighter model utilizing the PAN AIR code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, G. A.; Bhateley, I. C.

    1982-01-01

    The PAN AIR computer code was investigated as a tool for predicting closely coupled aerodynamic and propulsive flowfields of arbitrary configurations. The NASA/Ames V/STOL fighter model, a configuration of complex geometry, was analyzed with the PAN AIR code. A successful solution for this configuration was obtained when the nozzle exit was treated as an impermeable surface and no wakes were included around the nozzle exit. When separated flow was simulated from the end of the nacelle, requiring the use of wake networks emanating from the nozzle exit, a number of problems were encountered. A circular body nacelle model was used to investigate various techniques for simulating the exhaust plume in PAN AIR. Several approaches were tested and eliminated because they could not correctly simulate the interference effects. Only one plume modeling technique gave good results. A PAN AIR computation that used a plume shape and inflow velocities obtained from the Navier-Stokes solution for the plume produced results for the effects of power that compared well with experimental data.

  5. Criteria for design of integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the U.S./U.K. STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at Ames Research Center. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot-gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying-qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  6. Tacticity control in the synthesis of poly(lactic acid) polymer stars with dipentaerythritol cores.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Michael P; Cameron, Donald J A

    2010-12-13

    The synthesis of a family of polymer stars with arms of varied tacticities is discussed. The effect of polymer tacticity on the physical properties of these polymer stars is presented. Dipentaerythritol cores support six poly(lactic acid) (PLA) arms. Lewis acidic tin and aluminum catalysts control the polymerization to afford polymer stars of variable tacticity. The analysis of these polymers by NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry reveals the effects of tacticity control on the physical properties of the polymer stars. Preliminary decomposition studies suggest that the biodegradation profile of a polymer star may also be tuned by stereochemical control. This is the first systematic altering of tacticity in PLA polymer stars, showing that polymer tacticity can have a great impact on star properties. PMID:21033736

  7. [Circular relation between children's social power cognition and daily use of influence tactics].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Masafumi; Fuchigami, Katsuyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study examines how children's social power cognitions about themselves and the collective efficacy of their classrooms affect their selection and use of influence tactics toward their classmates. The effect of daily usage of influence tactics by children on agents' perception of social power is also examined. The results of linear regression analysis indicate that children who see themselves as friendly holders of power deriving from the perception of affable friendships use both collaborative and coercive influence tactics. While the use of collaborative tactics encourages agents' friendly social power cognition, the use of coercive tactics only reinforces their coercive power cognition. In addition, it is suggested that the effect of social power over agents' use of influence tactics is moderated by the collective efficacy of their classroom.

  8. Tacticity control in the synthesis of poly(lactic acid) polymer stars with dipentaerythritol cores.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Michael P; Cameron, Donald J A

    2010-12-13

    The synthesis of a family of polymer stars with arms of varied tacticities is discussed. The effect of polymer tacticity on the physical properties of these polymer stars is presented. Dipentaerythritol cores support six poly(lactic acid) (PLA) arms. Lewis acidic tin and aluminum catalysts control the polymerization to afford polymer stars of variable tacticity. The analysis of these polymers by NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry reveals the effects of tacticity control on the physical properties of the polymer stars. Preliminary decomposition studies suggest that the biodegradation profile of a polymer star may also be tuned by stereochemical control. This is the first systematic altering of tacticity in PLA polymer stars, showing that polymer tacticity can have a great impact on star properties.

  9. Affective Decision-Making and Tactical Behavior of Under-15 Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Adeilton dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (≤25%) and high (≥75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z = −3.133; p = 0.002; r = −0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z = −2.267; p = 0.023; r = −0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players. PMID:24978030

  10. Affective decision-making and tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Adeilton dos Santos; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Greco, Pablo Juan; Teoldo da Costa, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a type of Executive Function related to cost benefit analysis in situations where gains and losses imply direct consequences for the subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the affective decision-making on tactical behavior in soccer players under the age of 15 years old. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT) was used to assess tactical behavior. To evaluate affective decision-making, we used the neuropsychological test called The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The values of the offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior of participants were used to create performance groups. The low (≤25%) and high (≥75%) groups, according to offensive, defensive and game tactical behavior, were compared and shown to be different. The values of the IGT net score of the participants with low and high tactical behavior were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for Defensive Tactical Behavior (Z = -3.133; p = 0.002; r = -0.355) and Game Tactical Behavior (Z = -2.267; p = 0.023; r = -0.260). According to these results, it is possible to state that affective decision-making can influence the tactical behavior of under-15 soccer players. PMID:24978030

  11. Ethical considerations in embedding a surgeon in a military or civilian tactical team.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Lewis J; Siegel, Mark D; Eastman, Alexander L; Flynn, Lisa M; Rosenbaum, Stanley H; Cone, David C; Blake, David P; Mulhern, Jonathan

    2012-12-01

    Tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) bring immediate medical support to the inner perimeter of special weapons and tactics team activations. While initially envisioned as a role for an individual dually trained as a police officer and paramedic, TEMS is increasingly undertaken by physicians and paramedics who are not police officers. This report explores the ethical underpinnings of embedding a surgeon within a military or civilian tactical team with regard to identity, ethically acceptable actions, triage, responsibility set, training, certification, and potential future refinements of the role of the tactical police surgeon. PMID:22985714

  12. Mobile close combat tactical trainer location and routing model

    SciTech Connect

    Djang, P.; Scott, M.

    1994-12-31

    In the short term future, the Army will purchase 21 Mobile Close Combat Tactical Trainers (MCCTTs) for the Reserve Component. The Army plans to buy 11 Armor and 10 Infantry versions of these trainers. The trainers are high fidelity simulators that teach tactical operations at the company and platoon level. The simulators are mounted on 3 tractor-trailers and are capable of traveling to the cities, towns and villages (known as home stations) where the Reserve Component platoons reside. The TRADOC System Manager - Combined Arms Tactical Trainer requested that TRAC-WSMR conduct a stationing analysis to determine where these devices should be located. We have created location and routing models for both Armor and Infantry MCCTTs. We developed a p-median model to determine the locations that minimize the distance between the MCCTTs and a number of home stations. Once we know where to locate the MCCTTs, we developed transportation, set covering and traveling salesperson models to decide the routing strategy that minimizes the distance the MCCTTs must travel, thereby prolonging their life. Our models insure that all platoons receive a minimum of three MCCTT training sessions per year and that the units do not have to travel more than 60 miles away from their home. If the Army uses the same routing strategy for the MCCTTs as they have done for a predecessor system, then our efforts have estimated annual savings of 700, 000 or 10 Million over the system life. Finally, given the current training requirement, our work demonstrates that the Army`s procurement strategy needs to be adjusted; we show that the Army needs to buy fewer Infantry MCCTTs than planned; we show that if the excess is converted to Armor MCCTTs, then a less expensive overall solution can be computed.

  13. Smarter Instruments, Smarter Archives: Machine Learning for Tactical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Kiran, R.; Allwood, A.; Altinok, A.; Estlin, T.; Flannery, D.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a growing interest by Earth and Planetary Sciences in machine learning, visualization and cyberinfrastructure to interpret ever-increasing volumes of instrument data. Such tools are commonly used to analyze archival datasets, but they can also play a valuable real-time role during missions. Here we discuss ways that machine learning can benefit tactical science decisions during Earth and Planetary Exploration. Machine learning's potential begins at the instrument itself. Smart instruments endowed with pattern recognition can immediately recognize science features of interest. This allows robotic explorers to optimize their limited communications bandwidth, triaging science products and prioritizing the most relevant data. Smart instruments can also target their data collection on the fly, using principles of experimental design to reduce redundancy and generally improve sampling efficiency for time-limited operations. Moreover, smart instruments can respond immediately to transient or unexpected phenomena. Examples include detections of cometary plumes, terrestrial floods, or volcanism. We show recent examples of smart instruments from 2014 tests including: aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments that recognize cloud contamination, field tests of a "smart camera" for robotic surface geology, and adaptive data collection by X-Ray fluorescence spectrometers. Machine learning can also assist human operators when tactical decision making is required. Terrestrial scenarios include airborne remote sensing, where the decision to re-fly a transect must be made immediately. Planetary scenarios include deep space encounters or planetary surface exploration, where the number of command cycles is limited and operators make rapid daily decisions about where next to collect measurements. Visualization and modeling can reveal trends, clusters, and outliers in new data. This can help operators recognize instrument artifacts or spot anomalies in real time

  14. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy. PMID:2042714

  15. Tactical Automated Security System (TASS) operational concept field evaluation results

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, D.; Vinkels, G.

    1995-12-31

    The worldwide quick reaction deployment concept for the Tactical Automated Security System (TASS) was demonstrated to have great value in a base defense operational exercise. TASS equipment was deployed and used as part of the Foal Eagle 94 exercise at Kunsan AB, Korea. The TASS functions of detection, data communication, annunciation, assessment and portable power were evaluated using prototype equipment. The results of the TASS operation during the exercise was very impressive. The friendly forces quickly incorporated the TASS equipment into their defensive operations and were able to intercept and neutralize approximately 80% of the aggressor force penetration attempts at the defensive perimeter.

  16. Advanced Tennis for Coaches, Teachers and Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmanis, Gundars A.

    This book is designed to help the reader attain a real understanding of the mechanics of tennis. It provides an important link between tennis theory and practice. The book covers activities that develop skills in beginners through advanced tennis and tactics applicable for seasoned players. The author draws upon scientific principles of…

  17. A Longitudinal Assessment of Structural and Chemical Alterations in Mixed Martial Arts Fighters.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Ling, Josef M; Dodd, Andrew B; Gasparovic, Charles; Klimaj, Stefan D; Meier, Timothy B

    2015-11-15

    Growing evidence suggests that temporally proximal acute concussions and repetitive subconcussive head injuries may lead to long-term neurological deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms of injury and their relative time-scales are not well documented in human injury models. The current study therefore investigated whether biomarkers of brain chemistry (magnetic resonance [MR] spectroscopy: N-acetylaspartate [NAA], combined glutamate and glutamine [Glx], total creatine [Cre], choline compounds [Cho], and myo-inositol [mI]) and structure (cortical thickness, white matter [WM]/subcortical volume) differed between mixed martial artists (MMA; n = 13) and matched healthy controls (HC) without a history of contact sport participation (HC; n = 14). A subset of participants (MMA = 9; HC = 10) returned for follow-up visits, with MMA (n = 3) with clinician-documented acute concussions also scanned serially. As expected, MMA self-reported a higher incidence of previous concussions and significantly more cognitive symptoms during prior concussion recovery. Fighters also exhibited reduced memory and processing speed relative to controls on neuropsychological testing coupled with cortical thinning in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and right occipital cortex at baseline assessment. Over a 1-year follow-up period, MMA experienced a significant decrease in both WM volume and NAA concentration, as well as relative thinning in the left middle and superior frontal gyri. These longitudinal changes did not correlate with self-reported metrics of injury (i.e., fight diary). In contrast, HC did not exhibit significant longitudinal changes over a 4-month follow-up period (p > 0.05). Collectively, current results provide preliminary evidence of progressive changes in brain chemistry and structure over a relatively short time period in individuals with high exposure to repetitive head hits. These findings require replication in independent samples.

  18. Icing Frequencies Experienced During Climb and Descent by Fighter-Interceptor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1958-01-01

    Data and analyses are presented on the relative frequencies of occurrence and severity of icing cloud layers encountered by jet aircraft in the climb and descent phases of flights to high altitudes. Fighter-interceptor aircraft operated by the Air Defense Command (USAF) at bases in the Duluth and Seattle areas collected the data with icing meters installed for a l-year period. The project was part of an extensive program conducted by the NACA to collect Icing cloud data for evaluating the icing problem relevant to routine operations. The average frequency of occurrence of icing was found to be about 5 percent of the number of climbs and descents during 1 year of operations The icing encounters were predominantly in the low and middle cloud layers, decreasing above 15,000 feet to practically none above 25,000 feet. The greatest thickness of ice that would accumulate on any aircraft component (as indicated by the accretion on a small object) was measured with the icing meters. The ice thicknesses on a small sensing probe averaged less than 1/32 inch and did not exceed 1/2 inch. Such accumulations are relatively small when compared with those that can form during horizontal flight in icing clouds. The light accretions resulted from relatively steep angles of flight through generally thin cloud layers. Because of the limited statistical reliability of the results, an analysis was made using previous statistics on icing clouds below an altitude of 20,000 feet to determine the general icing severity probabilities. The calculations were made using adiabatic lifting as a basis to establish the liquid-water content. Probabilities of over-all ice accretions on a small object as a function of airspeed and rate of climb were computed from the derived water contents. These results were then combined with the probability of occurrence of icing in order to give the icing severity that can be expected for routine aircraft operations.

  19. A Longitudinal Assessment of Structural and Chemical Alterations in Mixed Martial Arts Fighters.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Ling, Josef M; Dodd, Andrew B; Gasparovic, Charles; Klimaj, Stefan D; Meier, Timothy B

    2015-11-15

    Growing evidence suggests that temporally proximal acute concussions and repetitive subconcussive head injuries may lead to long-term neurological deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms of injury and their relative time-scales are not well documented in human injury models. The current study therefore investigated whether biomarkers of brain chemistry (magnetic resonance [MR] spectroscopy: N-acetylaspartate [NAA], combined glutamate and glutamine [Glx], total creatine [Cre], choline compounds [Cho], and myo-inositol [mI]) and structure (cortical thickness, white matter [WM]/subcortical volume) differed between mixed martial artists (MMA; n = 13) and matched healthy controls (HC) without a history of contact sport participation (HC; n = 14). A subset of participants (MMA = 9; HC = 10) returned for follow-up visits, with MMA (n = 3) with clinician-documented acute concussions also scanned serially. As expected, MMA self-reported a higher incidence of previous concussions and significantly more cognitive symptoms during prior concussion recovery. Fighters also exhibited reduced memory and processing speed relative to controls on neuropsychological testing coupled with cortical thinning in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and right occipital cortex at baseline assessment. Over a 1-year follow-up period, MMA experienced a significant decrease in both WM volume and NAA concentration, as well as relative thinning in the left middle and superior frontal gyri. These longitudinal changes did not correlate with self-reported metrics of injury (i.e., fight diary). In contrast, HC did not exhibit significant longitudinal changes over a 4-month follow-up period (p > 0.05). Collectively, current results provide preliminary evidence of progressive changes in brain chemistry and structure over a relatively short time period in individuals with high exposure to repetitive head hits. These findings require replication in independent samples. PMID

  20. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and <10 cm range accuracy through foliage in real-time. The 3D imaging flash ladar is designed for a STUAS with a complete system SWAP estimate of <9 kg, <0.2 m3 and <350 W power. The system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  1. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%. PMID:24508904

  2. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  3. Net-centric communities for the tactical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, Mark; Crocker, Mel; Morton, Cindy; Stein, Fred

    2008-04-01

    Tactical net-centric systems must support the exchange of multi-media information among traditional and non-traditional partners in a highly complex and dynamic environment across the full spectrum of operations. These systems also need to support the establishment of both static and dynamic groups of users able to get the right information, to the right person, at the right time, with adequate information assurance - all without compromising the ability of others to use the limited network resources to do the same. We refer to these dynamic groups of users as Communities of Interest (CoIs). CoIs provide a conceptual framework in which these capabilities can be implemented whilst ensuring usability, agility, security and an overall management approach that abstracts away the complexities and challenges of the operational environment. This paper introduces several system technologies in the areas of networking, security and information management and puts them into an evolutionary system context that realizes maximum returns on investments, facilitating the achievement of net-centricity in the tactical environment.

