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Sample records for advanced terminal area

  1. Terminal area considerations for an advanced CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Projected future conditions at large urban airports were used to identify design objectives for a long-haul, advanced transport airplane introduced for operation in the mid-1980s. Operating constraints associated with airport congestion and aircraft noise and emissions were of central interest. In addition, some of the interaction of these constraints with aircraft fuel usage were identified. The study allowed for advanced aircraft design features consistent with the future operating period. A baseline 200 passenger airplane design was modified to comply with design requirements imposed by terminal area constraints. Specific design changes included: (1) modification of engine arrangement; wing planform; (2) drag and spoiler surfaces; (3) secondary power systems; (4) brake and landing gear characteristics; and (5) the aircraft avionics. These changes, based on exploratory design estimates and allowing for technology advance, were judged to enable the airplane to: reduce wake turbulence; handle steeper descent paths with fewer limitation due to engine characteristics; reduce runway occupancy times; improve community noise contours; and reduce the total engine emittants deposited in the terminal area. The penalties to airplane performance and operating cost associated with improving the terminal area characteristics of the airplane were assessed. Finally, key research problems requiring solution in order to validate the assumed advanced airplane technology were identified.

  2. Potential impacts of advanced technologies on the ATC capacity of high-density terminal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.; Odoni, A. R.; Salas-Roche, F.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced technologies for airborne systems (automatic flight control, flight displays, navigation) and for ground ATC systems (digital communications, improved surveillance and tracking, automated decision-making) create the possibility of advanced ATC operations and procedures which can bring increased capacity for runway systems. A systematic analysis is carried out to identify certain such advanced ATC operations, and then to evaluate the potential benefits occurring over time at typical US high-density airports (Denver and Boston). The study is divided into three parts: (1) A Critical Examination of Factors Which Determine Operational Capacity of Runway Systems at Major Airports, is an intensive review of current US separation criteria and terminal area ATC operations. It identifies 11 new methods to increase the capacity of landings and takeoffs for runway systems; (2) Development of Risk Based Separation Criteria is the development of a rational structure for establishing reduced ATC separation criteria which meet a consistent Target Level of Safety using advanced technology and operational procedures; and (3) Estimation of Capacity Benefits from Advanced Terminal Area Operations - Denver and Boston, provides an estimate of the overall annual improvement in runway capacity which might be expected at Denver and Boston from using some of the advanced ATC procedures developed in Part 1. Whereas Boston achieved a substantial 37% increase, Denver only achieved a 4.7% increase in its overall annual capacity.

  3. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  4. Optimal Time Advance In Terminal Area Arrivals: Throughput vs. Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V .; Swenson, Harry N.; Haskell, William B.; Rakas, Jasenka

    2011-01-01

    The current operational practice in scheduling air traffic arriving at an airport is to adjust flight schedules by delay, i.e. a postponement of an aircrafts arrival at a scheduled location, to manage safely the FAA-mandated separation constraints between aircraft. To meet the observed and forecast growth in traffic demand, however, the practice of time advance (speeding up an aircraft toward a scheduled location) is envisioned for future operations as a practice additional to delay. Time advance has two potential advantages. The first is the capability to minimize, or at least reduce, the excess separation (the distances between pairs of aircraft immediately in-trail) and thereby to increase the throughput of the arriving traffic. The second is to reduce the total traffic delay when the traffic sample is below saturation density. A cost associated with time advance is the fuel expenditure required by an aircraft to speed up. We present an optimal control model of air traffic arriving in a terminal area and solve it using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. The admissible controls allow time advance, as well as delay, some of the way. The cost function reflects the trade-off between minimizing two competing objectives: excess separation (negatively correlated with throughput) and fuel burn. A number of instances are solved using three different methods, to demonstrate consistency of solutions.

  5. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  6. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 2: Research and technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Terminal Area Compatibility (TAC) study is briefly summarized for background information. The most important research items for the areas of noise congestion, and emissions are identified. Other key research areas are also discussed. The 50 recommended research items are categorized by flight phase, technology, and compatibility benefits. The relationship of the TAC recommendations to the previous ATT recommendations is discussed. The bulk of the document contains the 50 recommended research items. For each item, the potential payoff, state of readiness, recommended action and estimated cost and schedule are given.

  7. Terminal area air traffic control simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To study the impact of advanced aeronautical technologies on operations to and from terminal airports, a computer model of air traffic movements was developed. The advantages of fast-time simulation are discussed, and the arrival scheduling and flight simulation are described. A New York area study, user's guide, and programmer's guide are included.

  8. The terminal area automated path generation problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsin, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The automated terminal area path generation problem in the advanced Air Traffic Control System (ATC), has been studied. Definitions, input, output and the interrelationships with other ATC functions have been discussed. Alternatives in modeling the problem have been identified. Problem formulations and solution techniques are presented. In particular, the solution of a minimum effort path stretching problem (path generation on a given schedule) has been carried out using the Newton-Raphson trajectory optimization method. Discussions are presented on the effect of different delivery time, aircraft entry position, initial guess on the boundary conditions, etc. Recommendations are made on real-world implementations.

  9. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  10. Tiltrotor Acoustic Flight Test: Terminal Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SantaMaria, O. L.; Wellman, J. B.; Conner, D. A.; Rutledge, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive description of an acoustic flight test of the XV- 15 Tiltrotor Aircraft with Advanced Technology Blades (ATB) conducted in August and September 1991 at Crows Landing, California. The purpose of this cooperative research effort of the NASA Langley and Ames Research Centers was to obtain a preliminary, high quality database of far-field acoustics for terminal area operations of the XV-15 at a takeoff gross weight of approximately 14,000 lbs for various glide slopes, airspeeds, rotor tip speeds, and nacelle tilt angles. The test also was used to assess the suitability of the Crows Landing complex for full scale far-field acoustic testing. This was the first acoustic flight test of the XV-15 aircraft equipped with ATB involving approach and level flyover operations. The test involved coordination of numerous personnel, facilities and equipment. Considerable effort was made to minimize potential extraneous noise sources unique to the region during the test. Acoustic data from the level flyovers were analyzed, then compared with data from a previous test of the XV-15 equipped with Standard Metal Blades

  11. Terminal Area ATM Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    The presentation will highlight the following: (1) A brief review of ATC research underway 15 years ago; (2) A summary of Terminal Area ATM Tool Development ongoing at NASA Ames; and (3) A projection of research activities 10-15 years from now.

  12. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  13. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  14. Teamwork in the Terminal Area: Organizational Issues and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny K.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic growth and technology advances in commercial aviation have turned the terminal area into a complex, multi-organization workplace which requires the smooth coordination of many operational teams. In addition to pilots, cabin crew, air traffic controllers, and dispatch (who nominally work together throughout a flight), surface operations additionally involve local, ground and ramp controllers, ramp agents, maintenance, dozens of service contractors, and any number of teams who are responsible for airport operations. Under abnormal or emergency conditions, even more teams become actively involved. In order to accommodate growth and to meet productivity and safety challenges, numerous changes are being made in surface operations. Unfortunately, it is often the case that changes in technologies, organizational roles, procedures, and training are developed and implemented in isolated and piecemeal fashion without regard to cross organizational impact. Thus, there is a need for evaluation methodologies which assure integrated system safety for all organizations. Such methodologies should aid the understanding of how organizations work together and how changes in one domain affects the next. In this study, we develop one approach toward addressing these organizational issues. Examples of surface operations in abnormal situations are examined in regard to their impact on personnel in the terminal area. Timelines are given for the responses to incidents, along with the necessary communication links, the specific roles that members of terminal teams have, and any overlapping responsibilities. Suggestions to improve cross-operational teamwork are given. Methods of graphic representation are explored, both in regards to human links and access to information. The outcome of such an approach should enhance the understanding which is critical for resolving organizational conflicts and maximizing system effectiveness.

  15. Concepts and algorithms for terminal-area traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Chapel, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The nation's air-traffic-control system is the subject of an extensive modernization program, including the planned introduction of advanced automation techniques. This paper gives an overview of a concept for automating terminal-area traffic management. Four-dimensional (4D) guidance techniques, which play an essential role in the automated system, are reviewed. One technique, intended for on-board computer implementation, is based on application of optimal control theory. The second technique is a simplified approach to 4D guidance intended for ground computer implementation. It generates advisory messages to help the controller maintain scheduled landing times of aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. An operational system for the second technique, recently evaluated in a simulation, is also described.

  16. Identification of Error Patterns in Terminal-Area ATC Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Cheryl; Walter, Kim E.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Advancing air traffic management technologies have enabled a greater number of aircraft to use the same airspace more effectively. As aircraft separations are reduced and final approaches are more finely timed, there is less room for error. The present study examined 122 terminal-area, loss-of-separation and procedure violation incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) by air traffic controllers. Narrative description codes were used for the incidents for type of violation, contributing factors, recovery strategies, and consequences. Usually multiple errors occurred prior to the violation. Error sequences were analyzed and common patterns of errors were identified. In half of the incidents, errors were noticed in time to correct mistakes. Of these, almost 43% committed additional errors during the recovery attempt. This analysis shows that redundancies in the present air traffic control system may not be sufficient to support large increases in traffic density. Error prevention and design considerations for air traffic management systems are discussed.

  17. A communications system for the terminal area effectiveness program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The terminal area effectiveness program has the broad scope of evaluating air traffic control (ATC) procedures. One area of interest is pilot acceptance of complex ATC procedures. A means to measure this acceptance is described by studying the impact on pilots of meeting the ATC procedural requirements. The concept-testing system configuration, its operation, and its performance are discussed.

  18. Guidance and control system research for improved terminal area operations. [terminal controlled vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, R. M.; Creedon, J. F.; Bundick, W. T.; Young, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Several guidance and control system research and development activities aimed at improving the operational capabilities of commercial aircraft in the terminal area are described. The guidance and control systems were designed to improve the capacity and efficiency of terminal area operations, enhance the approach and landing capability of aircraft in adverse weather conditions, and reduce the impact of aircraft noise perceived on the ground. Specific performance features include the ability to capture and track steep glideslopes, use short final approaches, perform flares with reduced longitudinal touchdown dispersion and execute high speed runway rollout and turnoff. Results obtained from simulation studies or flight tests are shown for each of the algorithms.

  19. Design Considerations for a New Terminal Area Arrival Scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Design of a terminal area arrival scheduler depends on the interrelationship between throughput, delay and controller intervention. The main contribution of this paper is an analysis of the above interdependence for several stochastic behaviors of expected system performance distributions in the aircraft s time of arrival at the meter fix and runway. Results of this analysis serve to guide the scheduler design choices for key control variables. Two types of variables are analyzed, separation buffers and terminal delay margins. The choice for these decision variables was tested using sensitivity analysis. Analysis suggests that it is best to set the separation buffer at the meter fix to its minimum and adjust the runway buffer to attain the desired system performance. Delay margin was found to have the least effect. These results help characterize the variables most influential in the scheduling operations of terminal area arrivals.

  20. Identification of Robust Terminal-Area Routes in Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2012-01-01

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Traffic flow management algorithms require reliable forecasts of route blockage to schedule and route traffic. This paper demonstrates how raw convective weather forecasts, which provide deterministic predictions of the vertically integrated liquid (the precipitation content in a column of airspace) can be translated into probabilistic forecasts of whether or not a terminal area route will be blocked. Given a flight route through the terminal area, we apply techniques from machine learning to determine the likelihood that the route will be open in actual weather. The likelihood is then used to optimize terminalarea operations by dynamically moving arrival and departure routes to maximize the expected capacity of the terminal area. Experiments using real weather scenarios on stormy days show that our algorithms recommend that a terminal-area route be modified 30% of the time, opening up 13% more available routes that were forecast to be blocked during these scenarios. The error rate is low, with only 5% of cases corresponding to a modified route being blocked in reality, whereas the original route is in fact open. In addition, for routes predicted to be open with probability 0.95 or greater by our method, 96% of these routes (on average over time horizon) are indeed open in the weather that materializes

  1. Cyberknife treatment for advanced or terminal stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideo; Taniguch, Hiroyoshi; Nomura, Ryutaro; Sato, Kengo; Suzuki, Ichiro; Nakata, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of the Cyberknife treatment for patients with advanced or terminal stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients with HCC with extrahepatic metastasis or vascular or bile duct invasion were enrolled between May 2011 and June 2015. The Cyberknife was used to treat each lesion. Treatment response scores were based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. The trends of tumor markers, including alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and proteins induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II) were assessed. Prognostic factors for tumor response and tumor markers were evaluated with Fisher’s exact test and a logistic regression model. Survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with 95 lesions were enrolled. Based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification, all patients were either in the advanced or terminal stage of the disease. The target lesions were as follows: 52 were bone metastasis; 9, lung metastasis; 7, brain metastasis; 9, portal vein invasion; 4, hepatic vein invasion; 4, bile duct invasion; and 10 other lesion types. The response rate and disease control rate were 34% and 53%, respectively. None of the clinical factors correlated significantly with tumor response. Fiducial marker implantation was associated with better control of both AFP (HR = 0.152; 95%CI: 0.026-0.887; P = 0.036) and PIVKA II (HR = 0.035; 95%CI: 0.003-0.342; P = 0.004). The median survival time was 9 mo (95%CI: 5-15 mo). Terminal stage disease (HR = 9.809; 95%CI: 2.589-37.17, P < 0.001) and an AFP of more than 400 ng/mL (HR = 2.548; 95%CI: 1.070-6.068, P = 0.035) were associated with worse survival. A radiation dose higher than 30 Gy (HR = 0.274; 95%CI: 0.093-0.7541, P = 0.012) was associated with better survival. In the 52 cases of bone metastasis, 36 patients (69%) achieved pain relief. One patient had cerebral

  2. Human factors in aviation: Terminal control area boundary conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air conflicts in the vicinity of Terminal Control Area (TCA) boundaries were studied to obtain a better understanding of the causal dynamics of these events with particular focus on human factor issues. The study dataset consisted of 381 Instrument Flight Rules/Visual Flight Rules (IFR/VFR) traffic conflicts in airspace layers above TCA ceiling and below TCA floors; 213 reports of incursions in TCA terminal airspace by VFR aircraft, of which 123 resulted in conflicts; and an additional set of reports describing problems with Air Traffic Control (ATC) services in and around TCAs. Results and conclusions are detailed.

  3. Economics and terminal area environmental impact of STOL transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of short takeoff and landing aircraft in meeting the needs of short haul transportation systems is analyzed. The objectives of the short haul system are evaluated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) terminal area environment conditions caused by community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. Data are presented in the forms of tables, charts, and graphs. An itemization of the conclusions reached after the preliminary investigation is included.

  4. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  5. Ride quality of terminal-area flight maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Complex terminal-area flight maneuvers being considered for airline operations may not be acceptable to passengers. To provide technology in this area, a series of flight experiments was conducted by NASA using the U. S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft to obtain subjective responses of a significant number of passenger test subjects to closely controlled and repeatable flight maneuvers. Regression analysis of the data produced a mathematical model which closely predicts mean passenger ride-comfort rating as a function of the rms six-degree-of-freedom aircraft motions during the maneuver. This ride-comfort model was exercised to examine various synthesized flight maneuvers.

  6. Human Factors Evaluation of Conflict Detection Tool for Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita Arora; Tang, Huabin; Ballinger, Deborah; Chinn, Fay Cherie; Kozon, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    A conflict detection and resolution tool, Terminal-area Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment (T-TSAFE), is being developed to improve the timeliness and accuracy of alerts and reduce the false alert rate observed with the currently deployed technology. The legacy system in use today, Conflict Alert, relies primarily on a dead reckoning algorithm, whereas T-TSAFE uses intent information to augment dead reckoning. In previous experiments, T-TSAFE was found to reduce the rate of false alerts and increase time between the alert to the controller and a loss of separation over the legacy system. In the present study, T-TSAFE was tested under two meteorological conditions, 1) all aircraft operated under instrument flight regimen, and 2) some aircraft operated under mixed operating conditions. The tool was used to visually alert controllers to predicted Losses of separation throughout the terminal airspace, and show compression errors, on final approach. The performance of T-TSAFE on final approach was compared with Automated Terminal Proximity Alert (ATPA), a tool recently deployed by the FAA. Results show that controllers did not report differences in workload or situational awareness between the T-TSAFE and ATPA cones but did prefer T-TSAFE features over ATPA functionality. T-TSAFE will provide one tool that shows alerts in the data blocks and compression errors via cones on the final approach, implementing all tactical conflict detection and alerting via one tool in TRACON airspace.

  7. Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

  8. XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Terminal Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brieger, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic data have been acquired for the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft performing a variety of terminal area operating procedures. This joint NASA/Bell/Army test program was conducted in two phases. During Phase 1 the XV-15 was flown over a linear array of microphones, deployed perpendicular to the flight path, at a number of fixed operating conditions. This documented the relative noise differences between the various conditions. During Phase 2 the microphone array was deployed over a large area to directly measure the noise footprint produced during realistic approach and departure procedures. The XV-15 flew approach profiles that culminated in IGE hover over a landing pad, then takeoffs from the hover condition back out over the microphone array. Results from Phase 1 identify noise differences between selected operating conditions, while those from Phase 2 identify differences in noise footprints between takeoff and approach conditions and changes in noise footprint due to variation in approach procedures.

  9. An analytic study of near terminal area optimal sequencing and flow control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, S. K.; Straeter, T. A.; Hogge, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Optimal flow control and sequencing of air traffic operations in the near terminal area are discussed. The near terminal area model is based on the assumptions that the aircraft enter the terminal area along precisely controlled approach paths and that the aircraft are segregated according to their near terminal area performance. Mathematical models are developed to support the optimal path generation, sequencing, and conflict resolution problems.

  10. Recent technical advances in general purpose mobile Satcom aviation terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydor, John T.

    1990-01-01

    A second general aviation amplitude companded single sideband (ACSSB) aeronautical terminal was developed for use with the Ontario Air Ambulance Service (OAAS). This terminal is designed to have automatic call set up and take down and to interface with the Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN) through a ground earth station hub controller. The terminal has integrated RF and microprocessor hardware which allows such functions as beam steering and automatic frequency control to be software controlled. The terminal uses a conformal patch array system to provide almost full azimuthal coverage. Antenna beam steering is executed without relying on aircraft supplied orientation information.

  11. Evaluation of a Terminal Area In-Trail Approach Spacing, Project and Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelden, Stephen; Johnson, Walter (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Reported here are the results of work completed as a precursor to Distributed Air Ground (DAG), Concept Element 11 (CE11) research. CE11 is a NASA, Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) concept initiated to promote research on in-trail merging and spacing during approach in the terminal area environment, such that improvements to the National Air Space (NAS) may be realized. A description of the project concept, results of a preliminary study, and a literature review are presented. In terms of conclusions, study results, and reference material respectively: 1) the concept is supported as being significant to NAS capacity improvement, 2) the preliminary study indicated that having more than one downstream, in-trail aircraft present on a CDTI during approach may be advantageous, and that flying traditional Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) utilizing advanced decision support tools (DST) may be complicated by wake turbulence considerations, a lack of vertical awareness on the part of the flight crew, and the 'step-down' nature of many terminal area approaches, and 3) the results of a literature review are presented for future reference.

  12. Analysis of pilot warning indicator performance in terminal area traffic.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruetenik, J. R.; Lange, W. R.; Thompson, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Three pilot warning indicator concepts for collision hazard avoidance are analyzed using computer fast-time simulation. A hazard measure is defined based on a 1/2-g maximum horizontal acceleration, a maximum climb or dive angle of 10 deg for each aircraft, and a 20-sec warning time, through escape completion. The traffic model is based on flight tracks recorded in the Atlanta terminal area over an 11 hr period during August 1967. The basic PWI concept studied alarms on range to flashing beacons mounted on intruder aircraft as a function of relative azimuth and elevation. The alarm-hazard epoch ratio is about 17/1 to maintain the missed-alarm rate below 10%. Beacon vignetting or range-rate discrimination are shown to reduce the false-alarm rate by about 75%.

  13. Recent advances in understanding transcription termination by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Travis J.; Reines, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Transcription termination is a fundamental process in which RNA polymerase ceases RNA chain extension and dissociates from the chromatin template, thereby defining the end of the transcription unit. Our understanding of the biological role and functional importance of termination by RNA polymerase II and the range of processes in which it is involved has grown significantly in recent years. A large set of nucleic acid-binding proteins and enzymes have been identified as part of the termination machinery. A greater appreciation for the coupling of termination to RNA processing and metabolism has been recognized. In addition to serving as an essential step at the end of the transcription cycle, termination is involved in the regulation of a broad range of cellular processes. More recently, a role for termination in pervasive transcription, non-coding RNA regulation, genetic stability, chromatin remodeling, the immune response, and disease has come to the fore. Interesting mechanistic questions remain, but the last several years have resulted in significant insights into termination and an increasing recognition of its biological importance. PMID:27408690

  14. Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS) Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David K.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides information on the development, integration, and operational usage of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Air Force Flight Test Center. The presentation will describe the efforts completed to certify the system and acquire approval for operational usage, the efforts to integrate the system into the NASA Dryden existing flight termination infrastructure, and the operational support of aircraft with EFTS at Edwards AFB.

  15. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  16. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  17. Advection of Microphysical Scalars in Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2011-01-01

    The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) is a large eddy scale atmospheric flow model with extensive turbulence and microphysics packages. It has been applied successfully in the past to a diverse set of problems ranging from prediction of severe convective events (Proctor et al. 2002), tracking storms and for simulating weapons effects such as the dispersion and fallout of fission debris (Bacon and Sarma 1991), etc. More recently, TASS has been used for predicting the transport and decay of wake vortices behind aircraft (Proctor 2009). An essential part of the TASS model is its comprehensive microphysics package, which relies on the accurate computation of microphysical scalar transport. This paper describes an evaluation of the Leonard scheme implemented in the TASS model for transporting microphysical scalars. The scheme is validated against benchmark cases with exact solutions and compared with two other schemes - a Monotone Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL)-type scheme after van Leer and LeVeque's high-resolution wave propagation method. Finally, a comparison between the schemes is made against an incident of severe tornadic super-cell convection near Del City, Oklahoma.

  18. An Operational Computational Terminal Area PBL Prediction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Kaplan, Michael L.; Weglarz, Ronald P.; Hamilton, David W.

    1997-01-01

    There are two fundamental goals of this research project. The first and primary goal is to develop a prognostic system which could satisfy the operational weather prediction requirements of the meteorological subsystem within the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The secondary goal is to perform indepth diagnostic analyses of the meteorological conditions affecting the Memphis field experiment held during August 1995. These two goals are interdependent because a thorough understanding of the atmospheric dynamical processes which produced the unique meteorology during the Memphis deployment will help us design a prognostic system for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which could be utilized to support the meteorological subsystem within AVOSS. The secondary goal occupied much of the first year of the research project. This involved extensive data acquisition and indepth analyses of a spectrum of atmospheric observational data sets. Concerning the primary goal, the first part of the four-stage prognostic system in support of AVOSS entitled: Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) was also formulated and tested in a research environment during 1996. We describe this system, and the three stages which are planned to follow. This first part of a software system designed to meet the primary goal of this research project is relatively inexpensive to implement and run operationally.

  19. An Operational Computational Terminal Area PBL Prediction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    There are two fundamental goals of this research project which are listed here in terms of priority, i.e., a primary and secondary goal. The first and primary goal is to develop a prognostic system which could satisfy the operational weather prediction requirements of the meteorological subsystem within the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), i.e., an operational computational Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS). The second goal is to perform indepth diagnostic analyses of the meteorological conditions during the special wake vortex deployments at Memphis and Dallas during August 95 and September 97, respectively. These two goals are interdependent because a thorough understanding of the atmospheric dynamical processes which produced the unique meteorology during the Memphis and Dallas deployments will help us design a prognostic system for the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which could be utilized to support the meteorological subsystem within AVOSS. Concerning the primary goal, TAPPS Stage 2 was tested on the Memphis data and is about to be tested on the Dallas case studies. Furthermore benchmark tests have been undertaken to select the appropriate platform to run TAPPS in real time in support of the DFW AVOSS system. In addition, a technique to improve the initial data over the region surrounding Dallas was also tested and modified for potential operational use in TAPPS. The secondary goal involved several sensitivity simulations and comparisons to Memphis observational data sets in an effort to diagnose what specific atmospheric phenomena where occurring which may have impacted the dynamics of atmospheric wake vortices.

  20. Terminal Area Simulation System User's Guide - Version 10.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) is a three-dimensional, time-dependent, large eddy simulation model that has been developed for studies of wake vortex and weather hazards to aviation, along with other atmospheric turbulence, and cloud-scale weather phenomenology. This document describes the source code for TASS version 10.0 and provides users with needed documentation to run the model. The source code is programed in Fortran language and is formulated to take advantage of vector and efficient multi-processor scaling for execution on massively-parallel supercomputer clusters. The code contains different initialization modules allowing the study of aircraft wake vortex interaction with the atmosphere and ground, atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric boundary layers, precipitating convective clouds, hail storms, gust fronts, microburst windshear, supercell and mesoscale convective systems, tornadic storms, and ring vortices. The model is able to operate in either two- or three-dimensions with equations numerically formulated on a Cartesian grid. The primary output from the TASS is time-dependent domain fields generated by the prognostic equations and diagnosed variables. This document will enable a user to understand the general logic of TASS, and will show how to configure and initialize the model domain. Also described are the formats of the input and output files, as well as the parameters that control the input and output.

  1. The terminal area simulation system. Volume 2: Verification cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, F. H.

    1987-01-01

    The numerical simulation of five case studies are presented and are compared with available data in order to verify the three-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS). A spectrum of convective storm types are selected for the case studies. Included are: a High-Plains supercell hailstorm, a small and relatively short-lived High-Plains cumulonimbus, a convective storm which produced the 2 August 1985 DFW microburst, a South Florida convective complex, and a tornadic Oklahoma thunderstorm. For each of the cases the model results compared reasonably well with observed data. In the simulations of the supercell storms many of their characteristic features were modeled, such as the hook echo, BWER, mesocyclone, gust fronts, giant persistent updraft, wall cloud, flanking-line towers, anvil and radar reflectivity overhang, and rightward veering in the storm propagation. In the simulation of the tornadic storm a horseshoe-shaped updraft configuration and cyclic changes in storm intensity and structure were noted. The simulation of the DFW microburst agreed remarkably well with sparse observed data. The simulated outflow rapidly expanded in a nearly symmetrical pattern and was associated with a ringvortex. A South Florida convective complex was simulated and contained updrafts and downdrafts in the form of discrete bubbles. The numerical simulations, in all cases, always remained stable and bounded with no anomalous trends.

  2. Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

  3. Fuel conservation possibilities for terminal area compatible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Design features and operational procedures are identified, which would reduce fuel consumption of future transport aircraft. The fuel-saving potential can be realized during the last decade of this century only if the necessary research and technology programs are implemented in the areas of composite primary structure, airfoil/wing design, and stability augmentation systems. The necessary individual R and T programs are defined. The sensitivity to fuel usage of several design parameters (wing geometry, cruise speed, propulsion) is investigated, and the results applied to a candidate 18, 140-kg (40,000-lb) payload, 5556-km (3000-nmi) transport design. Technical and economic comparisons are made with current commercial aircraft and other advanced designs.

  4. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115... No. R-115, for the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor (ATR). The NRC has terminated the..., Facility Operating License No. R-115 is terminated. The above referenced documents may be examined,...

  5. Parametric Modeling of the Safety Effects of NextGen Terminal Maneuvering Area Conflict Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, William H.; Waldron, Timothy P.; Stroiney, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analytically identify and quantify the issues, challenges, technical hurdles, and pilot-vehicle interface issues associated with conflict detection and resolution (CD&R)in emerging operational concepts for a NextGen terminal aneuvering area, including surface operations. To this end, the work entailed analytical and trade studies focused on modeling the achievable safety benefits of different CD&R strategies and concepts in the current and future airport environment. In addition, crew-vehicle interface and pilot performance enhancements and potential issues were analyzed based on review of envisioned NextGen operations, expected equipage advances, and human factors expertise. The results of perturbation analysis, which quantify the high-level performance impact of changes to key parameters such as median response time and surveillance position error, show that the analytical model developed could be useful in making technology investment decisions.

  6. Advanced Interactive Display Formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Shaviv, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    This research project deals with an on-line dynamic method for automated viewing parameter management in perspective displays. Perspective images are optimized such that a human observer will perceive relevant spatial geometrical features with minimal errors. In order to compute the errors at which observers reconstruct spatial features from perspective images, a visual spatial-perception model was formulated. The model was employed as the basis of an optimization scheme aimed at seeking the optimal projection parameter setting. These ideas are implemented in the context of an air traffic control (ATC) application. A concept, referred to as an active display system, was developed. This system uses heuristic rules to identify relevant geometrical features of the three-dimensional air traffic situation. Agile, on-line optimization was achieved by a specially developed and custom-tailored genetic algorithm (GA), which was to deal with the multi-modal characteristics of the objective function and exploit its time-evolving nature.

  7. Advanced interactive display formats for terminal area traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    The basic design considerations for perspective Air Traffic Control displays are described. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. The MVPS system is based on indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of screen. This arrangement has been chosen, in order to preserve the correspondence between the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer generated scene. Current, ongoing efforts deal with the development of automated viewing parameter setting schemes. These schemes employ an optimization strategy, aimed at identifying the best possible vantage point, from which the Air Traffic Control scene can be viewed, for a given traffic situation.

  8. Advanced Interactive Display formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective Air Traffic Control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters; in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters. This mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of screen. This arrangement has been chosen, in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene, The proposed, continued research efforts will deal with the development of automated viewing parameter setting schemes. These schemes employ an optimization strategy, aimed at identifying the best possible vantage point, from which the Air Traffic Control scene can be viewed for a given traffic situation. They determine whether a change in viewing parameter setting is required and determine the dynamic path along which the change to the new viewing parameter setting should take place.