  4. The Challenge To Tactical Reconnaissance: Timeliness Through Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Richard D.

    1984-12-01

    As you have no doubt gathered from Mr. Henkel's introduction, I have spent over 20 years of my Air Force career involved in the reconnaissance mission either as a tactical reconnaissance pilot, as a tactical reconnaissance inspector, as a writer and speaker on that subject while attending the Air Force Professional Military Education Schools, and currently as the Air Force's operational manager for reconnaissance aircraft. In all of those positions, I've been challenged many times over with what appeared, at first, to be insurmountable problems that upon closer examination weren't irresolvable after all. All of these problems pale, however, when viewed side-by-side with the one challenge that has faced me since I began my military career and, in fact, faces all of us as I talk with you today. That one challenge is the problem of timeliness. Better put: "Getting information to our customers firstest with the mostest." Together we must develop better platforms and sensors to cure this age-old "Achilles heel" in the reconnaissance cycle. Despite all of our best intentions, despite all of the emerging technologies that will be available, and despite all of the dollars that we've thrown at research and development, we in the reconnaissance business still haven't done a good job in this area. We must do better.

  5. Graphical user interface concepts for tactical augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenta, Chris; Murphy, Anne; Hinton, Jeremy; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Steve

    2010-04-01

    Applied Research Associates and BAE Systems are working together to develop a wearable augmented reality system under the DARPA ULTRA-Vis program†. Our approach to achieve the objectives of ULTRAVis, called iLeader, incorporates a full color 40° field of view (FOV) see-thru holographic waveguide integrated with sensors for full position and head tracking to provide an unobtrusive information system for operational maneuvers. iLeader will enable warfighters to mark-up the 3D battle-space with symbologic identification of graphical control measures, friendly force positions and enemy/target locations. Our augmented reality display provides dynamic real-time painting of symbols on real objects, a pose-sensitive 360° representation of relevant object positions, and visual feedback for a variety of system activities. The iLeader user interface and situational awareness graphical representations are highly intuitive, nondisruptive, and always tactically relevant. We used best human-factors practices, system engineering expertise, and cognitive task analysis to design effective strategies for presenting real-time situational awareness to the military user without distorting their natural senses and perception. We present requirements identified for presenting information within a see-through display in combat environments, challenges in designing suitable visualization capabilities, and solutions that enable us to bring real-time iconic command and control to the tactical user community.

  6. Airborne Tactical Intent-Based Conflict Resolution Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations with self-separation involve the aircraft taking the primary role in the management of its own trajectory in the presence of other traffic. In this role, the flight crew assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the aircraft remains separated from all other aircraft by at least a minimum separation standard. These operations are enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance and by airborne automation systems that provide essential monitoring and decision support functions for the flight crew. An airborne automation system developed and used by NASA for research investigations of required functionality is the Autonomous Operations Planner. It supports the flight crew in managing their trajectory when responsible for self-separation by providing monitoring and decision support functions for both strategic and tactical flight modes. The paper focuses on the latter of these modes by describing a capability for tactical intent-based conflict resolution and its role in a comprehensive suite of automation functions supporting trajectory-based operations with self-separation.

  7. Skill and tactical development during a sport education season.

    PubMed

    Hastie, P A

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of skill competence and tactical sophistication during a games unit conducted following the features of sport education provided by Siedentop (1994). One team of six players was followed through a 30-lesson season of "Ultimate." Using Gréhaigne, Godbout, and Bouthier's (1997) formula for an efficiency index, together with a number of other measures of skill and tactical competence, it was determined that these students made significant improvements in selection and execution dimensions of the game. Furthermore, lower skilled students did not feel marginalized within their teams and believed they had equal opportunities for improvement. The key reasons for developing competence in this setting were the sufficient length of the season to allow for significant practice opportunities and the consistent team membership throughout season, which allowed all players to develop a sense of usefulness. This curriculum model provides one way students can develop skills through a system of game playing, provided sport education units are structured to prevent the more skillful players from dominating the games.

  8. Calculation of the Lateral Stability of a Directly Coupled Tandem-Towed Fighter Airplane and Correlation with Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanks, Robert E.

    1958-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for predicting the dynamic lateral stability characteristics of an airplane towed in tandem by a much larger airplane. Values of period and time to damp to one-half amplitude and rolling motions calculated by an analog computer have been correlated with results of two experimental investigations conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel which were part of a U.S. Air Force program (Project FICON) to develop a satisfactory arrangement by which a bomber could tow a parasite fighter. In general, the theoretical results agree with the experimental results.

  9. Flight Reynolds number effects on a fighter-type, circular-arc-19 deg conic boattail nozzle at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    A circular-arc - conic boattail nozzle, typical of those used on a twin engine fighter, was tested on an underwing nacelle mounted on an F-106B aircraft. The boattail had a radius ratio r/r sub c of 0.41 and a terminal boattail angle of approximately 19 deg. The gas generator was a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine. The effects of Reynolds number and angle of attack on boattail pressure drag and boattail pressure profiles were investigated. Increasing Reynolds number resulted in reduced boattail drag at both Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.9.

  10. Analysis of Effect of Rolling Pull-Outs on Wing and Aileron Loads of a Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Henry A.; Aiken, William S.

    1946-01-01

    An analysis was made to determine the effect of rolling pull-out maneuvers on the wing and aileron loads of a typical fighter airplane, the P-47B. The results obtained indicate that higher loads are imposed upon wings and ailerons because of the rolling pull-out maneuver, than would be obtained by application of the loading requirements to which the airplane was designed. An increase of 102 lb or 15 percent of wing weight would be required if the wing were designed for rolling pull-out maneuver. It was also determined that the requirements by which the aileron was originally designed were inadequate.

  11. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    PubMed

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  12. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  13. Tactics and Strategies of Relationship-Based Practice: Reassessing the Institutionalization of Community Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This essay revises Paula Mathieu's call for relationship-based tactics of engagement over institution-based strategies. Because engaged scholars operate within institutional contexts, they should utilize both tactics and strategies to make the academic institutional paradigm more conducive to relationship-based engagement. In supporting this…

  14. A Tactical-Game Approach and Enhancement of Metacognitive Behaviour in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Digelidis, N.; Karatzoglidis, C.; Dean, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: "Teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) is a tactical-game approach to teaching, in which participants are learning via the processes intrinsic to the games themselves. Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a tactical-game model in promoting metacognitive behaviour in elementary-school students.…

  15. 78 FR 20120 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Joint Technical Demonstration of Tactical Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative... Tactical Data Link Range Enhancement Software AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of intent; request..., and document contributions of tactical data link (TDL) range enhancement software technologies...

  16. Investigating User Search Tactic Patterns and System Support in Using Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Soohyung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate users' search tactic application and system support in using digital libraries. A user study was conducted with sixty digital library users. The study was designed to answer three research questions: 1) How do users engage in a search process by applying different types of search tactics while conducting different…

  17. The Persuade Package Hypothesis: Further Evidence for an Influence Tactics Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinis, Herman; And Others

    Researchers interested in social power in organizational contexts have focused on investigating whether situational factors affect people's preferences for types of influence tactics. The persuade package is defined as a small standard set of methods (influence tactics) that leads to a particular goal (persuade the target to do something). The…

  18. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  19. Two vs. One Keep Away: A Simple Game of Beginning Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belka, David E.

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade or so, there has been a shift toward small-sided games played in smaller spaces, with limited rules and an emphasis on tactics. The goal of the current instruction is to use less complex game settings to develop players who then learn to make more appropriate and quicker tactical decisions. In this article, the author presents…

  20. Offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Hindawi, Omar S; Orabi, Samira; Al Arjan, Jafar; Judge, Lawrence W; Cottingham, Michael; Bellar, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making of Arab basketball players, and to determine if there are differences in the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making within the various disability classifications of Arab basketball players. A twenty-question survey was formulated to assess decision-making in offensive tactical situations in wheelchair basketball players. Participants in the present study were 108 athletes from 10 Arab national teams participating in wheelchair basketball. The mean offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in the 20 different situations in the Arab countries ranged between 1.38-2.84, and the standard deviations for these 20 means ranged from 0.41 to 0.90. The total mean of all tactical situations was 2.33, which is moderate thinking level. The influence of the disability classification on the offensive tactical thinking of wheelchair basketball players was addressed by examining the data via a one-way ANOVA. The ANOVA revealed no significant differences among disability classifications/categories in tactical thinking (F(3, 104)=1.12, p=0.34). This study represents the first attempt to identify why Arab nations have not consistently qualified for the Paralympics or World Championships. These findings indicate that the moderate offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players on Arab national teams may be part of the reason that performances of these teams have not been as strong as they would like.

  1. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a porous forebody and nose strakes for yaw control of a multirole fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, Scott P.

    1995-01-01

    Low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel on a model of the Boeing Multirole Fighter (BMRF) aircraft. This single-seat, single-engine configuration was intended to be an F-16 replacement that would incorporate many of the design goals and advanced technologies of the F-22. Its mission requirements included supersonic cruise without afterburner, reduced observability, and the ability to attack both air-to-air and air-to-ground targets. So that it would be effective in all phases of air combat, the ability to maneuver at angles of attack up to and beyond maximum lift was also desired. Traditional aerodynamic yaw controls, such as rudders, are typically ineffective at these higher angles of attack because they are usually located in the wake from the wings and fuselage. For this reason, this study focused on investigating forebody-mounted controls that produces yawing moments by modifying the strong vortex flowfield being shed from the forebody at high angles of attack. Two forebody strakes were tested that varied in planform and chordwise location. Various patterns of porosity in the forebody skin were also tested that differed in their radial coverage and chordwise location. The tests were performed at a dynamic pressure of 4 lb/ft(exp 2) over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 72 deg and a sideslip range of -10 deg to 10 deg. Static force data, static pressures on the surface of the forebody, and videotapes of flow-visualization using laser-illuminated smoke were obtained.

  2. Application of a helicopter mathematical model to the Langley differential maneuvering simulator for use in a helicopter/fighter evasive maneuver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Ashworth, B. R.; Baker, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A real time simulation study was conducted using a differential maneuvering simulator to determine and evaluate helicopter evasive maneuvers when attacked by fighter aircraft. A general helicopter mathematical model was modified to represent an H-53 helicopter. The helicopter model was compared to H-53 flight test data to determine any differences between the simulated and actual vehicles. The simulated helicopter was also subjectively validated by participating pilots. Two fighter mathematical models validated in previous studies were utilized for the attacking aircraft. The results of this simulation study have been verified in a flight test program conducted by the U. S. Air Force and were found to closely match the flight results.

  3. Effects of expert testimony and interrogation tactics on perceptions of confessions.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Morgan S; Platania, Judith

    2007-04-01

    Evidence obtained through the process of interrogation is frequently undermined by what can be perceived as overzealous interrogation tactics. Although the majority of psychologically oriented tactics are legally permissible, they nonetheless contribute to innocent suspects confessing to crimes they did not commit. The present study examined the effect of expert testimony and interrogation tactics on perceptions of a confession. 182 undergraduates read a transcript of a homicide trial that varied based on interrogation tactic: implicit threat of punishment (maximization) or leniency (minimization) and expert witness testimony (presence or absence of expert testimony). Analysis indicated that the type of interrogation tactic used in obtaining the confession affected participants' perceptions of the coerciveness of the interrogation process.

  4. Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

    2011-06-01

    Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. PMID:21534964

  5. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  6. Qualification of the flight-critical AFTI/F-16 digital flight control system. [Advanced Fighter Technology Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.; Ishmael, S. D.; Regenie, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Qualification considerations for assuring the safety of a life-critical digital flight control system include four major areas: systems interactions, verification, validation, and configuration control. The AFTI/F-16 design, development, and qualification illustrate these considerations. In this paper, qualification concepts, procedures, and methodologies are discussed and illustrated through specific examples.

  7. High angle-of-attack aerodynamics of a strake-canard-wing V/STOL fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, D. A.; Schreiner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    High angle-of-attack aerodynamic data are analyzed for a strake-canard-wing V/STOL fighter configuration. The configuration represents a twin-engine supersonic V/STOL fighter aircraft which uses four longitudinal thrust-augmenting ejectors to provide vertical lift. The data were obtained in tests of a 9.39 percent scale model of the configuration in the NASA Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel, at a Mach number of 0.2. Trimmed aerodynamic characteristics, longitudinal control power, longitudinal and lateral/directional stability, and effects of alternate strake and canard configurations are analyzed. The configuration could not be trimmed (power-off) above 12 deg angle of attack because of the limited pitch control power and the high degree of longitudinal instability (28 percent) at this Mach number. Aerodynamic center location was found to be controllable by varying strake size and canard location without significantly affecting lift and drag. These configuration variations had relatively little effect on the lateral/directional stability up to 10 deg angle of attack.

  8. Hierarchical target model analysis of tactical thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harry C.; Olson, Teresa L. P.; Sefcik, Jason A.

    2002-07-01

    Hierarchical Target Model Analysis (HTMA) is an automatic pattern matching process for categorizing tactical targets. Stored target model information is re-projected into the image space using the sensor camera model state vector. The analysis is carried out in image gradient angle space for greater flexibility and reduced processing. Re-sampling the gradient angle space allows the classification process to work at a wider variety of target ranges. The target model database is built from an assortment of both target operating and background environmental conditions. Incremental classification is possible by applying the matching strategy at increasing target resolution levels that are either self or range closure induced. The first application of this process has been on thermal imagery. It can easily be extended to other image domains.

  9. Simulated predator attacks on flocks: a comparison of tactics.

    PubMed

    Demšar, Jure; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2014-01-01

    It is not exactly known why birds aggregate in coordinated flocks. The most common hypothesis proposes that the reason is protection from predators. Most of the currently developed examples of individual-based predator-prey models assume predators are attracted to the center of a highly coordinated flock. This proposed attraction of a predator to a flock would appear to be contradictory to an alternate hypothesis that flocks evolved as a protection against predation. In an attempt to resolve this apparent conflict, in this article we use a fuzzy individual-based model to study three attack tactics (attack center, attack nearest, attack isolated) and analyze the success of predation on two types of prey (social and individualistic). Our simulations revealed that social flocking (as opposed to individualistic behavior) is the optimal anti-predatory response to predators attacking mainly isolated individuals. PMID:24730766

  10. Drug promotion tactics-yet another pharma deception?

    PubMed

    Tagore, A

    2014-06-01

    There is no doubting that in recent times, the pharmaceutical industry has been met with growing scepticism and outright mistrust from many quarters. This is primarily in relation to the controversy surrounding many drug companies' decision to withhold negative clinical trial data from public scrutiny. The practice of non-disclosure relating to such negative findings leads to erroneously exaggerated claims of efficacy or minimised reports of harm in relation to a drug. In the UK, the All Trials Initiative is spearheading the lobbying of government, regulators and research bodies to impose mandatory disclosure of all clinical trial data. But what if these initiatives actually succeeded in achieving their goals? Would this really signify an absolute victory over the pharmaceutical industry's use of deceptive tactics to mislead doctors and patients alike? Or do they have other ways and means of manipulation?

  11. Parametric simulation of tactical single channel frequency modulated communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, P. A., Jr.

    1980-09-01

    This thesis presents a stochastic simulation model of single channel FM communications that is designed to be used in conjunction with the Simulation of Tactical Alternative Responses (STAR) Combat Model. The communications modelled, the assumptions made, and the interface requirements necessary for inclusion of the communications model in the STAR Combat Model are explained in detail. The computer code that is used to execute the Communications Model is included in the appendices. An overview is given of those portions of the basic STAR Model with which the Communications Model interfaces directly to provide the reader with sufficient background for the discussion of the Communications Model. The communications input requirements of the model, a definition of the purpose of each routine and event, and definitions of each global variable, set, and entity are provided so that this thesis can serve as a user's manual for the Communications Model.

  12. Biomechanical tactics of chiral growth in emergent aquatic macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Li, Bing-Wei; Nie, Ben-Dian; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    Through natural selection, many plant organs have evolved optimal morphologies at different length scales. However, the biomechanical strategies for different plant species to optimize their organ structures remain unclear. Here, we investigate several species of aquatic macrophytes living in the same natural environment but adopting distinctly different twisting chiral morphologies. To reveal the principle of chiral growth in these plants, we performed systematic observations and measurements of morphologies, multiscale structures, and mechanical properties of their slender emergent stalks or leaves. Theoretical modeling of pre-twisted beams in bending and buckling indicates that the different growth tactics of the plants can be strongly correlated with their biomechanical functions. It is shown that the twisting chirality of aquatic macrophytes can significantly improve their survivability against failure under both internal and external loads. The theoretical predictions for different chiral configurations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:26219724

  13. Summary of the psychological effects of tactical nuclear warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, G.R.

    1984-04-01

    The psychological component of the response of combat troops to tactical nuclear warfare is a troublesome variable which plagues military planners and commanders responsible for the preparation of the armed forces for the eventuality that nuclear weapons might one day be used in armed conflict. The devastating physical effects of nuclear weapons have been extensively documented and the biological response of animals and humans to radiation has also been well studied, but very little is known concerning the probable effects of experiencing a nuclear attack, upon the emotional stability, morale, and motivation of soldiers to perform their assigned duties. The literature addressing this topic has been reviewed and evaluated as part of the Defense Nuclear Agency's Intermediate Dose Program. A summary of the report resulting from this effort is presented herein. The full literature review and accompanying bibliography are available from the author upon request.

  14. Jitter control for an initially stablized tactical rifle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alejandro; Lindner, Douglas K.; LaVigna, Chris; Brei, Diann

    2007-04-01

    While good marksmanship is the key to the effectiveness of the infantry mission, all soldiers experience a decrease in accuracy due to combat stress that generates detrimental physiological effects. INSTAR is a tactical rifle designed to address these effects by decoupling unwanted shooter-induced disturbances from the barrel via an active suspension system. Previous papers have addressed the design of the active suspension system: the actuation, driving electronics and power supply. In this paper we consider the development of the jitter control system. Beginning with an analytical model of the gun that includes the shooter, we develop the appropriate model for the design of the control system. We investigate two designs. The first design is based on lead compensation. The second design is based on LQG. Both designs show that the control system can effectively reduce the jitter to acceptable levels. The classical compensator demonstrates better transient performance.

  15. Tactic, reactive, and functional droplets outside of equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Lach, Sławomir; Yoon, Seok Min; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-08-22

    Under non-equilibrium conditions, liquid droplets coupled to their environment by sustained flows of matter and/or energy can become "active" systems capable of various life-like functions. When "fueled" by even simple chemical reactions, such droplets can become tactic and can perform "intelligent" tasks such as maze solving. With more complex chemistries, droplets can support basic forms of metabolism, grow, self-replicate, and exhibit evolutionary changes akin to biological cells. There are also first exciting examples of active droplets connected into larger, tissue-like systems supporting droplet-to-droplet communication, and giving rise to collective material properties. As practical applications of droplets also begin to appear (e.g., in single-cell diagnostics, new methods of electricity generation, optofluidics, or sensors), it appears timely to review and systematize progress in this highly interdisciplinary area of chemical research, and also think about the avenues (and the roadblocks) for future work.

  16. Financial management and dental school equity, Part II: Tactics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W; Bergstrom, Roy

    2004-04-01

    Financial management includes all processes that build organizations' equity through accumulating assets in strategically important areas. The tactical aspects of financial management are budget deployment and monitoring. Budget deployment is the process of making sure that costs are fairly allocated. Budget monitoring addresses issues of effective uses and outcomes of resources. This article describes contemporary deployment and monitoring mechanisms, including revenue positive and marginal analysis, present value, program phases, options logic, activity-based costing, economic value added, cost of quality, variance reconciliation, and balanced scorecards. The way financial decisions are framed affects comparative decision-making and even influences the arithmetic of accounting. Familiarity with these concepts should make it possible for dental educators to more fully participate in discussions about the relationships between budgeting and program strategy. PMID:15112921

  17. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  18. Technical and tactical analysis of youth taekwondo performance.

    PubMed

    Casolino, Erika; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Minganti, Carlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of young athletes during official taekwondo competitions. Fifty-nine youth taekwondo athletes (43 boys and 16 girls; age range: 10-12 years; weight category range: <24 to >59 kg) with at least 2 years of taekwondo training consisting of three 90-minute training sessions for 3 d·wk⁻¹ participated in this study. Thirty-seven matches (three 1-minute rounds, with 1-minute rest in between) were analyzed to verify the differences (p ≤ 0.05) in offensive and defensive actions in relation to gender (male, female), match outcome (winners, nonwinners), kicking leg (front, rear), and round (first, second, third). No difference emerged for gender and match outcome. With respect to defensive actions (8.4 ± 12.0%), youth athletes engaged more frequently (p < 0.0001) in offensive actions (91.6 ± 12.0%), which showed a significant decrease (p < 0.016) from the first round (42.3 ± 21.8%) to the second (33.1 ± 14.8%) and third (24.5 ± 16.0%) ones. Kicks performed with the rear leg (94.4 ± 7.8%) occurred more frequently (p < 0.0001) than those performed with the front leg (5.6 ± 7.8%). In considering that a high level of coordination is required to perform front-leg kicks and defensive actions necessitate a high level of tactical skills, these findings might indicate a not-yet complete attainment of fundamental coordinative capabilities in 10- to 12-year-old athletes, independently of match outcome. To enhance coordination capabilities in youth athletes, coaches are recommended to structure their training including skill-ability and sport-ability drills. PMID:22614139

  19. Technical and tactical analysis of youth taekwondo performance.

    PubMed

    Casolino, Erika; Lupo, Corrado; Cortis, Cristina; Chiodo, Salvatore; Minganti, Carlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of young athletes during official taekwondo competitions. Fifty-nine youth taekwondo athletes (43 boys and 16 girls; age range: 10-12 years; weight category range: <24 to >59 kg) with at least 2 years of taekwondo training consisting of three 90-minute training sessions for 3 d·wk⁻¹ participated in this study. Thirty-seven matches (three 1-minute rounds, with 1-minute rest in between) were analyzed to verify the differences (p ≤ 0.05) in offensive and defensive actions in relation to gender (male, female), match outcome (winners, nonwinners), kicking leg (front, rear), and round (first, second, third). No difference emerged for gender and match outcome. With respect to defensive actions (8.4 ± 12.0%), youth athletes engaged more frequently (p < 0.0001) in offensive actions (91.6 ± 12.0%), which showed a significant decrease (p < 0.016) from the first round (42.3 ± 21.8%) to the second (33.1 ± 14.8%) and third (24.5 ± 16.0%) ones. Kicks performed with the rear leg (94.4 ± 7.8%) occurred more frequently (p < 0.0001) than those performed with the front leg (5.6 ± 7.8%). In considering that a high level of coordination is required to perform front-leg kicks and defensive actions necessitate a high level of tactical skills, these findings might indicate a not-yet complete attainment of fundamental coordinative capabilities in 10- to 12-year-old athletes, independently of match outcome. To enhance coordination capabilities in youth athletes, coaches are recommended to structure their training including skill-ability and sport-ability drills.

  20. Effects Of Lake Warming On Behavioural Thermoregulatory Tactics In A Cold-Water Stenothermic Fish

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, Katerine; Bertolo, Andrea; Pépino, Marc; Magnan, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii) to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time. PMID:24663489

  1. Big data and tactical analysis in elite soccer: future challenges and opportunities for sports science.

    PubMed

    Rein, Robert; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Until recently tactical analysis in elite soccer were based on observational data using variables which discard most contextual information. Analyses of team tactics require however detailed data from various sources including technical skill, individual physiological performance, and team formations among others to represent the complex processes underlying team tactical behavior. Accordingly, little is known about how these different factors influence team tactical behavior in elite soccer. In parts, this has also been due to the lack of available data. Increasingly however, detailed game logs obtained through next-generation tracking technologies in addition to physiological training data collected through novel miniature sensor technologies have become available for research. This leads however to the opposite problem where the shear amount of data becomes an obstacle in itself as methodological guidelines as well as theoretical modelling of tactical decision making in team sports is lacking. The present paper discusses how big data and modern machine learning technologies may help to address these issues and aid in developing a theoretical model for tactical decision making in team sports. As experience from medical applications show, significant organizational obstacles regarding data governance and access to technologies must be overcome first. The present work discusses these issues with respect to tactical analyses in elite soccer and propose a technological stack which aims to introduce big data technologies into elite soccer research. The proposed approach could also serve as a guideline for other sports science domains as increasing data size is becoming a wide-spread phenomenon.

  2. Big data and tactical analysis in elite soccer: future challenges and opportunities for sports science.

    PubMed

    Rein, Robert; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Until recently tactical analysis in elite soccer were based on observational data using variables which discard most contextual information. Analyses of team tactics require however detailed data from various sources including technical skill, individual physiological performance, and team formations among others to represent the complex processes underlying team tactical behavior. Accordingly, little is known about how these different factors influence team tactical behavior in elite soccer. In parts, this has also been due to the lack of available data. Increasingly however, detailed game logs obtained through next-generation tracking technologies in addition to physiological training data collected through novel miniature sensor technologies have become available for research. This leads however to the opposite problem where the shear amount of data becomes an obstacle in itself as methodological guidelines as well as theoretical modelling of tactical decision making in team sports is lacking. The present paper discusses how big data and modern machine learning technologies may help to address these issues and aid in developing a theoretical model for tactical decision making in team sports. As experience from medical applications show, significant organizational obstacles regarding data governance and access to technologies must be overcome first. The present work discusses these issues with respect to tactical analyses in elite soccer and propose a technological stack which aims to introduce big data technologies into elite soccer research. The proposed approach could also serve as a guideline for other sports science domains as increasing data size is becoming a wide-spread phenomenon. PMID:27610328

  3. PN/S calculations for a fighter W/F at high-lift yaw conditions. [parabolized Navier-Stokes computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wai, J. C.; Blom, G.; Yoshihara, H.; Chaussee, D.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/Ames parabolized Navier/Stokes computer code was used to calculate the turbulent flow over the wing/fuselage for a generic fighter at M = 2.2. 18 deg angle-of-attack, and 0 and 5 deg yaw. Good test/theory agreement was achieved in the zero yaw case. No test data were available for the yaw case.