  9. Advanced interactive display formats for terminal area traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective air traffic control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters -- in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) Indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters -- this mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of the screen. This arrangement has been chosen in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene. The proposed, continued research efforts will deal with the development of automated viewing parameter setting schemes. These schemes employ an optimization strategy, aimed at identifying the best possible vantage point, from which the air traffic control scene can be viewed for a given traffic situation. They determine whether a change in viewing parameter setting is required and determine the dynamic path along which the change to the new viewing parameter setting should take place.

  10. Controls for Reusable Launch Vehicles During Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driessen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    During the terminal energy management phase of flight (last of three phases) for a reusable launch vehicle, it is common for the controller to receive guidance commands specifying desired values for (i) the roll angle roll q(sub roll), (ii) the acceleration a(sub n) in the body negative z direction, -k(sub A)-bar, and (iii) omega(sub 3), the projection of onto the body-fixed axis k(sub A)-bar, is always indicated by guidance to be zero. The objective of the controller is to regulate the actual values of these three quantities, i.e make them close to the commanded values, while maintaining system stability.

  11. Terminal-Area Guidance Algorithms for Automated Air-Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lee, H. Q.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal-area guidance problems are solved in the form of computer-oriented algorithms. A flyable, three-dimensional trajectory is constructed that begins at the current aircraft position, heading, speed, and altitude, and that terminates at a prescribed position, heading, speed, altitude, and time. The terminal position is a waypoint and the terminal time is the assigned landing slot. The algorithms developed are applicable to all possible combinations of initial and final conditiions, and thus can be used in a closed-loop feedback law.

  12. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  13. A strategic planning approach for operational-environmental tradeoff assessments in terminal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Hernando

    of fuel burn, emissions, and noise. The implementation of the proposed approach for the assessment of terminal area solutions incorporates the use of discrete response surface equations, and eliminates the use of quadratic terms that have no practical significance in this context. Rather, attention is entire placed on the main effects of different terminal area solutions, namely additional airport infrastructure, operational improvements, and advanced aircraft concepts, modeled as discrete independent variables for the regression model. Results reveal that an additional runway and a new international terminal, as well as reduced aircraft separation, have a major effect on all operational metrics of interest. In particular, the additional runway has a dominant effect for departure delay metrics and gate hold periods, with moderate interactions with respect to separation reduction. On the other hand, operational metrics for arrivals are co-dependent on additional infrastructure and separation reduction, featuring marginal improvements whenever these two solutions are implemented in isolation, but featuring a dramatic compounding effect when implemented in combination. The magnitude of these main effects for departures and of the interaction between these solutions for arrivals is confirmed through appropriate statistical significance testing. Finally, the inclusion o advanced aircraft concepts is shown to be most beneficial for airborne arrival operations and to a lesser extent for arrival ground movements. More specifically, advanced aircraft concepts were found to be primarily responsible for reductions in volatile organic compounds, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter in this flight regime, but featured relevant interactions with separation reduction and additional airport infrastructure. To address the selection of scenarios for strategic airport planning, a technique for risk-based scenario construction, evaluation, and selection is proposed

  14. New design and operating techniques and requirements for improved aircraft terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Taylor, R. T.; Walsh, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Current aircraft operating problems that must be alleviated for future high-density terminal areas are safety, dependence on weather, congestion, energy conservation, noise, and atmospheric pollution. The Microwave Landing System (MLS) under development by FAA provides increased capabilities over the current ILS. The development of the airborne system's capability to take maximum advantage of the MLS capabilities in order to solve terminal area problems are discussed. A major limiting factor in longitudinal spacing for capacity increase is the trailing vortex hazard. Promising methods for causing early dissipation of the vortices were explored. Flight procedures for avoiding the hazard were investigated. Terminal configured vehicles and their flight test development are discussed.

  15. The link evaluation terminal for the advanced communications technology satellite experiments program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Brian D.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental NASA satellite, Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), introduces new technology for high throughput 30 to 20 GHz satellite services. Contained in a single communication payload is both a regenerative TDMA system and multiple 800 MHz 'bent pipe' channels routed to spot beams by a switch matrix. While only one mode of operation is typical during any experiment, both modes can operate simultaneously with reduced capability due to sharing of the transponder. NASA-Lewis instituted a ground terminal development program in anticipation of the satellite launch to verify the performance of the switch matrix mode of operations. Specific functions are built into the ground terminal to evaluate rain fade compensation with uplink power control and to monitor satellite transponder performance with bit error rate measurements. These functions were the genesis of the ground terminal's name, Link Evaluation Terminal, often referred to as LET. Connectors are included in LET that allow independent experimenters to run unique modulation or network experiments through ACTS using only the RF transmit and receive portions of LET. Test data indicate that LET will be able to verify important parts of ACTS technology and provide independent experimenters with a useful ground terminal. Lab measurements of major subsystems integrated into LET are presented. Bit error rate is measured with LET in an internal loopback mode.

  16. The Link Evaluation Terminal for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite Experiments Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Brian D.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental NASA satellite, Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), introduces new technology for high throughput 30 to 20 GHz satellite services. Contained in a single communication payload is both a regenerative TDMA system and multiple 800 MHz 'bent pipe' channels routed to spot beams by a switch matrix. While only one mode of operation is typical during any experiment, both modes can operate simultaneously with reduced capability due to sharing of the transponder. NASA-Lewis instituted a ground terminal development program in anticipation of the satellite launch to verify the performance of the switch matrix mode of operations. Specific functions are built into the ground terminal to evaluate rain fade compensation with uplink power control and to monitor satellite transponder performance with bit error rate measurements. These functions were the genesis of the ground terminal's name, Link Evaluation Terminal, often referred to as LET. Connectors are included in LET that allow independent experimenters to run unique modulation or network experiments through ACTS using only the RF transmit and receive portions of LET. Test data indicate that LET will be able to verify important parts of ACTS technology and provide independent experimenters with a useful ground terminal. Lab measurements of major subsystems integrated into LET are presented. Bit error rate is measured with LET in an internal loopback mode.

  17. Light microscopic image analysis system to quantify immunoreactive terminal area apposed to nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. C.; D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Polyakov, I.; Daunton, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    The present report describes a desktop computer-based method for the quantitative assessment of the area occupied by immunoreactive terminals in close apposition to nerve cells in relation to the perimeter of the cell soma. This method is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines incorporated in NIH-Image public domain software. Pyramidal cells of layer V of the somatosensory cortex outlined by GABA immunolabeled terminals were chosen for our analysis. A Leitz Diaplan light microscope was employed for the visualization of the sections. A Sierra Scientific Model 4030 CCD camera was used to capture the images into a Macintosh Centris 650 computer. After preprocessing, filtering was performed on the power spectrum in the frequency domain produced by the FFT operation. An inverse FFT with filter procedure was employed to restore the images to the spatial domain. Pasting of the original image to the transformed one using a Boolean logic operation called 'AND'ing produced an image with the terminals enhanced. This procedure allowed the creation of a binary image using a well-defined threshold of 128. Thus, the terminal area appears in black against a white background. This methodology provides an objective means of measurement of area by counting the total number of pixels occupied by immunoreactive terminals in light microscopic sections in which the difficulties of labeling intensity, size, shape and numerical density of terminals are avoided.

  18. Enhanced and Synthetic Vision for Terminal Maneuvering Area NextGen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Norman, R. Michael; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility ground (taxi) operations and approach/landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for EFVS for operations in visibility as low as 1000 ft runway visibility range (RVR) and SVS to enable lower decision heights (DH) than can currently be flown today. Expanding the EFVS visual segment from DH to the runway in visibilities as low as 1000 RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was excellent without any workload penalties noted for the EFVS concept tested. A lower DH to 150 ft and/or possibly reduced visibility minima by virtue of SVS equipage appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  19. Enhanced and synthetic vision for terminal maneuvering area NextGen operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Norman, R. Michael; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility ground (taxi) operations and approach/landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for EFVS for operations in visibility as low as 1000 ft runway visibility range (RVR) and SVS to enable lower decision heights (DH) than can currently be flown today. Expanding the EFVS visual segment from DH to the runway in visibilities as low as 1000 RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was excellent without any workload penalties noted for the EFVS concept tested. A lower DH to 150 ft and/or possibly reduced visibility minima by virtue of SVS equipage appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  20. Reduction of Weather-Related Terminal Area Delays in the Free-Flight Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Chin, David K.; Rovinsky, Robert B.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Lee, David A.; Hemm, Robert V.; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1996-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the free-flight movement has been concentrated on reducing en-route delays, airport capacity is a major bottleneck in the current airspace system, particularly during bad weather. According to the Air Transport Association (ATA) Air Carrier Delay Reports, ground delays (gate-hold, taxi-in, and taxi-out) comprise 75 percent of total delays. It is likely that the projected steady growth in traffic will only exacerbate these losses. Preliminary analyses show that implementation of the terminal area technologies and procedures under development in NASA s Terminal Area Productivity program can potentially save the airlines at least $350M annually in weather-related delays by the year 2005 at Boston Logan and Detroit airports alone. This paper briefly describes the Terminal Area Productivity program, outlines the costhenefit analyses that are being conducted in support of the program, and presents some preliminary analysis results.

  1. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  2. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  4. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  5. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  7. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  8. 75 FR 20523 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., Portland, OR'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 69047). We received one comment on the proposed rule. There... establishing two Regulated Navigation Areas (RNA) at the Port of Portland Terminal 4 on the Willamette River in ] Portland, Oregon. The RNAs are necessary to preserve the integrity of engineered sediment caps...

  9. Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchett, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory

  10. Advancing Methods for Estimating Cropland Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L.; Hansen, M.; Stehman, S. V.; Adusei, B.; Potapov, P.; Krylov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement and monitoring of complex and dynamic agricultural land systems is essential with increasing demands on food, feed, fuel and fiber production from growing human populations, rising consumption per capita, the expansion of crops oils in industrial products, and the encouraged emphasis on crop biofuels as an alternative energy source. Soybean is an important global commodity crop, and the area of land cultivated for soybean has risen dramatically over the past 60 years, occupying more than 5% of all global croplands (Monfreda et al 2008). Escalating demands for soy over the next twenty years are anticipated to be met by an increase of 1.5 times the current global production, resulting in expansion of soybean cultivated land area by nearly the same amount (Masuda and Goldsmith 2009). Soybean cropland area is estimated with the use of a sampling strategy and supervised non-linear hierarchical decision tree classification for the United States, Argentina and Brazil as the prototype in development of a new methodology for crop specific agricultural area estimation. Comparison of our 30 m2 Landsat soy classification with the National Agricultural Statistical Services Cropland Data Layer (CDL) soy map shows a strong agreement in the United States for 2011, 2012, and 2013. RapidEye 5m2 imagery was also classified for soy presence and absence and used at the field scale for validation and accuracy assessment of the Landsat soy maps, describing a nearly 1 to 1 relationship in the United States, Argentina and Brazil. The strong correlation found between all products suggests high accuracy and precision of the prototype and has proven to be a successful and efficient way to assess soybean cultivated area at the sub-national and national scale for the United States with great potential for application elsewhere.

  11. Use of Mass- and Area-Dimensional Power Laws for Determining Precipitation Particle Terminal Velocities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David L.

    1996-06-01

    Based on boundary layer theory and a comparison of empirical power laws relating the Reynolds and Best numbers, it was apparent that the primary variables governing a hydrometeor's terminal velocity were its mass, its area projected to the flow, and its maximum dimension. The dependence of terminal velocities on surface roughness appeared secondary, with surface roughness apparently changing significantly only during phase changes (i.e., ice to liquid). In the theoretical analysis, a new, comprehensive expression for the drag force, which is valid for both inertial and viscous-dominated flow, was derived.A hydrometeor's mass and projected area were simply and accurately represented in terms of its maximum dimension by using dimensional power laws. Hydrometeor terminal velocities were calculated by using mass- and area-dimensional power laws to parameterize the Best number, X. Using a theoretical relationship general for all particle types, the Reynolds number, Re, was then calculated from the Best number. Terminal velocities were calculated from Re.Alternatively, four Re-X power-law expressions were extracted from the theoretical Re-X relationship. These expressions collectively describe the terminal velocities of all ice particle types. These were parameterized using mass- and area-dimensional power laws, yielding four theoretically based power-law expressions predicting fall speeds in terms of ice particle maximum dimension. When parameterized for a given ice particle type, the theoretical fall speed power law can be compared directly with empirical fall speed-dimensional power laws in the literature for the appropriate Re range. This provides a means of comparing theory with observations.Terminal velocities predicted by this method were compared with fall speeds given by empirical fall speed expressions for the same ice particle type, which were curve fits to measured fall speeds. Such comparisons were done for nine types of ice particles. Fall speeds predicted

  12. Study of aircraft centered navigation, guidance, and traffic situation system concept for terminal area operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Will, R. W.; Grantham, C.

    1972-01-01

    A concept for automating the control of air traffic in the terminal area in which the primary man-machine interface is the cockpit is described. The ground and airborne inputs required for implementing this concept are discussed. Digital data link requirements of 10,000 bits per second are explained. A particular implementation of this concept including a sequencing and separation algorithm which generates flight paths and implements a natural order landing sequence is presented. Onboard computer/display avionics utilizing a traffic situation display is described. A preliminary simulation of this concept has been developed which includes a simple, efficient sequencing algorithm and a complete aircraft dynamics model. This simulated jet transport was flown through automated terminal-area traffic situations by pilots using relatively sophisticated displays, and pilot performance and observations are discussed.

  13. Application of optimization techniques to near terminal area sequencing and flow control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Park, S. K.; Hogge, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Development of an arrival air-traffic management system for a single runway. Traffic is segregated throughout most of the near terminal area according to performance characteristics. Nominal approach routes for each class of aircraft are determined by an optimization procedure. In this fashion, the nominal approach routes are dependent upon and, hence, determined by the near terminal area operating capabilities of each class of aircraft. The landing order and spacing of aircraft on the common approach path are determined so that a measure of total system deviation from the nominal landing times is minimized and safety standards are met. Delay maneuvers required to satisfy sequencing needs are then carried out in a manner dependent upon the particular class of aircraft being maneuvered. Finally, results are presented to illustrate the effects of the rate of arrivals upon a one-runway system serving three different classes of aircraft employing several different sequencing strategies and measures of total system deviation.

  14. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  15. Advanced communication satellites worldwide - Satellites of opportunity for the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girardey, Catherine C.

    1993-01-01

    Space agencies worldwide are involved in advanced satellite communication systems. This paper presents an overview of these satellites and related technologies in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. They are geostationary satellites using high frequency bands such as K/Ka (20/30 GHz) and O-band (millimeter wave), as well as optical frequencies. The similarity of these programs demonstrate a common interest to develop large capacity satellite communication systems, and shows that closer international cooperation could be set up. The ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project discussed here is such an example. The AMT's compatibility with satellites other than ACTS has been studied, and a proposed common experiment is presented here. The Japanese Engineering Test Satellite ETS-VI has been identified as the best initial 'satellite of opportunity' for AMT in this preliminary assessment.

  16. Terminal-Area Aircraft Intent Inference Approach Based on Online Trajectory Clustering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-quan

    2015-01-01

    Terminal-area aircraft intent inference (T-AII) is a prerequisite to detect and avoid potential aircraft conflict in the terminal airspace. T-AII challenges the state-of-the-art AII approaches due to the uncertainties of air traffic situation, in particular due to the undefined flight routes and frequent maneuvers. In this paper, a novel T-AII approach is introduced to address the limitations by solving the problem with two steps that are intent modeling and intent inference. In the modeling step, an online trajectory clustering procedure is designed for recognizing the real-time available routes in replacing of the missed plan routes. In the inference step, we then present a probabilistic T-AII approach based on the multiple flight attributes to improve the inference performance in maneuvering scenarios. The proposed approach is validated with real radar trajectory and flight attributes data of 34 days collected from Chengdu terminal area in China. Preliminary results show the efficacy of the presented approach.

  17. Terminal-Area Aircraft Intent Inference Approach Based on Online Trajectory Clustering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-quan

    2015-01-01

    Terminal-area aircraft intent inference (T-AII) is a prerequisite to detect and avoid potential aircraft conflict in the terminal airspace. T-AII challenges the state-of-the-art AII approaches due to the uncertainties of air traffic situation, in particular due to the undefined flight routes and frequent maneuvers. In this paper, a novel T-AII approach is introduced to address the limitations by solving the problem with two steps that are intent modeling and intent inference. In the modeling step, an online trajectory clustering procedure is designed for recognizing the real-time available routes in replacing of the missed plan routes. In the inference step, we then present a probabilistic T-AII approach based on the multiple flight attributes to improve the inference performance in maneuvering scenarios. The proposed approach is validated with real radar trajectory and flight attributes data of 34 days collected from Chengdu terminal area in China. Preliminary results show the efficacy of the presented approach. PMID:26171417

  18. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 2: Communications terminal breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of the communications terminal breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) history of communications terminal breadboard, (2) requirements analysis, (3) technology goals in terminal design, and (4) communications terminal board integration tests.

  19. Development and evaluation of a Kalman-filter algorithm for terminal area navigation using sensors of moderate accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanning, G.; Cicolani, L. S.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1983-01-01

    Translational state estimation in terminal area operations, using a set of commonly available position, air data, and acceleration sensors, is described. Kalman filtering is applied to obtain maximum estimation accuracy from the sensors but feasibility in real-time computations requires a variety of approximations and devices aimed at minimizing the required computation time with only negligible loss of accuracy. Accuracy behavior throughout the terminal area, its relation to sensor accuracy, its effect on trajectory tracking errors and control activity in an automatic flight control system, and its adequacy in terms of existing criteria for various terminal area operations are examined. The principal investigative tool is a simulation of the system.

  20. NASA/ARMY/BELL XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Terminal Area Operations Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Decker, William A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Klein, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    A series of three XV-15 acoustic flight tests have been conducted over a five year period by a NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter team to evaluate the noise reduction potential for tiltrotor aircraft during terminal area operations. Lower hemispherical noise characteristics for a wide range of steady-state terminal area type operating conditions were measured during the phase 1 test and indicated that the takeoff and level flight conditions were not significant contributors to the total noise of tiltrotor operations. Phase 1 results were used to design low noise approach profiles that were tested during the phase 2 and phase 3 tests, which used large area microphone arrays to directly measure the ground noise footprints. Approach profile designs emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. This paper will discuss the weather, aircraft, tracking, guidance, and acoustic instrumentation systems, as well as the approach profile design philosophy, and the overall test program philosophy. Acoustic results are presented documenting the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, indicating the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt.

  1. Free-ranging finless porpoises acoustically inspect their frontal area in advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2001-05-01

    Echolocation events, interpulse intervals, and swimming speeds of nine free-ranging finless porpoises in an oxbow of the Yangtze River, China were recorded by datalogger systems attached on the animals. Over 120 h of successful recording indicated that the finless porpoises acoustically inspected their frontal area in advance before swimming silently. The acoustical sensing distance estimated by the interpulse interval was significantly larger than the swimming distance without echolocation beforehand. Terminal phase which was already known in the echolocation behavior of bats could be found in free-ranging finless porpoises. The terminal phase is the decreasing interpulse intervals in an echolocation pulse train that are observed just before the prey capture. During the terminal phase of finless porpoises, linearly decreased interpulse intervals were recognized. In the mean time, the swimming distance and the change of the sensing distance were closely correlated with each other. This suggests that the finless porpoise knew precisely the distance to the approaching target in the time scale of subsecond order. Acoustical sensing effort was considered to be controlled appropriately by free-ranging finless porpoises to obtain underwater information they need. [Research supported by Promotion of Basic Research Activities for Innovative Biosciences, Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution, Japan.

  2. Passenger comfort during terminal-area flight maneuvers. M.S. Thesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A series of flight experiments was conducted to obtain passenger subjective responses to closely controlled and repeatable flight maneuvers. In 8 test flights, reactions were obtained from 30 passenger subjects to a wide range of terminal-area maneuvers, including descents, turns, decelerations, and combinations thereof. Analysis of the passenger rating variance indicated that the objective of a repeatable flight passenger environment was achieved. Multiple linear regression models developed from the test data were used to define maneuver motion boundaries for specified degrees of passenger acceptance.

  3. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  4. A traveling-salesman-based approach to aircraft scheduling in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luenberger, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is presented, based on the well-known algorithm for the traveling salesman problem, for scheduling aircraft arrivals into major terminal areas. The algorithm permits, but strictly limits, reassigning an aircraft from its initial position in the landing order. This limitation is needed so that no aircraft or aircraft category is unduly penalized. Results indicate, for the mix of arrivals investigated, a potential increase in capacity in the 3 to 5 percent range. Furthermore, it is shown that the computation time for the algorithm grows only linearly with problem size.

  5. Simulation of time-control procedures for terminal area flow management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcabin, M.; Erzberger, H.; Tobias, L.; Obrien, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of a terminal area traffic-management system incorporating automated scheduling and time-control (four-dimensional) techniques conducted at NASA Ames Research Center jointly with the Federal Aviation Administration, have shown that efficient procedures can be developed for handling a mix of 4D-equipped and conventionally equipped aircraft. A crucial role in this system is played by an ATC host computer algorithm, referred to as a speed advisory, that allows controllers to maintain accurate time schedules of the conventionally equipped aircraft in the traffic mix. Results are of the most recent simulations in which two important special cases were investigated. First, the effects of a speed advisory on touchdown time scheduling are examined, when unequipped aircraft are constrained to follow fuel-optimized profiles in the near-terminal area, and rescheduling procedures are developed to handle missed approaches of 4D-equipped aircraft. Various performance measures, including controller opinion, are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedures.

  6. A time-based concept for terminal-area traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Tobias, L.

    1986-01-01

    An automated air-traffic-management concept that has the potential for significantly increasing the efficiency of traffic flows in high-density terminal areas is discussed. The concept's implementation depends on the techniques for controlling the landing time of all aircraft entering the terminal area, both those that are equipped with on-board four dimensional guidance systems as well as those aircraft types that are conventionally equipped. The two major ground-based elements of the system are a scheduler which assigns conflict-free landing times and a profile descent advisor. Landing times provided by the scheduler are uplinked to equipped aircraft and translated into the appropriate four dimensional trajectory by the on-board flight-management system. The controller issues descent advisories to unequipped aircraft to help them achieve the assigned landing times. Air traffic control simulations have established that the concept provides an efficient method for controlling various mixes of four dimensional-equipped and unequipped, as well as low-and high-performance, aircraft.

  7. A time-based concept for terminal-area traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    An automated air-traffic-management concept that has the potential for significantly increasing the efficiency of traffic flows in high-density terminal areas is discussed. The concept's implementation depends on techniques for controlling the landing time of all aircraft entering the terminal area, both those that are equipped with on-board four-dimensional (4D) guidance systems as well as those aircraft types that are conventionally equipped. The two major ground-based elements of the system are a scheduler which assigns conflict-free landing times and a profile descent advisor. Landing time provided by the scheduler is uplinked to equipped aircraft and translated into the appropriate 4D trajectory by the-board flight-management system. The controller issues descent advisories to unequipped aircraft to help them achieve the assigned landing times. Air traffic control simulations have established that the concept provides an efficient method for controlling various mixes of 4D-equipped and unequipped, as well as low- and high-performance, aircraft. Piloted simulations of profiles flown with the aid of advisories have verified the ability to meet specified descent times with prescribed accuracy.

  8. Civil Tiltrotor Feasibility Study for the New York and Washington Terminal Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Virginia; Johnson, Jesse; Gribko, Joana; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA tasked LMI to assess the potential contributions of a yet-undeveloped Civil Tiltrotor aircraft (CTR) in improving capacity in the National Airspace System in all weather conditions. The CTRs studied have assumed operating parameters beyond current CTR capabilities. LMI analyzed CTRs three ways: in fast-time terminal area modeling simulations of New York and Washington to determine delay and throughput impacts; in the Integrated Noise Model, to determine local environmental impact; and with an economic model, to determine the price viability of a CTR. The fast-time models encompassed a 250 nmi range and included traffic interactions from local airports. Both the fast-time simulation and the noise model assessed impacts from traffic levels projected for 1999, 2007, and 2017. Results: CTRs can reduce terminal area delays due to concrete congestion in all time frames. The maximum effect, the ratio of CTRs to jets and turboprop aircraft at a subject airport should be optimized. The economic model considered US traffic only and forecasted CTR sales beginning in 2010.

  9. Optimal Trajectories for the Helicopter in One-Engine-Inoperative Terminal-Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of a series of recent analytical studies conducted to investigate One-Engine-Inoperative (OEI) optimal control strategies and the associated optimal trajectories for a twin engine helicopter in Category-A terminal-area operations. These studies also examine the associated heliport size requirements and the maximum gross weight capability of the helicopter. Using an eight states, two controls, augmented point-mass model representative of the study helicopter, Continued TakeOff (CTO), Rejected TakeOff (RTO), Balked Landing (BL), and Continued Landing (CL) are investigated for both Vertical-TakeOff-and-Landing (VTOL) and Short-TakeOff-and-Landing (STOL) terminal-area operations. The formulation of the nonlinear optimal control problems with considerations for realistic constraints, solution methods for the two-point boundary-value problem, a new real-time generation method for the optimal OEI trajectories, and the main results of this series of trajectory optimization studies are presented. In particular, a new balanced- weight concept for determining the takeoff decision point for VTOL Category-A operations is proposed, extending the balanced-field length concept used for STOL operations.

  10. Optimal Trajectories for the Helicopter in One-Engine-Inoperative Terminal-Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Zhao, Yi-Yuan

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of a series of recent analytical studies conducted to investigate one-engine-inoperative (OEI) optimal control strategies and the associated optimal trajectories for a twin engine helicopter in Category-A terminal-area operations. These studies also examine the associated heliport size requirements and the maximum gross weight capability of the helicopter. Using an eight states, two controls, augmented point-mass model representative of the study helicopter, continued takeoff (CTO), rejected takeoff (RTO), balked landing (BL), and continued landing (CL) are investigated for both vertical-takeoff-and-landing (VTOL) and short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) terminal-area operations. The formulation of the non-linear optimal control problems with considerations for realistic constraints, solution methods for the two-point boundary-value problem, a new real-time generation method for the optimal OEI trajectories, and the main results of this series of trajector optimization studies are presented. In particular, a new balanced-weight concept for determining the takeoff decision point for VTOL Category-A operations is proposed, extending the balanced-field length concept used for STOL operations.

  11. Terminal area operations with enhanced and synthetic vision: experience in the Boeing technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Timothy T.; Imrich, Thomas; Etherington, Timothy J.; Theunissen, Erik

    2003-09-01

    Several emerging technologies were recently demonstrated in a Boeing 737-900 as part of Boeing's Technology Demonstrator program. Among these technologies were two enhanced vision systems and a synthetic vision system, including synthetic displays to support surface operations. This project gained operational experience with enhanced and synthetic vision systems operating in a context that included Required Navigation Performance (RNP) terminal area operations, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) approach and landing, and Integrated Area Navigation (IAN). The technologies were demonstrated to a broad mix of constituents involved in research, regulation, and acquisition in the transport category environment. This paper describes the systems demonstrated, the context in which they were used, and perceived benefits of integrating them in an operational environment. Lessons learned in the implementation of these technologies throughout the program are described and subjective data from participants are summarized.

  12. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  13. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  15. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the...

  16. Terminal Field and Firing Selectivity of Cholecystokinin-Expressing Interneurons in the Hippocampal CA3 Area

    PubMed Central

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J.; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. PMID:22159120

  17. An Investigation of Flight Deck Data Link in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Lozito, Sandra; Kaneshige, John; Dulchinos, Vicki; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and Europe's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) concepts require an increased use of trajectory-based operations, including extensive strategic air traffic control clearances. The clearances are lengthy and complex, which necessitate data link communications to allow for message permanence and integration into the autoflight systems (i.e., autoload capability). This paper examines the use of flight deck data link communications for strategic and tactical clearance usage in the terminal area. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted using a high-fidelity flight deck simulator, with ten commercial flight crews as participants. Data were collected from six flight scenarios in the San Francisco terminal airspace. The variables of interest were ATC message modality (voice v. data link), temporal quality of the message (tactical v. strategic) and message length. Dependent variables were message response times, communication clarifications, communication-related errors, and pilot workload. Response time results were longer in data link compared to voice, a finding that has been consistently revealed in a number of other simulations [1]. In addition, strategic clearances and longer messages resulted in a greater number of clarifications and errors, suggesting an increase in uncertainty of message interpretation for the flight crews when compared to tactical clearances. The implications for strategic and compound clearance usage in NextGen and SESAR are discussed

  18. Design and Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Thipphavong, Jane; Sadovsky, Alex; Chen, Liang; Sullivan, Chris; Martin, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and results from a high fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation of an integrated set of trajectory-based automation tools providing precision scheduling, sequencing and controller merging and spacing functions. These integrated functions are combined into a system called the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. It is a strategic and tactical planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators, En Route and Terminal Radar Approach Control air traffic controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the arrival capacity of a demand-impacted airport while simultaneously enabling fuel-efficient descent procedures. The TAPSS system consists of four-dimensional trajectory prediction, arrival runway balancing, aircraft separation constraint-based scheduling, traffic flow visualization and trajectory-based advisories to assist controllers in efficient metering, sequencing and spacing. The TAPSS system was evaluated and compared to today's ATC operation through extensive series of human-in-the-loop simulations for arrival flows into the Los Angeles International Airport. The test conditions included the variation of aircraft demand from a baseline of today's capacity constrained periods through 5%, 10% and 20% increases. Performance data were collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations both with and without the TAPSS system. The engineering data indicate operations with the TAPSS show up to a 10% increase in airport throughput during capacity constrained periods while maintaining fuel-efficient aircraft descent profiles from cruise to landing.

  19. Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

  20. Transition of Attention in Terminal Area NextGen Operations Using Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Arthur, Shelton, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lance J., III; Norman, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment investigates the capability of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) to provide significant situation awareness in terminal area operations, specifically in low visibility conditions. The use of a Head-Up Display (HUD) and Head-Down Displays (HDD) with SVS is contrasted to baseline standard head down displays in terms of induced workload and pilot behavior in 1400 RVR visibility levels. Variances across performance and pilot behavior were reviewed for acceptability when using HUD or HDD with SVS under reduced minimums to acquire the necessary visual components to continue to land. The data suggest superior performance for HUD implementations. Improved attentional behavior is also suggested for HDD implementations of SVS for low-visibility approach and landing operations.