  4. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion. PMID:25491473

  5. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  6. A mechanism design approach to bandwidth allocation in tactical data networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mour, Ankur

    The defense sector is undergoing a phase of rapid technological advancement, in the pursuit of its goal of information superiority. This goal depends on a large network of complex interconnected systems - sensors, weapons, soldiers - linked through a maze of heterogeneous networks. The sheer scale and size of these networks prompt behaviors that go beyond conglomerations of systems or `system-of-systems'. The lack of a central locus and disjointed, competing interests among large clusters of systems makes this characteristic of an Ultra Large Scale (ULS) system. These traits of ULS systems challenge and undermine the fundamental assumptions of today's software and system engineering approaches. In the absence of a centralized controller it is likely that system users may behave opportunistically to meet their local mission requirements, rather than the objectives of the system as a whole. In these settings, methods and tools based on economics and game theory (like Mechanism Design) are likely to play an important role in achieving globally optimal behavior, when the participants behave selfishly. Against this background, this thesis explores the potential of using computational mechanisms to govern the behavior of ultra-large-scale systems and achieve an optimal allocation of constrained computational resources Our research focusses on improving the quality and accuracy of the common operating picture through the efficient allocation of bandwidth in tactical data networks among self-interested actors, who may resort to strategic behavior dictated by self-interest. This research problem presents the kind of challenges we anticipate when we have to deal with ULS systems and, by addressing this problem, we hope to develop a methodology which will be applicable for ULS system of the future. We build upon the previous works which investigate the application of auction-based mechanism design to dynamic, performance-critical and resource-constrained systems of interest

  7. Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

    2012-06-01

    The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

  8. Development of Tactical Lightning Avoidance Product for Terminal Weather Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Adachi, T.; Kusunoki, K.; Ushio, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aircraft initiated or intercepted lightning is one of significant issues for civilian flight operation in Japan. It is much less possible than the past that lightning strikes cause fatal aircraft accidents thanks to both of certifications of aircraft design for lightning strikes and many of weather supports for aircraft operation. However, hundreds of lightning strikes to aircrafts have still been reported in each recent year in Japan, and airlines have been forced to delay or cancel most of those flights and to cost several hundred millions of yen for repair. Especially, lightning discharges during winter in the coastal area of the Sea of Japan frequently cause heavy damages on aircrafts due to their large charge transfer. It is important in actual aircraft operation that observed meteorological parameters are converted to decision-making information. Otherwise, pilots, controllers, or operators need to learn meteorology as much as weather experts, and to owe hard work load to interpret observed meteorological data to their risk. Ideally, it is desired to automatically provide them with predicted operation risk, for example, delay time, possibility of flight cancellation, and repair cost caused by lightning.Our research group has just started development of tactical lightning avoidance product, where a risk index of an aircraft operation due to lightning is calculated mainly from three novel observation devices: The phased array weather radar has potential to detect thunderstorms in their early stage due to the high volume scan rate of 10 - 30 sec. A lightning mapping system, such as Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm, indicates electrical structure inside clouds in concert with a co-located radar data. Aircraft sounding and real-time data downlink, especially high-frequency data provided by Secondary Surveillance Radar mode S, gives in-situ measurements of wind and temperature. Especially the in-situ temperature data can indicate

  9. Simulator study of stall/post-stall characteristics of a fighter airplane with relaxed longitudinal static stability. [F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Ogburn, M. E.; Gilbert, W. P.; Kibler, K. S.; Brown, P. W.; Deal, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a fighter configuration based on wind-tunnel testing of the F-16, with particular emphasis on the effects of various levels of relaxed longitudinal static stability. The aerodynamic data used in the simulation was conducted on the Langley differential maneuvering simulator, and the evaluation involved representative low-speed combat maneuvering. Results of the investigation show that the airplane with the basic control system was resistant to the classical yaw departure; however, it was susceptible to pitch departures induced by inertia coupling during rapid, large-amplitude rolls at low airspeed. The airplane also exhibited a deep-stall trim which could be flown into and from which it was difficult to recover. Control-system modifications were developed which greatly decreased the airplane susceptibility to the inertia-coupling departure and which provided a reliable means for recovering from the deep stall.

  10. Landing impact studies of a 0.3-scale model air cushion landing system for a Navy fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.

  11. Pickup of visual information by the pilot during a ground control approach in a fighter aircraft simulator.

    PubMed

    Papin, J P; Naureils, P; Santucci, G

    1980-05-01

    Before providing the new single-seat fighter aircraft with selective visual information display systems, it is necessary to conduct new studies of the visual behavior of pilots flying these aircraft in order to determine the nature of information to be displayed. The authors describe a modified NAC Eye Mark recorder which can be used in tight spaces without any interfering light source and given an example of its use in an experiment conducted in a Mirage III R training simulator. The reported experiment was designed to analyse the visual behavior of 12 pilots of four different qualification levels who flew a ground control approach (GCA) test each day for five consecutive days. The results show that the pilot's visual behavior is stable, both on an intra- and inter-individual basis. In addition, it is possible to classify the control panel instruments as a function of the number of times and length of time they are checked.

  12. Output tracking for nonlinear non-minimum phase systems with output delay and application to an F-16 jet fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bo; Wang, Xinhua; Cai, Kai-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    In this article, output tracking for a class of nonlinear non-minimum phase systems with output delay is considered. By applying the first-order Padé approximation technique to deal with the time-delay function, the original control problem is reduced to the output-tracking problem of a new non-minimum phase system without delay. The bounded tracking profiles of the unstable internal dynamics in the new system are generated by using the nonlinear inversion-based method, and a complete sliding mode control scheme is proposed to stabilise the output-tracking error as well as the internal dynamics. Moreover, the proposed control scheme is applied to solve the flight-path angle tracking problem of an F-16 jet fighter.

  13. Unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter model undergoing large-amplitude pitching motions at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Shah, Gautam H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of harmonic or constant-rate-ramp pitching motions (giving angles of attack from 0 to 75 deg) on the aerodynamic performance of a fighter-aircraft model with highly swept leading-edge extensions are investigated experimentally in the NASA Langley 12-ft low-speed wind tunnel. The model configuration and experimental setup are described, and the results of force and moment measurements and flow visualizations are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Large force overshoots and hysteresis are observed and attributed to lags in vortical-flow development and breakup. The motion variables have a strong influence on the persistence of dynamic effects, which are found to affect pitch-rate capability more than flight-path turning performance.

  14. An in-flight investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression filters during the fighter approach and landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression (PIOS) filters was performed using the USAF/Flight Dynamics Laboratory variable stability NT-33 aircraft, modified and operated by Calspan. This program examined the effects of PIOS filtering on the longitudinal flying qualities of fighter aircraft during the visual approach and landing task. Forty evaluations were flown to test the effects of different PIOS filters. Although detailed analyses were not undertaken, the results indicate that PIOS filtering can improve the flying qualities of an otherwise unacceptable aircraft configuration (Level 3 flying qualities). However, the ability of the filters to suppress pilot-induced oscillations appears to be dependent upon the aircraft configuration characteristics. Further, the data show that the filters can adversely affect landing flying qualities if improperly designed. The data provide an excellent foundation from which detail analyses can be performed.

  15. Aircraft wake flow effect and horizontal tail buffet. [pressure distribution and responses of fighter aircraft in transonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Pi, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a program to investigate the fluctuating pressure distribution and response behavior of a fighter aircraft in transonic maneuver, an F-5A scale model has previously been tested in an 11-ft transonic wind tunnel. The model, with a number of static and dynamic pressure transducers imbedded in the lifting surfaces was tested at various angles of attack up to 16 deg. In this paper, test results of particular interest to wake flow and horizontal tail buffet are described. It is shown that the dynamic pressure data on the tail surface at the specified flight conditions serve to determine the local dynamic loads. They also influence the control performance of the aircraft under maneuver conditions where buffet is encountered. The data presented demonstrate a number of contributing factors that affect the tail dynamic pressures in the transonic regime.

  16. Jet exhaust and support interference effects on the transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter model with two widely spaced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1976-01-01

    Jet exhaust, nozzle installation, and model support interference effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter model were determined. Realistic jet exhaust nozzle configurations and a reference configuration with a simulated vertical-tail support were tested. Free-stream Mach number was varied from 0.6 to 1.2, and model angle of attack from 0 deg to 9 deg. The jet exhaust affected drag more than it affected lift and pitching moment. The largest effects occurred at a Mach number of 0.9 and for the afterburning mode of exhaust nozzle operation. The combined differences between the aerodynamic characteristics of the realistic and reference configurations (which were due to afterbody and nozzle contours, jet operation, and simulated reference support interference) were considerably different from those for the jet interference alone.

  17. Qualitative evaluation of a conformal velocity vector display for use at high angles-of-attack in fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Burley, James R., II

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a display device designed to illustrate graphically and conformally the approximate location of a fighter aircraft's velocity vector. The display device consisted of two vertical rows of light emitting diodes (LED's) located toward the center of the cockpit instrument panel to each side of the control stick. The light strings provided a logical extension of the head up display (HUD) velocity vector symbol at flight path angles which exceeded the HUD field-of-view. Four test subjects flew a modified F/A-18 model with this display in an air-to-air engagement task against an equally capable opponent. Their responses to a questionnaire indicated that the conformal velocity vector information could not be used during the scenarios investigated due to the inability to visually track a target and view the lights simultaneously.

  18. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F; McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C

    1992-04-01

    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  19. Concept of Operation for Tactical Separation Assurance in Super-Density Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Airspace Systems Program is committed to supporting the Next Generation Air Transportation System through research and development in select areas. One such area, referred to as Super Density Operations, is conducting research to develop technologies that will safely increase the throughput in busy terminal area environments. The purpose of this document is to develop a Concept of Operations for the Tactical Separation Assurance function, one of the functions included in Super Density Operations. A functional description of the technologies required for Super Density Operations is presented followed by a more detail description of the Tactical Separation Assurance function. Two story boards are presented to illustrate the operational use of the Tactical Separation Assurance function under different situations. The last section proposes a pathway to implementing the Tactical Separation Assurance function.

  20. Towards responsible system development in health services: a discourse analysis study of design conflict resolution tactics.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2010-02-01

    We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services.

  1. Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the Canadian Forces: lessons learned from the Afghan war

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Erin; Forestier, Colleen; Withers, Nicholas; Tien, Homer; Pannell, Dylan

    2011-01-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is intended to treat potentially preventable causes of death on the battlefield, but acknowledges that application of these treatments may place the provider and even the mission in jeopardy if performed at the wrong time. Therefore, TCCC classifies the tactical situation with respect to health care provision into 3 phases (care under fire, tactical field care and tactical evacuation) and only permits certain interventions to be performed in specific phases based on the danger to the provider and casualty. In the 6 years that the Canadian Forces (CF) have been involved in sustained combat operations in Kandahar, Afghanistan, more than 1000 CF members have been injured and more than 150 have been killed. As a result, the CF gained substantial experience delivering TCCC to wounded soldiers on the battlefield. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles of TCCC and some of the lessons learned about battlefield trauma care during this conflict. PMID:22099324

  2. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  3. X-31 post-stall envelope expansion and tactical utility testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canter, Dave

    1994-01-01

    Technical and nontechnical lessons learned from the X-31 aircraft program are described in this viewgraph presentation. The tactical utility of high angle of attack flight and thrust vector control is discussed.

  4. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91). PMID:8465805

  5. Employee resistance to organizational change: managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange.

    PubMed

    Furst, Stacie A; Cable, Daniel M

    2008-03-01

    The authors explored the relationship between managerial influence tactics and employee resistance to organizational change. Using attribution theory, the authors developed a series of hypotheses concerning the effects of influence tactics on employee resistance to change and the ways in which these relationships are moderated by leader-member exchange. Results, which are based on multisource data, suggest that employee resistance reflects both the type of influence a manager uses and the strength of leader-member exchange. PMID:18361644

  6. Fire alarm system/fire suppression system for mobile tactical shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, F. K.; Lecours, C. A.; Radcliff, O.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a fire detection/suppression capability for DoD standard family mobile tactical shelters. The systems developed and tested provide complete protection during all employment conditions; in garrison use, storage, transportation, and deployed field conditions. The reports outlines the requirement and the test and evaluation program. Two manufacturers of detection systems and two manufacturers of suppression systems were identified and qualified to meet the fire protection requirements for mobile tactical shelters.

  7. Online Mate-Retention Tactics on Facebook Are Associated With Relationship Aggression.

    PubMed

    Brem, Meagan J; Spiller, Laura C; Vandehey, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    A measure of Facebook-related mate-retention tactics was developed to investigate the relationship between online behaviors and intimate partner aggression. One hundred and seventy-seven young adults (65 men, 112 women) completed questionnaires that included measures of online and offline mate-retention tactics, Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and intimate partner violence. A factor analysis yielded four subscales for the Facebook Mate-Retention Tactic Inventory (FMRTI): Care and Affection, Jealousy and Surveillance, Possession Signals, and Punishment of Infidelity Threat. The FMRTI total scores were positively correlated with Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and use of offline mate-retention tactics. The Jealousy and Surveillance subscale uniquely predicted intimate partner psychological and physical aggression over and above existing measures. Facebook mate-retention tactics fully mediated the relation between Facebook jealousy and both intimate partner psychological and physical aggression. The current study provides preliminary evidence for conceptualizing Facebook as an environment for the use of mate-retention tactics that have real-life implications for intimate partner violence. PMID:25339609

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF VIDEO FEEDBACK AND INTERACTIVE QUESTIONING IN IMPROVING TACTICAL KNOWLEDGE IN VOLLEYBALL.

    PubMed

    Gil-Arias, Alexander; Del Villar, Fernando; García-González, Luís; Moreno, Alberto; Perla Moreno, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and apply a tactical-cognitive training program based on the use of video feedback and questioning in real game time, in order to improve tactical knowledge in volleyball. A two-group quasi-experimental design was used with a sample of eight female players (M=14.8 yr., SD=0.7), who were divided into an Experimental group (n=4) and a Control group (n=4). The independent variable was the tactical-cognitive training program, which was applied for 11 wk. in a 6×6 game situation training context. The dependent variable was tactical knowledge, which was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. The results showed that after applying the intervention program the players in the Experimental group showed more complex, sophisticated, and structured tactical knowledge, compared with the players from the Control group. These results suggest that complementing the training process with cognitive tools may enable athletes to increases their tactical behavior and presumably improve their performance. PMID:26595204

  9. Online Mate-Retention Tactics on Facebook Are Associated With Relationship Aggression.

    PubMed

    Brem, Meagan J; Spiller, Laura C; Vandehey, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    A measure of Facebook-related mate-retention tactics was developed to investigate the relationship between online behaviors and intimate partner aggression. One hundred and seventy-seven young adults (65 men, 112 women) completed questionnaires that included measures of online and offline mate-retention tactics, Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and intimate partner violence. A factor analysis yielded four subscales for the Facebook Mate-Retention Tactic Inventory (FMRTI): Care and Affection, Jealousy and Surveillance, Possession Signals, and Punishment of Infidelity Threat. The FMRTI total scores were positively correlated with Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and use of offline mate-retention tactics. The Jealousy and Surveillance subscale uniquely predicted intimate partner psychological and physical aggression over and above existing measures. Facebook mate-retention tactics fully mediated the relation between Facebook jealousy and both intimate partner psychological and physical aggression. The current study provides preliminary evidence for conceptualizing Facebook as an environment for the use of mate-retention tactics that have real-life implications for intimate partner violence.

  10. Online Pedagogical Tutorial Tactics Optimization Using Genetic-Based Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Ta; Lee, Po-Ming; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Tutorial tactics are policies for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to decide the next action when there are multiple actions available. Recent research has demonstrated that when the learning contents were controlled so as to be the same, different tutorial tactics would make difference in students' learning gains. However, the Reinforcement Learning (RL) techniques that were used in previous studies to induce tutorial tactics are insufficient when encountering large problems and hence were used in offline manners. Therefore, we introduced a Genetic-Based Reinforcement Learning (GBML) approach to induce tutorial tactics in an online-learning manner without basing on any preexisting dataset. The introduced method can learn a set of rules from the environment in a manner similar to RL. It includes a genetic-based optimizer for rule discovery task by generating new rules from the old ones. This increases the scalability of a RL learner for larger problems. The results support our hypothesis about the capability of the GBML method to induce tutorial tactics. This suggests that the GBML method should be favorable in developing real-world ITS applications in the domain of tutorial tactics induction. PMID:26065018

  11. Neuronal activity in the primate dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contributes to strategic selection of response tactics.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Akiyama, Tetsuya; Tanji, Jun; Mushiake, Hajime

    2012-03-20

    The functional roles of the primate posterior medial prefrontal cortex have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that this region participates in the regulation of actions in the presence of multiple response tactics. Monkeys performed a forelimb task in which a visual cue required prompt decision of reaching to a left or a right target. The location of the cue was either ipsilateral (concordant) or contralateral (discordant) to the target. As a result of extensive training, the reaction times for the concordant and discordant trials were indistinguishable, indicating that the monkeys developed tactics to overcome the cue-response conflict. Prefrontal neurons exhibited prominent activity when the concordant and discordant trials were randomly presented, requiring rapid selection of a response tactic (reach toward or away from the cue). The following findings indicate that these neurons are involved in the selection of tactics, rather than the selection of action or monitoring of response conflict: (i) The response period activity of neurons in this region disappeared when the monkeys performed the task under the behavioral condition that required a single tactic alone, whereas the action varied across trials. (ii) The neuronal activity was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex but not in the anterior cingulate cortex that has been implicated for the response conflict monitoring. These results suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex participates in the selection of a response tactic that determines an appropriate action. Furthermore, the observation of dynamic, task-dependent neuronal activity necessitates reconsideration of the conventional concept of cortical motor representation.

  12. Terminal - Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (T-TSafe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita Arora; Tang, Huabin; Ballinger, Debbi

    2011-01-01

    The Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (TSAFE) has been previously tested as a conflict detection and resolution tool in the en-route phase of flight. Fast time simulations of a terminal version of this tool called Terminal TSAFE (T-TSAFE) have shown promise over the current conflict detection tools. It has shown to have fewer false alerts (as low as 2 per hour) and better prediction to conflict time than Conflict Alert. The tool will be tested in the simulated terminal area of Los Angeles International Airport, in a Human-in-the-loop experiment to identify controller procedures and information requirements. The simulation will include comparisons of T-TSAFE with NASA's version of Conflict Alert. Also, some other variables such as altitude entry by the controller, which improve T-TSAFE's predictions for conflict detection, will be tested. T-TSAFE integrates features of current conflict detection tools such as Automated Terminal Proximity Alert used to alleviate compression errors in the final approach phase. Based on fast-time simulation analysis, the anticipated benefits of T-TSAFE over Conflict Alert include reduced false/missed alerts and increased time to predicted loss of separation. Other metrics that will be used to evaluate the tool's impact on the controller include controller intervention, workload, and situation awareness.

  13. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1999-09-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

  14. Throughput Benefit Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Fenbert, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of needed capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, based on a 90 minute planning horizon. This study evaluates the throughput benefits using a representative sample of today's traffic volumes at three airports: Memphis International Airport (MEM), Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), and John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). Based on this initial assessment, there are statistical throughput benefits for both arrivals and departures at MEM with an average of 4% for arrivals, and 6% for departures. For DFW, there is a statistical benefit for arrivals with an average of 3%. Although there is an average of 1% benefit observed for departures, it is not statistically significant. For JFK, there is a 12% benefit for arrivals, but a 2% penalty for departures. The results obtained are for current traffic volumes and should show greater benefit for increased future demand. This paper also proposes some potential TRCM algorithm improvements for future research. A continued research plan is being worked to implement these improvements and to re-assess the throughput benefit for today and future projected traffic volumes.

  15. Battlefield Documentation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John B; Smith, Michael P; Gross, Kirby R; Sauer, Samual W; Geracci, James J; Day, Charlie D; Kotwal, Russ S

    2016-01-01

    Performance improvement is reliant on information and data, as you cannot improve what you do not measure. The US military went to war in 2001 without an integrated trauma care system to collect and analyze combat casualty care data. By 2006, the conflict in Afghanistan began appreciating the capture and consolidation of hospital care documentation into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In contrast, a paucity of documentation has existed for prehospital or tactical combat casualty care (TCCC). Using the 75th Ranger casualty documentation model established in 2005, the Joint Trauma System developed a casualty data collection system for prehospital care using the TCCC Card, the TCCC After Action Report (AAR), and the Prehospital Trauma Registry. In 2013, this system was mandated for use by US forces in Afghanistan. The Joint Trauma System also created and deployed a prehospital team to be an integral part of the Joint Theater Trauma System in Afghanistan. This prehospital team provided prehospital training and facilitated prehospital data capture. Described and analyzed in this report are prehospital data captured in Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014 using the TCCC Card and the TCCC AAR. PMID:27215873

  16. Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health.

    PubMed Central

    Saloojee, Y.; Dagli, E.

    2000-01-01

    The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:10994263

  17. Individual combatant simulator for tactics training and mission rehearsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemire, Kenneth

    1998-04-01

    This individual combatant simulator (ICS) provides ground force leaders opportunities to practice tactical skills on the simulated battlefield by directing dismounted computer- generated forces in combatant and non-combatant exercises. Integrated hardware and software systems allow leaders to operate on the simulated battlefield as they would on the physical battlefield using combinations of voice commands, arm signals, virtual tools, and virtual weapons. Hardware components include image generator, head-mounted display, 3D sound, spatial tracking, instrumented glove, synthesized speech, and voice recognition systems. The training simulator can be operated on a network. Four types of evaluations, including performance of authentic tasks and subjective evaluations, were conducted using dismounted infantry soldiers and university students as participants. The results indicated that the ICS was easy to learn and use, could be used to conduct training exercises, supported skillful performance in training exercises, and was engaging and compelling for the users. These initial evaluations indicated ease of learning and use of the simulator, as well as the potential for training effectiveness.

  18. TACTIC: Trans-Agency Consortium for Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Kenneth G.; Freeman, Kalev

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) includes heterogeneous coagulopathic syndromes with different underlying causes, and treatment is challenged by limited diagnostic tests to discriminate between these entities in the acute setting. We provide an overview of progress in understanding the mechanisms of TIC and the context for several of the hypotheses that will be tested in “TACTIC”. Although connected to ongoing clinical trials in trauma, TACTIC itself has no intent to conduct clinical trials. We do anticipate that “early translation” of promising results will occur. Functions anticipated at this early translational level include: 1. Basic science groundwork for future therapeutic candidates; 2. Development of acute coagulopathy scoring systems; 3. Coagulation factor composition-based computational analysis; 4. Characterization of novel analytes including tissue factor, polyP, histones, meizo and α-thrombin-antithrombin complexes, factor XIa, platelet markers of activation and trauma, signatures of protein C activation and fibrinolysis markers; 5. Assessment of visco-elastic tests and new point-of-care methods. PMID:26149052

  19. Automated multi-INT fusion for tactical reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Boudreau, Andrew J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Haws, Jonathan R.; Johnson, Troy; Petersen, Brad

    2014-06-01

    The capabilities of tactical intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) payloads continue to expand from single sensor imagers to integrated systems of systems architectures. We describe here flight test results of the Sensor Management System (SMS) designed to provide a flexible central coordination component capable of managing multiple collaborative sensor systems onboard an aircraft or unmanned aerial system (UAS). The SMS architecture is designed to be sensor and data agnostic and provide flexible networked access for both data providers and data consumers. It supports pre-planned and ad-hoc missions, with provisions for on-demand tasking and updates from users connected via data links. The SMS system is STANAG 4575 compliant as a removable memory module (RMM) and can act as a vehicle specific module (VSM) to provide STANAG 4586 compliance (level-3 interoperability) to a noncompliant sensor system. The SMS architecture will be described and results from several flight tests that included multiple sensor combinations and live data link updates will be shown.

  20. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  1. Merging strategic and tactical planning in dynamic and uncertain environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bonissone, P.P.; Dutta, S.; Wood, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to planning in dynamic and uncertain environments. Planning is viewed as a process in which an agent`s long term goals are transformed into short term tasks and objectives, given the agent`s strategy and the context of planning. The developed model allows for a dynamic balance between long term strategic planning and short term tactical planning. The notion of a strategy hierarchy is introduced to explicitly represent the process of strategy formulation and refinement. A combination of rules and plan scripts is used. Rules are used for representing domain knowledge and reasoning about strategic choices. Plan scripts are used for representing specific tasks and objectives. The uncertainty calculi of RUM/PRIMO (2), (6) are used for supporting reasoning under uncertainty. In the proposed model, it is also possible to achieve a seamless integration of case-based reasoning into the planning process. These ideas have been implemented in a system called MARS, which plans in the financial domain of mergers and acquisitions. 63 refs.

  2. Fitness characteristics of a suburban special weapons and tactics team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Colburn, Deanna; Crill, Matthew T; Hostler, David P; Suyama, J

    2012-03-01

    Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) operators are specialized law enforcement officers who traditionally perform their duties with higher anticipated workloads because of additional body armor, weapons, and equipment used for enhanced operations and protection. This elevated workload increases the need for SWAT operators to improve or maintain their physical fitness to consistently perform routine operations. Typical tasks require trunk rotation, overhead upper extremity use, upper and lower body strength use, and long waiting periods followed by explosive movements while wearing additional equipment. Eleven male SWAT operators from 1 SWAT team performed flexibility, strength, power, and aerobic capacity tests and a variety of job-related tasks. Data were compared with age- and gender-based normative data. Fitness testing revealed that officers ranked high on tests of muscular strength (leg strength, 90th percentile; bench press, 85th percentile); however, body composition (55th percentile), core body strength, and flexibility ranked lower. Furthermore, aerobic capacity and muscular power had a wide range of scores and were also not ideal to support maximal performance during routine operations. These data can assist exercise specialists choose fitness programs specifically for job-related tasks of SWAT operators when creating fitness programs. Fitness programming for law enforcement should focus on improving aerobic fitness, flexibility, core strength, and muscular power while maintaining muscular strength to meet the needs of these specialized officers.

  3. Evaluation of powertrain solutions for future tactical truck vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisu, Pierluigi; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Serrao, Lorenzo; Josephson, John R.; Russell, James

    2006-05-01

    The article presents the results of a large scale design space exploration for the hybridization of two off-road vehicles, part of the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) family: Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle (MSV) and Utility Vehicle (UV). Series hybrid architectures are examined. The objective of the paper is to illustrate a novel design methodology that allows for the choice of the optimal values of several vehicle parameters. The methodology consists in an extensive design space exploration, which involves running a large number of computer simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles, and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to choose the design tradeoffs that better satisfy the performance and fuel economy requirements. At the end, few promising vehicle configuration designs will be selected that will need additional detailed investigation including neglected metrics like ride and drivability. Several powertrain architectures have been simulated. The design parameters include the number of axles in the vehicle (2 or 3), the number of electric motors per axle (1 or 2), the type of internal combustion engine, the type and quantity of energy storage system devices (batteries, electrochemical capacitors or both together). An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. The control parameters are tunable and have been included into the design space exploration. The results show that the internal combustion engine and the energy storage system devices are extremely important for the vehicle performance.

  4. Tactical HF field expedient antenna performance, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkes, Gurkan

    1990-03-01

    This thesis investigates the performance of various configurations of tactical high frequency (HF) field deployable antennas in the presence of lossy earth. Antennas investigated include horizontal dipoles, short sloping wires, inverted vees, and monopoles with buried and elevated radials. Numerical models of the antennas are exercised via the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC) for radiation pattern performance. Antennas are analyzed for applicability to the following: (1) short-range near vertical incident skywave (NVIS), where high elevation radiation angles are required; (2) medium- and long-range low radiation angle use; and (3) vertically polarized low-angle radiation for ground wave communication. Good NVIS and ground wave performance occurs for horizontal dipoles. Sloping wires and sloping dipoles are similar to horizontal dipoles but exhibit a moderate amount of azimuth plane directivity. Vertical monopoles with at least 15 buried radials produce medium- and long-range skywave coverage and good ground wave performance. Four elevated radials for quarter-wavelength monopoles are shown to out-perform 15 buried radials and are much easier to erect. The larger and more difficult-to-erect inverted vee dipole slightly outperforms a monopole by virtue of modest azimuth plane directivity. The results of this study can be included in an antenna engineering handbook and can be used to interface with existing ionospheric propagation codes in order to obtain optimum communication effectiveness

  5. Tactical HF field expedient antenna performance, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkes, Gurkan

    1990-03-01

    This thesis investigates the performance of various configurations of tactical High Frequency (HF) field deployable antennas in the presence of lossy earth. Antennas investigated include horizontal dipoles, short sloping wires, inverted vees, and monopoles with buried and elevated radials. Numerical models of the antennas are exercised via the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) for radiation pattern performance. Antennas are analyzed for applicability to (1) short-range Near Vertical Incident Skywave (NVIS), where high elevation radiation angles are required; (2) medium-and long-range low radiation angle use; and (3) vertically polarized low-angle radiation for ground wave communication. Good NVIS and ground wave performance occurs for horizontal dipoles. Sloping wires and sloping dipoles are similar to horizontal dipoles but exhibit a moderate amount of azimuth plane directivity. Vertical monopoles with at least 15 buried radials produce medium-and long-range skywave coverage and good ground wave performance. Four elevated radials for quarter-wavelength monopoles are shown to out-perform 15 buried radials and are much easier to erect. The larger and more difficult-to-erect inverted vee dipole slightly outperforms a monopole by virtue of modest azimuth plane directivity. The results of this study can be included in an antenna engineering handbook and can be used to interface with existing ionospheric propagation codes in order to obtain optimum communication effectiveness.

  6. Tessellated structure from motion for midrange perception and tactical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Minbo; Yilma, Samson

    2009-05-01

    A typical structure from motion (SFM) technique is to construct 3-D structures from the observation of the motions of salient features tracked over time. Although the sparse feature-based SFM provides additional solutions to robotic platforms as a tool to augment navigation performance, the technique often fails to produce dense 3-D structures due to the sparseness that is introduced during the feature selection and matching processes. For midrange sensing and tactical planning, it is important to have a dense map that is able to provide not only 3-D coordinates of features, but also clustered terrain information around the features for better thematic representation of the scene. In order to overcome the shortfalls embedded in the sparse feature-based SFM, we propose an approach that uses Voronoi decomposition with an equidistance-based triangulation that is applied to each of segmented and classified regions. The set of the circumcenters of the circum-hyperspheres used in the triangulation is formed with the feature points extracted from the SFM processing. We also apply flat surface detection to find traversable surface for a robotic vehicle to be able to maneuver safely on.