  1. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  2. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  3. Real time simulation of computer-assisted sequencing of terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dear, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A simulation was developed to investigate the utilization of computer assisted decision making for the task of sequencing and scheduling aircraft in a high density terminal area. The simulation incorporates a decision methodology termed Constrained Position Shifting. This methodology accounts for aircraft velocity profiles, routes, and weight classes in dynamically sequencing and scheduling arriving aircraft. A sample demonstration of Constrained Position Shifting is presented where six aircraft types (including both light and heavy aircraft) are sequenced to land at Denver's Stapleton International Airport. A graphical display is utilized and Constrained Position Shifting with a maximum shift of four positions (rearward or forward) is compared to first come, first serve with respect to arrival at the runway. The implementation of computer assisted sequencing and scheduling methodologies is investigated. A time based control concept will be required and design considerations for such a system are discussed.

  4. Simulation of Benchmark Cases with the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic core of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) is evaluated against different benchmark cases. In the absence of closed form solutions for the equations governing atmospheric flows, the models are usually evaluated against idealized test cases. Over the years, various authors have suggested a suite of these idealized cases which have become standards for testing and evaluating the dynamics and thermodynamics of atmospheric flow models. In this paper, simulations of three such cases are described. In addition, the TASS model is evaluated against a test case that uses an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The TASS results are compared against previously reported simulations of these benchmark cases in the literature. It is demonstrated that the TASS model is highly accurate, stable and robust.

  5. Simulation of Benchmark Cases with the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic core of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) is evaluated against different benchmark cases. In the absence of closed form solutions for the equations governing atmospheric flows, the models are usually evaluated against idealized test cases. Over the years, various authors have suggested a suite of these idealized cases which have become standards for testing and evaluating the dynamics and thermodynamics of atmospheric flow models. In this paper, simulations of three such cases are described. In addition, the TASS model is evaluated against a test case that uses an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The TASS results are compared against previously reported simulations of these banchmark cases in the literature. It is demonstrated that the TASS model is highly accurate, stable and robust.

  6. Online trajectory planning and guidance for reusable launch vehicles in the terminal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xue-Jing; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yong-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A guidance scheme has been proposed based on a new online trajectory planning algorithm for an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV) in the terminal area energy management (TAEM) phase. The trajectory planning algorithm is able to rapidly generate a feasible path from the current state to a desired state at approach and landing interface (ALI) based on the dynamic pressure profile and new ground track geometry. Simple guidance laws are used to keep the RLV flying along the reference path which can be adjusted online by five related parameters. Then, the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed TAEM guidance scheme is demonstrated by numerical trials with variations in the initial energy, position and aerodynamic performance.

  7. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew in High-Density Terminal Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Norman, Robert M.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R.; Adams, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative FAA and NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Datalink Communication (Data Comm) to issue messages in busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage levels (voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route), and each condition was used to create an arrival and a departure scenario at the Boston Logan Airport. These eight scenarios were repeated twice for a total of 16 scenarios for each of the eleven crews. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute; however, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Eye tracking data indicated an insignificant decrease in head-up time for the Pilot Flying when Data Comm was introduced; however, the Pilot Monitoring had significantly less head-up time. Data Comm workload was rated as operationally acceptable by both crew members in all conditions in flight at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix in terms of response time and workload. Results also indicate the use of Data Comm during surface operations was acceptable, the exception being the simultaneous use of voice, Data Comm, and audio chime required for an aircraft to cross an active runway. Many crews reported they believed Data Comm messages would be acceptable after the Final Approach Fix or to cross a runway if the message was not accompanied by a chime and there was not a requirement to immediately respond to the uplink message.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of Oakland Berth No. 10); restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC; restricted area. 334.450 Section 334.450 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army...

  11. NASA/ARMY/BELL XV-15 Tiltrotor Low-Noise Terminal Area Operations Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan D.; Conner, David A.; Decker, William A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Klein, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the noise reduction potential for tiltrotor aircraft, a series of three XV- 15 acoustic flight tests were conducted over a five-year period by a NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter team. Lower hemispherical noise characteristics for a wide range of steady-state terminal area type operating conditions were measured during the Phase I test and indicated that the takeoff and level flight conditions were not significant contributors to the total noise of tiltrotor operations. Phase I results were also used to design low-noise approach profiles that were tested later during the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests. These latter phases used large area microphone arrays to directly measure ground noise footprints. Approach profiles emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. This paper will discuss the weather, aircraft, tracking, guidance, and acoustic instrumentation systems, as well as the approach profile design philosophy, and the overall test program philosophy. Acoustic results are presented to document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, indicating the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt. Recommendations are made for a final XV-15 test to define the acoustic benefits of the automated approach capability which has recently been added to this testbed aircraft.

  12. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  13. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  14. Flight investigation of the VFR and IFR landing approach characteristics and terminal area airspace requirements for a light STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, H. L.; Yenni, K. R.; Fisher, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to determine the terminal area instrument flight capabilities of a light STOL airplane. Simulated (hooded) instrument landing approaches were made using steep single-segment and two-segment glide slopes. A brief investigation was also made of the visual flight terminal area capabilities of the aircraft. The results indicated that the airplane could be flown on a 7 deg glide-slope ILS-type approach in still air with an adequate 3 deg margin for downward correction.

  15. Evaluation of Trajectory Errors in an Automated Terminal-Area Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.

    2003-01-01

    A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to document the trajectory errors associated with use of an airplane's Flight Management System (FMS) in conjunction with a ground-based ATC automation system, Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) in the terminal area. Three different arrival procedures were compared: current-day (vectors from ATC), modified (current-day with minor updates), and data link with FMS lateral navigation. Six active airline pilots flew simulated arrivals in a fixed-base simulator. The FMS-datalink procedure resulted in the smallest time and path distance errors, indicating that use of this procedure could reduce the CTAS arrival-time prediction error by about half over the current-day procedure. Significant sources of error contributing to the arrival-time error were crosstrack errors and early speed reduction in the last 2-4 miles before the final approach fix. Pilot comments were all very positive, indicating the FMS-datalink procedure was easy to understand and use, and the increased head-down time and workload did not detract from the benefit. Issues that need to be resolved before this method of operation would be ready for commercial use include development of procedures acceptable to controllers, better speed conformance monitoring, and FMS database procedures to support the approach transitions.

  16. Efficiency Benefits Using the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Swenson, Harry N.; Lin, Paul; Seo, Anthony Y.; Bagasol, Leonard N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has developed a capability for terminal area precision scheduling and spacing (TAPSS) to increase the use of fuel-efficient arrival procedures during periods of traffic congestion at a high-density airport. Sustained use of fuel-efficient procedures throughout the entire arrival phase of flight reduces overall fuel burn, greenhouse gas emissions and noise pollution. The TAPSS system is a 4D trajectory-based strategic planning and control tool that computes schedules and sequences for arrivals to facilitate optimal profile descents. This paper focuses on quantifying the efficiency benefits associated with using the TAPSS system, measured by reduction of level segments during aircraft descent and flight distance and time savings. The TAPSS system was tested in a series of human-in-the-loop simulations and compared to current procedures. Compared to the current use of the TMA system, simulation results indicate a reduction of total level segment distance by 50% and flight distance and time savings by 7% in the arrival portion of flight (200 nm from the airport). The TAPSS system resulted in aircraft maintaining continuous descent operations longer and with more precision, both achieved under heavy traffic demand levels.

  17. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  18. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  19. A New Eddy Dissipation Rate Formulation for the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System(TAPPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charney, Joseph J.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Pfeiffer, Karl D.

    2000-01-01

    The TAPPS employs the MASS model to produce mesoscale atmospheric simulations in support of the Wake Vortex project at Dallas Fort-Worth International Airport (DFW). A post-processing scheme uses the simulated three-dimensional atmospheric characteristics in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to calculate the turbulence quantities most important to the dissipation of vortices: turbulent kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate. TAPPS will ultimately be employed to enhance terminal area productivity by providing weather forecasts for the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The post-processing scheme utilizes experimental data and similarity theory to determine the turbulence quantities from the simulated horizontal wind field and stability characteristics of the atmosphere. Characteristic PBL quantities important to these calculations are determined based on formulations from the Blackadar PBL parameterization, which is regularly employed in the MASS model to account for PBL processes in mesoscale simulations. The TAPPS forecasts are verified against high-resolution observations of the horizontal winds at DFW. Statistical assessments of the error in the wind forecasts suggest that TAPPS captures the essential features of the horizontal winds with considerable skill. Additionally, the turbulence quantities produced by the post-processor are shown to compare favorably with corresponding tower observations.

  20. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  1. Onboard planning of constrained longitudinal trajectory for reusable launch vehicles in terminal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zixuan; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    A rapid planning algorithm is developed to generate a constrained longitudinal trajectory onboard for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in the terminal area energy management (TAEM) phase. The longitudinal trajectory is planned in the flight-path angle vs. altitude space. This flight-path angle profile is designed with required altitude, flight-path angle and range-to-go, and then optimized as a one-parameter search problem to meet the velocity constraint. Considering the dynamic pressure constraint, a dynamic pressure protection (DPP) method is designed. With the DPP, the highly constrained longitudinal trajectory is generated by tracking the planned flight-path angle profile. Finally, the TAEM trajectory planning algorithm is tested on the X-33 vehicle model in different cases. The algorithm is shown to be effective and robust to generate longitudinal flight trajectories with all constraints satisfied in high precision. In each case, the constrained trajectory is planned within 1 s on a PC, which indicates that the algorithm is feasible to be employed onboard.

  2. EATS and APATS telemetry antenna performance comparison in a ballistic missile terminal area support role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, J. F.; Blackwell, E. G.

    1981-06-01

    A comparative analysis was made of the performance of the U.S. Navy EATS multibeam phased array telemetry antenna, currently under development by Pacific Missile Test Center and the planned APATS antenna intended for use by the U.S. Air Force ARIA Fleet. The comparison was made in the context of a ballistic missile terminal area test support role for the collection of telemetry data from MK-4 and MK-12 instrumented RVs during reentry. In this comparison, two levels of upgrade were examined for the EATS antenna, one as a minimum required upgrade (dual-polarization), and the other as an upgrade with dual-polarization and increased elevation scan angle commensurate with the APATS specification. Study findings indicate that the second EATS upgrade option results in telemetry collection performance essentially equal to that of the APATS. RV telemetry blackout (SNR < 13 dB) for the EATS upgraded antenna lasted slightly longer than the blackout of the APATS antenna. Blackout is relatively unimportant in the MK-4 application, but may be more consequential in the MK-12 application. The minimum EATS antenna upgrade (dual-polarization) does not perform well for ballistic missile telemetry support, so that the full upgrade is indicated for the EATS telemetry antenna in this mission role.

  3. The history and advances of reversible terminators used in new generations of sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Dong, Mengxing; Ge, Meng; Zhu, Lingxiang; Ren, Lufeng; Liu, Guocheng; Mu, Rong

    2013-02-01

    DNA sequencing using reversible terminators, as one sequencing by synthesis strategy, has garnered a great deal of interest due to its popular application in the second-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. In this review, we provided its history of development, classification, and working mechanism of this technology. We also outlined the screening strategies for DNA polymerases to accommodate the reversible terminators as substrates during polymerization; particularly, we introduced the "REAP" method developed by us. At the end of this review, we discussed current limitations of this approach and provided potential solutions to extend its application.

  4. Airborne Forward-Looking Interferometer for the Detection of Terminal-Area Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Lane, Sarah; Smith, Bill L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Daniels, Taumi S.; Cornman, Larry; Sharman, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Forward Looking Interferometer (FLI) program was a multi-year cooperative research effort to investigate the use of imaging radiometers with high spectral resolution, using both modeling/simulation and field experiments, along with sophisticated data analysis techniques that were originally developed for analysis of data from space-based radiometers and hyperspectral imagers. This investigation has advanced the state of knowledge in this technical area, and the FLI program developed a greatly improved understanding of the radiometric signal strength of aviation hazards in a wide range of scenarios, in addition to a much better understanding of the real-world functionality requirements for hazard detection instruments. The project conducted field experiments on three hazards (turbulence, runway conditions, and wake vortices) and analytical studies on several others including volcanic ash, reduced visibility conditions, in flight icing conditions, and volcanic ash.

  5. 75 FR 53264 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army requested that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) revise...

  6. 75 FR 53197 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, NC AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army requested that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps)...

  7. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  8. Real-time terminal area trajectory planning for runway independent aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min

    ) with our original Dijkstra's algorithm, ASA is identified as the most efficient algorithm for terminal area trajectory optimization. The effects of design parameter discretization are analyzed, with results indicating a SNI procedure with 3-4 segments effectively balances simplicity with cost minimization. Finally, pilot control commands were implemented and generated via optimization-base inverse simulation to validate execution of the optimal approach trajectories.

  9. Airborne Precision Spacing: A Trajectory-based Approach to Improve Terminal Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Airborne Precision Spacing has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) over the past seven years as an attempt to benefit from the capabilities of the flight deck to precisely space their aircraft relative to another aircraft. This development has leveraged decades of work on improving terminal area operations, especially the arrival phase. With APS operations, the air traffic controller instructs the participating aircraft to achieve an assigned inter-arrival spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to another aircraft. The flight crew then uses airborne automation to manage the aircraft s speed to achieve the goal. The spacing tool is designed to keep the speed within acceptable operational limits, promote system-wide stability, and meet the assigned goal. This reallocation of tasks with the controller issuing strategic goals and the flight crew managing the tactical achievement of those goals has been shown to be feasible through simulation and flight test. A precision of plus or minus 2-3 seconds is generally achievable. Simulations of long strings of arriving traffic show no signs of instabilities or compression waves. Subject pilots have rated the workload to be similar to current-day operations and eye-tracking data substantiate this result. This paper will present a high-level review of research results over the past seven years from a variety of tests and experiments. The results will focus on the precision and accuracy achievable, flow stability and some major sources of uncertainty. The paper also includes a summary of the flight crew s procedures and interface and a brief concept overview.

  10. An RNA motif advances transcription by preventing Rho-dependent termination

    PubMed Central

    Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription termination factor Rho associates with most nascent bacterial RNAs as they emerge from RNA polymerase. However, pharmacological inhibition of Rho derepresses only a small fraction of these transcripts. What, then, determines the specificity of Rho-dependent transcription termination? We now report the identification of a Rho-antagonizing RNA element (RARE) that hinders Rho-dependent transcription termination. We establish that RARE traps Rho in an inactive complex but does not prevent Rho binding to its recruitment sites. Although translating ribosomes normally block Rho access to an mRNA, inefficient translation of an open reading frame in the leader region of the Salmonella mgtCBR operon actually enables transcription of its associated coding region by favoring an RNA conformation that sequesters RARE. The discovery of an RNA element that inactivates Rho signifies that the specificity of nucleic-acid binding proteins is defined not only by the sequences that recruit these proteins but also by sequences that antagonize their activity. PMID:26630006

  11. Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future

  12. A Trajectory Algorithm to Support En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2007-01-01

    This document describes an algorithm for the generation of a four dimensional aircraft trajectory. Input data for this algorithm are similar to an augmented Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) with the augmentation in the form of altitude or speed crossing restrictions at waypoints on the route. Wind data at each waypoint are also inputs into this algorithm. The algorithm calculates the altitude, speed, along path distance, and along path time for each waypoint.

  13. Learning guide for the terminal configured vehicle advanced guidance and control system mode select panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. A.; Callahan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This learning guide is designed to assist pilots in taking the PLATO presimulator training course on the advanced guidance and control system mode select panel. The learning guide is divided into five sections. The first section, the introduction, presents the course goals, prerequisites, definition of PLATO activities, and a suggested approach to completing the course. The remaining four sections present the purpose, learning activities and summary of each lesson of the AGCS PLATO course, which consists of (1) AGCS introduction; (2) lower order modes; (3) higher order modes; and (4) an arrival route exercise.

  14. A Trajectory Algorithm to Support En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing Concepts: Third Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2012-01-01

    This document describes an algorithm for the generation of a four dimensional trajectory. Input data for this algorithm are similar to an augmented Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) with the augmentation in the form of altitude or speed crossing restrictions at waypoints on the route. This version of the algorithm accommodates constant radius turns and cruise altitude waypoints with calibrated airspeed, versus Mach, constraints. The algorithm calculates the altitude, speed, along path distance, and along path time for each waypoint. Wind data at each of these waypoints are also used for the calculation of ground speed and turn radius.

  15. A Revised Trajectory Algorithm to Support En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes an algorithm for the generation of a four dimensional trajectory. Input data for this algorithm are similar to an augmented Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) with the augmentation in the form of altitude or speed crossing restrictions at waypoints on the route. This version of the algorithm accommodates descent Mach values that are different from the cruise Mach values. Wind data at each waypoint are also inputs into this algorithm. The algorithm calculates the altitude, speed, along path distance, and along path time for each waypoint.

  16. Lake evolution of the terminal area of Shiyang River drainage in arid China since the last glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, Q.; Chen, F.-H.; Zhu, Y.; Madsen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of geomorphology and sedimentology, and analyses of radiocarbon dates, grain size and carbonate of the sediment at the present-dry closed basin in the terminal area of Shiyang River in arid China were conducted to recover the history of palaeolake change since the last glacial. The terminal area was covered by eolian sand before 13,000 14C BP. Lacustrine deposits covered the eolian sand after 13,000 14C BP, but were succeeded rapidly by eolian or fluvial deposits ca. 11,200-10,000 BP. This fact plus the grain-size distribution and CaCO3 content showed that climate was extremely dry during the last glacial, but wet-dry oscillations characterized the late glacial. A single coalescent lake, over 45 m deep and 2130 km2, formed between 10,000-6400 14C BP in the basin. The lake disintegrated into several shallow carbonate lakes or swamps gradually after 6400 14C BP. Eolian sand reached into the most part of the basin during the period. The lake evolution in the area generally reflects the East Asian summer monsoon history forced by Northern hemisphere insolation. Short time-scale lake fluctuations also existed in the area since the last glacial. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  17. Trajectory and terminal distribution of single centrifugal axons from olfactory cortical areas in the rat olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, S

    2010-08-11

    The olfactory bulb receives a large number of centrifugal fibers whose functions remain unclear. To gain insight into the function of the bulbar centrifugal system, the morphology of individual centrifugal axons from olfactory cortical areas was examined in detail. An anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, was injected into rat olfactory cortical areas, including the pars lateralis of the anterior olfactory nucleus (lAON) and the anterior part of the piriform cortex (aPC). Reconstruction from serial sections revealed that the extrabulbar segments of centrifugal axons from the lAON and those from the aPC had distinct trajectories: the former tended to innervate the pars externa of the AON before entering the olfactory bulb, while the latter had extrabulbar collaterals that extended to a variety of targets. In contrast to the extrabulbar segments, no clear differences were found between the intrabulbar segments of axons from the lAON and from the aPC. The intrabulbar segments of centrifugal axons were mainly found in the granule cell layer but a few axons extended into the external plexiform and glomerular layer. Approximately 40% of centrifugal axons innervated both the medial and lateral aspects of the olfactory bulb. The number of boutons found on single intrabulbar segments was typically less than 1000. Boutons tended to aggregate and form complex terminal tufts with short axonal branches. Terminal tufts, no more than 10 in single axons from ipsilateral cortical areas, were localized to the granule cell layer with varying intervals; some tufts formed patchy clusters and others were scattered over areas that extended for a few millimeters. The patchy, widespread distribution of terminals suggests that the centrifugal axons are able to couple the activity of specific subsets of bulbar neurons even when the subsets are spatially separated.

  18. Initial Evaluation of a Conflict Detection Tool in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma Savita Arora; Tang, Huabin; Ballinger, Deborah S.; Kozon, Thomas E.; Farrahi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent economic recession and its adverse impact on air travel, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) continues to forecast an increase in air traffic demand that may see traffic double or triple by the year 2025. Increases in air traffic will burden the air traffic management system, and higher levels of safety and efficiency will be required. The air traffic controllers primary task is to ensure separation between aircraft in their airspace and keep the skies safe. As air traffic is forecasted to increase in volume and complexity [1], there is an increased likelihood of conflicts between aircraft, which adds risk and inefficiency to air traffic management and increases controller workload. To attenuate these factors, recent ATM research has shown that air and ground-based automation tools could reduce controller workload, especially if the automation is focused on conflict detection and resolution. Conflict Alert is a short time horizon conflict detection tool deployed in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON), which has limited utility due to the high number of false alerts generated and its use of dead reckoning to predict loss of separation between aircraft. Terminal Tactical Separation Assurance Flight Environment (T-TSAFE) is a short time horizon conflict detection tool that uses both flight intent and dead reckoning to detect conflicts. Results of a fast time simulation experiment indicated that TTSAFE provided a more effective alert lead-time and generated less false alerts than Conflict Alert [2]. TSAFE was previously tested in a Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) simulation study that focused on the en route phase of flight [3]. The current study tested the T-TSAFE tool in an HITL simulation study, focusing on the terminal environment with current day operations. The study identified procedures, roles, responsibilities, information requirements and usability, with the help of TRACON controllers who participated in the experiment. Metrics such

  19. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability on or Near the Airport Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. In this report, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS). CAAT research is conducted jointly under NASA's Airspace Systems Program, Airportal Project and the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project.

  20. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal communication protocol software user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Communication Protocol Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Communication Protocol Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Communication Protocol Software allows users to control and configure the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix (IFSM) on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload. Besides IFSM control, the C&PM Software System is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during signal fade events, and data display. The Communication Protocol Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA CR-189162) outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Communication Protocol Software. Configuration files used to control the IFSM, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed. The Communication Protocol Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA CR-189163, to be published) is a programmer's guide to the Communication Protocol Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Communication Protocol Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Communication Protocol Software Test Plan (NASA CR-189164, to be published) provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software. Included in the Test Plan is command transmission, telemetry reception, error detection, and error recovery procedures.

  1. Feasibility of an advanced thrust termination assembly for a solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A total of 68 quench tests were conducted in a vented bomb assembly (VBA). Designed to simulate full-scale motor operating conditions, this laboratory apparatus uses a 2-inch-diameter, end-burning propellant charge and an insulated disc of consolidated hydrated aluminum sulfate along with the explosive charge necessary to disperse the salt and inject it onto the burning surface. The VBA was constructed to permit variation of motor design parameters of interest; i.e., weight of salt per unit burning surface area, weight of explosive per unit weight of salt, distance from salt surface to burning surface, incidence angle of salt injection, chamber pressure, and burn time. Completely satisfactory salt quenching, without re-ignition, occurred in only two VBA tests. These were accomplished with a quench charge ratio (QCR) of 0.023 lb salt per square inch of burning surface at dispersing charge ratios (DCR) of 13 and 28 lb of salt per lb of explosive. Candidate materials for insulating salt charges from the rocket combustion environment were evaluated in firings of 5-inch-diameter, uncured end-burner motors. A pressed, alumina ceramic fiber material was selected for further evaluation and use in the final demonstration motor.

  2. Flight Crew Factors for CTAS/FMS Integration in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Barry W.; Prevot, Thomas; Palmer, Everett A.; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS)/Flight Management System (FMS) integration on the flightdeck implies flight crews flying coupled in highly automated FMS modes [i.e. Vertical Navigation (VNAV) and Lateral Navigation (LNAV)] from top of descent to the final approach phase of flight. Pilots may also have to make FMS route edits and respond to datalink clearances in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) airspace. This full mission simulator study addresses how the introduction of these FMS descent procedures affect crew activities, workload, and performance. It also assesses crew acceptance of these procedures. Results indicate that the number of crew activities and workload ratings are significantly reduced below current day levels when FMS procedures can be flown uninterrupted, but that activity numbers increase significantly above current day levels and workload ratings return to current day levels when FMS procedures are interrupted by common ATC interventions and CTAS routing advisories. Crew performance showed some problems with speed control during FMS procedures. Crew acceptance of the FMS procedures and route modification requirements was generally high; a minority of crews expressed concerns about use of VNAV in the TRACON airspace. Suggestions for future study are discussed.

  3. Mixing 4D-Equipped and Unequipped Aircraft in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Erzberger, H.; Lee, H. Q.; Obrien, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    On-board 4D guidance systems, which predict and control the touchdown time of an aircraft to an accuracy of a few seconds throughout the descent, were developed and demonstrated in several flight test programs. However, in addition to refinements of the on board system, two important issues still need to be considered. First, in order to make effective use of these on-board systems, it is necessary to understand and develop the interactions of the airborne and air traffic control (ATC) system in the proposed advanced environment. Unless the total system is understood, the advanced on-board system may prove unusable from an ATC standpoint. Second, in planning for a future system in which all aircraft are 4D equipped, it is necessary to confront the transition situation in which some percentage of traffic must still be handled by conventional means. In terms of 4D, this means that some traffic must still be given radar vectors and speed clearances (that is, be spaced by conventional distance separation techniques), while the 4D-equipped aircraft need to be issued time assignments. These apparent differences are reconciled and efficient ATC operation is developed.

  4. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; William H. Hensley, Jr.; Burns, Bryan L.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-11-01

    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  5. Groundwater salinization survey of the Upper Cretaceous-Miocene Complexe terminal aquifer in the Sabaa Biar area of southwestern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, Abdelkader; Dhahri, Ferid; Gouasmia, Mouez; Moumni, Lahmadi; Mohamed, Soussi

    2015-12-01

    An integrated hydrogeological study involving the Schlumberger depth sounding method, geological data and wells data was conducted at the Sabaa Biar area of southern Tunisia to elucidate the problem of increasing groundwater salinity within The "Complexe Terminal". The "Complexe Terminal" aquifer near Sabaa Biar region is a bi-layered aquifer comprised of fractured limestones of the Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Berda Formation and sandstone of the Miocene Beglia Formation. The aquifer is affected by a main NW-trending fault, which is a chemical barrier that divides the study area into eastern and western blocks delivering freshwater and saline water, respectively. The salinization of groundwater within the limestone (Campanian-Maastrichtian Berda Formation) is linked mainly to the dissolution of outcropping Coniacian-Santonian gypsum along the core of the Jebel Sidi Bouhlel anticline to the east of the study area. Meteoric water dissolves salt from outcropping gypsum, flows through the fractures networks, and recharges the fractured limestone of the upper Berda Formation. The mobilization of salts stored in the salt-rich Quaternary sediment on hillslopes and inchannels contributes also to the salinization of groundwater within the sandstone (Miocene Beglia Formation) by lateral infiltration subsequent to water drainage during the wet season. The over exploitation of water from the Miocene sandstone causes an influx of saline-rich water from the underlying limestone of the Berda Formation into the sandstone of the Beglia Formation. Other sources of salinization of groundwater (such as ascension of hypersaline water from deep aquifer along faults, and the return flow of irrigation waters in the Djerid region) have been documented in this region, but are not discussed in this paper.

  6. Sedimentary record of terminal Cretaceous accretions in Ecuador: The Yunguilla Group in the Cuenca area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bengtson, Peter; Ordoñez, Martha; Vaca, Wilmer; Dhondt, Annie; Suárez, Johnny; Toro, Jorge

    2008-03-01

    A reappraisal of the "Late Cretaceous Yunguilla Formation" of the Cuenca area enables the definition of four distinct formations, correlatable with those of southwestern Ecuador. A mid- to late-Campanian marine transgression (Jadán Formation) is overlain by quartz-rich conglomerates of fan-delta to turbiditic fan environment (Quimas Formation) of latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian age, which are interpreted as evidence of the accretion of a first oceanic terrane (San Juan). Disconformable, arkosic turbidites and cherts (Tabacay Formation) of early Maastrichtian age are thought to represent the erosion of the newly accreted oceanic terrane. A major unconformity of late Maastrichtian age, caused by the accretion of a second oceanic terrane (Guaranda), is followed by the deposition of quartz-rich micaceous shelf sandstones (Saquisilí Formation) of Paleocene age. A third accretion event (late Paleocene) is recorded in coastal Ecuador. Each accretion event correlates with the uplift and erosion of the Eastern Cordillera and with a sedimentary hiatus in the eastern areas. In Ecuador, accretion of oceanic terranes contributed to the build up of the Andes through tectonic underplating of low-density material, and the eastern areas did not behave as flexural foreland basins during late Cretaceous-Paleogene times.

  7. Flight Crew Workload, Acceptability, and Performance When Using Data Comm in a High-Density Terminal Area Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. Michael; Baxley, Brian T.; Adams, Cathy A.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a collaborative FAA/NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Data Comm to issue messages during busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage: Voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, and Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route. Each condition was used in an arrival and a departure scenario at Boston Logan Airport. Of particular interest was the flight crew response to D-TAXI, the use of Data Comm by Air Traffic Control (ATC) to send taxi instructions. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time, flight technical error, operational errors, and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload, situation awareness, and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. Results showed that 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute and 97% of the messages within two minutes. However, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Flight crews reported that Expected D-TAXI messages were useful, and employment of these messages acceptable at all altitude bands evaluated during arrival scenarios. Results also indicate that the use of Data Comm for all evaluated message types in the terminal area was acceptable during surface operations, and during arrivals at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix, in terms of response time, workload, situation awareness, and flight technical performance. The flight crew reported the use of Data Comm as implemented in this experiment as unacceptable in two instances: in clearances to cross an active runway, and D-TAXI messages between the Final Approach Fix and 80 knots during landing roll. Critical cockpit tasks and the urgency of out-the window scan made the

  8. Numerical Simulation of HIWC Conditions with the Terminal Area Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional, numerical simulation of a mesoconvective system is conducted in order to better understand conditions associated with High Ice Water Content (HIWC) and its threat to aviation safety. Although peak local values of ice water content may occur early in the storm lifetime, large areas of high concentrations expand with time and persist even when the storm tops begin to warm. The storm canopy which contains HIWC, has low radar reflectivity factor and is fed by an ensemble of regenerating thermal pulses.

  9. Advanced automated classification strategy for settlement area detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich

    2005-10-01

    This paper is based on the research project "State-wide acquisition of settlement area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany focusing on residential and industrial areas". The integrated GIS/Remote Sensing environment facilitated the combined processing of ground truth measurement, scanned topographic maps and multisensor imagery from SPOT 5, Landsat 7 and Aster satellites. In selected urban and suburban areas, methods for multisensor data fusion were developed and tested. The goal of this project is an accurate and current information layer about the urban and suburban state for North Rhine-Westphalia. The methodology is based mainly on an adapted texture and object oriented hierarchical classification approach: based on SPOT 5 imagery segments in different scales (levels) were created. These segments are the basis for a hierarchical based classification procedure. For each segment we calculated not only a texture but also the shape parameter. In addition we used the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from the multispectral satellite images to distinguish between vegetation and non vegetation areas. The GIS environment is of prime importance because it offers adapted tools for data modelling and data combination. For the verification of our results we developed a GPS based mobile application running on a windows mobile pocket pc. It allows a direct communication with our GIS environment which is necessary to import or export our datasets.

  10. Optical terminal definition for the Future Service Growth (FSG) module of the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (ATDRSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Ronald C.; Kalil, Ford

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from preliminary analyses and definition studies for an optical terminal's incorporation into the FSG module of the ATDRS system, which must support crosslinks between selected relay satellites of a modified ATDRS constellation and thereby allow the placement of a relay satellite at an orbital location which eliminates the zone of exclusion. These studies have attempted to identify alternative constellations by means of one or more crosslinks, and to formulate the service-routing requirement for the FSG terminal. Attention is given to an FSG optical terminal that furnishes the functionality and performance required for a crosslink terminal.

  11. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  12. ATC simulation of helicopter IFR approaches into major terminal areas using RNAV, MLS, and CDTI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, L.; Lee, H. Q.; Peach, L. L.; Willett, F. M., Jr.; Obrien, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of independent helicopter IFR routes at hub airports was investigated in a real time air traffic control system simulation involving a piloted helicopter simulator, computer generated air traffic, and air traffic controllers. The helicopter simulator was equipped to fly area navigation (RNAV) routes and microwave landing system approaches. Problems studied included: (1) pilot acceptance of the approach procedure and tracking accuracy; (2) ATC procedures for handling a mix of helicopter and fixed wing traffic; and (3) utility of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) for the helicopter in the hub airport environment. Results indicate that the helicopter routes were acceptable to the subject pilots and were noninterfering with fixed wing traffic. Merging and spacing maneuvers using CDTI were successfully carried out by the pilots, but controllers had some reservations concerning the acceptability of the CDTI procedures.

  13. A Framework for Probabilistic Evaluation of Interval Management Tolerance in the Terminal Radar Control Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hercencia-Zapana, Heber; Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Neogi, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Projections of future traffic in the national airspace show that most of the hub airports and their attendant airspace will need to undergo significant redevelopment and redesign in order to accommodate any significant increase in traffic volume. Even though closely spaced parallel approaches increase throughput into a given airport, controller workload in oversubscribed metroplexes is further taxed by these approaches that require stringent monitoring in a saturated environment. The interval management (IM) concept in the TRACON area is designed to shift some of the operational burden from the control tower to the flight deck, placing the flight crew in charge of implementing the required speed changes to maintain a relative spacing interval. The interval management tolerance is a measure of the allowable deviation from the desired spacing interval for the IM aircraft (and its target aircraft). For this complex task, Formal Methods can help to ensure better design and system implementation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic framework to quantify the uncertainty and performance associated with the major components of the IM tolerance. The analytical basis for this framework may be used to formalize both correctness and probabilistic system safety claims in a modular fashion at the algorithmic level in a way compatible with several Formal Methods tools.

  14. Advanced Technology Used to Monitor Ground Water in a Restricted Access Area of Fort Riley, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breedlove, J.D.; Finnegan, P.J.; Myers, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe how advanced communication technology is being used to overcome difficulties in collecting reliable ground-water data in areas with restricted access, such as at Fort Riley in northeast Kansas.

  15. An automated nowcasting model of significant instability events in the flight terminal area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges França, Gutemberg; Valdonel de Almeida, Manoel; Rosette, Alessana C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel model, based on neural network techniques, to produce short-term and local-specific forecasts of significant instability for flights in the terminal area of Galeão Airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Twelve years of data were used for neural network training/validation and test. Data are originally from four sources: (1) hourly meteorological observations from surface meteorological stations at five airports distributed around the study area; (2) atmospheric profiles collected twice a day at the meteorological station at Galeão Airport; (3) rain rate data collected from a network of 29 rain gauges in the study area; and (4) lightning data regularly collected by national detection networks. An investigation was undertaken regarding the capability of a neural network to produce early warning signs - or as a nowcasting tool - for significant instability events in the study area. The automated nowcasting model was tested using results from five categorical statistics, indicated in parentheses in forecasts of the first, second, and third hours, respectively, namely proportion correct (0.99, 0.97, and 0.94), BIAS (1.10, 1.42, and 2.31), the probability of detection (0.79, 0.78, and 0.67), false-alarm ratio (0.28, 0.45, and 0.73), and threat score (0.61, 0.47, and 0.25). Possible sources of error related to the test procedure are presented and discussed. The test showed that the proposed model (or neural network) can grab the physical content inside the data set, and its performance is quite encouraging for the first and second hours to nowcast significant instability events in the study area.

  16. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S.

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  17. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  18. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  19. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows

  20. Mobile Phone Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  1. An Evaluation of the Air Force Logistics Career Area Advanced Academic Degree Position Validation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, Aleck L.; Sonnier, Ronald J.

    Reduced funding for educational programs indicated that a thorough review should be made of the Advanced Academic Degree (AAD) validation process. This reduction in funding necessitates more effective management of the AAD program in the logistics career areas to insure that officers in these career areas require those skills learned through these…

  2. The Impact of Data Communications Messages in the Terminal Area on Flight Crew Workload and Eye Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Baxley, Brian T.; Norman, Robert M.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Adams, Cathy A.; Latorella, Kara A.; Lynn, William A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper, to accompany a discussion panel, describes a collaborative FAA and NASA research study to determine the effect Data Communications (Data Comm) messages have on flight crew workload and eye scanning behavior in busy terminal area operations. In the Next Generation Air Transportation System Concept of Operations, for the period 2017-2022, the FAA envisions Data Comm between controllers and the flight crew to become the primary means of communicating non-time critical information. Four research conditions were defined that span current day to future equipage levels (Voice with Paper map, Data Comm with Paper map, Data Comm with Moving Map Display with ownship position displayed, Data Comm with Moving Map, ownship and taxi route displayed), and were used to create arrival and departure scenarios at Boston Logan Airport. Preliminary results for workload, situation awareness, and pilot head-up time are presented here. Questionnaire data indicated that pilot acceptability, workload, and situation awareness ratings were favorable for all of the conditions tested. Pilots did indicate that there were times during final approach and landing when they would prefer not to hear the message chime, and would not be able to make a quick response due to high priority tasks in the cockpit.

  3. Coherent Pulsed Lidar Sensing of Wake Vortex Position and Strength, Winds and Turbulence in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, Philip; Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, Dung Phu Chi; Britt, Charles L., Jr.; Petros, Mulugeta

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has field tested a 2.0 gm, 100 Hertz, pulsed coherent lidar to detect and characterize wake vortices and to measure atmospheric winds and turbulence. The quantification of aircraft wake-vortex hazards is being addressed by the Wake Vortex Lidar (WVL) Project as part of Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), which is under the Reduced Spacing Operations Element of the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. These hazards currently set the minimum, fixed separation distance between two aircraft and affect the number of takeoff and landing operations on a single runway under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The AVOSS concept seeks to safely reduce aircraft separation distances, when weather conditions permit, to increase the operational capacity of major airports. The current NASA wake-vortex research efforts focus on developing and validating wake vortex encounter models, wake decay and advection models, and wake sensing technologies. These technologies will be incorporated into an automated AVOSS that can properly select safe separation distances for different weather conditions, based on the aircraft pair and predicted/measured vortex behavior. The sensor subsystem efforts focus on developing and validating wake sensing technologies. The lidar system has been field-tested to provide real-time wake vortex trajectory and strength data to AVOSS for wake prediction verification. Wake vortices, atmospheric winds, and turbulence products have been generated from processing the lidar data collected during deployments to Norfolk (ORF), John F. Kennedy (JFK), and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airports.

  4. Optimal Trajectories and Control Strategies for the Helicopter in One-Engine-Inoperative Terminal-Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Zhao, Yi-Yuan; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    ), rejected takeoff (RTO), balked landing (BL), and continued landing (CL) for a twin engine helicopter in both VTOL and STOL terminal-area operations. This proposed paper will present the problem formulation, the optimal control solution methods, and the key results of the trajectory optimization studies for both STOL and VTOL OEI operations. In addition, new results concerning the recently developed methodology, which enable a real-time generation of optimal OEI trajectories, will be presented in the paper. This new real-time capability was developed to support the second piloted simulator investigation on cockpit displays for Category-A operations being scheduled for the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator in June-August of 1995. The first VMS simulation was conducted in 1994 and reported.

  5. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Soil Bacterial Communities under Different Vegetation Types in Subtropical Area.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zeyan; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are active players in energy flow and material exchange of the forest ecosystems, but the research on the relationship between the microbial diversity and the vegetation types is less conducted, especially in the subtropical area of China. In this present study, the rhizosphere soils of evergreen broad-leaf forest (EBF), coniferous forest (CF), subalpine dwarf forest (SDF) and alpine meadow (AM) were chosen as test sites. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) analysis was used to detect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities under different vegetation types in the National Natural Reserve of Wuyi Mountains. Our results revealed distinct differences in soil microbial composition under different vegetation types. Total 73 microbes were identified in soil samples of the four vegetation types, and 56, 49, 46 and 36 clones were obtained from the soils of EBF, CF, SDF and AM, respectively, and subsequently sequenced. The Actinobacteria, Fusobacterium, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant in all soil samples. The order of Shannon-Wiener index (H) of all soil samples was in the order of EBF>CF>SDF>AM, whereas bacterial species richness as estimated by four restriction enzymes indicated no significant difference. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the soil bacterial communities' structures of EBF, CF, SDF and AM were clearly separated along the first and second principal components, which explained 62.17% and 31.58% of the total variance, respectively. The soil physical-chemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK) were positively correlated with the diversity of bacterial communities.

  6. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Soil Bacterial Communities under Different Vegetation Types in Subtropical Area

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeyan; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are active players in energy flow and material exchange of the forest ecosystems, but the research on the relationship between the microbial diversity and the vegetation types is less conducted, especially in the subtropical area of China. In this present study, the rhizosphere soils of evergreen broad-leaf forest (EBF), coniferous forest (CF), subalpine dwarf forest (SDF) and alpine meadow (AM) were chosen as test sites. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) analysis was used to detect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities under different vegetation types in the National Natural Reserve of Wuyi Mountains. Our results revealed distinct differences in soil microbial composition under different vegetation types. Total 73 microbes were identified in soil samples of the four vegetation types, and 56, 49, 46 and 36 clones were obtained from the soils of EBF, CF, SDF and AM, respectively, and subsequently sequenced. The Actinobacteria, Fusobacterium, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most predominant in all soil samples. The order of Shannon-Wiener index (H) of all soil samples was in the order of EBF>CF>SDF>AM, whereas bacterial species richness as estimated by four restriction enzymes indicated no significant difference. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the soil bacterial communities’ structures of EBF, CF, SDF and AM were clearly separated along the first and second principal components, which explained 62.17% and 31.58% of the total variance, respectively. The soil physical-chemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK) were positively correlated with the diversity of bacterial communities. PMID:26098851

  7. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability On or Near the Airport Surface, Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. The term ATMA was created to reflect the fact that the CD&R concept area of operation is focused near the airport within the terminal maneuvering area. In the following, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS).

  8. Time-based self-spacing techniques using cockpit display of traffic information during approach to landing in a terminal area vectoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate two time-based self-spacing techniques for in-trail following during terminal area approach. An electronic traffic display was provided in the weather radarscope location. The displayed self-spacing cues allowed the simulated aircraft to follow and to maintain spacing on another aircraft which was being vectored by air traffic control (ATC) for landing in a high-density terminal area. Separation performance data indicate the information provided on the traffic display was adequate for the test subjects to accurately follow the approach path of another aircraft without the assistance of ATC. The time-based technique with a constant-delay spacing criterion produced the most satisfactory spacing performance. Pilot comments indicate the workload associated with the self-separation task was very high and that additional spacing command information and/or aircraft autopilot functions would be desirable for operational implementational of the self-spacing task.

  9. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  10. Terminal Air Flow Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) will be the basis for air traffic planning and control in the terminal area. The system accepts arriving traffic within an extended terminal area and optimizes the flow based on current traffic and airport conditions. The operational use of CTAS will be presented together with results from current operations.

  11. Further advancements for large area-detector based computed tomography system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A. W.; Keating, S. C.; Claytor, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    We present advancements made to a large area-detector based system for industrial x-ray computed tomography. Past performance improvements in data acquisition speeds were made by use of high-resolution large area, flat-panel amorphous-silicon (a-Si) detectors. The detectors have proven, over several years, to be a robust alternative to CCD-optics and image intensifier CT systems. These detectors also provide the advantage of area detection as compared with the single slice geometry of linear array systems. New advancements in this system include parallel processing of sinogram reconstructions, improved visualization software and migration to frame-rate a-Si detectors. Parallel processing provides significant speed improvements for data reconstruction, and is implemented for parallel-beam, fan-beam and Feldkamp cone-beam reconstruction algorithms. Reconstruction times are reduced by an order of magnitude by use of a cluster of ten or more equal-speed computers. Advancements in data visualization are made through interactive software, which allows interrogation of the full three-dimensional dataset. Inspection examples presented in this paper include an electromechanical device, a nonliving biological specimen and a press-cast plastic specimen. We also present a commonplace item for the benefit of the layperson.

  12. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software maintenance manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document. The EC&M Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189161) is a programmer's guide that describes current implementation of the EC&M software from a technical perspective. An overview of the EC&M software, computer algorithms, format representation, and computer hardware configuration are included in the manual.

  13. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal experiment control and monitor software user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experiment Control and Monitor (EC&M) software was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenter's terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various investigations by government agencies, universities, and industry. The EC&M software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitoring (C&PM) software system of the HBR-LET. The EC&M software allows users to initialize, control, and monitor the instrumentation within the HBR-LET using a predefined sequence of commands. Besides instrument control, the C&PM software system is also responsible for computer communication between the HBR-LET and the ACTS NASA Ground Station and for uplink power control of the HBR-LET to demonstrate power augmentation during rain fade events. The EC&M Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 (NASA-CR-189160) outlines the commands required to install and operate the EC&M software. Input and output file descriptions, operator commands, and error recovery procedures are discussed in the document.

  14. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: Third Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the third major revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This algorithm is referred to as the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes version 11 (ASTAR11). This airborne self-spacing concept is trajectory-based, allowing for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. Because this algorithm is trajectory-based, it also has the inherent ability to support required time-of-arrival (RTA) operations. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft.

  15. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Fade Compensation Protocol Impact on Very Small-Aperture Terminal Bit Error Rate Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Christina B.; Coney, Thom A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) communications system operates at Ka band. ACTS uses an adaptive rain fade compensation protocol to reduce the impact of signal attenuation resulting from propagation effects. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis characterizing the improvement in VSAT performance provided by this protocol. The metric for performance is VSAT bit error rate (BER) availability. The acceptable availability defined by communication system design specifications is 99.5% for a BER of 5E-7 or better. VSAT BER availabilities with and without rain fade compensation are presented. A comparison shows the improvement in BER availability realized with rain fade compensation. Results are presented for an eight-month period and for 24 months spread over a three-year period. The two time periods represent two different configurations of the fade compensation protocol. Index Terms-Adaptive coding, attenuation, propagation, rain, satellite communication, satellites.

  16. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: Fifth Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fifth revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This algorithm is referred to as the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes version 12 (ASTAR12). This airborne self-spacing concept is trajectory-based, allowing for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. Because this algorithm is trajectory-based, it also has the inherent ability to support required-time-of- arrival (RTA) operations. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft. This current revision to the algorithm includes a ground speed feedback term to compensate for slower than expected traffic aircraft speeds based on the accepted air traffic control tendency to slow aircraft below the nominal arrival speeds when they are farther from the airport.

  17. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: Seventh Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the seventh revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This paper supersedes the previous documentation and presents a modification to the algorithm referred to as the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes version 13 (ASTAR13). This airborne self-spacing concept contains both trajectory-based and state-based mechanisms for calculating the speeds required to achieve or maintain a precise spacing interval. The trajectory-based capability allows for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft. This current revision to the algorithm adds the state-based capability in support of evolving industry standards relating to airborne self-spacing.

  18. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: Sixth Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the sixth revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This algorithm is referred to as the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes version 13 (ASTAR13). This airborne self-spacing concept contains both trajectory-based and state-based mechanisms for calculating the speeds required to achieve or maintain a precise spacing interval. The trajectory-based capability allows for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft. This current revision to the algorithm adds the state-based capability in support of evolving industry standards relating to airborne self-spacing.

  19. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  1. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  2. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  3. 7 CFR 301.85-2 - Authorization to designate, and terminate designation of, regulated areas and suppressive or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2 Authorization to... nematode has been found or in which there is reason to believe that golden nematode is present, or which it... nematode. (b) Temporary designation of regulated areas and suppressive or generally infested areas....

  4. [Brazilian technological output in the area of nursing: advances and challenges].

    PubMed

    Koerich, Micheline Henrique Araujo da Luz; Vieira, Raquel Heloisa Guedes; Silva, Daniela Eda; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Meirelles, Betina Horner Shlindwein

    2011-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the patents registered in the nursing area, since these patents may be used as an indicator of the technological development in the area. It presents and discusses national technological productions, tracked through the "nursing" keyword, patented in the period from 1990-2009. This is a retrospective documental research, using, as a source, data from the National Industrial Property Institute (INPI). The information gathered is discussed in relation to the appropriation of the technologies, the incentive to develop them and register them as a source of knowledge in the nursing field, aiming the practice of care. Light and light hard technology productions are increasing in the nursing field. However, these are not registered and patented. The technological advance in the nursing field is emergent and needs policies for its development.

  5. The Coso geothermal area: A laboratory for advanced MEQ studies for geothermal monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.; Richards-Dinger, K.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent 16-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the Coso geothermal area, California, supplemented by 14 temporary instruments deployed in connection with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) recordings that are well suited to monitoring a producing geothermal area. We are currently using these data to investigate structure and active processes within the geothermal reservoir by applying three advanced methods: a) high-precision MEQ hypocenter location; b) time-dependent tomography; c) complete (moment tensor) MEQ source mechanism determination. Preliminary results to date resolve seismogenic structures in the producing field more clearly than is possible with conventional earthquake-location techniques. A shallow part of the producing field shows clear changes in the ratio of the seismic wave speeds, Vp/V s, between 1996 and 2002, which are probably related to physical changes in the reservoir caused by fluid extraction.

  6. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal power control and rain fade software test plan, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Power Control and Rain Fade Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software automatically controls the LET uplink power to compensate for signal fades. Besides power augmentation, the C&PM Software system is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, control of the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload, and data display. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 is a programmer's guide to the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Power Control and Rain Fade Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Power Control and Rain Fade Test Plan provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software using a predetermined signal fade event. The Test Plan also provides a means to demonstrate the capability of the software.

  7. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  8. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  9. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  10. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  11. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  12. Benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information System - San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Johnson, L. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in monitoring and prediction of precipitation and severe storms can provide significant benefits for water resource managers, allowing them to mitigate flood damage risks, capture additional water supplies and offset drought impacts, and enhance ecosystem services. A case study for the San Francisco Bay area provides the context for quantification of the benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) system. The AQPI builds off more than a decade of NOAA research and applications of advanced precipitation sensors, data assimilation, numerical models of storms and storm runoff, and systems integration for real-time operations. An AQPI would dovetail with the current National Weather Service forecast operations to provide higher resolution monitoring of rainfall events and longer lead time forecasts. A regional resource accounting approach has been developed to quantify the incremental benefits assignable to the AQPI system; these benefits total to $35 M/yr in the 9 county Bay region. Depending on the jurisdiction large benefits for flood damage avoidance may accrue for locations having dense development in flood plains. In other locations forecst=based reservoir operations can increase reservoir storage for water supplies. Ecosystem services benefits for fisheries may be obtained from increased reservoir storage and downstream releases. Benefits in the transporation sectors are associated with increased safety and avoided delays. Compared to AQPI system implementation and O&M costs over a 10 year operations period, a benefit - cost (B/C) ratio is computed which ranges between 2.8 to 4. It is important to acknowledge that many of the benefits are dependent on appropriate and adequate response by the hazards and water resources management agencies and citizens.

  13. Landslide detection and long-term monitoring in urban area by means of advanced interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Liguori, Vincenzo; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    This work aims at illustrating the potential of advanced interferometric techniques for detection and long-term monitoring of landslide ground deformations at local scale. Space-born InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been successfully exploited in recent years to measure ground deformations associated to processes with slow kinematics, such as landslides, tectonic motions, subsidence or volcanic activity, thanks to both the standard single-interferogram approach (centimeter accuracy) and advanced time-series analyses of long temporal radar satellite data stacks (millimeter accuracy), such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques. In order to get a complete overview and an in-depth knowledge of an investigated landslide, InSAR satellite measures can support conventional in situ data. This methodology allows studying the spatial pattern and the temporal evolution of ground deformations, improving the spatial coverage and overcoming issues related to installation of ground-based instrumentation and data acquisition in unstable areas. Here we describe the application of the above-mentioned methodology on the test area of Agrigento, Sicily (Italy), affected by hydrogeological risk. The town is located in Southern Sicily, at edge of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt, on the Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene sediments of the Gela Nappe. Ground instabilities affect the urban area and involve the infrastructures of its NW side, such as the Cathedral, the Seminary and many private buildings. An integration between InSAR analyses and conventional field investigations (e.g. structural damages and fractures surveys) was therefore carried out, to support Regional Civil Protection authorities for emergency management and risk mitigation. The results of InSAR analysis highlighted a general stability of the whole urban area between 1992 and 2007. However, very high deformation rates (up to 10-12 mm/y) were identified in 1992-2000 in the W slope of the

  14. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port....050″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.722″ N/122° 46′ 34.181″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.425″ N/122° 46′ 33.118″ W...″ N 122° 46′ 20.995″ W. (2) All waters of the Willamette River in Wheeler Bay between Slip 1 and...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port....050″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.722″ N/122° 46′ 34.181″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.425″ N/122° 46′ 33.118″ W...″ N 122° 46′ 20.995″ W. (2) All waters of the Willamette River in Wheeler Bay between Slip 1 and...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port....050″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.722″ N/122° 46′ 34.181″ W thence to 45° 36′ 09.425″ N/122° 46′ 33.118″ W...″ N 122° 46′ 20.995″ W. (2) All waters of the Willamette River in Wheeler Bay between Slip 1 and...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1326 - Regulated Navigation Areas; Port of Portland Terminal 4, Willamette River, Portland, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Areas; Port...′ 34.181″ W thence to 45°36′ 09.425″ N/122°46′ 33.118″ W thence to 45°36′ 08.960″ N/122°46′ 32.150″ W....483″ W thence to 45°36′ 01.795″ N/122°46′ 21.442″ W thence to 45°36′ 01.861″ N 122°46′ 20.995″ W....

  18. Resolving Off-Nominal Situations in Schedule-Based Terminal Area Operations: Results from a Human-in-the-Loop Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Martin, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A recent human-in-the-loop simulation in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at NASA's Ames Research Center investigated the robustness of Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) operations. CMS refers to AOL-developed controller tools and procedures for enabling arrivals to conduct efficient Optimized Profile Descents with sustained high throughput. The simulation provided a rich data set for examining how a traffic management supervisor and terminal-area controller participants used the CMS tools and coordinated to respond to off-nominal events. This paper proposes quantitative measures for characterizing the participants responses. Case studies of go-around events, replicated during the simulation, provide insights into the strategies employed and the role the CMS tools played in supporting them.

  19. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  20. Channel and terminal description of the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Agan, M. J.; Girardey, C. C.; Jedrey, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) is a proof-of-concept K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications terminal under development by NASA at JPL. Currently the AMT is undergoing systems integration and testing in preparation for a July 1993 ACTS launch and the subsequent commencement of mobile experiments in the fall of 1993. The AMT objectives are presented, followed by a discussion of the AMT communications channel and the mobile terminal's design and performance.

  1. Channel and terminal description of the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Agan, M. J.; Girardey, C. C.; Jedrey, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) is a proof-of-concept K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications terminal under development by NASA at JPL. Currently the AMT is undergoing system integration and test in preparation for a July 1993 ACTS launch and the subsequent commencement of mobile experiments in the fall of 1993. The AMT objectives are presented followed by a discussion of the AMT communications channel and mobile terminal design and performance.

  2. A Terminal Area Analysis of Continuous Ascent Departure Fuel Use at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Keenan; Robinson, John E., III

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft departing from the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) encounter vertical restrictions that prevent continuous ascent operations. The result of these restrictions are temporary level-offs at 10,000 feet. A combination of flow direction, specific Area Navigation (RNAV) route geometry, and arrival streams have been found to be the biggest factors in the duration and frequency of a temporary level-offs. In total, 20% of DFW departures are affected by these level-offs, which have an average duration of just over 100 seconds. The use of continuous descent approaches at DFW are shown to lessen the impact arrivals have on the departures and allow more continuous ascents. The fuel used in a continuous ascent and an ascent with a temporary level-off have been calculated using a fuel burn rate model created from a combination of actual aircraft track data, aircraft manufacturer flight operations manuals, and Eurocontrol's Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) simulation tool. This model represents the average aggregate burn rates for the current fleet mix at DFW. Continuous ascents would save approximately seven gallons of fuel out of 450 gallons used to climb to a cruise altitude of 31,000ft per departure.

  3. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  4. Advances in Analytical and Numerical Dispersion Modeling of Pollutants Releasing from an Area-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmatoori, Praneeth

    The air quality near agricultural activities such as tilling, plowing, harvesting, and manure application is of main concern because they release fine particulate matter into the atmosphere. These releases are modeled as area-sources in the air quality modeling research. None of the currently available dispersion models relate and incorporate physical characteristics and meteorological conditions for modeling the dispersion and deposition of particulates emitting from such area-sources. This knowledge gap was addressed by developing the advanced analytical and numerical methods for modeling the dispersion of particulate matter. The development, application, and evaluation of new dispersion modeling methods are discussed in detail in this dissertation. In the analytical modeling, a ground-level area source analytical dispersion model known as particulate matter deposition -- PMD was developed for predicting the concentrations of different particle sizes. Both the particle dynamics (particle physical characteristics) and meteorological conditions which have significant effect on the dispersion of particulates were related and incorporated in the PMD model using the formulations of particle gravitational settling and dry deposition velocities. The modeled particle size concentrations of the PMD model were evaluated statistically after applying it to particulates released from a biosolid applied agricultural field. The evaluation of the PMD model using the statistical criteria concluded effective and successful inclusion of dry deposition theory for modeling particulate matter concentrations. A comprehensive review of analytical area-source dispersion models, which do not account for dry deposition and treat pollutants as gases, was conducted and determined three models -- the Shear, the Parker, and the Smith. A statistical evaluation of these dispersion models was conducted after applying them to two different field data sets and the statistical results concluded that

  5. Large-area nanofabrication and applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei

    The research work presented in this dissertation includes novel large area nanofabrication techniques and their applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. The fabrications and applications include: 1) high performance transparent electrodes, 2) a novel plasmonic nanocavity and its applications in organic solar cells and light emitting diodes, and 3) a bipolar plasmonic nonlinear optical device to enhance and tune second harmonic generation. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into the following parts. First, a novel transparent electrode (TE), metallic deep subwavelength mesh electrode is developed and fabricated, showing better transmittance and conductance than previous TEs. Its performance dependence on nanostructure geometries and materials are investigated. The deep-subwavelength mesh electrode also has excellent antiglare properties. Such electrodes are fabricated on 4" wafer by nanoimprint, scalable to meter sizes. Second, a novel plasmonic nanocavity from the MESH is developed, named "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH)", consisting of a thin MESH as a transparent front electrode, a thin metal back electrode, and in-between layer of active material. This structure is used to create high performance solar cells and LEDs. PlaCSH solar cell gives a solution to three central challenges in organic solar cells (light coupling into solar cell, light trapping in a sub-absorption-length-thick layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide). Experimentally, the PlaCSH polymer SCs achieve high light coupling-efficiency/absorptance/power conversion efficiency, along with broad-band, Omni angle/polarization acceptance. In OLEDs, PlaCSH shows numerous benefits with both the small- molecule and polymer active materials. Enhanced light extraction, internal quantum efficiency, ambient light absorption, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and decreased glare are all observed. The above experiments -- along with

  6. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    PubMed

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods. PMID:26187079

  7. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    PubMed

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods.

  8. Association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and epidermal growth factor receptor gene status in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Masago, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Daichi; Sakamori, Yuichi; Nagai, Hiroki; Kim, Young Hak; Togashi, Kaori; Mishima, Michiaki

    2012-12-01

    Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR mutation) is a very important marker in the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. Since signaling from this receptor induces tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that lung cancers with EGFR mutations tend to develop locally with increased angiogenesis. Thus, the association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and EGFR status was retrospectively investigated in advanced lung adenocarcinomas. To assess vascular-poor area, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans taken before initial treatment for lung cancer were analyzed, together with primary tumor location (peripheral or central) and size. We analyzed 178 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutations were detected in 95 of the 178 patients (53.4 %). EGFR mutation was found to be significantly related to women (P = 0.0070), never-smokers (P < 0.0001), and tumors without vascular-poor area (P < 0.0001). Based on a multivariate analysis, presence of EGFR mutations was independently associated with never-smokers (P = 0.0046), lack of vascular-poor area (P = 0.0001), and tumor size >30 mm (P = 0.0080). EGFR mutations were found in 41 of 51 never-smokers without vascular-poor area (80.4 %), 19 of 36 never-smokers with vascular-poor area (52.8 %), 19 of 37 current or former-smokers without vascular-poor area (51.4 %), and 16 of 54 current or former-smokers with vascular-poor area (29.6 %). This study showed an association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and EGFR status. As a consequence, evaluation using a combination of smoking status and vascular-poor area allows us to predict presence of EGFR mutations at a high frequency.