  7. Governing principles can guide fungicide-resistance management tactics.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Frank; Oliver, Richard; van den Berg, Femke; Paveley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Fungicide-resistance management would be more effective if principles governing the selection of resistant strains could be determined and validated. Such principles could then be used to predict whether a proposed change to a fungicide application program would decrease selection for resistant strains. In this review, we assess a governing principle that appears to have good predictive power. The principle states that reducing the product of the selection coefficient (defined as the difference between the per capita rate of increase of the sensitive and resistant strains) and the exposure time of the pathogen to the fungicide reduces the selection for resistance. We show that observations as well as modeling studies agree with the predicted effect (i.e., that a specific change to a fungicide program increased or decreased selection or was broadly neutral in its effect on selection) in 84% of the cases and that only 5% of the experimental results contradict predictions. We argue that the selection coefficient and exposure time principle can guide the development of resistance management tactics.

  8. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  9. SIRIUS : An Advanced Concept For Photo-Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Jean L.

    1984-01-01

    With the renovation of its fleet of reconnaissance aircraft, typified by the adoption of a special version of the MIRAGE Fl tactical support aircraft, the French Air Force wanted to rethink all the received reconnaissance concepts by completely renewing its: - sensors, - interpretation equipment, and by adopting advanced systems for : - mission preparation and planning, - stand-off reconnaissance, and - accelerated data access.

  10. Categories and continua of destructive and constructive marital conflict tactics from the perspective of U.S. and Welsh children.

    PubMed

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark; Harold, Gordon T; Shelton, Katherine H

    2003-09-01

    Categories and continua of parents' marital conflict tactics based on multiple, conceptually grounded criteria were tested. Participants were 175 U.S. children, ages 8-16 years (88 boys, 87 girls) and 327 Welsh children, ages 11-12 years (159 boys, 168 girls). Children's responses (affective, cognitive, behavioral) to analog presentations of 10 everyday marital conflict tactics enacted by fathers or mothers showed substantial variation as a function of tactic used. Orderings of conflict tactics on the various response criteria varied as a function of moderators, particularly the gender of the parent expressing the conflict tactic. Conflict tactics were classified as either constructive or destructive according to criteria derived from the emotional security hypothesis. Except for calm discussion, classifications did not change regardless of cultural group, parent gender, or child age or gender. Recommendations for negotiating everyday marital conflict for the children's sake are discussed. PMID:14562457

  11. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  12. Tactical Approaches for Making a Successful Satellite Passive Microwave ESDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Gotberg, J.; Long, D. G.; Paget, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Our NASA MEaSUREs project is producing a new, enhanced resolution gridded Earth System Data Record for the entire satellite passive microwave (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS and AMSR-E) time series. Our project goals are twofold: to produce a well-documented, consistently processed, high-quality historical record at higher spatial resolutions than have previously been available, and to transition the production software to the NSIDC DAAC for ongoing processing after our project completion. In support of these goals, our distributed team at BYU and NSIDC faces project coordination challenges to produce a high-quality data set that our user community will accept as a replacement for the currently available historical versions of these data. We work closely with our DAAC liaison on format specifications, data and metadata plans, and project progress. In order for the user community to understand and support our project, we have solicited a team of Early Adopters who are reviewing and evaluating a prototype version of the data. Early Adopter feedback will be critical input to our final data content and format decisions. For algorithm transparency and accountability, we have released an Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) and detailed supporting technical documentation, with rationale for all algorithm implementation decisions. For distributed team management, we are using collaborative tools for software revision control and issue tracking. For reliably transitioning a research-quality image reconstruction software system to production-quality software suitable for use at the DAAC, we have adopted continuous integration methods for running automated regression testing. Our presentation will summarize bothadvantages and challenges of each of these tactics in ensuring production of a successful ESDR and an enduring production software system.

  13. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  14. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.

  15. Scalable sensor management for automated fusion and tactical reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Partridge, Darin C.; Haws, Jonathan R.; Jensen, Mark D.; Johnson, Troy R.; Petersen, Brad D.; Sullivan, Stephanie W.

    2013-05-01

    The capabilities of tactical intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) payloads are expanding from single sensor imagers to integrated systems-of-systems architectures. Increasingly, these systems-of-systems include multiple sensing modalities that can act as force multipliers for the intelligence analyst. Currently, the separate sensing modalities operate largely independent of one another, providing a selection of operating modes but not an integrated intelligence product. We describe here a Sensor Management System (SMS) designed to provide a small, compact processing unit capable of managing multiple collaborative sensor systems on-board an aircraft. Its purpose is to increase sensor cooperation and collaboration to achieve intelligent data collection and exploitation. The SMS architecture is designed to be largely sensor and data agnostic and provide flexible networked access for both data providers and data consumers. It supports pre-planned and ad-hoc missions, with provisions for on-demand tasking and updates from users connected via data links. Management of sensors and user agents takes place over standard network protocols such that any number and combination of sensors and user agents, either on the local network or connected via data link, can register with the SMS at any time during the mission. The SMS provides control over sensor data collection to handle logging and routing of data products to subscribing user agents. It also supports the addition of algorithmic data processing agents for feature/target extraction and provides for subsequent cueing from one sensor to another. The SMS architecture was designed to scale from a small UAV carrying a limited number of payloads to an aircraft carrying a large number of payloads. The SMS system is STANAG 4575 compliant as a removable memory module (RMM) and can act as a vehicle specific module (VSM) to provide STANAG 4586 compliance (level-3 interoperability) to a non-compliant sensor system

  16. Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary; Fenbert, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a benefits assessment at Memphis (MEM), Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) and New York's John F. Kennedy (JFK) airports using the TRCM tool. Results from simulations using the TRCM-generated runway configuration schedule are compared with results using historical schedules. For the 12 days of data used in this analysis, the transit time (arrival fix to spot on airport movement area for arrivals, or spot to departure fix for departures) for MEM departures is greater (7%) than for arrivals (3%); for JFK, there is a benefit for arrivals (9%) but not for departures (-2%); for DFW, arrivals show a slight benefit (1%), but this is offset by departures (-2%). Departure queue length benefits show fewer aircraft in queue for JFK (29%) and MEM (11%), but not for DFW (-13%). Fuel savings for surface operations at MEM are seen for both arrivals and departures. At JFK there are fuel savings for arrivals, but these are offset by increased fuel use for departures. In this study, no surface fuel benefits resulted for DFW. Results suggest that the TRCM algorithm requires modifications for complex surface traffic operations that can cause taxi delays. For all three airports, the average number of changes in flow direction (runway configuration) recommended by TRCM was many times greater than the historical data; TRCM would need to be adapted to a particular airport's needs, to limit the number of changes to acceptable levels. The results from this analysis indicate the TRCM tool can provide benefits at some high-capacity airports. The magnitude of these benefits depends on many airport-specific factors and would require adaptation of the TRCM tool; a detailed assessment is needed prior to determining suitability for a particular airport.

  17. SOAR telescope status and tactics for assembly/integration/validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, Victor L.; Sebring, Thomas A.

    2000-08-01

    Development of the SOAR telescope is currently underway. Project plans include many tactics for smooth assembly, integration, and validation of this new facility to be located on Cerro Pachon at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. A small project team has been established to manage and engineer the development of the major subsystems that are combined in this high image quality 4.2-meter diameter telescope. The status and plans for the development of the 28m telescope are discussed. A modest-sized facility building is under construction by CTIO, the organization appointed to operate the facility for the SOAR partners. Each telescope subsystem is contracted on a firm fixed price basis and will include complete performance testing at the contractor's facility before acceptance and shipment to the site. To ensure seamless integration, representatives of each contractor will come to the site for assembly and testing in place. They join personnel from the Project Office, the new operations staff, and the CTIO maintenance organization to form integrated product teams for subsystem integration, SOAR eases integration by using and mandating common, commercial control software. The contractors, the SOAR team, and the instrument buildings are making extensive use of LabVIEW/BridgeVIEW running under Linux (with real-time extensions as necessary) on compactPCI chassis. The telescope will include sufficient instrumentation, including a possible adaptive optics system, to allow system testing and optimization. An exceptionally large instrument payload ensures that instruments can remain in place upon the telescope as they are delivered and brought on line.

  18. An Apparatus for Varying Effective Dihedral in Flight with Application to a Study of Tolerable Dihedral on a Conventional Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, William M; Liddell, Charles J , Jr; Smith, Allan; Van Dyke, Rudolph D , Jr

    1949-01-01

    An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The apparatus is shown to have satisfactory simulated a wide range of effective dihedral under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of a small amount of servo lag are shown to be measurable when the apparatus is simulating small negative values of dihedral. However, these effects were not considered by the pilots to give the airplane an artificial feel. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented.

  19. Performance assessments of Android-powered military applications operating on tactical handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Brian A.; Fronczek, Lisa; Morse, Emile; Kootbally, Zeid; Schlenoff, Craig

    2013-05-01

    Transformative Apps (TransApps) is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded program whose goal is to develop a range of militarily-relevant software applications ("apps") to enhance the operational-effectiveness of military personnel on (and off) the battlefield. TransApps is also developing a military apps marketplace to facilitate rapid development and dissemination of applications to address user needs by connecting engaged communities of endusers with development groups. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) role in the TransApps program is to design and implement evaluation procedures to assess the performance of: 1) the various software applications, 2) software-hardware interactions, and 3) the supporting online application marketplace. Specifically, NIST is responsible for evaluating 50+ tactically-relevant applications operating on numerous Android™-powered platforms. NIST efforts include functional regression testing and quantitative performance testing. This paper discusses the evaluation methodologies employed to assess the performance of three key program elements: 1) handheld-based applications and their integration with various hardware platforms, 2) client-based applications and 3) network technologies operating on both the handheld and client systems along with their integration into the application marketplace. Handheld-based applications are assessed using a combination of utility and usability-based checklists and quantitative performance tests. Client-based applications are assessed to replicate current overseas disconnected (i.e. no network connectivity between handhelds) operations and to assess connected operations envisioned for later use. Finally, networked applications are assessed on handhelds to establish baselines of performance for when connectivity will be common usage.

  20. Timescales for exploratory tactical behaviour in football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Ric, Angel; Hristovski, Robert; Gonçalves, Bruno; Torres, Lorena; Sampaio, Jaime; Torrents, Carlota

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the dynamics of tactical behaviour emerging on different timescales in football small-sided games and to quantify short- and long-term exploratory behaviour according to the number of opponents. Two teams of four professional male footballers played small-sided games against two different teams with a variable number of opponents (3, 5 and 7). Data were collected using a combination of systematic observation and a non-differential global positioning system (15 Hz). The temporal diversity and structural flexibility of the players were determined by calculating the dynamic overlap order parameter q, entropy and trapping strength. Analysis of the exploratory dynamics revealed two different timescales, forming a different metastable landscape of action for each constraint. Fast dynamics lasted on average a few seconds and consisted of changes in tactical patterns. The long timescale corresponded to the shared tasks of offence and defence lasting tens of seconds. The players' tactical diversity decreased with an increasing number of opponents, especially in defence. Manipulating numerical imbalance is likely to promote changes in the diversity, unpredictability and flexibility of tactical solutions. The fact that the temporally nested structure of constraints shaped the emergence of tactical behaviour provides a new rationale for practice task design. The manipulation of numerical imbalance on the timescale of a few tens of seconds, on which the exploratory behaviour of players saturates, may help coaches to optimise the exploratory efficiency of the small-sided games. PMID:26758958

  1. Timescales for exploratory tactical behaviour in football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Ric, Angel; Hristovski, Robert; Gonçalves, Bruno; Torres, Lorena; Sampaio, Jaime; Torrents, Carlota

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the dynamics of tactical behaviour emerging on different timescales in football small-sided games and to quantify short- and long-term exploratory behaviour according to the number of opponents. Two teams of four professional male footballers played small-sided games against two different teams with a variable number of opponents (3, 5 and 7). Data were collected using a combination of systematic observation and a non-differential global positioning system (15 Hz). The temporal diversity and structural flexibility of the players were determined by calculating the dynamic overlap order parameter q, entropy and trapping strength. Analysis of the exploratory dynamics revealed two different timescales, forming a different metastable landscape of action for each constraint. Fast dynamics lasted on average a few seconds and consisted of changes in tactical patterns. The long timescale corresponded to the shared tasks of offence and defence lasting tens of seconds. The players' tactical diversity decreased with an increasing number of opponents, especially in defence. Manipulating numerical imbalance is likely to promote changes in the diversity, unpredictability and flexibility of tactical solutions. The fact that the temporally nested structure of constraints shaped the emergence of tactical behaviour provides a new rationale for practice task design. The manipulation of numerical imbalance on the timescale of a few tens of seconds, on which the exploratory behaviour of players saturates, may help coaches to optimise the exploratory efficiency of the small-sided games.

  2. Net-centric transformation to empower the war-fighter through enhanced enterprise data services: exploring the SOA approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroha, Deborah L.; Farroha, Bassam S.

    2009-05-01

    As DoD moves towards an Enterprise approach to IT, CIOs have been lauding SOA as the solution. It is clear that SOA addresses many challenges that face the DoD from information sharing to the fiscal issues of maintaining an IT infrastructure. As SOA is applied to more complex tasks and as we move IT out to the tactical edge there is an increased need to ensure access to the right information, in the right place at the right time. This paper explores the various methodologies of data services that are making SOA an accessible reality DoD.

  3. The Army's Use of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilse, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Tactical operations require military commanders to be mobile and have a high level of independence in their actions. Communications capabilities providing intelligence and command orders in these tactical situations have been limited to simple voice communications or low-rate narrow bandwidth communications because of the need for immediate reliable connectivity. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) has brought an improved communications tool to the tactical commander giving the ability to gain access to a global communications system using high data rates and wide bandwidths. The Army has successfully tested this new capability of bandwidth-on-demand and high data rates for commanders in real-world conditions during Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY in Haiti during the fall and winter of 1994. This paper examines ACTS use by field commanders and details the success of the ACTS system in support of a wide variety of field condition command functions.