  9. Advanced Marketing 8130. Instructional Areas. Duties and Tasks. Learning Activities. Referenced Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This resource handbook, which is designed for use by instructors of courses in advanced marketing, consists of a duty/task list with referenced resources, a duty/task list with learning activities, and a list of resources. Included in each list are materials dealing with the following topics: communication in marketing, economics in marketing,…

  10. Terminal means for electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seiger, H.N.

    1988-03-29

    This patent describes an assembly of reactive metal electrochemical cells which includes bipolar electrodes connected in series between a pair of spaced conductive end plates, terminal means of higher conductive material than the end plates on each end plate comprising an array of interconnected terminal segment means disposed outwardly of a center point of the respective end plate in a generally uniform pattern with respect to the area configuration of the end plate to thereby enlarge the terminal area and to provide more uniform current distribution and active metal consumption over the areas of the bipolar electrodes.

  11. Terminal structure

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  12. Communicating with terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L

    Communication between doctors and terminal cancer patients has been identified as a problem area in medical care. There have been attempts to overcome this problem by establishing new teaching programs; however, the most effective teaching methods are costly. A model is described that requires minimal staff involvement in teaching about communicating with terminal cancer patients.

  13. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  14. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  15. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  16. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  17. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  18. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  19. Advanced Placement[R] Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

  20. Advanced Placement® Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report No. 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

  1. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  2. 77 FR 21981 - Maher Terminal, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Maher Terminal, LLC v. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...'' by Maher Terminal, LLC, hereinafter ``Complainant'' against the Port Authority of New York and New..., New York; owns marine terminal facilities in the New York New Jersey area, including in Elizabeth,...

  3. Application of Advanced Wide Area Early Warning Systems with Adaptive Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Cibulka, Lloyd; Thorp, James; Centeno, Virgilio; King, Roger; Reeves, Kari; Ashrafi, Frank; Madani, Vahid

    2014-09-30

    Recent blackouts of power systems in North America and throughout the world have shown how critical a reliable power system is to modern societies, and the enormous economic and societal damage a blackout can cause. It has been noted that unanticipated operation of protection systems can contribute to cascading phenomena and, ultimately, blackouts. This project developed and field-tested two methods of Adaptive Protection systems utilizing synchrophasor data. One method detects conditions of system stress that can lead to unintended relay operation, and initiates a supervisory signal to modify relay response in real time to avoid false trips. The second method detects the possibility of false trips of impedance relays as stable system swings “encroach” on the relays’ impedance zones, and produces an early warning so that relay engineers can re-evaluate relay settings. In addition, real-time synchrophasor data produced by this project was used to develop advanced visualization techniques for display of synchrophasor data to utility operators and engineers.

  4. Fast discrimination of danshen from different geographical areas by NIR spectroscopy and advanced cluster analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Yan; Xu, Kexin

    2006-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflection spectroscopy has been an effective way to perform quantitative analysis without the requirement of sample pretreatnient. In this paper, NIR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been introduced to probe spectral features of traditional Chinese medicine Danshen. Infrared fingerprint spectra of Danshen can be established. Influence of differentiation of spectrum is also discussed. After pretreatment and derivation on the spectral data, methods of principal analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are combined to sort the geographical origins of 53 samples by local modeling. The result show that, as a basis of the other two methods, PCA is a more efficient one for identifying the geographical origins of Danshen. Combining SIMCA with PCA, an effective model is built to analyze the data after normalization and differentiation, the correct identification rate reaches above 90%. Then 36 samples are chosen as training set while other 17 samples being verifying set. Using ANN-based Back Propagation method, after proper training of BP network, the origins of Danshen are completely classified. Therefore, combined with advanced mathematical analysis, NIR diffuse spectroscopy can be a novel and rapid way to accurately evaluate the origin of Chinese medicine, and also to accelerate the modernization process of Chinese drugs.

  5. Large area sheet task. Advanced dendritic web growth development. [silicon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a silicon dendritic web growth machine is discussed. Several refinements to the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth are described and several areas for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace are identified. A circuit designed to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level is also described. A variable speed motor for the silicon feeder is discussed which allows pellet feeding to be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth.

  6. Advances in linear and area HgCdTe APD arrays for eyesafe LADAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Michael D.; Asbrock, James F.; Anderson, C.; Bailey, Steven L.; Chapman, George; Gordon, E.; Herning, P. E.; Kalisher, Murray H.; Kosai, Kim; Liquori, V.; Randall, Valerie; Rosbeck, Joseph P.; Sen, Sanghamitra; Wetzel, P.; Halmos, Maurice J.; Trotta, Patrick A.; Hunter, Andrew T.; Jensen, John E.; de Lyon, Terence J.; Johnson, W.; Walker, B.; Trussel, Ward; Hutchinson, Andy; Balcerak, Raymond S.

    2001-11-01

    HgCdTe APDs and APD arrays offer unique advantages for high-performance eyesafe LADAR sensors. These include: operation at room temperature, low-excess noise, high gain, high-quantum efficiency at eyesafe wavelengths, GHz bandwidth, and high-packing density. The utility of these benefits for systems are being demonstrated for both linear and area array sensors. Raytheon has fabricated 32 element linear APD arrays utilizing liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), and packaged and integrating these arrays with low-noise amplifiers. Typical better APDs configured as 50-micron square pixels and fabricated utilizing RIE, have demonstrated high fill factors, low crosstalk, excellent uniformity, low dark currents, and noise equivalent power (NEP) from 1-2 nW. Two units have been delivered to NVESD, assembled with range extraction electronics, and integrated into the CELRAP laser radar system. Tests on these sensors in July and October 2000 have demonstrated excellent functionality, detection of 1-cm wires, and range imaging. Work is presently underway under DARPA's 3-D imaging Sensor Program to extend this excellent performance to area arrays. High-density arrays have been fabricated using LPE and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). HgCdTe APD arrays have been made in 5 X 5, 10 X 10 and larger formats. Initial data shows excellent typical better APD performance with unmultiplied dark current < 10 nA; and NEP < 2.0 nW at a gain of 10.

  7. DEPLOYING TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS FOR CHARACTERIZING THE VADOSE ZONE IN SINGLE-SHELL TANK WASTE MANAGEMENT AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    EBERLEIN SJ; SYDNOR HA; DA MYERS

    2010-01-14

    As much as one million gallons of waste is believed to have leaked from tanks, pipelines or other equipment in the single-shell tank farm waste management areas (WMAs) within the 200 East and West areas of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although some contamination has reached groundwater, most contamination still resides in the vadose zone. The magnitude ofthis problem requires new approaches for soil characterization if we are to understand the nature and extent of the contamination and take action to protect the enviromnent. Because of the complexity and expense of drilling traditional boreholes in contaminated soil, direct push characterization using a hydraulic hammer has been extensively employed. Direct push probe holes <3-inch diameter have been pushed to a maximum depth of 240 feet below ground surface in 200 East area. Previously gross gamma and moisture logging of these narrow probe holes was perfonned to identify the location of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) (which has limited mobility in Hanford soil) and moisture peaks. Recently a bismuth germinate detector has been deployed for detecting and quantifying the spectrum of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) (a more mobile contaminant), which provides additional information. The direct push system is configured to allow the collection ofmultiple soil core samples throughout the depth ofthe probe hole. The direct push unit has been used to place individual electrodes at a variety of depths as the probe hole is being decommissioned. These deep electrodes enable the use of soil resistivity measurement methods between surface and deep electrodes as-well-as between sets of deep electrodes. Initial testing of surface-to-deep electrode resistivity measurements in WMA C demonstrated significant improvement in defining the three dimensional extent of a contamination plume. A multiple-electrode string is presently being developed to further enhance the resolution of resistivity data. The

  8. Advanced Research on the Electrode Area of a Low Pressure Hg-Ar Discharge Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianou

    The phenomenon of electrical discharge in low pressure Hg-Ar vapor has been under continuous investigation since it was first discovered. Because much work has been done in the positive column, it is, therefore, that the electrode area of the lamp is the main focus of this thesis. To simulate the interface phenomena on a electrode surface, samples, with optically smooth tungsten-barium interfaces were fired in a high vacuum furnace at different temperatures. Measurements were made using surface characterization techniques. It is found that no Ba_3WO _6 is formed on the surface as previously reported in the powder mixing experiments, and the interface consists mainly of BaWO_4. It was discovered in the early 1950's that vaporization of the barium from the cathode in a fluorescent lamp could be reduced tremendously with the addition of 5% of ZrO _2 to the coating mix. However, the reason for this is poorly understood. A possible explanation has been found, and number of tests have been completed to simulate the formation of BaZO_3 under different lamp operating conditions. The measurements and simulation of barium atom and ion number densities are presented. Barium emitted from the electrode surface has a strong interaction with the local plasma. The number density distributions depend mainly on the discharge conditions. A Monte Carlo computer simulation for the barium ion number density is described and the results from the simulation compared to the experimental results obtained by absorption method. It is clear that the ion distribution and phosphor contamination in the electrode area are two closely related issues. XPS is used to measure the chemical composition on the phosphor surface of the lamp. A discussion of calibration methods and the possible compounds forming on the phosphors is then presented. A number of questions have been raised concerning the safety of the lamp and its affects on health related to radiation generated in the electrode area. Typically

  9. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  10. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  11. Advanced transportation system studies, technical area 3. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: J-2S restart study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilja, John; Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The objectives were to assess what design changes would be required to remit late production of the J-2S engine for use as a large high energy upper stage engine. The study assessed design changes required to perform per the J-2S model specification, manufacturing changes required due to obsolescence or improvements in state-of-the-practice, availability issues for supplier provided items, and provided cost and schedule estimates for this configuration. The confidence that J-2S production could be reinitiated within reasonable costs and schedules was provided. No significant technical issues were identified in either the producibility study or in the review of previous technical data. Areas of potential cost reduction were identified which could be quantified to a greater extent with further manufacturing planning. The proposed schedule can be met with no foreseeable impacts. The results of the study provided the necessary foundation for the detailed manufacturing and test plans and non-recurring and recurring cost estimates that are needed to complete the effort to reinitiate production of the J-2S engine system.

  12. Advanced transportation system studies, technical area 3. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: J-2S restart study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John; Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objectives were to assess what design changes would be required to remit late production of the J-2S engine for use as a large high energy upper stage engine. The study assessed design changes required to perform per the J-2S model specification, manufacturing changes required due to obsolescence or improvements in state-of-the-practice, availability issues for supplier provided items, and provided cost and schedule estimates for this configuration. The confidence that J-2S production could be reinitiated within reasonable costs and schedules was provided. No significant technical issues were identified in either the producibility study or in the review of previous technical data. Areas of potential cost reduction were identified which could be quantified to a greater extent with further manufacturing planning. The proposed schedule can be met with no foreseeable impacts. The results of the study provided the necessary foundation for the detailed manufacturing and test plans and non-recurring and recurring cost estimates that are needed to complete the effort to reinitiate production of the J-2S engine system.

  13. ACTS propagation terminal prototype planning and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Pergal, F.; Chakraborty, D.; Stutzman, Warren L.

    1990-01-01

    The planning and design of a prototype propagation receiving terminal for beacon signals at 27 and 20 GHz bands are examined. The developmental plan is discussed, followed by technical design considerations including, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system salient features and frequency plan, beacon signal parameters and specifications, system calculations, and terminal hardware design issues.

  14. Advanced Algorithms for Rapidly Reconstructing Clandestine Releases of Biological Agents in Urban Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.

    2000-02-25

    As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.

  15. Shipboard fisheries management terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Sager, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    The needs of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMGS), National Weather Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard for locational, biological, and environmental data were assessed. The fisheries conservation zones and the yellowfin tuna jurisdiction of the NMFS operates observer programs on foreign and domestic fishing vessels. Data input terminal and data transfer and processing technology are reviewed to establish available capability. A matrix of implementation options is generated to identify the benefits of each option, and preliminary cost estimates are made. Recommendations are made for incremental application of available off the shelf hardware to obtain improved performance and benefits within a well bounded cost. Terminal recommendations are made for three interdependent shipboard units emphasizing: (1) the determination of location and fishing activity; (2) hand held data inputting and formatting in the fishing work areas; and (3) data manipulation, merging, and editing.

  16. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  17. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  18. Lithologic mapping in the Mountain Pass, California area using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of the Mountain Pass, California area indicates that several important lithologic groups can be mapped in areas with good exposure by using spectral-matching techniques. The three visible and six near-infrared bands, which have 15-m and 30-m resolution, respectively, were calibrated by using in situ measurements of spectral reflectance. Calcitic rocks were distinguished from dolomitic rocks by using matched-filter processing in which image spectra were used as references for selected spectral categories. Skarn deposits and associated bright coarse marble were mapped in contact metamorphic zones related to intrusion of Mesozoic and Tertiary granodioritic rocks. Fe-muscovite, which is common in these intrusive rocks, was distinguished from Al-muscovite present in granitic gneisses and Mesozoic granite. Quartzose rocks were readily discriminated, and carbonate rocks were mapped as a single broad unit through analysis of the 90-m resolution, five-band surface emissivity data, which is produced as a standard product at the EROS Data Center. Three additional classes resulting from spectral-angle mapper processing ranged from (1) a broad granitic rock class (2) to predominately granodioritic rocks and (3) a more mafic class consisting mainly of mafic gneiss, amphibolite and variable mixtures of carbonate rocks and silicate rocks. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced image collection, information extraction, and change detection in support of NN-20 broad area search and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Perry, E.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Slator, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Research and Development (NN-20). The work supports the NN-20 Broad Area Search and Analysis, a program initiated by NN-20 to improve the detection and classification of undeclared weapons facilities. Ongoing PNNL research activities are described in three main components: image collection, information processing, and change analysis. The Multispectral Airborne Imaging System, which was developed to collect georeferenced imagery in the visible through infrared regions of the spectrum, and flown on a light aircraft platform, will supply current land use conditions. The image information extraction software (dynamic clustering and end-member extraction) uses imagery, like the multispectral data collected by the PNNL multispectral system, to efficiently generate landcover information. The advanced change detection uses a priori (benchmark) information, current landcover conditions, and user-supplied rules to rank suspect areas by probable risk of undeclared facilities or proliferation activities. These components, both separately and combined, provide important tools for improving the detection of undeclared facilities.

  20. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 3: A comparison of waypoint guidance algorithms for RNAV/MLS transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation carried out for the Langley Research Center Terminal Configured Vehicle Program are presented. The investigation generated and compared three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first, called the Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude error by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called the Tangent Path also eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude and choose a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called the Continued Track eliminates the discontinuity in cross track, altitude and track angle by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. A method is presented for providing a waypoint guidance path reconstruction which treats turns of less than, and greater than, 180 degrees in a uniform manner to construct the desired path.

  1. How operational Advanced-DInSAR Analysis can improve knowledge on natural and anthropogenic deformations for Nuclear Power Plant areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Bignami, Christian; Roeder, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The application of Advanced Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (A-DINSAR) techniques has strongly emerged in the last two decades and became an important part in georelated fields. State-of-the-art A-DInSAR methods, such as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) or the Small BASeline (SBAS) approach have demonstrated their usefulness in monitoring urban areas and single buildings, up to critical infrastructures. Combined with additional data from GPS networks or levelling, it could prove its large potential for an operational, cost-effective mapping of surface deformations. Given a reasonable amount of images, changes in surface deformation can be detected down to 1 mm/y. Compared to point-wise field measurements it offers a spatially consistent mapping approach from local to regional scales. In this review we want to provide a synopsis how A-DInSAR can be utilized in the framework of Nuclear Power Plant safety. Indeed, A-DInSAR is able to provide a detailed spatial analysis of slow movements occurring at NPP structures directly, as well as within the surrounding areas of the NPPs. Different phenomena of surface motion can be subject of such a monitoring. Natural causes, like active tectonics and terrain instability of slope which lead to landslides, as well as human-induced subsidence phenomena due to heavy construction or water pumping can be detected. We start by presenting techniques to determine the feasibility of the analysis for a given area and show its limitations. Then we propose a short insight into state-of-the-art studies where landslides, interseismic and human-induced deformation of the surface were mapped by A-DInSAR, to point out the relevance of a consequent analysis over an area of a NPP. Furthermore we present results of case studies from international projects (TERRAFIRMA) as well as preliminary results from the Krsko NPP in Slovenia. Finally, we provide a outlook into present and future trends concerning the use of freely

  2. 5 CFR 550.407 - Termination of payments during evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of payments during evacuation... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.407 Termination of payments during evacuation. Advance payments or evacuation payments terminate when the agency determines that— (a)...

  3. 5 CFR 550.407 - Termination of payments during evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of payments during evacuation... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.407 Termination of payments during evacuation. Advance payments or evacuation payments terminate when the agency determines that— (a)...

  4. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  5. Evaluation of the Terminal Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Near-Term NAS Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Swenson, Harry N.; Lin, Paul; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has developed a capability for terminal area precision scheduling and spacing (TAPSS) to provide higher capacity and more efficiently manage arrivals during peak demand periods. This advanced technology is NASA's vision for the NextGen terminal metering capability. A set of human-in-the-loop experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the TAPSS system for near-term implementation. The experiments evaluated the TAPSS system under the current terminal routing infrastructure to validate operational feasibility. A second goal of the study was to measure the benefit of the Center and TRACON advisory tools to help prioritize the requirements for controller radar display enhancements. Simulation results indicate that using the TAPSS system provides benefits under current operations, supporting a 10% increase in airport throughput. Enhancements to Center decision support tools had limited impact on improving the efficiency of terminal operations, but did provide more fuel-efficient advisories to achieve scheduling conformance within 20 seconds. The TRACON controller decision support tools were found to provide the most benefit, by improving the precision in schedule conformance to within 20 seconds, reducing the number of arrivals having lateral path deviations by 50% and lowering subjective controller workload. Overall, the TAPSS system was found to successfully develop an achievable terminal arrival metering plan that was sustainable under heavy traffic demand levels and reduce the complexity of terminal operations when coupled with the use of the terminal controller advisory tools.

  6. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Shelley I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  7. Advanced Engine Cycles Analyzed for Turbofans With Variable-Area Fan Nozzles Actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced, large commercial turbofan engines using low-fan-pressure-ratio, very high bypass ratio thermodynamic cycles can offer significant fuel savings over engines currently in operation. Several technological challenges must be addressed, however, before these engines can be designed. To name a few, the high-diameter fans associated with these engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge, and a large, heavy gearbox is often necessary to address the differences in ideal operating speeds between the fan and the low-pressure turbine. Also, the large nacelles contribute aerodynamic drag penalties and require long, heavy landing gear when mounted on conventional, low wing aircraft. Nevertheless, the reduced fuel consumption rates of these engines are a compelling economic incentive, and fans designed with low pressure ratios and low tip speeds offer attractive noise-reduction benefits. Another complication associated with low-pressure-ratio fans is their need for variable flow-path geometry. As the design fan pressure ratio is reduced below about 1.4, an operational disparity is set up in the fan between high and low flight speeds. In other words, between takeoff and cruise there is too large a swing in several key fan parameters-- such as speed, flow, and pressure--for a fan to accommodate. One solution to this problem is to make use of a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN). However, conventional, hydraulically actuated variable nozzles have weight, cost, maintenance, and reliability issues that discourage their use with low-fan-pressure-ratio engine cycles. United Technologies Research, in cooperation with NASA, is developing a revolutionary, lightweight, and reliable shape memory alloy actuator system that can change the on-demand nozzle exit area by up to 20 percent. This "smart material" actuation technology, being studied under NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program and Revolutionary Concepts in Aeronautics (Rev

  8. Investigation, development and application of optimal output feedback theory. Volume 2: Development of an optimal, limited state feedback outer-loop digital flight control system for 3-D terminal area operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.; Halyo, N.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains the development of a digital outer-loop three dimensional radio navigation (3-D RNAV) flight control system for a small commercial jet transport. The outer-loop control system is designed using optimal stochastic limited state feedback techniques. Options investigated using the optimal limited state feedback approach include integrated versus hierarchical control loop designs, 20 samples per second versus 5 samples per second outer-loop operation and alternative Type 1 integration command errors. Command generator tracking techniques used in the digital control design enable the jet transport to automatically track arbitrary curved flight paths generated by waypoints. The performance of the design is demonstrated using detailed nonlinear aircraft simulations in the terminal area, frequency domain multi-input sigma plots, frequency domain single-input Bode plots and closed-loop poles. The response of the system to a severe wind shear during a landing approach is also presented.

  9. Using advanced dispersion models and mobile monitoring to characterize spatial patterns of ultrafine particles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Hanna, Steven R.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-09-01

    data and the advanced dispersion model QUIC provide insight about source contributions above background levels and spatiotemporal air pollution patterns in urban areas.

  10. Alternative methods of terminal sterilization for biologically active macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Yaman, A

    2001-11-01

    The traditional perception within the pharmaceutical industry of the manufacture of injectable drug products is that active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are peptides, proteins or biopolymers, such as poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) and poly(DL-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA), cannot be terminally sterilized. This perception exists largely because terminal sterilization is assumed by many to be only carried out by steam sterilization in a standard autoclave. Thus, it is understood that these API candidates must be manufactured by aseptic techniques. With the current technological advances in the area of protein and peptide sterilization, which has largely come from the food industry and has in recent years been developed for pharmaceutical use, techniques have been developed for the terminal sterilization of thermally sensitive APIs and biopolymers. In this review, the focus will be on the four major types of sterilization that are presented in the literature: (i) gamma-irradiation; (ii) e-Beam; (iii) natural light; and (iv) microwave. Each of these sterilization techniques present advantages and disadvantages for use in large-scale terminal sterilization of bioactive macromolecules. PMID:11899616

  11. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  12. Imaging of terminal myelocystoceles.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, S. E.; Harvey, C.; McLone, D. G.; Darling, C. F.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective analysis of the presentation, imaging studies, and associated findings in 20 children with surgically and histologically proven terminal myelocystoceles. All 20 children presented at birth with a black mass; 13 had cloacal extrophy. The patient population was comprised of 15 girls and 5 with ambiguous genitalia: Of the imaging studies, 8 had plain radiographs, 6 myelography-computed tomography, 11 ultrasound, and 14 magnetic resonance. The associated findings included Chiari I (eight patients), Chiari II (one patient), hydromyelia (three patients), hydrocephalus (three patients), and vertebral segmentation anomalies (six patients). Magnetic resonance imaging was the best imaging modality to diagnose and evaluate children with a myelocystocele. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the classic findings: a terminal cyst of the central canal of the spinal cord that is tethered and herniated with arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid through an area of spinal dysphria onto the back as a mass. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8803433

  13. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters...

  14. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters...

  15. Advanced oxidation protein products induce intestine epithelial cell death through a redox-dependent, c-jun N-terminal kinase and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, F; Sun, S; Xu, A; Zheng, S; Xue, M; Wu, P; Zeng, J H; Bai, L

    2014-01-16

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a novel protein marker of oxidative damage, have been confirmed to accumulate in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as those with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. However, the role of AOPPs in the intestinal epithelium remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether AOPPs have an effect on intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death and intestinal injury. Immortalized rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells and normal Sprague Dawley rats were treated with AOPP-albumin prepared by incubation of rat serum albumin (RSA) with hypochlorous acid. Epithelial cell death, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis-related protein expression, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation were detected both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we measured AOPPs deposition and IEC death in 23 subjects with Crohn's disease (CD). Extracellular AOPP-RSA accumulation induced apoptosis in IEC-6 cultures. The triggering effect of AOPPs was mainly mediated by a redox-dependent pathway, including NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation, JNK phosphorylation, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation. Chronic AOPP-RSA administration to normal rats resulted in AOPPs deposition in the villous epithelial cells and in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. These changes were companied with IEC death, inflammatory cellular infiltration, and intestinal injury. Both cell death and intestinal injury were ameliorated by chronic treatment with apocynin. Furthermore, AOPPs deposition was also observed in IECs and inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of patients with CD. The high immunoreactive score of AOPPs showed increased apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that AOPPs trigger IEC death and intestinal tissue injury via a redox-mediated pathway. These data suggest that AOPPs may represent a novel pathogenic factor

  16. The PLATO V Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, J. E.

    This report provides a detailed description of the architecture and programming of the PLATO V terminal, which contains an 8080 microprocessor and is capable of being operated by programs located in a host computer. The terminal contains 8k of memory for storing local programs, a 4k ROM resident program which supervises terminal operation, a 2k…

  17. CAI Terminal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    The bewildering number of available terminals which are offered to CAI users presents a rather formidable problem of which one to choose. This article surveys what appear to be evolving standards for terminals. The usefulness of these terminals for CAI purposes is discussed, together with the best known prototype exhibiting the particular feature.…

  18. Evaluation of the Naturally Acquired Antibody Immune Response to the Pv200L N-terminal Fragment of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 in Four Areas of the Amazon Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Storti-Melo, Luciane M.; Souza-Neiras, Wanessa C.; Cassiano, Gustavo C.; Taveira, Leonardo C.; Cordeiro, Antônio J.; Couto, Vanja S. C. A.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Cunha, Maristela G.; Echeverry, Diana M.; Rossit, Andréa R. B.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates; Machado, Ricardo L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency and levels of IgG antibodies to an N-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 (Pv200L) protein, in individuals naturally exposed to malaria in four endemic areas of Brazil, were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma samples of 261 P. vivax-infected individuals from communities of Macapá, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, and Plácido de Castro in the Amazonian region with different malaria transmission intensities. A high mean number of studied individuals (89.3%) presented with antibodies to the Pv200L that correlated with the number of previous malaria infections; there were significant differences in the frequency of the responders (71.9–98.7) and in the antibody levels (1:200–1:51,200) among the four study areas. Results of this study provide evidence that Pv200L is a naturally immunogenic fragment of the PvMSP-1 and is associated with the degree of exposure to parasites. The fine specificity of antibodies to Pv200L is currently being assessed. PMID:21292879

  19. 77 FR 49056 - Categorical Exclusion From Further Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Terminal Arrival Route Procedures and Standard Instrument Departure Procedures for Washington Dulles... review of two standard terminal arrival route (STAR) procedures and two standard instrument departure... terminal area procedures. The review process indicated that the proposed project will not adversely...

  20. Operational benefits from the terminal configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Schmitz, R. A.; Clark, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle is a flying laboratory used to conduct research and development on improved airborne systems (including avionics) and operational flight procedures, with particular emphasis on utilization in the terminal area environment. The objectives of this technology development activity, focused on conventional transport aircraft, are to develop and demonstrate improvements which can lead to increased airport and runway capacity, increased air traffic controller productivity, energy efficient terminal area operations, reduced weather minima with safety, and reduced community noise by use of appropriate procedures. This paper discusses some early results of this activity in addition to defining present efforts and future research plans.

  1. Description and performance of a digital mobile satellite terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, N.; Jedrey, T.; Parkyn, J.; Divsalar, D.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) program at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) is the development of an advanced digital terminal for use in land mobile satellite communication. The terminal has been developed to minimize the risk of applying advanced technologies to future commercial mobile satellite systems (MSS). Testing with existing L band satellites was performed in fixed, land mobile and aeronautical mobile environments. JPL's development and tests of its mobile terminal have demonstrated the viability of narrowband digital voice communications in a land mobile environment through geostationary satellites. This paper provides a consolidated description of the terminal architecture and the performance of its individual elements.

  2. 9 CFR 3.117 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must not commingle marine mammal shipments with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal... containing marine mammals when the air temperature within such animal holding area is 23.9 °C (75 °F) or higher. The air temperature around any marine mammal in any animal holding area must not be allowed...

  3. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plecity, Mark S.; Nall, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides high risk technologies having the potential to dramatically enhance the capabilities of the satellite communications industry. This experimental satellite, which will be launched by NASA in 1993, will furnish the technology necessary for providing a range of services. Utilizing the ACTS very-high-gain-hopping spot-beam antennas with on-board routing and processing, Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) digital networks which provide on-demand, full-mesh-convectivity 1.544-MBPS services with only a single hop can be established. The high-gain spot-beam antenna at Ka-band permits wide area, flexible networks providing high data rate services between modest-size earth terminals.

  4. 1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PIPES AND VALVES AT LEFT. Looking southeast from entrance to terminal room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 33 CFR 165.1198 - Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA. 165.1198 Section 165.1198... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1198 Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1198 - Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA. 165.1198 Section 165.1198... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1198 Safety zone; Military Ocean Terminal...

  7. Fewer Advanced Alzheimer's Patients on Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... at someone in the advanced stages of a terminal illness, a feeding tube doesn't make a ... of palliative care (keeping a person with a terminal illness as comfortable as possible), Mitchell said. As ...

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  10. Superconducting Cable Termination

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Uday K.; Tolbert, Jerry

    2005-08-30

    Disclosed is a termination that connects high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable immersed in pressurized liquid nitrogen to high voltage and neutral (shield) external bushings at ambient temperature and pressure. The termination consists of a splice between the HTS power (inner) and shield (outer) conductors and concentric copper pipes which are the conductors in the termination. There is also a transition from the dielectric tape insulator used in the HTS cable to the insulators used between and around the copper pipe conductors in the termination. At the warm end of the termination the copper pipes are connected via copper braided straps to the conventional warm external bushings which have low thermal stresses. This termination allows for a natural temperature gradient in the copper pipe conductors inside the termination which enables the controlled flashing of the pressurized liquid coolant (nitrogen) to the gaseous state. Thus the entire termination is near the coolant supply pressure and the high voltage and shield cold bushings, a highly stressed component used in most HTS cables, are eliminated. A sliding seal allows for cable contraction as it is cooled from room temperature to ˜72-82 K. Seals, static vacuum, and multi-layer superinsulation minimize radial heat leak to the environment.

  11. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Advanced technology program recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of the application of advanced technology to future transport aircraft were investigated. The noise reduction goals established by the CARD (Civil Aviation Research and Development) study for the 1981-1985 time period can be satisfied. Reduced terminal area and airway congestion can result from use of advanced on-board systems and operating procedures. The use of advanced structural design concepts can result in greatly reduced gross weight and improved operating economics. The full potential of these benefits can be realized in a 1985 airplane by implementing a research and development program that is funded to an average level of approximately $55 million per year over a ten year period.

  12. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  13. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  14. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  15. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  16. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  17. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Paul; Schechter, David S.

    1999-11-01

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. Additionally, a ten (10) acre field demonstration pilot project is part of this project. This report discusses the activity, during the third calendar quarter (July through September) of 1998 (fourth quarter of the projects fiscal year).

  18. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  19. Reconstruction With Modified Face Lift and Orbicularis Oculi V-Y Advancement Flap for Sebaceous Carcinoma on Temple Area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong Ho; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Seong Hoon; Ahn, Duk Kyun; Suh, In Suck; Jeong, Hii Sun

    2015-09-01

    Extraocular sebaceous carcinoma that occurs on sebaceous gland is a rare malignant cancer with unknown causes and nonspecific clinical characters, but with distinct pathology and immunohistochemical finding. In Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, there was a case that the result of preoperative punch biopsy was squamous cell carcinoma and malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor, but that of postoperative permanent biopsy was sebaceous carcinoma. The type of tumor, differentiation, location, and aesthetic results are considered to get both recurrence-safe and aesthetically pleasing result. Various flaps were considered, and modified face-lift flap, forehead rotation flap, orbicularis oculi V-Y advancement flap were planned. There were no sign of recurrence of cancer or functional and aesthetical deformities 6 months after the surgery. PMID:26267581

  20. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  1. USGS ecosystem research for the next decade: advancing discovery and application in parks and protected areas through collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; Nichols, James D.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Cloern, James E.; Jacobson, Robert B.; White, Robin P.; McGuire, Anthony David; Williams, Byron K.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems within parks and protected areas in the United States and throughout the world are being transformed at an unprecedented rate. Changes associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, food, land, energy and mineral resources are placing urgency on sound decision making that will help sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). In recognition of the importance of science in making these decisions, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2007 identified ecosystem science as one of six science directions included in a comprehensive decadal strategy (USGS 2007). The Ecosystems Mission Area was identified as essential for integrating activity within the USGS and as a key to enhanced integration with other Federal and private sector research and management organizations (Myers at al., 2007). This paper focuses on benefits to parks and protected areas from the USGS Ecosystems Mission Area plan that expanded the scope of the original 2007 science strategy, to identify the Bureau’s work in ecosystem science over the next decade (Williams et al., 2013). The plan describes a framework that encompasses both basic and applied science and allows the USGS to continue to contribute meaningfully to conservation and management issues related to the Nation’s parks and ecological resources. This framework relies on maintaining long-standing, collaborative relationships with partners in both conducting science and applying scientific results. Here we summarize the major components of the USGS Ecosystems Science Strategy, articulating the vision, goals and strategic approaches, then outlining some of the proposed actions that will ultimately prove useful to those managing parks and protected areas. We end with a discussion on the future of ecosystem science for the USGS and how it can be used to evaluate ecosystem change and the associated consequences to management of our

  2. Phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Four phenylethynyl amine compounds - 3 and 4-aminophenoxy-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, and 3 and 4-amino-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone - were readily prepared and were used to endcap imide oligomers. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers and phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers with various molecular weights and compositions were prepared and characterized. These oligomers were cured at 300 to 400 C to provide crosslinked polyimides with excellent solvent resistance, high strength and modulus, and good high temperature properties. Adhesive panels, composites, films, and moldings from these phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers gave excellent mechanical performance.

  3. Approaches for delineating landslide hazard areas using receiver operating characteristic in an advanced calibrating precision soil erosion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazvinei, P. T.; Zandi, J.; Ariffin, J.; Hashim, R. B.; Motamedi, S.; Aghamohammadi, N.; Moghaddam, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is undesirable natural event that causes land degradation and desertification. Identify the erosion-prone areas is a major component of preventive measures. Recent landslide damages at different regions lead us to develop a model of the erosion susceptibility map using empirical method (RUSLE). A landslide-location map was established by interpreting satellite image. Field observation data was used to validate the intensity of soil erosion. Further, a correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the "Receiver Operating Characteristic" and frequency ratio. Results showed a satisfactory correlation between the prepared RUSLE-based soil erosion map and actual landslide distribution. The proposed model can effectively predict the landslide events in soil-erosion area. Such a reliable predictive model is an effective management facility for the regional landslide forecasting system.

  4. Advancing Environmental Noise Pollution Analysis in Urban Areas by Considering the Variation of Population Exposure in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, S.; Gomes, N.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient noise is a subtle form of pollution in large urban areas, degrading human health and well-being. In Europe, directives require that urban environmental noise be measured and mapped for the main periods of the daily cycle. Subsequent analyses of human exposure to noise in those periods is usually conducted using resident (i.e., nighttime) population from the census and assuming constant densities within the enumeration units. However, population distribution and densities vary considerably from night to day in metropolitan areas, and disregard for that process results in gross misestimation of exposure to ambient noise in the daytime period. This study considers the spatio-temporal variation of population distribution in assessing exposure to ambient noise in a major urban area, the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Detailed and compatible day- and nighttime population distribution maps were used, developed by means of "intelligent dasymetric mapping". After categorizing noise levels in existing maps in each period, classified according to current legislation, human exposure to ambient noise was assessed with temporally matching population surfaces. Population exposure to noise in 2000 and 2009 was compared and further analyzed in regards to main source of noise, i.e. road traffic vs. aircraft.. Results show that human exposure to noise shifts substantially in time and space, with a significant increase in exposed population from the nighttime to daytime period, especially in the higher noise levels. This is due to the combined effects of the daily variation of noise patterns and population distribution.

  5. Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS): Flight Demonstration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David; Arce, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) program was initiated and propelled due to the inadvertent terminations of Global Hawk and the Strategic Target System and the NASA Inspector General's assessment letter and recommendations regarding the exploration of low-cost, lightweight space COMSEC for FTS. Additionally, the standard analog and high alphabet systems most commonly used in FTS are secure, but not encrypted. A study group was initiated to select and document a robust, affordable, reliable technology that provides encrypted FTS capability. A flight demonstration was conducted to gain experience using EFTS in an operational environment, provide confidence in the use of the EFTS components, integrate EFTS into an existing range infrastructure to demonstrate the scalability of system components, to provide a command controller that generated the EFTS waveform using an existing range infrastructure, and to provide a report documenting the results of the demonstration. The primary goal of the demonstration was to obtain operational experience with EFTS. Areas of operational experience include: mission planning, pre-flight configuration and testing, mission monitoring and recording, vehicle termination, developing mission procedures. and post mission data reduction and other post mission activities. An Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) was selected to support the EFTS demonstration due to interest in future use of EFTS by the AMRAAM program, familiarity of EFTS by range personnel, and the availability of existing operational environment to support EFTS testing with available program funding. For demonstration purposes, the AMRAAM was successfully terminated using an EFTS receiver and successfully demonstrating EFTS. The EFTS monitoring software with spectrum analyzer and digital graphical display of aircraft, missile, and target were also demonstrated.

  6. Sail intelligent terminal evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruitt, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Engineering assessments, recommendations, and equipment necessary to solve the operational problems are described, and operational flexibility of the intelligent terminal facility are extended. The following capabilities were considered: (1) the operation of at least two D/D stations and one remote graphics terminal simultaneously; (2) the capability to run plotter, AIDS and FORTRAN programs simultaneously; (3) simultaneous use of system utility routines of D/D stations and remote graphics terminal; (4) the capability to provide large volume hardcopy of data and graphics; and (5) the capability to eliminate or at least ease the current operation/programming problems with related labor costs. The overall intelligent terminal development, and plans guiding the analysis and equipment acquisitions were studied, and the assessments and analyses performed are also summarized.

  7. Nearest Alignment Space Termination

    2006-07-13

    Near Alignment Space Termination (NAST) is the Greengenes algorithm that matches up submitted sequences with the Greengenes database to look for similarities and align the submitted sequences based on those similarities.

  8. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  9. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  10. [ADVANCE: America`s economic Development Venture for Area Neighborhoods, Communities, and Enterprises]. Quarterly progress report -- Year two

    SciTech Connect

    McDavid, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable, to be a responsible steward of the Nation`s nuclear weapons, to clean up decommissioned facilities, and to support continued US leadership in science and technology. To effectively utilize and integrate its mission, DOE has created the Regional Environmental Technology and Business Development Office (RETBDO) serving as a Community Reuse Organization, a stakeholder organization, which represents interests and economic concerns of communities surrounding DOE sites that are being closed or reconfigured. RETBDO is a branch office of ADVANCE, a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1994. The mission of RETBDO is to diversify the economy by creating an environment conductive to improve the representation of minorities and small businesses in the region and to assure fair business participation in major environmental decision-making, technology based start-ups, expansion management, and the attractive of new ventures to the Southwest region, including, bu not limited to, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This report describes the RETBDO program and its implementation.

  11. Development of an advanced pitch active control system and a reduced area horizontal tail for a wide-body jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Wiley A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced pitch active control system (PACS) and a reduced area horizontal tail for a wide-body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer is discussed. The advanced PACS control law design objectives were to provide satisfactory handling qualities for aft c.g. flight conditions to negative static stability margins of 10 percent and to provide good maneuver control column force gradients for nonlinear stability flight conditions. Validity of the control laws were demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator. Satisfactory handling qualities were actually demonstrated to a negative 20 percent static stability margin. The PACS control laws were mechanized to provide the system architecture that would be suitable for an L-1011 flight test program to a negative stability margin of 3 percent which represents the aft c.g. limits of the aircraft. Reduced area horizontal tail designs of 30 and 38 percent with respect to the L-1011 standard tail were designed, fabricated and wind tunnel tested. Drag reductions and weight savings of the 30 percent smaller tail would provide an L/D benefit of about 2% and the 38% small tail L/D benefit would be about 3 percent. However, forward c.g. limitations would have to be imposed on the aircraft because the maximum horizontal tail lift goal was not achieved and sufficient aircraft nose-up control authority was not available. This limitation would not be required for a properly designed new aircraft.

  12. ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agan, M. J.; Densmore, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of, and experiments with, the ACTS Broadband Aeronautical Terminal. As part of the ongoing effort to investigate commercial applications of ACTS technologies, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and various industry/government partners are developing a broadband mobile terminal for aeronautical applications. The ACTS Broadband Aeronautical Terminal is designed to explore the use of K/Ka-band for high data rate aeronautical satellite communications. Currently available commercial aeronautical satellite communications systems are only capable of achieving data rates on the order of tens of kilobits per second. The broadband terminal used in conjunction with the ACTS mechanically steerable antenna, can achieve data rates of 384 kilobits per second, while use of an ACTS spot beam antenna with this terminal will allow up to T1 data rates (1.544 megabits per second). The aeronautical terminal will be utilized to test a variety of applications that require a high data rate communications link. The use of the K/Ka-band for wideband aeronautical communications has the advantages of spectrum availability and smaller antennas, while eliminating the one major drawback of this frequency band, rain attenuation, by flying above the clouds the majority of the time.

  13. The help of Advanced Satellite Interferometry in assessing the effect of human-induced surface deformation in naturally subsiding areas. Methodological approach and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, Andrea; Giannico, Chiara; Del Conte, Sara; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Underground water extraction, natural gas storage either in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or in aquifers, and excavations for civil works (e.g. underground passageways, car parks, etc.) in flat areas are responsible for surface deformation that can damage pre-existing structures and modify drainage pathways. Deformation patterns associated to different underground show in many cases typical patterns. Their recognition can help in disentangling different processes when occurring in areas already affected by natural subsidence, such as coastal areas and inner sedimentary plains. Moreover, assessing the extent of human-induced deformation can help in identifying causes, modelling phenomena, predicting their evolution and adopting proper remedial measures. Advanced Satellite Interferometry provides a synoptic view of surface displacements over large areas and long time-spans and has become a standard in several Italian regions where underground fluid injection and withdrawal is going on. The integration of interferometric measurements with ground (leveling, GPS) and underground (borehole extensometers, piezometers, micro-seismic) monitoring networks can provide an exhaustive framework of the effect induced at surface level by underground human activities at local and regional scale. Documented case studies demonstrating the effectiveness of the above approach will be presented.

  14. Advanced accident research system based on a medical and engineering data in the metropolitan area of Florence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the metropolitan area of Florence, 62% of major traumas involve powered two wheeler rider and pillion passengers, 10% cyclists, and 7% pedestrians. The urban and extra-urban areas are the most dangerous for the vulnerable road user. In-depth investigations are needed for assessing detailed information on road accidents. This type of study has been very limited in time frame in Italy, and completely absent in the Tuscan region. Consequently a study called “In-depth Study of road Accident in FlorencE” (In-SAFE) has been initiated. Methods A network between the Department of Mechanics and Industrial Technologies (University of Florence) and the Intensive Care Unit of the Emergency Department (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence) was created with the aim of collecting information about the road accidents. The data collected includes: on-scene data, data coming from examination of the vehicles, kinematics and dynamic crash data, injuries, treatment, and injury mechanisms. Each injury is codified thorough the AIS score, localized by a three-dimensional human body model based on computer tomography slices, and the main scores are calculated. We then associate each injury with its cause and crash technical parameters. Finally, all the information is collected in the In-SAFE database. Results Patient mean age at the time of the accident was 34.6 years, and 80% were males. The ISS mean is 24.2 (SD 8.7) and the NISS mean is 33.6 (SD 10.5). The main road accident configurations are the “car-to-PTW” (25%) and “pedestrian run over” (17,9%). For the former, the main collision configuration is “head-on crash” (57%). Cyclists and PTW riders-and-pillions-passengers suffer serious injuries (AIS3+) mainly to the head and the thorax. The head (56.4%) and the lower extremities (12.7%) are the most frequently injured pedestrian body regions. Conclusions The aim of the project is to create an in-depth road accident study with special focus on the correlation

  15. Preliminary tephra-fall records from three lakes in the Anchorage, Alaska area: advances towards a regional tephrochronostratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Kaufman, D. S.; Schiff, C. J.; Kathan, K.; Werner, A.; Hancock, J.; Hagel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes, all within 10 km of Anchorage, Alaska contain a record of tephra fall from major eruptive events of Cook Inlet volcanoes during the past 11250 yr. Prominent tephra layers from multiple cores within each lake were first correlated within each basin using physical properties, major-oxide glass geochemistry, and constrained by bracketing radiocarbon age. Distinct tephra from each lake were then correlated among all three lakes using the same criteria to develop a composite tephrostratigraphic framework for the Anchorage area. Lorraine Lake, the northern-most lake contains 17 distinct tephra layers; Goose Lake, the eastern most lake contains 10 distinct tephra layers; and Little Campbell Lake, to the west, contains 7 distinct tephra layers. Thinner, less-prominent tephra layers, reflecting smaller or more distant eruptions, also occur but are not included as part of this study. Of the 33 tephra layers, only two could be confidently correlated among all three lakes, and four other correlative deposits were recognized in two of the three lakes. The minimum number of unique major tephra-fall events in the Anchorage area is 22 in the past 11200 years, or about 1 event every 500 years. This number underestimates the actual number of eruptions because not attempt was made to locate crypto-tephra. All but perhaps one tephra deposit originated from Cook Inlet volcanoes with the most prolific source being Mount Spurr/Crater Peak, which is accountable for at least 8 deposits. Combining radiocarbon ages to produce an independent age model for each lake is in progress and will aid in confirming correlations and assigning detailed modeled-tephra age and uncertainty to each tephra layer.

  16. Documents from malicious terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  17. Large-area sheet task: advanced dendritic web growth development. Quarterly report, October 23-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; McHugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-31

    Silicon dendritic web is a single crystal ribbon form of silicon capable of fabrication into solar cells with AM1 conversion efficiency in excess of 15%. Progress on a study to demonstrate the technology readiness of the web process to meet the national goals for low cost photovoltaic power is reported. Several refinements were introduced into the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth and also several areas were identified for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace. A new circuit has been designed, assembled and tested to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level. Noise due to vibrations on the silicon melt surface has also been eliminated. A new variable speed motor has been identified for the silicon feeder. Pellet feeding will be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth. A system to program the initiation of web growth automatically has been designed and first tests initiated. This should eventually result in reduced labor content and improved process reproducibility. Potential cost reductions in the furnace chamber and storage reel have been identified. A furnace controller providing a functional capability similar to our experimental hardware but at about one third the cost will shortly be tested.

  18. Phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having the general structure: ##STR1## (wherein X is F, Cl, or NO.sub.2, and Y is CO, SO.sub.2 or C(CF.sub.3).sub.2) is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having the general structure: ##STR2## (wherein R is any aliphatic or aromatic moiety) is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  19. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  20. ALSEP termination report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. R.; Lauderdale, W. W.; Kernaghan, H.

    1979-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) final report was prepared when support operations were terminated September 30, 1977, and NASA discontinued the receiving and processing of scientific data transmitted from equipment deployed on the lunar surface. The ALSEP experiments (Apollo 11 to Apollo 17) are described and pertinent operational history is given for each experiment. The ALSEP data processing and distribution are described together with an extensive discussion on archiving. Engineering closeout tests and results are given, and the status and configuration of the experiments at termination are documented. Significant science findings are summarized by selected investigators. Significant operational data and recommendations are also included.

  1. A small terminal for satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fuqin; Wu, Dong; Jin, Min

    1994-01-01

    A small portable, low-cost satellite communications terminal system incorporating a modulator/demodulator and convolutional-Viterbi coder/decoder is described. Advances in signal processing and error-correction techniques in combination with higher power and higher frequencies aboard satellites allow for more efficient use of the space segment. This makes it possible to design small economical earth stations. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was chosen to test the system. ACTS, operating at the Ka band incorporates higher power, higher frequency, frequency and spatial reuse using spot beams and polarization.

  2. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, K. )

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland.

  3. The Versatile Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, C. D.

    This paper describes the experiences of the industrial research laboratory of Kodak Ltd. in finding and providing a computer terminal most suited to its very varied requirements. These requirements include bibliographic and scientific data searching and access to a number of worldwide computing services for scientific computing work. The provision…

  4. Shipboard regasification terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.; Zednik, J.

    1999-07-01

    Mobil Technology Company and Mobil Shipping and Transportation Company have jointly developed a new combination of existing proven equipment to regasify LNG. Advantages of this Shipboard Regasification Terminal (SRT) include accelerated initial gas delivery schedule, low capital cost, delivery of smaller quantities of LNG at a competitive price and shorter term of LNG purchase and improved financing options. These advantages benefit both the supplier of LNG and the purchaser. SRT can be used as an interim supply to developing markets allowing the demand to grow while developing downstream infrastructure. This concept does not involve offshore transfer of cryogenic fluids while delivering near-ambient temperature pipeline quality gas at typical pipeline pressures. During times when gas is not required, the SRT ship can easily be returned to the trade of transporting and delivering LNG to conventional land based terminals. This paper will discuss the merits of Shipboard Regasification Terminals in general, cover the development of this concept and review the factors guiding the use of SRT vs. an onshore terminal.

  5. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  6. Ultra Small Aperture Terminal for Ka-Band SATCOM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto; Reinhart, Richard; Lee, Richard; Simons, Rainee

    1997-01-01

    An ultra small aperture terminal (USAT) at Ka-band frequency has been developed by Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for data rates up to 1.5 Mbps in the transmit mode and 40 Mbps in receive mode. The terminal consists of a 35 cm diameter offset-fed parabolic antenna which is attached to a solid state power amplifier and low noise amplifier. A single down converter is used to convert the Ka-band frequency to 70 MHz intermediate frequency (IF). A variable rate (9.6 Kbps to 10 Mbps) commercial modem with a standard RS-449/RS-232 interface is used to provide point-to-point digital services. The terminal has been demonstrated numerous times using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and the 4.5 in Link Evaluation Terminal (LET) in Cleveland. A conceptual design for an advanced terminal has also been developed. This advanced USAT utilizes Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (MMIC) and flat plate array technologies. This terminal will be self contained in a single package which will include a 1 watt solid state amplifier (SSPA), low noise amplifier (LNA) and a modem card located behind the aperture of the array. The advanced USAT will be light weight, transportable, low cost and easy to point to the satellite. This paper will introduce designs for the reflector based and array based USAT's.

  7. 7 CFR 945.83 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... giving at least one day's notice by means of a press release or in any other manner which he may... has, during such period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such potatoes... the production for market of potatoes in the production area. Termination of the order shall...

  8. 7 CFR 945.83 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... giving at least one day's notice by means of a press release or in any other manner which he may... has, during such period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such potatoes... the production for market of potatoes in the production area. Termination of the order shall...

  9. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of dogs or cats with... mammals that are pests to dogs and cats. (c) Ventilation. Ventilation must be provided in any animal holding area in a terminal facility containing dogs or cats, by means of windows, doors, vents, or...

  10. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits... commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of rabbits are maintained shall be cleaned and sanitized as prescribed in § 3.56 of...

  11. Potential Health Hazards of Video Display Terminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William E.; And Others

    In response to a request from three California unions to evaluate potential health hazards from the use of video display terminals (VDT's) in information processing applications, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a limited field investigation of three companies in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. A…

  12. Three-Dimensional Joint Geophysical Imaging Using an Advanced Multivariate Inversion Technique: the Method and its Application to the Utah area, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica; Benson, Thomas; Nafi Toksoz, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present an advanced multivariate inversion technique to generate a realistic, comprehensive, and high-resolution 3D model of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle. The model satisfies several independent geophysical datasets including seismic surface wave dispersion measurements, gravity, and seismic arrival time. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the seismic velocity models from shallower to greater depths. To combine different geophysical datasets into a common system, we design an optimal weighting scheme that is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations, their sensitivities to model parameters, and the trade-off of different data fitting. We apply this joint inversion method to determine the 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network and the EarthScope/USArray network. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The joint inversions using two individual data sets such as seismic arrival time and gravity data, as well as seismic surface wave and gravity data indicate strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion of all three data sets will be presented and is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  13. Graphics Software For VT Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline

    1991-01-01

    VTGRAPH graphics software tool for DEC/VT computer terminal or terminals compatible with it, widely used by government and industry. Callable in FORTRAN or C language, library program enabling user to cope with many computer environments in which VT terminals used for window management and graphic systems. Provides PLOT10-like package plus color or shade capability for VT240, VT241, and VT300 terminals. User can easily design more-friendly user-interface programs and design PLOT10 programs on VT terminals with different computer systems. Requires ReGis graphics set terminal and FORTRAN compiler.

  14. Direct Conversion from Terminal Borylene into Terminal Phosphinidene.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Holger; Jimenez-Halla, J Oscar C; Radacki, Krzysztof; Shang, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The first terminal manganese phosphinidene complex was quantitatively synthesized from a terminal alkylborylene complex. Its structure and bonding, as well as the reaction mechanism, were investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. PMID:27621216

  15. Direct Conversion from Terminal Borylene into Terminal Phosphinidene.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Holger; Jimenez-Halla, J Oscar C; Radacki, Krzysztof; Shang, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The first terminal manganese phosphinidene complex was quantitatively synthesized from a terminal alkylborylene complex. Its structure and bonding, as well as the reaction mechanism, were investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies.

  16. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  17. 4. NORTH END OF TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL SHOWING SPIRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH END OF TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL SHOWING SPIRAL STAIR TO CABLE RACK. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE RACK AT UPPER RIGHT. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  20. "Terminal" Students Do Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    This report discusses the transfer rate of community college students with A.S. or A.A.S. degrees from vocational or "terminal" programs in Missouri. The study shows that during the 1995-1996 academic year, 6,171 students received an associate degree from a Missouri public two-year college. Of these, 3,169 (51%) earned the A.A. degree and 3,002…

  1. Amine terminated bisaspartimide polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D. (Inventor); Fohlen, G. M. (Inventor); Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Novel amine terminated bisaspartimides are prepared by a Michael-type reaction of an aromatic bismalteimide and an aromatic diamine in an aprotic solvent. These bisaspartimides are thermally polymerized to yield tough, resinous polymers cross-lined through -NH- groups. Such polymers are useful in applications requiring materials with resistance to change at elevated temperatures, e.g., as lightweight laminates with graphite cloth, molding material prepregs, adhesives and insulating material.

  2. “Picking up the pieces”—Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients’ strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context. PMID:26362533

  3. Space communication link propagation data for selected cities within the multiple beam and steerable antenna coverage areas of the advanced communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Rain attenuation propagation data for 68 cities within the coverage area of the multiple beam and steerable antennas of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. These data provide the necessary data base for purposes of communication link power budgeting and rain attenuation mitigation controller design. These propagation parameters are derived by applying the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model to these 68 locations. The propagation parameters enumerated in tabular form for each location are as follows: (1) physical description of the link and location (e.g., latitude, longitude, antenna elevation angle, etc.), link availability versus attenuation margin (also in graphical form), fading time across fade depths of 3, 5, 8, and 15 dB versus fade duration, and required fade control response time for controller availabilities of 99.999, 99.99, 99.9, and 99 percent versus sub-threshold attenuation levels. The data for these specific locations can be taken to be representative of regions near these locations.

  4. Analysis of simulated advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER) radiometer data of the Iron Hill, Colorado, study area for mapping lithologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER) radiometer was designed to record reflected energy in nine channels with 15 or 30 m resolution, including stereoscopic images, and emitted energy in five channels with 90 m resolution from the NASA Earth Observing System AM1 platform. A simulated ASTER data set was produced for the Iron Hill, Colorado, study area by resampling calibrated, registered airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data to the appropriate spatial and spectral parameters. A digital elevation model was obtained to simulate ASTER-derived topographic data. The main lithologic units in the area are granitic rocks and felsite into which a carbonatite stock and associated alkalic igneous rocks were intruded; these rocks are locally covered by Jurassic sandstone, Tertiary rhyolitic tuff, and colluvial deposits. Several methods were evaluated for mapping the main lithologic units, including the unsupervised classification and spectral curve-matching techniques. In the five thermal-infrared (TIR) channels, comparison of the results of linear spectral unmixing and unsupervised classification with published geologic maps showed that the main lithologic units were mapped, but large areas with moderate to dense tree cover were not mapped in the TIR data. Compared to TIMS data, simulated ASTER data permitted slightly less discrimination in the mafic alkalic rock series, and carbonatite was not mapped in the TIMS nor in the simulated ASTER TIR data. In the nine visible and near-infrared channels, unsupervised classification did not yield useful results, but both the spectral linear unmixing and the matched filter techniques produced useful results, including mapping calcitic and dolomitic carbonatite exposures, travertine in hot spring deposits, kaolinite in argillized sandstone and tuff, and muscovite in sericitized granite and felsite, as well as commonly occurring illite

  5. 79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET NO. 4, ELEVATION LOOKING SOUTH - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  6. Evaluation of the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing System for Performance Based Navigation Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry N.; Martin, Lynne; Lin, Melody; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    NASA has developed the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) system, a suite of advanced arrival management technologies combining timebased scheduling and controller precision spacing tools. TSS is a ground-based controller automation tool that facilitates sequencing and merging arrivals that have both current standard ATC routes and terminal Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) routes, especially during highly congested demand periods. In collaboration with the FAA and MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD), TSS system performance was evaluated in human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations with currently active controllers as participants. Traffic scenarios had mixed Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) equipage, where the more advanced RNP-equipped aircraft had preferential treatment with a shorter approach option. Simulation results indicate the TSS system achieved benefits by enabling PBN, while maintaining high throughput rates-10% above baseline demand levels. Flight path predictability improved, where path deviation was reduced by 2 NM on average and variance in the downwind leg length was 75% less. Arrivals flew more fuel-efficient descents for longer, spending an average of 39 seconds less in step-down level altitude segments. Self-reported controller workload was reduced, with statistically significant differences at the p less than 0.01 level. The RNP-equipped arrivals were also able to more frequently capitalize on the benefits of being "Best-Equipped, Best- Served" (BEBS), where less vectoring was needed and nearly all RNP approaches were conducted without interruption.

  7. Cure Chemistry of Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.

  8. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  9. The terminal crest: morphological features relevant to electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Anderson, R H; Cabrera, J A; Climent, V; Martin, R; Farré, J; Ho, S Y

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detailed anatomy of the terminal crest (crista terminalis) and its junctional regions with the pectinate muscles and intercaval area to provide the yardstick for structural normality. Design: 97 human necropsy hearts were studied from patients who were not known to have medical histories of atrial arrhythmias. The dimensions of the terminal crest were measured in width and thickness from epicardium to endocardium, at the four points known to be chosen as sites of ablation. Results: The pectinate muscles originating from the crest and extending along the wall of the appendage towards the vestibule of the tricuspid valve had a non-uniform trabecular pattern in 80% of hearts. Fine structure of the terminal crest studied using light and scanning electron microscopy consisted of much thicker and more numerous fibrous sheaths of endomysium with increasing age of the patient. 36 specimens of 45 (80%) specimens studied by electron microscopy had a predominantly uniform longitudinal arrangement of myocardial fibres within the terminal crest. In contrast, in all specimens, the junctional areas of the terminal crest with the pectinate muscles and with the intercaval area had crossing and non-uniform architecture of myofibres. Conclusions: The normal anatomy of the muscle fibres and connective tissue in the junctional area of the terminal crest/pectinate muscles and terminal crest/intercaval bundle favours non-uniform anisotropic properties. PMID:12231604

  10. High-speed image transmission via the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzill, Todd M.; Huang, H. K.; Thoma, George R.; Long, L. Rodney; Gill, Michael J.