  4. Survival tactics of Ranunculus species in river floodplains.

    PubMed

    He, J B; Bögemann, G M; van de Steeg, H M; Rijnders, J G; Voesenek, L A; Blom, C W

    1999-01-01

    The flooding resistance of four Ranunculus species was studied under controlled conditions and related to the tactics used by these species to survive in their natural habitat in river floodplains. R. bulbosus, a species from seldom-flooded river levées, was relatively intolerant of both waterlogging and complete submergence, due to a constitutively low level of aerenchyma in the root system. This lack of gas spaces resulted in high mortality rates during flooding treatments and an inability to use photosynthetically derived oxygen for root respiration during complete submergence. The pioneer R. sceleratus, predominantly abundant in low lying mudflats, was very resistant to waterlogging and shallow floods. Due to its constitutively high root porosity and its ability to greatly increase the elongation rate of petioles under water this species can ameliorate flooding stress. However, when leaf blades of R. sceleratus were unable to reach the water surface, this species died as quickly as the flooding-intolerant R. bulbosus. This indicates that fast elongation of petioles under water competes for energy and respirable reserves with maintenance processes. R. repens, a species from lower, frequently inundated floodplains, was very tolerant of prolonged waterlogging and submergence. Its high resistance to complete submergence under continuous darkness indicates that this species tolerates hypoxic and/or anoxic tissue conditions via metabolic adjustments. Lysigenous aerenchyma was also induced in the primary root system and in newly developed laterals, and it was able to use oxygen generated by underwater photosynthesis, for root respiration. R. acris, a species from less frequently flooded areas, was as resistant to waterlogging and submergence in the light as R. repens. However, it has a lower resistance than R. repens to complete submergence in the dark. A submergence pre-treatment increased the maximum net underwater photosynthetic rate in R. bulbosus, whereas a

  5. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action. PMID:19731501

  6. Russia`s crumbling tactical nuclear weapons complex: An opportunity for arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.P.; Miller, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    As politicians and policy makers trumpet the successes of strategic reductions and the achievements of the START agreements, Russia has increasingly focused on a rhetorical and doctrinal campaign to enhance the credibility of nuclear war fighting threats by legitimizing theater or tactical nuclear systems. The Russian Federation is convinced that its security rests upon these weapons, and it has therefore attempted to shield both the personnel and the hardware from the effects of the military rollback. The notion that the two largest possessors of nuclear weapons could speedily draw down their arsenals to under 2000 warheads, as a START 3 regime suggests, is misguided. This ignores the thousands of so-called tactical nuclear weapons possessed by both states. The arms control proposal presented in this paper incorporates a regime calling for the elimination of air delivered tactical nuclear weapons that may prove to be a useful model for reinvigorating the stalled process of nuclear arms reductions.

  7. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action.

  8. Trial maneuver generation and selection in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Alan R.; Mcmanus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    To date, increased levels of maneuverability and controllability in aircraft have been postulated as tactically advantageous, but little research has studied maneuvers or tactics that make use of these capabilities. In order to help fill this void, a real-time tactical decision generation system for air combat engagements, Paladin, has been developed. Paladin models an air combat engagement as a series of discrete decisions. A detailed description of Paladin's decision making process is presented. This includes the sources of data used, methods of generating reasonable maneuvers for the Paladin aircraft, and selection criteria for choosing the 'best' maneuver. Simulation results are presented that show Paladin to be relatively insensitive to errors introduced into the decision process by estimation of future positional and geometric data.

  9. Trial Maneuver Generation and Selection in the Paladin Tactical Decision Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Alan R.; McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    To date, increased levels of maneuverability and controllability in aircraft have been postulated as tactically advantageous, but little research has studied maneuvers or tactics that make use of these capabilities. In order to help fill this void, a real time tactical decision generation system for air combat engagements, Paladin, has been developed. Paladin models an air combat engagement as a series of discrete decisions. A detailed description of Paladin's decision making process is presented. This includes the sources of data used, methods of generating reasonable maneuvers for the Paladin aircraft, and selection criteria for choosing the "best" maneuver. Simulation results are presented that show Paladin to be relatively insensitive to errors introduced into the decision process by estimation of future positional and geometric data.

  10. Transonic Navier-Stokes computations of strake-generated vortex interactions for a fighter-like configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reznick, Steve

    1988-01-01

    Transonic Euler/Navier-Stokes computations are accomplished for wing-body flow fields using a computer program called Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS). The wing-body grids are generated using a program called ZONER, which subdivides a coarse grid about a fighter-like aircraft configuration into smaller zones, which are tailored to local grid requirements. These zones can be either finely clustered for capture of viscous effects, or coarsely clustered for inviscid portions of the flow field. Different equation sets may be solved in the different zone types. This modular approach also affords the opportunity to modify a local region of the grid without recomputing the global grid. This capability speeds up the design optimization process when quick modifications to the geometry definition are desired. The solution algorithm embodied in TNS is implicit, and is capable of capturing pressure gradients associated with shocks. The algebraic turbulence model employed has proven adequate for viscous interactions with moderate separation. Results confirm that the TNS program can successfully be used to simulate transonic viscous flows about complicated 3-D geometries.

  11. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics at Mach 0.60 to 2.86 of a fighter configuration with strut braced wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Monta, W. J.; Sangiorgio, G.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of utilizing struts to brace the wing to allow the wing thickness reduction on the LFAX-8 fighter configuration. Structural and load analysis indicated that the maximum airfoil thickness could be reduced from 4.5 to 3.1 percent with the strut brace concept. Wave drag theory indicated that reducing the wing maximum thickness from 4.5 percent to 3.1 percent would yield a significant reduction in zero-lift wave drag of about 28 percent at the design Mach number of 1.60. Strut arrangements designed and tested included, a single straight strut, a single swept strut, and a set of tandem straight struts. In addition, a wire of approximately the same cross sectional area replaced the single straight strut on one series of runs. The original LFAX-8 with the 4.5-percent-thick wing was retested to serve as a base line for this investigation.

  12. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-540-1816, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, the toxicity of the commercially available chimney-fire extinguishing product Chimfex was evaluated. In a simulated worse case situation (minimal ventilation and no containment of the extinguisher), area air sampling was performed. Substances detected in the air samples included zinc, zinc-oxide, sulfur-dioxide barium-oxide, and cadmium-oxide. Sulfur-dioxide concentrations ranged from 0.39 to 0.63mg/cu m, and cadmium-oxide concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.02mg/cu m. The presence of cadmium was not expected. Zinc oxide fumes ranged from 6.4 to 48mg/cu m which exceeded the NIOSH recommended ceiling limit of 15mg/cu m for 15 minutes. The author concludes that a potential health hazard may exist from exposure to zinc oxide fumes among users of Chimfex if used in poorly ventilated or confined spaces. The author recommends that a statement regarding the principal decomposition products and their health effects be placed on the product, both the container and the extinguisher itself.

  13. Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a model of a spin-resistant fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.; Chambers, J. R.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide some insight into the features affecting the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a high-performance twin-engine fighter airplane which in operation has exhibited excellent stall characteristics with a general resistance to spinning. Various techniques employed in the study included wind-tunnel free-flight tests, flow-visualization tests, static force tests, and dynamic (forced-oscillation) tests. In addition to tests conducted on the basic configuration tests were made with the wing planform and the fuselage nose modified. The results of the study showed that the model exhibited good dynamic stability characteristics at angles of attack well beyond that for wing stall. The directional stability of the model was provided by the vertical tail at low and moderate angles of attack and by the fuselage forebody at high angles of attack. The wing planform was found to have little effect on the stability characteristics at high angles of attack. The tests also showed that although the fuselage forebody produced beneficial contributions to static directional stability at high angles of attack, it also produced unstable values of damping in yaw. Nose strakes located in a position which eliminated the beneficial nose contributions produced a severe directional divergence.

  14. Multidisciplinary design optimization of a fighter aircraft with damage tolerance constraints and a probabilistic model of the fatigue environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Albert Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) was considered in the global design optimization of an aircraft wing structure. Residual strength and fatigue life requirements, based on the damage tolerance philosophy, were investigated as new design constraints. In general, accurate fatigue prediction is difficult if the load environment is not known with a high degree of certainty. To address this issue, a probabilistic approach was used to describe the uncertain load environment. Probabilistic load spectra models were developed from flight recorder data. The global/local finite element approach allowed local fatigue requirements to be considered in the global design optimization. AFGROW fatigue crack growth analysis provided a new strength criterion for satisfying damage tolerance requirements within a global optimization environment. Initial research with the ASTROS program used the probabilistic load model and this damage tolerance constraint to optimize cracked skin panels on the lower wing of a fighter/attack aircraft. For an aerodynamic and structural model similar to an F-16, ASTROS simulated symmetric and asymmetric maneuvers during the optimization. Symmetric maneuvers, without underwing stores, produced the highest stresses and drove the optimization of the inboard lower wing skin. Asymmetric maneuvers, with underwing stores, affected the optimum thickness of the outboard hard points. Subsequent design optimizations included von Mises stress, aileron effectiveness, and lift effectiveness constraints simultaneously. This optimization was driven by the DTA and von Mises stress constraints and, therefore, DTA requirements can have an active role to play in preliminary aircraft design.

  15. A strategy for in-flight measurements of physiology of pilots of high-performance fighter aircraft.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-07-01

    Some pilots flying modern high-performance fighter aircraft develop "hypoxia-like" incidents characterized by short periods of confusion and cognitive impairment. The problem is serious and recently led to the grounding of a fleet of aircraft. Extensive discussions of the incidents have taken place but some people believe that there is inadequate data to determine the cause. There is a tremendous disconnect between what is known about the function of the aircraft and the function of the pilot. This paper describes a plan for measuring the inspired and expired Po2 and Pco2 in the pilot's mask, the inspiratory flow rate, and pressure in the mask. A critically important requirement is that the interference with the function of the pilot is minimal. Although extensive physiological measurements were previously made on pilots in ground-based experiments such as rapid decompression in an altitude chamber and increased acceleration on a centrifuge, in-flight measurements of gas exchange have not been possible until now primarily because of the lack of suitable equipment. The present paper shows how the recent availability of small, rapidly responding oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers make sophisticated in-flight measurements feasible. The added information has the potential of greatly improving our knowledge of pilot physiology, which could lead to an explanation for the incidents.

  16. Design of a Low Cost Short Takeoff-vertical Landing Export Fighter/attack Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Anne; Bodeker, Dan, III; Miu, Steve; Petro, Laura; Senf, Cary Taylor; Woeltjen, Donald

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft is presented that is suitable for export. An advanced four poster, low bypass turbofan engine is to be used for propulsion. Preliminary aerodynamic analysis is presented covering a determination of CD versus CL, CD versus Mach number, as well as best cruise Mach number and altitude. Component locations are presented and center of gravity determined. Cost minimization is achieved through the use of developed subsystems and standard fabrication techniques using nonexotic materials. Conclusions regarding the viability of the STOVL design are presented.

  17. Application of thrusting ejectors to tactical aircraft having vertical lift and short-field capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.; Stoll, F.; Aoyagi, K.

    1981-01-01

    The status of ejector development in terms of application to V/STOL aircraft is reported in three categories: aircraft systems and ejector concepts; ejector performance including prediction techniques and experimental data base available; and, integration of the ejector with complete aircraft configurations. Available prediction techniques are reviewed and performance of three ejector designs with vertical lift capability is summarized. Applications of the 'fuselage' and 'short diffuser' ejectors to fighter aircraft are related to current and planned research programs. Recommendations are listed for effort needed to evaluate installed performance.

  18. A Performance Assessment of a Tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System using Realistic, Complex Traffic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of aspects of an Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) under varying demand levels using realistic traffic patterns. This study only addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (latitude, longitude, altitude, heading and speed) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. The main focus of this paper is to determine the extent to which sole reliance on the proposed tactical ASAS can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times current traffic. The effect of mixing ASAS equipped aircraft with non-equipped aircraft that do not have the capability to self-separate is also investigated.

  19. Transcending functional boundaries: the cultural, strategic, and tactical domains of marketing.

    PubMed

    Rapert, M I; Babakus, E; Olson, J

    1997-01-01

    While debate in the health care literature continues with respect to the role of marketing, many industries are adopting a broadened perspective which recognizes the comprehensive role which marketing may assume at a variety of levels within the organization: marketing as culture, marketing as strategy, and marketing as tactics. A national study of general service hospitals suggests that, in many hospitals, the marketing function is indeed transcending its functional boundaries through enculturation of a marketing orientation, involvement in the strategic process of the organization, and expansion of tactical marketing activities. Hospitals which adopt and support this broadened role of marketing are witnessing a positive effect on performance.

  20. Everyday People Making a Difference on College Campuses: The Tempered Grassroots Leadership Tactics of Faculty and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Gallant, Tricia Bertram; Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a study of the tactics used by faculty and staff grassroots leaders at colleges and universities to create important changes that increase the capacity for leadership. The study identifies how academic and administrative staff, as employees within an academic culture, have access to grassroots leadership tactics that honor…

  1. New Rules Will Push Colleges to Rethink Tactics against Student Pirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Colleges have deployed various tactics over the years to deter illegal file sharing, usually of commercial music and movies, by their students. This month, the U.S. Department of Education will begin crafting regulations that specify strategies, a prospect that is making some campus officials wonder if plans they have already invested in will pass…

  2. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  3. Young Children's Persuasion in Everyday Conversation: Tactics and Attunement to Others' Mental States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Karen; Wright, Jennifer Cole; Estes, David

    2010-01-01

    Young children's persuasion tactics, and how these reflected attunement to others' mental states, were explored in archived longitudinal samples of transcribed at-home conversations of four children, three to five years old. Over 87,000 utterances were examined to identify conversation "chunks" involving persuasion; 1,307 chunks were then coded…

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Tactical Mandarin Chinese Language Course. Technical Report No. 65-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Catherine; Rocklyn, Eugene H.