    1996-05-01

    We are developing a wide area test bed network using the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) from NASA for high speed medical image transmission. The two test sites are the University of California, San Francisco, and the National Library of Medicine. The first phase of the test bed runs over a T1 link (1.544 Mbits/sec) using a Very Small Aperture Terminal. The second phase involves the High Data Rate Terminal via an ATM OC 3C (155 Mbits/sec) connection. This paper describes the experimental set up and some preliminary results from phase 1.

  11. [Terminal ballistics. 3].

    PubMed

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A

    1993-01-01

    This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity.

  12. Tactical Conflict Detection in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Huabin; Robinson, John E.; Denery, Dallas G.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic systems have long relied on automated short-term conflict prediction algorithms to warn controllers of impending conflicts (losses of separation). The complexity of terminal airspace has proven difficult for such systems as it often leads to excessive false alerts. Thus, the legacy system, called Conflict Alert, which provides short-term alerts in both en-route and terminal airspace currently, is often inhibited or degraded in areas where frequent false alerts occur, even though the alerts are provided only when an aircraft is in dangerous proximity of other aircraft. This research investigates how a minimal level of flight intent information may be used to improve short-term conflict detection in terminal airspace such that it can be used by the controller to maintain legal aircraft separation. The flight intent information includes a site-specific nominal arrival route and inferred altitude clearances in addition to the flight plan that includes the RNAV (Area Navigation) departure route. A new tactical conflict detection algorithm is proposed, which uses a single analytic trajectory, determined by the flight intent and the current state information of the aircraft, and includes a complex set of current, dynamic separation standards for terminal airspace to define losses of separation. The new algorithm is compared with an algorithm that imitates a known en-route algorithm and another that imitates Conflict Alert by analysis of false-alert rate and alert lead time with recent real-world data of arrival and departure operations and a large set of operational error cases from Dallas/Fort Worth TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). The new algorithm yielded a false-alert rate of two per hour and an average alert lead time of 38 seconds.

  13. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  14. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  15. 77 FR 49057 - Categorical Exclusion From Further Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Terminal Arrival Route Procedures for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport AGENCY: Air Traffic... is issuing this notice to advise the public of its environmental review of two standard terminal... terminal area procedures. The NUMMY is a conventional arrival procedure which accommodates the...

  16. Lack of performance: the top reasons for terminating healthcare employees.

    PubMed

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S; Matthews, Eric

    2010-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of being a radiology manager unfortunately involves terminating employees. This task can be unpleasant and difficult for both the employee and the manager. It can also be filled with legal ramifications if not handled appropriately. Therefore, it is important for radiology managers to be keenly aware of the typical reasons healthcare employees are terminated. Recognizing the most common reasons for termination can provide radiology managers with an avenue by which to create initiatives. These initiatives should be aimed at reducing the problem areas which lead to the undesirable task of firing employees. A survey of human resource managers in the healthcare industry was conducted and identified the most recurrent reasons healthcare employees are terminated. It also explored the root causes pertaining to terminations involving lack of employee performance.

  17. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    ) the climatic water deficit will increase, especially at high elevations that will be most affected by the loss of snow, with likely consequences for existing vegetation and fire frequency. Hydrologically, Lake Tahoe is intermittently terminal; in a medical sense it is not yet terminal, but its condition—especially its valued clarity and deep blue color--is serious.

  18. [Terminal ballistics. 1].

    PubMed

    Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Merico, G; Tosi, D; Acerbi, A; Della Giacoma, G

    1993-01-01

    We have chosen to conceive of terminal ballistics as a violent and extremely rapid confrontation between two forms of resistance before the final state of rest is reached. This definition, which cannot help but don the admittedly loud and outlandish garb of physics, is the most promising for the purposes of biological interpretation. The main characters on this stage are two, but only one of these really plays the lead, namely the human target, which acts out the basic roles inherent in its physical make-up; the other, the bullet, remains a background figure, frozen in its walk-on part, and ready for the next performance. This modus operandi, which is no simplification, but rather an academic necessity, enables us to focus on images which stand out more clearly as a result of an intensive macroscopic spotlight which brings out the features of the individual phenomena, broken down into a succession of close-ups, and subtracts them from the cold physical nature of this or that form of inert matter, which here is merely an occasional, disagreeable witness, or even more, a standing from time to time for but one of the infinite facets of the biological composite being. Here, then, faced with a kind of exploded macrophotograph of a complex kaleidoscope, we see the animal universe, of which we capture so far the plasticity, the subdivisibility, the anisotropy and the cavitation.

  19. Side mount universal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, D. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    An automobile battery is described of the type having side mounted, threaded bolt hole terminal connectors, battery cables having bored disc shaped terminals with peripheral insulating covers and, an improved terminal connector bolt adapted to accommodate the battery cable terminals and other electrical accessory terminals comprising: an elongated body of electrically conducting material having a longitudinal axis and an inner end and an outer end; a first generally cylindrical threaded stud formed on the inner end of the body. The first stud has a length and diameter disposed to permit thread engagement of the stud with one of the side mounted terminal connectors on the battery in electrical connection therewith, and pass through the bore in one of the battery cable terminals; a central portion on the body adjacent to and outwardly from the first stud, the central portion has a peripheral diameter greater than the first stud portion and has a first shoulder surface generally normal to the longitudinal axis of the body facing toward the inner end of the body and disposed to engage the face surface of one of the battery cable terminals in an electrically conducting relationship.

  20. Terminal System for Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Quick-connect terminal system provides electrical contact and physical alinement between adjacent photovoltaic modules. Dual-ended plugs connect adjacent modules; single-ended plugs connect bus cables. No tools required to insert plugs and no live terminals exposed before, during, or after connection.

  1. Good Endings: Managing Employee Terminations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, Robert A., Jr.; Sniffin, Paul B.

    A guide to managing employee terminations and resulting changes is presented for administrators. Three reasons for termination that are legitimate, nondiscriminatory, and acceptable in today's marketplace and courts are: cause (serious misconduct, dishonesty, unethical, or dangerous behavior); job elimination (reduction in force, economic…

  2. The PLATO IV Student Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    This report describes the remote computer terminal designed for student use in the PLATO IV computer-assisted instruction system. The terminal features a plasma display panel, self-contained character and line generators, and the ability to communicate over voice grade telephone circuits. Operating modes and control characters are described in…

  3. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .../COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and facilities for other specialized service operations (accounts XX-13-29 to XX-13-35, inclusive). 1242.27..., motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and facilities for other specialized...

  4. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) multibeam antenna technology verification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Lagin, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) is a key to reaching NASA's goal of developing high-risk, advanced communications technology using multiple frequency bands to support the nation's future communication needs. Using the multiple, dynamic hopping spot beams, and advanced on board switching and processing systems, ACTS will open a new era in communications satellite technology. One of the key technologies to be validated as part of the ACTS program is the multibeam antenna with rapidly reconfigurable hopping and fixed spot beam to serve users equipped with small-aperature terminals within the coverage areas. The proposed antenna technology experiments are designed to evaluate in-orbit ACTS multibeam antenna performance (radiation pattern, gain, cross pol levels, etc.).

  5. 24 CFR 891.430 - Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.430 Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of... capital advance projects. (b) The provisions of part 247 of this title apply to all decisions by an...

  6. 24 CFR 891.430 - Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.430 Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of... capital advance projects. (b) The provisions of part 247 of this title apply to all decisions by an...

  7. 24 CFR 891.430 - Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.430 Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of... capital advance projects. (b) The provisions of part 247 of this title apply to all decisions by an...

  8. 24 CFR 891.430 - Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.430 Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of... capital advance projects. (b) The provisions of part 247 of this title apply to all decisions by an...

  9. 24 CFR 891.430 - Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.430 Denial of admission, termination of tenancy, and modification of... capital advance projects. (b) The provisions of part 247 of this title apply to all decisions by an...

  10. Transportable TT&C terminals - Conceptual systems design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannard, K. B.

    The design features, performance requirements and applications of future transportable telemetry, tracking and control ground terminals are examined. The terminals must be transportable to function in areas of natural and man-made disasters, as well as in jamming environments. Similarly, the units must be capable of rapid deactivation, erection and autonomous operation. The terminals would provide ephemeris, status and control support to satellites. A sample design is described, including antenna and RF systems and backup software for mission critical operations, automated testing and testing instrumentation. The importance of interface capabilities among various satellite systems and high reliability is emphasized.

  11. 75 FR 15725 - Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...: March 18, 2010. Gregory J. Gould, Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. BILLING CODE 4310... Minerals Management Service Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Advance notice for the termination of the RIK Eligible Refiner...

  12. Terminal configured vehicle program: Test facilities guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program was established to conduct research and to develop and evaluate aircraft and flight management system technology concepts that will benefit conventional take off and landing operations in the terminal area. Emphasis is placed on the development of operating methods for the highly automated environment anticipated in the future. The program involves analyses, simulation, and flight experiments. Flight experiments are conducted using a modified Boeing 737 airplane equipped with highly flexible display and control equipment and an aft flight deck for research purposes. The experimental systems of the Boeing 737 are described including the flight control computer systems, the navigation/guidance system, the control and command panel, and the electronic display system. The ground based facilities used in the program are described including the visual motion simulator, the fixed base simulator, the verification and validation laboratory, and the radio frequency anechoic facility.

  13. 11. "INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT LOCATION, TEST STAND TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. "INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT LOCATION, TEST STAND TERMINAL ROOM, PLANS AND SECTION." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 106 of 148; file no. 1321/57. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. DBS terminals - A Canadian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molozzi, A. R.; Douville, R. J.; Chouinard, G.

    1984-03-01

    Factors determining the design of DBS terminals and their development in Canada are described. Early experience indicated the acceptability of terminals with 1.2 to 1.8m diameter reflectors capable of receiving signals in Ku-band with 47-50 dBW satellite ERIP. This experience, the perception that the Canadian customer base consisted of a few million widely dispersed inhabitants, and the possibility of using Anik C in the 11.7 to 12.2 GHz band led to emphasis in studies of medium power systems (50-57 dBW). Accordingly Ku band terminal development has been strongly influenced towards medium power systems. The desirability of uniform standards in terminal design, at least for North America, is also recognized. In the absence of suitable Ku band signals Canadian industrial activity in Ku band terminals is relatively small compared to C-band terminal activity where the emergence of inexpensive home terminals for reception of the numerous available unscrambled C-band signals has opened up an immediate market. The direction and the timing of an introduction of a Ku band DBS system in Canada is uncertain at this time.

  15. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  16. Terminal area energy management regime investigations utilizing an 0.030-scale model (47-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B/C/R in the Ames Research Center 11 x 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (0A148), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained in wind tunnel tests are presented. The objectives of the tests were to: (1) obtain pressure distributions, forces and moments over the vehicle 5 Orbiter in the terminal area energy management (TAEM) and approach phases of flight; (2) obtain elevon and rudder hinge moments in the TAEM and approach phases of flight; (3) obtain body flap and elevon loads for verification of loads balancing with integrated pressure distributions; and (4) obtain pressure distributions near the short OMS pods in the high subsonic, transonic and low supersonic Mach number regimes. Testing was conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4 with Reynolds number variations from 4.57 million to 2.74 million per foot. Model angle-of-attack was varied from -4 to 16 degrees and angles of side slip ranged from -8 to 8 degrees.

  17. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  18. Motor nerve terminals on abdominal muscles in larval flesh flies, Sarcophaga bullata: comparisons with Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Feeney, C J; Karunanithi, S; Pearce, J; Govind, C K; Atwood, H L

    1998-12-14

    Motor nerve terminals on abdominal body-wall muscles 6A and 7A in larval flesh flies were investigated to establish their general structural features with confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and freeze-fracture procedures. As in Drosophila and other dipterans, two motor axons supply these muscles, and two morphologically different terminals were discerned with confocal microscopy: thin terminals with relatively small varicosities (Type Is), and thicker terminals with larger varicosities (Type Ib). In serial electron micrographs, Type Ib terminals were distinguished from Type Is terminals by their larger cross-sectional area, more extensive subsynaptic reticulum, more mitochondrial profiles, and more clear synaptic vesicles. Type Ib terminals possessed larger synapses and more synaptic contact area per unit terminal length. Although presynaptic dense bars of active zones were similar in mean length for the two terminal types, there were almost twice as many dense bars per synapse for Type Ib terminals. Freeze-fractures through the presynaptic membrane showed particle-free areas indicative of synapses on the P-face, within which were localized aggregations of large intramembranous particles indicative of active zones. These particles were similar in number to those found at active zones of several other arthropod neuromuscular junctions. In general, synaptic structural parameters strongly paralleled those of the anatomically homologous muscles in Drosophila melanogaster. In live preparations, simultaneous focal recording from identified varicosities and intracellular recording indicated that the two terminals produced excitatory junction potentials of similar amplitude in a physiological solution similar to that used for Drosophila.

  19. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied... Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the deepwater port license application for the proposed Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET). All actions related to the processing and agency coordination...

  20. Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, K. J.; Laughlin, R. B.; Liang, S.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg(2+) binding.

  1. Terminal attractors in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1989-01-01

    A new type of attractor (terminal attractors) for content-addressable memory, associative memory, and pattern recognition in artificial neural networks operating in continuous time is introduced. The idea of a terminal attractor is based upon a violation of the Lipschitz condition at a fixed point. As a result, the fixed point becomes a singular solution which envelopes the family of regular solutions, while each regular solution approaches such an attractor in finite time. It will be shown that terminal attractors can be incorporated into neural networks such that any desired set of these attractors with prescribed basins is provided by an appropriate selection of the synaptic weights. The applications of terminal attractors for content-addressable and associative memories, pattern recognition, self-organization, and for dynamical training are illustrated.

  2. Terminal Model Of Newtonian Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-01-01

    Paper presents study of theory of Newtonian dynamics of terminal attractors and repellers, focusing on issues of reversibility vs. irreversibility and deterministic evolution vs. probabilistic or chaotic evolution of dynamic systems. Theory developed called "terminal dynamics" emphasizes difference between it and classical Newtonian dynamics. Also holds promise for explaining irreversibility, unpredictability, probabilistic behavior, and chaos in turbulent flows, in thermodynamic phenomena, and in other dynamic phenomena and systems.

  3. Propagation Terminal Design and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James

    2015-01-01

    The NASA propagation terminal has been designed and developed by the Glenn Research Center and is presently deployed at over 5 NASA and partner ground stations worldwide collecting information on the effects of the atmosphere on Ka-band and millimeter wave communications links. This lecture provides an overview of the fundamentals and requirements of the measurement of atmospheric propagation effects and, specifically, the types of hardware and digital signal processing techniques employed by current state-of-the-art propagation terminal systems.

  4. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

  5. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  10. Terminal-oriented computer-communication networks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M.; Boorstyn, R. R.; Pickholtz, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four examples of currently operating computer-communication networks are described in this tutorial paper. They include the TYMNET network, the GE Information Services network, the NASDAQ over-the-counter stock-quotation system, and the Computer Sciences Infonet. These networks all use programmable concentrators for combining a multiplicity of terminals. Included in the discussion for each network is a description of the overall network structure, the handling and transmission of messages, communication requirements, routing and reliability consideration where applicable, operating data and design specifications where available, and unique design features in the area of computer communications.

  11. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  12. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  13. Naturally Acquired Antibody Responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1) C-Terminal 19 kDa Domains in an Area of Unstable Malaria Transmission in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinghui; Zhao, Zhenjun; Zhang, Xuexing; Li, Xuelian; Zhu, Min; Li, Peipei; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Ying; Yan, Guiyun; Shang, Hong; Cao, Yaming; Fan, Qi; Cui, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding naturally acquired immunity to infections caused by Plasmodia in different malaria endemicity settings is needed for better vaccine designs and for exploring antibody responses as a proxy marker of malaria transmission intensity. This study investigated the sero-epidemiology of malaria along the international border between China and Myanmar, where malaria elimination action plans are in place. This study recruited 233 P. vivax and 156 P. falciparum infected subjects with acute malaria at the malaria clinics and hospitals. In addition, 93 and 67 healthy individuals from the same endemic region or from non-endemic region, respectively, were used as controls. Acute malaria infections were identified by microscopy. Anti-recombinant PfMSP119 and PvMSP119 antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Antibody responses to respective MSP119 were detected in 50.9% and 78.2% patients with acute P. vivax and P. falciparum infections, respectively. There were cross-reacting antibodies in Plasmodium patients against these two recombinant proteins, though we could not exclude the possibility of submicroscopic mixed-species infections. IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 were the major subclasses. Interestingly, 43.2% of the healthy endemic population also had antibodies against PfMSP119, whereas only 3.9% of this population had antibodies against PvMSP119. Higher antibody levels were correlated with age and parasite density, but not with season, gender or malaria history. Both total IgG and individual IgG subclasses underwent substantial declines during the convalescent period in three months. This study demonstrated that individuals in a hypoendemic area with coexistence of P. vivax and P. falciparum can mount rapid antibody responses against both PfMSP119 and PvMSP119. The significantly higher proportion of responders to PfMSP119 in the healthy endemic population indicates higher prevalence of P. falciparum in the recent past. Specific antibodies against PvMSP119 could serve as a

  14. Neural correlates of expectation of musical termination structure or cadence.

    PubMed

    Hoshi-Shiba, Reiko; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Music is an essential communication tool that can convey emotional information. Segmentation of a sound stream of music at event boundaries is necessary for identification and extraction of musical context and features. To investigate recognition of music termination structure, or cadence, we composed music sequences with two types of dominant-tonic termination structures and presented them to participants and analyzed their segment recognition and brain activities using EEG. The results revealed that a sense of termination was caused by listening to a tonic chord. Frontal area positivity at 380-480 ms was elicited by a dominant chord in cadence type I with a stronger sense of termination. These activities possibly reflected the expectation of the next tonic chord in the cadence. PMID:24709920

  15. Key design issues for user terminals operating with HEO satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stojkovic, I.; Alonso, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Coverage of high-latitude areas in the northern hemisphere using geostationary satellites can not be achieved with good elevation angles, and highly inclined elliptical orbits (HEO) present one possible way to overcome this problem. The high elevation angles they achieve and the relative motion of the satellites across the sky, including satellite hand-over, present a specific set of requirements for the design of user terminals, be they for communication or broadcast-reception purposed. This paper reviews key design issues for user terminals operating with satellites in highly inclined elliptical orbits. While all aspects of user terminal design are broadly covered, special emphasis is given to the antenna and RF front-end design. The types of terminals discussed include communications terminals: the hand-held, the notebook, and the vehicle-mounted types, as well as the vehicle-mounted digital audio broadcasting (DAB) receiver terminal. A number of solutions are outlined, based on tradeoffs with respect to the most significant system interface parameters such as G/T and equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular patch and helical antennas with the principal aim of deriving low cost, yet effective solutions. Issues related to achieving best EIRP for the communications terminals are presented, taking into account radiation safety limits. The differences in the design of receive only versus receive/transmit RF front-ends for HEO system terminals are highlighted and solutions for both proposed. This paper summarizes the results of internal ESTEC studies and external ESA-sponsored work concerning major user terminal parameters and design aspects performed for Archimedes -- a HEO satellite constellation for multimedia broadcasting and communications.

  16. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  17. How to meet intersatellite links mission requirements by an adequate optical terminal design?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchmann, O.; Planche, G.

    1991-06-01

    The SILEX system involves a large set of advanced techniques and technologies which need to be merged and confronted. A macroscopic approach makes it possible to consider an optical terminal, with reference to common space fields of activities as a combination of a communication payload, an attitude and orbit control system, an optical instrument, and an on-board data handling system. It requires great technical expertise in areas commonly mastered in these techniques, namely, highly sensitive detectors such as coupled charge detector matrices, avalanche photodiodes, accurate and/or high bandwidth pointing and steering mechanisms, high optical quality mirrors and optical coatings, and accurate thermal control. Basic system and engineering tasks are to be mastered to combine them in an optimal way. This calls, among other things, for requirements analysis to derive the main design drivers and specific constraints with respect to each technique involved, and sizing and configuration of the system.

  18. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2001-11-19

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO{sub 2} injection.

  19. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  20. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  1. Wave reflections from duct terminations.

    PubMed

    Selamet, A; Ji, Z L; Kach, R A

    2001-04-01

    The reflection coefficients and inertial end corrections of several duct terminations, including finite length duct extensions perpendicular to an infinite wall, as well as at a number of angles, curved interface surfaces, and annular cavities, are determined and analyzed in the absence of flow by employing the boundary element method. Predictions for the classical unflanged and flanged circular ducts show good agreement with analytical and computational results available in the literature. The predictions for curved interface surfaces (bellmouth or horn) are also consistent with the available experimental data. In view of its high reflection coefficient, the duct termination with an annular cavity may be suggested for the suppression of noise radiation in a specific frequency band or for an effective wave reflection from the termination. PMID:11325101

  2. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  3. Bishops' response to Act on Rights of Terminally Ill.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, D

    1987-01-01

    In August 1985 the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws drafted a document entitled The Uniform Rights of the Terminally Ill Act, which it recommended for enactment by all U.S. states. The act attempts to set uniform, clear guidelines for advance directives, or living wills--written declarations made by a patient that are used to guide treatment decisions should the patient become incompetent and terminally ill. The act limits the scope of an advance directive to the withdrawal or withholding of "life-sustaining treatment," which is "any medical procedure or intervention that when administered to a qualified patient will serve only to prolong the process of dying." Qualified patients are those with a terminal condition, which is "an incurable or irreversible condition that without the administration of life-sustaining treatment will, in the opinion of the attending physician, result in death within a relatively short time." The National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) Committee for Pro-Life Activities responded to the act in July 1986. The NCCB wishes to narrow the act's scope to apply only to patients in the "final stage of a terminal condition." Other specific concerns are the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration, the need for communication with the family in making decisions, and the protection of an unborn child's life when the mother fulfills the conditions of the act and her living will stipulates a desire for withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. SCAILET: An intelligent assistant for satellite ground terminal operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahidi, A. K.; Crapo, J. A.; Schlegelmilch, R. F.; Reinhart, R. C.; Petrik, E. J.; Walters, J. L.; Jones, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has applied artificial intelligence to an advanced ground terminal. This software application is being deployed as an experimenter interface to the link evaluation terminal (LET) and was named Space Communication Artificial Intelligence for the Link Evaluation Terminal (SCAILET). The high-burst-rate (HBR) LET provides 30-GHz-transmitting and 20-GHz-receiving, 220-Mbps capability for wide band communications technology experiments with the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). The HBR-LET terminal consists of seven major subsystems. A minicomputer controls and monitors these subsystems through an IEEE-488 or RS-232 protocol interface. Programming scripts (test procedures defined by design engineers) configure the HBR-LET and permit data acquisition. However, the scripts are difficult to use, require a steep learning curve, are cryptic, and are hard to maintain. This discourages experimenters from utilizing the full capabilities of the HBR-LET system. An intelligent assistant module was developed as part of the SCAILET software. The intelligent assistant addresses critical experimenter needs by solving and resolving problems that are encountered during the configuring of the HBR-LET system. The intelligent assistant is a graphical user interface with an expert system running in the background. In order to further assist and familiarize an experimenter, an on-line hypertext documentation module was developed and included in the SCAILET software.

  5. 32 CFR 34.51 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Termination. 34.51 Section 34.51 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS... Termination and Enforcement § 34.51 Termination. (a) Awards may be terminated in whole or in part only...

  6. 12 CFR 611.1220 - Termination resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination resolution. 611.1220 Section 611... Institution Status § 611.1220 Termination resolution. No more than 1 week before you submit your plan of termination to us, your board of directors must adopt a termination resolution stating its support...

  7. Airborne Satcom Terminal Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Doug; Zakrajsek, Robert

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn has constructed an airborne Ku-band satellite terminal, which provides wideband full-duplex ground-aircraft communications. The terminal makes use of novel electronically-steered phased array antennas and provides IP connectivity to and from the ground. The satcom terminal communications equipment may be easily changed whenever a new configuration is required, enhancing the terminal's versatility.

  8. Advanced DInSAR analysis for building damage assessment in large urban areas: an application to the city of Roma, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aranno, Peppe J. V.; Marsella, Maria; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Bonano, Manuela

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing data play an important role for the environmental monitoring because they allow to provide systematic information on very large areas and for a long period of time. Such information must be analyzed, validated and incorporated into proper modeling tools in order to become useful for performing risk assessment analysis. These approaches has been already applied in the field of natural hazard evaluation (i.e. for monitoring seismic, volcanic areas and landslides). However, not enough attention has been devoted to the development of validated methods for implementing quantitative analysis on civil structures. This work is dedicated to the comprehensive utilization of ERS / ENVISAT data store ESA SAR used to detect deformation trends and perform back-analysis of the investigated structures useful to calibrate the damage assessment models. After this preliminary analysis, SAR data of the new satellite mission (ie Cosmo SkyMed) were adopted to monitor the evolution of existent surface deformation processes and to detect new occurrence. The specific objective was to set up a data processing and data analysis chain tailored on a service that sustains the safe maintenance of the built-up environment, including critical construction such as public (schools, hospital, etc), strategic (dam, highways, etc) and also the cultural heritage sites. The analysis of the test area, in the southeastern sector of Roma, has provided three different levels and sub-levels of products from metropolitan area scale (territorial analysis), settlement scale (aggregated analysis) to single structure scale (damage degree associated to the structure).

  9. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  10. Minimum fuel horizontal flightpaths in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreindler, E.; Neuman, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of minimum fuel airplane trajectories from arbitrary initial states to be fixed final state is considered. There are four state variables (two position coordinates, heading, and constrained velocity) and two constrained controls (thrust and bank angle). The fuel optimality of circular and straight line flightpaths is examined. Representative extremals (trajectories satisfying the necessary conditions of the minimum principle) of various types are computed and used to evaluate trajectories generated by an on line algorithm. Attention is paid to the existence of Darboux points (beyond which an extremal ceases to be globally optimal). One fuel flow rate model includes a term quadratic in thrust; hence, the optimal thrust is continuous and nonsingular. The other fuel flow rate model is linear in thrust, and consequently the optimal thrust is discontinuous and singular.

  11. XV-15 Low-Noise Terminal Area Operations Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. D.

    1998-01-01

    Test procedures related to XV-15 noise tests conducted by NASA-Langley and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. are discussed. The tests. which took place during October and November 1995, near Waxahachie, Texas, documented the noise signature of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft at a wide variety of flight conditions. The stated objectives were to: -provide a comprehensive acoustic database for NASA and U.S. Industry -validate noise prediction methodologies, and -develop and demonstrate low-noise flight profiles. The test consisted of two distinct phases. Phase 1 provided an acoustic database for validating analytical noise prediction techniques; Phase 2 directly measured noise contour information at a broad range of operating profiles, with emphasis on minimizing 'approach' noise. This report is limited to a documentation of the test procedures, flight conditions, microphone locations, meteorological conditions, and test personnel used in the test. The acoustic results are not included.

  12. The terminal area simulation system. Volume 1: Theoretical formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, F. H.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical cloud model was developed for the general purpose of studying convective phenomena. The model utilizes a time splitting integration procedure in the numerical solution of the compressible nonhydrostatic primitive equations. Turbulence closure is achieved by a conventional first-order diagnostic approximation. Open lateral boundaries are incorporated which minimize wave reflection and which do not induce domain-wide mass trends. Microphysical processes are governed by prognostic equations for potential temperature water vapor, cloud droplets, ice crystals, rain, snow, and hail. Microphysical interactions are computed by numerous Orville-type parameterizations. A diagnostic surface boundary layer is parameterized assuming Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The governing equation set is approximated on a staggered three-dimensional grid with quadratic-conservative central space differencing. Time differencing is approximated by the second-order Adams-Bashforth method. The vertical grid spacing may be either linear or stretched. The model domain may translate along with a convective cell, even at variable speeds.

  13. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bearing 180° and 360° from the intersection of the new Seward Highway and International Airport Road and... the Glenn Highway and Muldoon Road; thence south along Muldoon Road to Tudor Road; thence west along Tudor Road to the new Seward Highway; thence direct to West Anchorage High School; thence direct...

  14. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... bearing 180° and 360° from the intersection of the new Seward Highway and International Airport Road and... the Glenn Highway and Muldoon Road; thence south along Muldoon Road to Tudor Road; thence west along Tudor Road to the new Seward Highway; thence direct to West Anchorage High School; thence direct...

  15. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bearing 180° and 360° from the intersection of the new Seward Highway and International Airport Road and... the Glenn Highway and Muldoon Road; thence south along Muldoon Road to Tudor Road; thence west along Tudor Road to the new Seward Highway; thence direct to West Anchorage High School; thence direct...

  16. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bearing 180° and 360° from the intersection of the new Seward Highway and International Airport Road and... the Glenn Highway and Muldoon Road; thence south along Muldoon Road to Tudor Road; thence west along Tudor Road to the new Seward Highway; thence direct to West Anchorage High School; thence direct...

  17. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 149°43′08″W., to the Glenn Highway; thence north and east along the Glenn Highway to Ski Bowl Road; thence southeast along the Ski Bowl Road to a point one-half mile south of the Glenn Highway;...

  18. Do Twelfths Terminate or Repeat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Burnison, Erica

    2015-01-01

    When finding the decimal equivalent of a fraction with 12 in the denominator, will it terminate or repeat? This question came from a seventh grader in author Erica Burnison's class as the student was pondering a poster generated by one of her classmates. Not only was the question intriguing, but it also affirmed the belief in the power of…

  19. Novel terminal strips for transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiler, E. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spacing tinned terminal leads between two tapes of woven glass fiber that are sandwich-bonded with pliable epoxy adhesive alleviates problems of taped leads pulling away from the transformer and shorting due to crossover of wires. Individual leads may or may not be enclosed in glass-fiber sleeves.

  20. Video Display Terminals: Radiation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses information gathered in past few years related to health effects of video display terminals (VDTs) with particular emphasis given to issues raised by VDT users. Topics covered include radiation emissions, health concerns, radiation surveys, occupational radiation exposure standards, and long-term risks. (17 references) (EJS)

  1. Transfer terminal for offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaudeau, M.

    1983-02-01

    A mooring station and transfer terminal for offshore hydrocarbon production is provided, comprising a coaxial riser linking underwater production and safety manifolds to surface lines. An underwater connector and quick release means are provided to facilitate rapid connection and disconnection of the riser pipes.

  2. 7 CFR 956.85 - Termination or suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at least one day's notice by means of a press release or in any other manner which the Secretary may... majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume... the production for market of Walla Walla Sweet Onions in the production area. Such termination...

  3. 7 CFR 956.85 - Termination or suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... at least one day's notice by means of a press release or in any other manner which the Secretary may... majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume... the production for market of Walla Walla Sweet Onions in the production area. Such termination...

  4. 7 CFR 925.65 - Effect of termination or amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.65 Effect of... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of termination or amendment. 925.65 Section 925.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 925.65 - Effect of termination or amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.65 Effect of... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of termination or amendment. 925.65 Section 925.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 925.65 - Effect of termination or amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.65 Effect of... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of termination or amendment. 925.65 Section 925.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  7. 24 CFR 220.805 - Termination of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of insurance. 220.805 Section 220.805 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 220.805 - Termination of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of insurance. 220.805 Section 220.805 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 220.805 - Termination of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of insurance. 220.805 Section 220.805 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 220.805 - Termination of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of insurance. 220.805 Section 220.805 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 220.805 - Termination of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of insurance. 220.805 Section 220.805 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  12. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  13. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale. PMID:27220506

  14. SPERTI Control Area. Contextual view of desert from control area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Control Area. Contextual view of desert from control area to reactor pit and terminal building area 1/2 mile away. A four-inch water line is being installed between the two areas. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-999 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, David

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of word processors, micro- and minicomputer systems, and other digital office equipment is causing major design changes in existing networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) which have adequately served terminal users in the past must now be redesigned. Implementation at Clemson is described. (MLW)

  16. Fibronectin Terminated Multilayer Films: Protein Adsorption and Cell Attachment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wittmer, Corinne R.; Phelps, Jennifer A.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Van Tassel, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    area and circularity with time) for films without Fn, and for DS terminated films with Fn. Overall, the Fn coated PLL monolayer and the Fn coated PLL terminated multilayer are the best performing films in promoting cell spreading. We conclude the presence of Fn to be an important factor (more so than film charge or layer number) in controlling the interaction between multilayer films and living cells, and thus to represent a promising strategy toward in vivo applications such as tissue engineering. PMID:17056106

  17. 29 CFR 4041.43 - Notice of intent to terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Distress Termination Process § 4041.43 Notice of intent to terminate. (a... chapter). (c) Spin-off/termination transactions. In the case of a spin-off/termination transaction...

  18. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  19. 48 CFR 49.105 - Duties of termination contracting officer after issuance of notice of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.105 Duties of termination contracting officer after issuance of notice of termination. (a... principles relating to the settlement of any settlement proposal, including obligations of the...

  20. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: an important first step for assessing impact of future climate.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Prakash N; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., >30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with >10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region.

  1. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-01-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  2. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  3. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  4. Scientific ballooning payload termination loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, E.

    1993-02-01

    NASA's high altitude balloon borne scientific payloads are typically suspended from a deployed flat circular parachute. At flight termination, the recovery train is pyrotechnically separated at the parachute apex and balloon nadir interface. The release of elastic energy stored in the parachute at zero initial virtical velocity in the rarefied atmosphere produces high canopy opening forces that subject the gondola to potentially damaging shock loads. Data from terminations occuring at altitudes to 40 km with payloads up to 2500 kg on parachutes up to 40 m in diameter are presented. Measured loads are markedly larger than encountered via packed parachute deployment for similar canopy loadings. Canopy inflation is significantly surpressed in the early stages and then accelerated during final blossoming. Data interpretation and behavioral phenomena are discussed along with proposed shock attenuation techniques.

  5. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  6. MEANS FOR TERMINATING NUCLEAR REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, C.M.

    1959-02-17

    An apparatus is presented for use in a reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled type for the purpose of quickly terminating the reaction, the coolant being circulated through coolant tubes extending through the reactor core. Several of the tubes in the critical region are connected through valves to a tank containing a poisoning fluid having a high neutron capture crosssection and to a reservoir. When it is desired to quickly terminate the reaction, the valves are operated to permit the flow of the poisoning fluid through these particular tubes and into the reservoir while normal coolant is being circulated through the remaining tubes. The apparatus is designed to prevent contamination of the primary coolant by the poisoning fluid.

  7. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 417 - Flight Termination Systems, Components, Installation, and Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other protected area; (3) Destroy the pressure integrity of any solid propellant system to terminate all... propellant. (b) A flight termination system must not cause any solid or liquid propellant to detonate. (c... switching. In the event of an input power dropout, a power control or switching circuit, including any...

  8. Remote Earth Terminals in the Health, Education, Telecommunications Network. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0423.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunstein, Jean; And Others

    The major purpose of the Health, Education, Telecommunications experiment was to demonstrate the feasibility of distributing video materials to a large number of low-cost earth terminals located in rural areas. The receivers are of two types: one-way video receivers for the reception of video programs, and two-way voice/data terminals which permit…

  9. 7 CFR 927.51 - Issuance of regulations; and modification, suspension, or termination thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., or termination thereof. 927.51 Section 927.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Regulation of Shipments § 927.51 Issuance of regulations; and modification, suspension, or termination... or districts of the production area; and (3) Provide a method, through rules and regulation...

  10. 15 CFR 285.13 - Denial, suspension, revocation, or termination of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... terminate its participation and responsibilities as an accredited laboratory by advising NVLAP in writing of... advertising during the suspension period in the area(s) affected by the suspension. (2) NVLAP will not require... refrain from using the NVLAP logo in the area(s) affected until such time as the problem(s) leading to...

  11. Hydrogen at the Lunar Terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2015-10-01

    Suppression of the Moon's naturally occurring epithermal neutron leakage flux near the equatorial dawn terminator is consistent with the presence of diurnally varying quantities of hydrogen in the regolith with maximum concentration on the day side of the dawn terminator. This flux suppression has been observed using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on the polar-orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The chemical form of hydrogen is not determined, but other remote sensing methods and elemental availability suggest water. The observed variability is interpreted as frost collecting in or on the cold nightside surface, thermally desorbing in sunlight during the lunar morning,and migrating away from the warm subsolar region across the nearby terminator to return to the lunar surface. The maximum concentration, averaged over the upper ~1m of regolith to which neutron detection is sensitive,is estimated to be 0.0125±0.0022 weight-percent water-equivalent hydrogen (wt% WEH), yielding an accumulation of 190±30 ml recoverable water per square meter of regolith at each dawn. The source of hydrogen (water) must be in equilibrium with losses due to solar photolysis and escape. A chemical recycling process or self-shielding from solar UV must be assumed in order to bring the loss rate down to compatibility with possible sources, including solar wind or micrometeoroid delivery of hydrogen, which require near-complete retention of hydrogen,or outgassing of primordial volatiles, for which a plausible supply rate requires significantly less retention efficiency.

  12. Experiments for Ka-band mobile applications: The ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Dessouky, Khaled; Jedrey, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    To explore the potential of Ka-band to support mobile satellite services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has initiated the design and development of a Ka-band land-mobile terminal to be used with the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The planned experimental setup with ACTS is described. Brief functional descriptions of the mobile and fixed terminals are provided. The inputs required from the propagation community to support the design activities and the planned experiments are also discussed.

  13. 7 CFR 959.84 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a... cease to be in effect....

  14. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or storing property at the marine terminal contained in a terminal schedule must be consistent with... paragraph (b)(2) of this section, this part does not apply to bulk cargo, forest products, recycled...

  15. 7 CFR 917.61 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any time terminate the provisions of this part by giving at least one day's notice by means of a press release or in any other manner in which he may determine. (b) The Secretary shall terminate or suspend...

  16. 7 CFR 917.61 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any time terminate the provisions of this part by giving at least one day's notice by means of a press release or in any other manner in which he may determine. (b) The Secretary shall terminate or suspend...

  17. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a)...

  1. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a)...

  2. Ethynyl terminated imidothioethers and resins therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Bass, R. Gerald (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Ethynyl terminated imidothioethers (ETIs) are prepared by the reaction of a dimercaptan, such as 4,4'-dimercaptodiphenyl ether, and an ethynyl containing maleimide, such as N-(3-ethynylphenyl)maleimide. Blends of thse ETIs and ethynyl terminated polymeric materials, such as ethynyl terminated sulfones and ethynyl terminated arylene ethers, are also prepared. These resin blends exhibit excellent processability, and the cured blends show excellent fracture toughness and solvent resistance, as well as excellent adhesive and composite properties.

  3. Ethynyl terminated imidothioethers and resins therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Bass, R. Gerald (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Ethynyl terminated imidothioethers (ETIs) are prepared by the reaction of a dimercaptan, such as 4,4'-dimercaptodiphenyl ether, and an ethynyl containing maleimide, such as N-(3-ethynylphenyl)maleimide. Blends of these ETIs and ethynyl terminated polymeric materials, such as ethynyl terminated sulfones and ethynyl terminated arylene ethers, are also prepared. These resin blends exhibit excellent processability, and the cured blends show excellent fracture toughness and solvent resistance, as well as excellent adhesive and composite properties.

  4. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  5. A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia applications using portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losquadro, G.; Luglio, M.; Vatalaro, F.

    1997-01-01

    A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia services via portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals was developed within the framework of the Advanced Communications Technology Service (ACTS) programs. The architecture of the system developed under the 'satellite extremely high frequency communications for multimedia mobile services (SECOMS)/ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal experiment' (ABATE) project is presented. The system will be composed of a Ka band system component, and an extremely high frequency band component. The major characteristics of the space segment, the ground control station and the portable, aeronautical and mobile user terminals are outlined.

  6. Four new cases of inverted terminal duplication: A modified hypothesis of mechanism of origin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoo, J.J.; Chao, M.; Szego, K.

    1995-09-25

    We present 4 recently diagnosed cases of inverted tandem duplication with involvement of the respective terminal band. Based on these 4 cases and review of the literature, the term {open_quotes}inverted terminal duplication{close_quotes} is proposed to designate specifically the type of inverted tandem duplication which involves the terminal band. A modification of the previous hypothesis of mechanism of origin is advanced. It is speculated further that a telomeric deletion of a meiotic chromosome followed by a U-type reunion of the chromatids, considered to be the first steps of the proposed mechanism of origin, may not be a rare gonadal event. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  7. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  8. 33 CFR 159.79 - Terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terminals. 159.79 Section 159.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.79 Terminals. Terminals must be solderless...

  9. 29 CFR 405.4 - Terminal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of this part, who during its fiscal year loses its identity as a reporting employer through merger, consolidation, dissolution, or otherwise, shall, within 30 days of the effective date thereof, file a terminal...'s fiscal year ending on the effective date of the employer's termination or loss of...

  10. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate...

  11. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate...

  12. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate...

  13. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate...

  14. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate...

  15. The PLATO IV Student Terminal. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    This report describes a graphics terminal designed as a remote computer input-out terminal for unsophisticated users. The first chapter focuses upon the terminal's plasma display panel, its self-contained character and line generators, and its ability to communicate over low grade telephone lines. Chapter 2 concentrates upon operating modes,…

  16. 50 CFR 14.110 - Terminal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal facilities. 14.110 Section 14.110..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States § 14.110 Terminal facilities. (a) Any terminal...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Voyage terminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voyage terminations. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 4 Voyage terminations. (a) All voyages shall terminate at a continental United States port at 2400 hours of the date...

  2. 12 CFR 1102.7 - Waiver termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver termination. 1102.7 Section 1102.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.7 Waiver termination. The ASC at any time may terminate a waiver order on the finding...

  3. Toxicity assessment of the water used for human consumption from the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area prior/after the combined electrochemical treatment/advanced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Gerić, Marko; Kollar, Robert; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was detailed physicochemical, radiological, and toxicological characterization of the composite sample of water intended for human consumption in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area before and after a combined electrochemical/advanced oxidation treatment. Toxicological characterization was conducted on human lymphocytes using a battery of bioassays. On the bases of the tested parameters, it could be concluded that water used for drinking from the tested water sources must be strictly forbidden for human and/or animal consumption since it is extremely cytogenotoxic, with high oxidative stress potential. A combined electrochemical treatment and posttreatment with ozone and UV light decreased the level of all physicochemical and radiological parameters below the regulated values. Consequently, the purified sample was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic, indicating that the presented method could be used for the improvement of water quality from the sites highly contaminated with the mixture of heavy metals and radionuclides.

  4. Influences on pregnancy-termination decisions in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, Mizanur; Ahmed, Shahabuddin; Razzaque, Abdur

    2013-10-01

    We investigate factors affecting women's decisions to terminate pregnancies in Matlab, Bangladesh, using logistic regression on high-quality data from the Demographic Surveillance System on more than 215,000 pregnancies that occurred between 1978 and 2008. Variables associated with the desire not to have another birth soon (very young and older maternal age, a greater number of living children, the recent birth of twins or of a son, a short interval since a recent live birth) are associated with a greater likelihood of pregnancy termination, and the effects of many of these explanatory variables are stronger in more recent years. Women are less likely to terminate a pregnancy if they don't have any living sons or recently experienced a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or the death of a child. The higher the woman's level of education, the more likely she is to terminate a pregnancy. Between 1982 and the mid-2000s, pregnancy termination was significantly less likely in the area of Matlab with better family planning services.

  5. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  6. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  7. 7 CFR 925.53 - Modification, suspension, or termination of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.53 Modification... should be modified, suspended, or terminated with respect to any or all shipments of grapes in order...

  8. 7 CFR 925.53 - Modification, suspension, or termination of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.53 Modification... should be modified, suspended, or terminated with respect to any or all shipments of grapes in order...

  9. 7 CFR 925.53 - Modification, suspension, or termination of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.53 Modification... should be modified, suspended, or terminated with respect to any or all shipments of grapes in order...

  10. 7 CFR 925.53 - Modification, suspension, or termination of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.53 Modification... should be modified, suspended, or terminated with respect to any or all shipments of grapes in order...

  11. 7 CFR 925.53 - Modification, suspension, or termination of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.53 Modification... should be modified, suspended, or terminated with respect to any or all shipments of grapes in order...

  12. 24 CFR 207.253 - Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination. 207.253 Section 207.253 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Premiums § 207.253 Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination. All rights under the...

  13. 24 CFR 207.253 - Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination. 207.253 Section 207.253 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Premiums § 207.253 Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination. All rights under the...

  14. 24 CFR 207.253 - Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination. 207.253 Section 207.253 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Premiums § 207.253 Termination by prepayment and voluntary termination. All rights under the...

  15. High axial load termination for TLP tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.M.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a hollow high axial load termination for a composite tubular tendon. It comprises: a curved hollow termination body open at one end wit a circular opening and connected at the opposite curved end with an elongated hollow member of lesser diameter than the diameter of the circular opening of the termination body, a composite tubular tendon containing axial fibers and helical fibers laid on an inner hollow liner; fibers of the composite tubular tendon extending over and covering the termination body from the abutment with the composite tubular tendon to the elongated member of lesser diameter than the termination body.

  16. The terminal quality of life and passive or active euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Daikos, G K

    1990-01-01

    The problems presented by the different categories of dying people are briefly discussed from the point of view of terminal quality of life. Euthanasia is used in its broader meaning, including both passive and active aspects. Passive euthanasia (PE) is exercised by withholding advanced or basic life support measures, the commonest form being do not resuscitate orders (DNR). Some data on its application are presented. Active euthanasia (AE), which has been proposed and being applied to a limited extent lately, is criticized as leading the physician and the Society onto risky ground. A position is being taken against it. Decision making, examples of guidelines, legal, philosophical and spiritual considerations are discussed. Wisdom and loving care should be exercised by the physician to assist people in their terminal phases and to alleviate their suffering. That there is not a single answer to the problem is discussed.

  17. Group average difference: a termination criterion for active contour.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Tong Kuan; Lim, Jun Hong; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a termination criterion for active contour that does not involve alteration of the energy functional. The criterion is based on the area difference of the contour during evolution. In this criterion, the evolution of the contour terminates when the area difference fluctuates around a constant. The termination criterion is tested using parametric gradient vector flow active contour with contour resampling and normal force selection. The usefulness of the criterion is shown through its trend, speed, accuracy, shape insensitivity, and insensitivity to contour resampling. The metric used in the proposed criterion demonstrated a steadily decreasing trend. For automatic implementation in which different shapes need to be segmented, the proposed criterion demonstrated almost 50% and 60% total time reduction while achieving similar accuracy as compared with the pixel movement-based method in the segmentation of synthetic and real medical images, respectively. Our results also show that the proposed termination criterion is insensitive to shape variation and contour resampling. The criterion also possesses potential to be used for other kinds of snakes.

  18. Portable display and control terminal for wells

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, R.S.; Reyes, J.F.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a portable graphic display terminal for use with a well production control system having a first transducer for generating a signal representative of a load on a sucker-rod string and a second transducer for generating a signal representative of a position of the rod string. The terminal has means for monitoring well conditions and for supplying control parameters to the control system, the terminal comprising: a liquid crystal display module for displaying data from the control system; keyboard means for entering display command signals and system control signals into the terminal; means for connecting the terminal to the control system; a source of potential having first and second output terminals; and a temperature compensating circuit connected between the display module and the first output terminal for supplying an operating voltage to the display module which keeps the brightness contrast of the display module substantially constant over a range of operating temperatures.

  19. A Terminally Bound Niobium Methylidyne.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Takashi; Carroll, Patrick J; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Complex (PNP)Nb(CH3)2(OAr) (PNP = N[2-P(i)Pr2-4-methylphenyl]2(-), Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3), prepared from treatment of (PNP)NbCl3 with NaOAr followed by 2 equiv of H3CMgCl, can be oxidized with [FeCp2][OTf] to afford (PNP)Nb(CH3)2(OAr)(OTf). While photolysis of the latter resulted in formation of a rare example of a niobium methylidene, (PNP)Nb═CH2(OAr)(OTf), treatment of the dimethyl triflate precursor with the ylide H2CPPh3 produced the mononuclear group 5 methylidyne complex, (PNP)Nb≡CH(OAr). Adding a Brønsted base to (PNP)Nb═CH2(OAr)(OTf) also resulted in formation of the methylidyne. Solid-state structural analysis confirms both methylidene and methylidyne moieties to be terminal, having very short Nb-C distances of 1.963(2) and 1.820(2) Å, respectively. It is also shown that methylidyne for nitride cross-metathesis between (PNP)Nb≡CH(OAr) and NCR (R = tert-butyl or 1-adamantyl) results in formation of a neutral and mononuclear niobium nitride, (PNP)Nb≡N(OAr), along with the terminal alkyne HC≡CR. PMID:26977892

  20. Dignity in the terminally ill: a developing empirical model.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Kristjanson, Linda; Harlos, Mike

    2002-02-01

    Despite use of the term dignity in arguments for and against a patient's self-governance in matters pertaining to death, there is little empirical research on how this term has been used by patients who are nearing death. The objective of this study was to determine how dying patients understand and define the term dignity, in order to develop a model of dignity in the terminally ill. A semi-structured interview was designed to explore how patients cope with their advanced cancer and to detail their perceptions of dignity. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A consecutive sample of 50 consenting patients with advanced terminal cancer were recruited over a 15-month period of time from an urban extended care hospital housing a specialized unit for palliative care. This unit provides both inpatient services. and coordinates end-of-life care community based programming. Data were analysed using latent content analysis and constant comparison techniques. Four members of the research team independently coded the transcribed data, to develop conceptually meaningful categories of responses. Operational definitions were written for major categories, themes and sub-themes. Three major categories emerged from the qualitative analysis, including illness-related concerns; dignity conserving repertoire; and social dignity inventory. These broad categories and their carefully defined themes and sub-themes form the foundation for an emerging model of dignity amongst the dying. The concept of dignity and the dignity model offer a way of understanding how patients face advancing terminal illness. This will serve to promote dignity and the quality of life of patients nearing death.

  1. Advanced CAN (Controller Area Network) Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, D.J.

    2000-03-17

    The CAN interface cards that are currently in use are PCMCIA based and use a microprocessor and CAN chip that are no longer in production. The long-term support of the SGT CAN interface is of concern due to this issue along with performance inadequacies and technical support. The CAN bus is at the heart of the SGT trailer. If the CAN bus in the SGT trailer cannot be maintained adequately, then the trailer itself cannot be maintained adequately. These concerns led to the need for a CRADA to help develop a new product that would be called the ''Gryphon'' CAN tool. FM and T provided manufacturing expertise along with design criteria to ensure SGT compatibility and long-term support. FM and T also provided resources for software support. Dearborn provided software and hardware design expertise to implement the necessary requirements. Both partners worked around heavy internal workloads to support completion of the project. This CRADA establishes a US source for an item that is very critical to support the SGT project. The Dearborn Group had the same goal to provide a US alternative to German suppliers. The Dearborn Group was also interested in developing a CAN product that has performance characteristics that place the Gryphon in a class by itself. This enhanced product not only meets and exceeds SGT requirements; it has opened up options that were not even considered before the project began. The cost of the product is also less than the European options.

  2. 29 CFR 4041.21 - Requirements for a standard termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Standard Termination Process § 4041.21 Requirements for a... § 4041.28(a) and (c); and (5) In the case of a spin-off/termination transaction (as defined in §...

  3. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  4. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-07

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

  5. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

  6. Termination Was Not the End.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Edith T; Pinsker, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We describe the treatment, five decades ago, of a 28-year-old gay man, who, at the end of psychotherapy, had become became able for the first time to experience an intimate sexually satisfying relationship with a woman. Both he and the therapist were pleased with the outcome. The therapist imagined that heterosexuality would be stable and associated with a sense of contentment. Three years following termination the therapist was shocked to learn that her ex-patient had been murdered, possibly by a man he met in a gay bar. This article discusses the therapist's feelings about changes in psychoanalytic models of homosexuality and psychotherapeutic practices from the time she was a resident until the present. PMID:27603801

  7. Mobile terminal antennas for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Farazian, K.; Golshan, N.; Divsalar, D.; Hinedi, S.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using an L-band low gain antenna (LGA) as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters is described. The objective is to select the lowest cost antenna system which can be easily mounted on a helicopter and capable of communicating with a geosynchronous satellite. To ensure that all the antenna options are being considered, the steerable high gain reflector and medium gain array antennas as well as LGA are studied and compared in an exhaustive survey. The high gain reflector antenna in L-band is usually very large in size and heavy in weight. In addition, a bulky and expensive tracking system is needed to steer the antenna beam to the satellite direction. The medium gain antennas (including mechanically and electronically steered arrays) are also more expensive and less reliable than an LGA due to the addition of a beam steering system to track the satellite. The omni-directional LGA is simple, reliable, and inexpensive. It is typically ten times smaller than the medium gain antenna. This makes the position, selection, and mounting on the helicopter relatively easier. Therefore, the LGA is selected as a mobile terminal antenna for helicopters. Among the many LGA's (cross-dipole, helix, spiral, and slot antennas), the helix antenna is the most inexpensive. One can also change the size, shape, or pitch angle of the helix to optimize the gain in the desired direction. Therefore, the helix antenna is selected for further study. Both 2-arm and 4-arm helices are studied theoretically and experimentally to determine the antenna's performance and the scattering effects from the helicopter body and the blades. The multipath, Doppler, and Doppler rate issues as well as the periodic fading effects caused by the helicopter rotor blades will be briefly discussed in the paper.

  8. Clinical Anatomy of the Cavotricuspid Isthmus and Terminal Crest

    PubMed Central

    Koziej, Mateusz; Hołda, Jakub; Piątek, Katarzyna; Tyrak, Kamil; Bolechała, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide useful information about the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) and surrounding areas morphology, which may help to plan CTI radio-frequency ablation. We examined 140 autopsied human hearts from Caucasian individuals of both sexes (29.3% females) with a mean age of 49.1±17.2 years. We macroscopically investigated the lower part of the right atrium, the CTI, the inferior vena cava ostium and the terminal crest. The paraseptal isthmus (18.5±4.0 mm) was significantly shorter than the central isthmus (p<0.0001), and the central isthmus (24.0±4.2 mm) was significantly shorter than the inferolateral isthmus (29.3±4.9 mm) (p<0.0001). Heart weight was positively correlated with all isthmus diameters. Three different sectors of CTI were distinguished: anterior, middle and posterior. The middle sector of the CTI presented a different morphology: trabeculae (N = 87; 62.1%), intertrabecular recesses (N = 35; 25.0%) and trabecular bridges (N = 18; 12.9%). A single sub-Eustachian recess was present in 48.6% of hearts (N = 68), and a double recess was present in 2.9% of hearts (N = 4) with mean depth = 5.6±1.8mm and diameter = 7.1±3.4mm. The morphology of the distal terminal crest was varied; 10 patterns of the distal terminal crest ramifications were noted. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the investigated CTI parameters between groups with different types of terminal crest ramifications. The presence of intertrabecular recesses (25.0%), trabecular bridges (12.9%) and sub-Eustachian recesses (48.6%) within the CTI can make ablation more difficult. We have presented the macroscopic patterns of final ramifications of the terminal crest within the quadrilateral CTI area. PMID:27682030

  9. Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

    2000-01-01

    In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  11. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  12. 7 CFR 1216.29 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.29 Terminate....

  13. 7 CFR 1216.29 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.29 Terminate....

  14. Terminating major war in Europe. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.F.

    1989-11-17

    This essay addresses termination of major war in Europe, where potential escalation to use of nuclear weapon has become a conspicuous but necessary aspect of our strategy and structure. The author takes the war termination objective from its origins in the major European war context and develops the implied concepts, determinants of escalation, and elements of termination theory. He then examines the strategy and force structure of opposing sides in Europe to illuminate some of the key issues surrounding this often neglected but fundamental aspect of military strategy. He contends that, although termination is the only politically sensible objective in a major war between the superpowers, NATO's political organization and force structure do not currently provide the flexibility needed to effect termination decisions. Termination is the objective of choice for the United States and NATO, he concludes, but it may still be only a policy waiting for a corresponding strategy and structure. This document reviews the main points addressed in developing a termination theory and evaluating NATO strategy and structure from a U.S., Alliance and Soviet standpoint. It then describes the military implications arising from this evaluation, as well as military tasks corresponding to a viable termination strategy. Finally, it discusses a few issues that might concern military commanders because of the political and military requirements of termination.

  15. SILEX overview after flight terminals campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Bernard; Planche, Gilles

    1997-04-01

    The ESA program dedicated to Optical Communications development has allowed to qualify two terminals in 1994 and 1995. In 1995/96, the respective proto flight models have been integrated and tested, leading to in depth knowledge of the behavior of optical terminals in optomechanical, pointing and telecommunications fields for various environmental conditions. The paper describes the program and the associated major tests results at terminal level or in coupled configuration on SPOTIV spacecraft. Considerations for future application are given in order to identify SILEX feedback on MMS optical terminal product line for commercial market.

  16. 7 CFR 1216.29 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.29 Terminate....

  17. 7 CFR 1216.29 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.29 Terminate....

  18. 7 CFR 1216.29 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.29 Terminate....

  19. Terminal - Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (T-TSafe)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita Arora; Tang, Huabin; Ballinger, Debbi

    2011-01-01

    The Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (TSAFE) has been previously tested as a conflict detection and resolution tool in the en-route phase of flight. Fast time simulations of a terminal version of this tool called Terminal TSAFE (T-TSAFE) have shown promise over the current conflict detection tools. It has shown to have fewer false alerts (as low as 2 per hour) and better prediction to conflict time than Conflict Alert. The tool will be tested in the simulated terminal area of Los Angeles International Airport, in a Human-in-the-loop experiment to identify controller procedures and information requirements. The simulation will include comparisons of T-TSAFE with NASA's version of Conflict Alert. Also, some other variables such as altitude entry by the controller, which improve T-TSAFE's predictions for conflict detection, will be tested. T-TSAFE integrates features of current conflict detection tools such as Automated Terminal Proximity Alert used to alleviate compression errors in the final approach phase. Based on fast-time simulation analysis, the anticipated benefits of T-TSAFE over Conflict Alert include reduced false/missed alerts and increased time to predicted loss of separation. Other metrics that will be used to evaluate the tool's impact on the controller include controller intervention, workload, and situation awareness.

  20. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    was conducted to identify studies that compared ablation guided by any of the advanced systems to fluoroscopy-guided ablation of tachycardia. English-language studies with sample sizes greater than or equal to 20 that were published between 2000 and 2005 were included. Observational studies on safety of advanced mapping systems and fluoroscopy were also included. Outcomes of interest were acute success, defined as termination of arrhythmia immediately following ablation; long-term success, defined as being arrhythmia free at follow-up; total procedure time; fluoroscopy time; radiation dose; number of radiofrequency pulses; complications; cost; and the cost-effectiveness ratio. Quality of the individual studies was assessed using established criteria. Quality of the overall evidence was determined by applying the GRADE evaluation system. (3) Qualitative synthesis of the data was performed. Quantitative analysis using Revman 4.2 was performed when appropriate. Quality of the Studies Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. These comprised 18 studies on CARTO (4 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 14 non-RCTs), 3 RCTs on EnSite NavX, 4 studies on LocaLisa Navigational System (1 RCT and 3 non-RCTs), 2 studies on EnSite and CARTO, 1 on Polar Constellation basket catheter, and 7 studies on radiation safety. The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to low. Most of the studies had small sample sizes with selection bias, and there was no blinding of patients or care providers in any of the studies. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 29 months, with most having at least 6 months of follow-up. There was heterogeneity with respect to the approach to ablation, definition of success, and drug management before and after the ablation procedure. Summary of Findings Evidence is based on a small number of small RCTS and non-RCTS with methodological flaws. Advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping/navigation systems provided real time 3-dimensional images with