    To meet the need for a short, self-instructional, tactical language course in a Far Eastern tonal language of potential military significance, a course in Mandarin Chinese was developed by adapting the methods described in Subtask CONTACT II with reference to a European language (Russian). The purpose of the course was to enable combat soldiers to…

  5. Parental Agreement of Reporting Parent to Child Aggression Using the Conflict Tactics Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined mothers' and fathers' reporting congruency using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales. We asked if the mother's report of the father's parenting aggression was consistent with the father's self-report of parenting aggression and if the father's report of the mother's parenting aggression was consistent with the…

  6. Going Tactical Rather than Strategic: An Intervention That Helped Schools Pass the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramesh, G.; Sucharita, V.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses a tactical intervention aimed at improving the academic performance of students that brought about more than the intended positive changes in the target schools through contiguous effect. The intervention was primarily focused on student performance in examinations and was externally driven but led to many improvements in the…

  7. Students' Playful Tactics: Teaching at the Intersection of New Media and the Official Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Julie

    2015-01-01

    By examining the ways in which high school students in two different English classes take up virtual self-representation tactics in school-based social networking sites, this article explores how young people carefully juggle the digital identities they adopt for the eyes of both peers and teachers. The data reveals that the students'…

  8. Micropolitics in the School: Teacher Leaders' Use of Political Skill and Influence Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosky, Donald

    2011-01-01

    This study focused upon the micropolitics of teacher leadership, namely the knowledge of tactics, influencing factors and consequences of teacher leaders' daily political interactions with others within the school setting. Blase (1990, 1997) and Blase and Anderson (1995) acknowledge that teachers are not passive actors in the politics of schools,…

  9. The Systematic Teaching and Recording Tactic (S.T.A.R.T.): A Generic Reading Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David C.; Deno, Stanley L.; Markell, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a reading intervention for students with learning disabilities, the Systematic Teaching and Recording Tactic (S.T.A.R.T.), to be used in conjunction with curriculum-based measurement. Ongoing assessment, teaching to a criterion, re-reading, and reciprocal teaching are major components of the intervention. (Contains six…

  10. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Tactics: Associations with Their Personal Characteristics and Aspects of the Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    Past theory and empirical research have consistently associated a number of risk factors with sexual assault perpetration. This study extends past research by considering if the tactics which perpetrators use to obtain sex are associated with these risk factors or with characteristics of the sexual assault. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews…

  11. Alternative life histories in the Atlantic salmon: genetic covariances within the sneaker sexual tactic in males

    PubMed Central

    Páez, David James; Bernatchez, Louis; Dodson, Julian J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are ubiquitous in many species. Tactic expression often depends on whether an individual's condition surpasses thresholds that are responsible for activating particular developmental pathways. Two central goals in understanding the evolution of reproductive tactics are quantifying the extent to which thresholds are explained by additive genetic effects, and describing their covariation with condition-related traits. We monitored the development of early sexual maturation that leads to the sneaker reproductive tactic in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). We found evidence for additive genetic variance in the timing of sexual maturity (which is a measure of the surpassing of threshold values) and body-size traits. This suggests that selection can affect the patterns of sexual development by changing the timing of this event and/or body size. Significant levels of covariation between these traits also occurred, implying a potential for correlated responses to selection. Closer examination of genetic covariances suggests that the detected genetic variation is distributed along at least five directions of phenotypic variation. Our results show that the potential for evolution of the life-history traits constituting this reproductive phenotype is greatly influenced by their patterns of genetic covariance. PMID:21177685

  12. Schools as Tactical Targets in Conflict: What the Case of Nepal Can Teach Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wessel, Margit; van Hirtum, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    That school grounds, students, and staff can become tactical targets for parties in conflict is widely accepted as a fact by analysts of education and conflict. However, our understanding of the motivations for such targeting remains limited, as does our ability to engage with this matter through policy. In this article we explore tactical…

  13. Modelling Human Teaching Tactics and Strategies for Tutoring Systems: 14 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Our original paper tried to characterize the richness of the teaching repertoire of expert human teachers and to give a sense of how far there still was to go in the development of pedagogic expertise in AIED systems. It considered three ways in which more expert teaching strategies and tactics might be developed. These were via (i) the…

  14. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  15. How baseball players prepare to bat: tactical knowledge as a mediator of expert performance in baseball.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sue; MacMahon, Clare

    2008-12-01

    Our understanding of the role of tactical knowledge in baseball batting preparation is scarce, thereby limiting training guidelines. We examined the verbal reports of baseball players and nonplayers when told to view different edited video sequences of a half-inning of baseball competition under different task conditions: to prepare to bat (problem solve); recall as much information as possible (intentional recall); or prepare to bat, with an unexpected recall (incidental recall). Separate mixed-model ANOVAs (Expertise x Instruction conditions) on verbal report measures indicated that nonplayers used general strategies for recalling baseball events and lacked the tactical skills to use such information for their upcoming times at bat. In contrast, players used baseball-specific strategies to encode and retrieve pertinent game events from long-term memory (LTM) to develop tactics for their upcoming times at bat and to recall as much information as possible. Recommendations for training tactical skills are presented as some players exhibited deficiencies in the LTM structures that mediate batting decisions.

  16. Confronting Delinquency: Probations Officers' Use of Coercion and Client-Centered Tactics to Foster Youth Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalbe, Craig S.; Maschi, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Youthful compliance with juvenile court mandates is a cornerstone of effective probation practice. Despite this, research has not examined probation strategies for encouraging and enforcing youthful compliance with probation conditions. This study describes the use of confrontational tactics and client-centered approaches reported by probation…

  17. Organizational Socialization of Women in the Italian Army: Learning Processes and Proactive Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atzori, Milena; Lombardi, Luigi; Fraccaroli, Franco; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Zaniboni, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the organizational socialization of women soldiers in the Italian Army. Design/methodology/approach: Following an interactionist interpretation of socialization, a model was tested to determine the influence of organizational socialization tactics, proactive behaviours, supervisor support on organizational…

  18. NMR analysis and tacticity determination of poly(lactic acid) in C5D5N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work tacticity assignments of poly(lactic acid), (PLA), are reported for the NMR peaks from CH carbon and CH3 proton at the tetrad level in deuterated pyridine. The methyl protons are better resolved in pyridine due to solvent effects such as ring current shielding of the aromatic ring and ...

  19. Take a Page from Your Coach's Play Book: Teaching Technical and Tactical Skills in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth B.; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The ability to demonstrate sound clinical reasoning is needed for a practicing athletic trainer. However, instruction on how to make a correct clinical decision may be deficient in many athletic training programs. Objective: To provide an overview of how to teach technical and tactical skills, using both a tradition and a nontraditional…

  20. Tactical hospital marketing: a survey of the state of the art.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, P K; Shields, L A

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of acute care hospitals which was undertaken to: (1) identify and establish the organizational positioning of key hospital marketing personnel; (2) measure the role of these personnel in influencing the traditional marketing mix decisions; and, (3) identify tactical marketing activities most frequently undertaken.

  1. A Move to an Innovative Games Teaching Model: Style E Tactical (SET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Sanmuga; Haynes, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a hybrid model of teaching games--The Style "E" Tactical (SET) Model. The SET is a combination of two pedagogical approaches: Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles and Bunker and Thorpe's Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). To test the efficacy of this new model, the…

  2. A Contingent Approach to Strategy and Tactics in Formative and Summative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, John M.; Cullen, John W.

    1984-01-01

    The pooled judgements of evaluators and users of evaluations on eight panels examining eight simulated evaluation situations in higher education were analyzed. Choices regarding evaluation phases and tactics were found to be dependent on evaluation goals (wether the evaluation has a formative or summative purpose) and contextual variables.…

  3. I Am Right for Your Child! : Tactics for Manipulating Potential Parents-In-Law.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2015-12-01

    Parents and children have converging as well as diverging interests with respect to the latter's mate choices. Diverging interests frequently result in children choosing mates who do not gain the approval of their parents. Manipulation then arises wherein parents try to drive away undesirable prospective sons- and daughters-in-law, and the latter employ counter manipulation to make the former to change their minds. The present research aims to identify and measure the effectiveness of manipulation tactics that individuals employ to influence their partners' parents to accept them as mates for their daughters and sons. Study 1 recruited a sample of 106 Greek-Cypriots and, using open-ended questionnaires, identified 41 acts that individuals employ on their partners' parents. Using principal-components analysis, in a sample of 738 Greek-Cypriots, Study 2 classified these acts into seven broader manipulation tactics and identified the ones that are more and the ones that are less likely to be employed. Study 3 examined in a sample of 414 Greek-Cypriots the effectiveness of these tactics in altering parents' minds and finds a moderate effectiveness, with some tactics being more effective than others. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26454857

  4. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa

    2005-01-01

    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  5. Effect of the Sport Education Tactical Model on Coeducational and Single Gender Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla; Sundal, Jacqueline; Colquit, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers are faced with a decision when teaching physical activities in schools. What type of instructional model should be used, and should classes be coeducational or single gender? The current study had two purposes. The first purpose investigated the effectiveness of the sport education tactical model (SETM) during game play…

  6. The Tactical Approach to Teaching Games from Teaching, Learning and Mentoring Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; McNeill, Mike; Fry, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the teaching of games via a tactical approach (also known as teaching games for understanding) from the theoretical perspective of social constructivism. A pilot study (of student teachers (STs) and pupils) informed the "main" study which included collecting data on 49 STs, 58 cooperating teachers (CTs) and 1177 pupils. ST data…

  7. Similarities and Differences in Women's Sexual Assault Experiences Based on Tactics Used by the Perpetrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2004-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined the characteristics of sexual assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. In this study we compared the experiences of women who were forced to engage in vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse due to verbal coercion, physical force, or intoxication. Random-digit dialing was used to obtain a sample of 272…

  8. Oxytocin receptor density is associated with male mating tactics and social monogamy.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Alexander G; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in male mating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  9. Oxytocin receptor density is associated with male mating tactics and social monogamy

    PubMed Central

    Ophir, Alexander G.; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in male mating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems. PMID:22285648

  10. An Assessment of U.S. Navy Tactical Team Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; Rizzo, William A.

    A study was conducted to compile resource information for planning regarding Navy tactical team training. The specific objectives were to describe the current status of team training within the fleet; review and evaluate the findings in the technical literature regarding team training; develop and recommend potential solutions to team training…

  11. Dithiane Induced Cycloaddition/Aromatization Tactic for the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Furans.

    PubMed

    Lai, Junshan; Liang, Yongping; Liu, Teng; Tang, Shouchu

    2016-05-01

    The development of a new transition-metal-free tactic for convergent, one-pot synthesis of multisubstituted furans by β-chloro-vinyl dithiane cyclization with aldehydes is described. Key to the success was the development of a new vinylidene dithiane site as a donor allene that generates the active dihydrofuran, which undergoes in situ aromatization under mild conditions.

  12. Publishers' PR Tactic Angers University Presses and Open-Access Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on reactions to the Association of American Publishers' new public-relations campaign, which has upset many university presses and research librarians, as well as open-access advocates. The effort, known as the "Partnership for Research Integrity in Science & Medicine," or Prism, is the latest tactic in a continuing…

  13. Settling In: The Role of Individual and Departmental Tactics in the Development of New Faculty Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Susan S.; Goldman, Alyssa W.; Correll, Shelley J.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Network formation is a key element of newcomer socialization; however, little is understood about how newcomer networks are formed in higher education. Drawing on a series of interviews with 34 new pre-tenure faculty members, we propose that just as individual and organizational socialization tactics interactively influence newcomer adjustment…

  14. Instructional Strategies and Tactics for the Design of Introductory Computer Programming Courses in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Krammer, Hein P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the expert, spiral, and reading approaches to instructional strategies for introductory computer programming courses. Based on ACT (Adaptive Control of Thought) theory and relevant research, the differences between declarative and procedural instruction are identified, and six tactics used to design courses and evaluate strategies are…

  15. An engine trade study for a supersonic STOVL fighter-attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The best main engine for an advanced STOVL aircraft flight demonstrator was studied. The STOVL aircraft uses ejectors powered by engine bypass flow together with vectored core exhaust to achieve vertical thrust capability. Bypass flow and core flow are exhausted through separate nozzles during wingborne flight. Six near term turbofan engines were examined for suitability for this aircraft concept. Fan pressure ratio, thrust split between bypass and core flow, and total thrust level were used to compare engines. One of the six candidate engines was selected for the flight demonstrator configuration. Propulsion related to this aircraft concept was studied. A preliminary candidate for the aircraft reaction control system for hover attitude control was selected. A mathematical model of transfer of bypass thrust from ejectors to aft directed nozzle during the transition to wingborne flight was developed. An equation to predict ejector secondary air flow rate and ram drag is derived. Additional topics discussed include: nozzle area control, ejector to engine inlet reingestion, bypass/core thrust split variation, and gyroscopic behavior during hover.

  16. Assessment of Secondary School Students’ Game Performance Related to Tactical Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, David; Fisette, Jennifer; García-López, Luis Miguel; Contreras, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    Certain limitations remain unaddressed when utilizing the Teaching Games for Understanding approach, suggesting the need for more research on authentic assessment of skill development and tactical awareness in order to guide the design of developmentally appropriate curriculum materials. This study investigated physical education students’ (n=19; age: 13.71 ± 0.4) game performance during an invasion game, specifically the relationship between their skill execution and decision-making ability. The purpose of the study was twofold: (a) to devise and implement a ‘game context’ approach to assess the game performance components and in doing so, (b) to provide information that could be used to design suitable learning progressions within tactical teaching approaches. Students’ game performance was videotaped, and measures of skill execution and decision-making were developed from observational analyses. Decision-making was measured at two levels: a) decision making restricted to the selection of technical-tactical skills (i.e., passing, moving with the ball, getting free, marking, tackling, double teaming and interception; and b) decision-making in the adaptation to the tactical contexts of the game. Participants played a 5 vs. 5 modified eight-minute team handball game. Participants scored significantly higher in penetrating-the-defense context adaptation than in keeping-the-ball context adaptation. Participants showed a higher efficiency in decision-making than in execution in most of the technical-tactical skills; including on-the-ball over off-the-ball decision-making, and in attack compared to defensive execution. The findings also revealed significant relationships between decision-making and skill execution in shooting, tackling and passing. PMID:25414755

  17. Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

  18. Subsonic and supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise fighter model with a twisted and cambered wing with 74 deg sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, O. A.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration with a design Mach number of 2.60. The configuration is characterized by a highly swept arrow wing twisted and cambered to minimize supersonic drag due to lift, twin wing mounted vertical tails, and an aft mounted integral underslung duel-engine pod. The investigation also included tests of the configuration with larger outboard vertical tails and with small nose strakes.

  19. Subsonic longitudinal and lateral-directional static aerodynamic characteristics of a general research fighter configuration employing a jet sheet vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, J. K.; Fox, C. H., Jr.; Ziegler, H.

    1978-01-01

    A configuration concept for developing vortex lift, which replaces the physical wing strake with a jet sheet generated fluid strake, was investigated on a general research fighter model. The vertical and horizontal location of the jet sheet with respect to the wing leading edge was studied over a momentum coefficient range from 0 to 0.24 in the Langley 7- by 10-foot high speed tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 0.8. The angle of attack range studied was from -2 to 30 deg at sideslip angles of 0, -5, and 5 deg. Test data are presented without analysis.

  20. Summary of low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of two powered close-coupled wing-canard fighter configurations. [conducted in Langley C/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the low speed longitudinal characteristics of two powered close coupled wing-canard fighter configurations are discussed. Data obtained at angles of attack from -2 deg to 42 deg, Mach numbers from 0.12 to 0.20, nozzle and flap deflections from 0 deg to 40 deg, and thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.0, to represent both high angle of attack subsonic maneuvering characteristics and conventional takeoff and landing characteristics are examined. Data obtained with the nozzles deflected either 60 deg or 90 deg and the flaps deflected 60 deg to represent vertical or short takeoff and landing characteristics are discussed.