Science.gov

Sample records for advanced thermal coal

  1. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    electrolysis with power from the nuclear plant, reducing the carbon footprint even further by eliminating the requirement for a coal gasification unit to...following: • Substantially reduced carbon footprint, from elimination of fired process heaters and a coal gasification facility for hydrogen...of ash yield as possible. It was found that the vibratory screening system similar to the system that used in the past was effective in de- sliming

  2. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  3. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  4. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  5. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  6. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  7. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United Stat

    1991-05-15

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. Research topics covered during this quarter include the characterization of the base coals, various flotation studies on optimization and pyrite rejection, and a detailed flotation kinetic study. The effect of hexanol, butanol, dodecane, and polyethylene glycol on flotation is described. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying weathered degrees, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals if weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 35 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  10. COSTS FOR ADVANCED COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the development status of advanced coal combustion technologies and discusses the preparation of performance and economic models for their application to electric utility plants. he technologies addressed were atmospheric fluidized bed...

  11. New cleaning technologies advance coal

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.

    1984-05-01

    Alternative options are discussed for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning utility and industrial sources. Test results indicate that it may be most advantageous to use the AED Process after coal preparation or on coals that do not need much ash removal. However, the developer claims that research efforts after 1981 have led to process improvements for producing clean coals containing 1.5% to 3% ash. This paper describes the test facility where a full-scale test of the AED Process is underway.

  12. TRW advanced slagging coal combustor utility demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. The TRW-Utility Demonstration Unit (UDU) is responsible for the implementation of program policies and overall direction of the project. The following projects will be carried out: process and design development of clean coal technology CCT-1 the development and operation of the entrained coal combustor will enable the boiler to burn low and medium sulfur coal while meeting all the Federal/State emission requirements; demonstrate sulfur dioxide emissions control by pulverized limestone injection into the entrained coal combustor system.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  14. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Advances in thermal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kitto, J.B.; Fiveland, W.A.; Latham, C.E.; Peterson, G.P.

    1995-03-01

    Heat transfer--more broadly, thermal engineering--is playing an increasingly critical role in the development and successful application of advanced technology in virtually all fields. From space stations to hazardous-waste destruction to high-speed transport, from ozone-protecting refrigerants to ``night vision`` goggles, a vast range of technologies depend on energy management, heat-flow control, and temperature control to successfully meet their design objectives and attain commercial success. Meeting the continually escalating demand for electricity and ``cheap`` process that will remain a challenge. Environmental protection can depend not only on using energy more efficiently, but on changing the energy conversion process to reduce initial pollutant formation. Further advances in electronics, materials processing, and manufacturing will depend in part on more precise energy management and temperature control. The scale of thermal engineering is quite broad, extending from the very large to the near-molecular level, and from very high temperatures of thousands of degrees to very low ones approaching absolute zero. This breadth of application is illustrated by a review of three specific areas: application of advanced numerical modeling to large boiler furnaces (approaching 100 m in height) in order to improve environmental performance; application of microscale ({approximately}100 {micro}) heat pipes to cool high-performance electronic circuits; and a look at some of the manufacturing processes where heat transfer and thermal analysis improve quality, performance and cost.

  16. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  17. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  18. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  19. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  20. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  1. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The contract objective was to demonstrate Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc., (AED) Ultrafine Coal (UFC) electrostatic physical fine coal cleaning process as capable of: producing clean coal products of no greater than 2% ash; significantly reducing the pyritic sulfur content below that achievable with state-of-the-art coal cleaning; recovering over 80% of the available energy content in the run-of-mine coal; producing product and refuse with surface moisture below 30%. Originally the demonstration was to be of a Charger/Disc System at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) at Homer City, Pennsylvania. As a result of the combination of Charger/Disc System scale-up problems and parallel development of an improved Vertical-Belt Separator, DOE issued a contract modification to perform additional laboratory testing and optimization of the UFC Vertical-Belt Separator System at AED. These comparative test results, safety analyses and an economic analysis are discussed in this report. 29 refs., 25 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  3. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  4. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  5. Advanced systems for producing superclean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop several advanced separation processes for producing superclean coal containing 0.4--2.0% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. Three physical and physico-chemical processes were studied: microbubble flotation, selective hydrophobic coagulation, and electrochemical coal cleaning. Information has been collected from bench-scale experiments in order to determine the basic mechanisms of all three processes. Additionally, because microbubble flotation has already been proven on a bench scale, preliminary scale-up models have been developed for this process. A fundamental study of the electrochemistry of coal pyrite has also been conducted in conjunction with this scale-up effort in order to provide information useful for improving sulfur rejection. The effects of additives (NaCl and kerosene) were also investigated. 94 refs., 167 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  7. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  8. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  9. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  10. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  11. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  12. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  13. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Alex I. Smirnov; Mark J. Nilges; R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1998-03-31

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. We have achieved substantial progress on upgrading the high field (HF) EMR (W-band, 95 GHz) spectrometers that are especially advantageous for such studies. Particularly, we have built a new second W-band instrument (Mark II) in addition to our Mark I. Briefly, Mark II features: (i) an Oxford custom-built 7 T superconducting magnet which is scannable from 0 to 7 T at up to 0.5 T/min; (ii) water-cooled coaxial solenoid with up to ±550 G scan under digital (15 bits resolution) computer control; (iii) custom-engineered precision feed-back circuit, which is used to drive this solenoid, is based on an Ultrastab 860R sensor that has linearity better than 5 ppm and resolution of 0.05 ppm; (iv) an Oxford CF 1200 cryostat for variable temperature studies from 1.8 to 340 K. During this grant period we have completed several key upgrades of both Mark I and II, particularly microwave bridge, W-band probehead, and computer interfaces. We utilize these improved instruments for HF EMR studies of spin-spin interaction and existence of different paramagnetic species in carbonaceous solids.

  14. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  15. Thermal conductivity of coal ashes and slags

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, E.N.; Benson, S.A.; Nowok, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Generally, heat in solids is conducted by the free electrons in metals and alloys at low temperatures, by thermal vibrations of atoms that are observed in the stoichiometric dielectrics, by the free electrons and holes as well as lattice vibrations at the sufficiently high temperatures recorded in semiconductors, and also by ions in amorphous materials at high temperatures. In our case, the linear variations of both thermal and electrical conductivities suggest also that ionization of point defects related to nonstoichiometry, impurities, and dopants plays some role in the thermal conductivity at intermediate and high temperatures. They create free carriers, such as electrons and holes, with concentrations that increase with temperature. The magnitude of this electronic component of thermal conductivity is very low, since {sigma}/k is about 10{sup {minus}6}. Also, there is reason to expect the existence of electrically charged ceramic particles in a liquid-phase sintering medium that may introduce free charges. The ionic component in heat transfer, related to the diffusion of alkali ions, does not play any major role in this range of temperature and can be neglected. This component may take place above some critical temperature, across the surface, or through the volume of the material and is strongly dependent on the glass structure. Figure 7 shows the effect of porosity on the thermal conductivity of Beulah coal ash. Thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of porosity.

  16. Thermal conductivity of coal ashes and slags

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, E.N.; Benson, S.A.; Nowok, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Generally, heat in solids is conducted by the free electrons in metals and alloys at low temperatures, by thermal vibrations of atoms that are observed in the stoichiometric dielectrics, by the free electrons and holes as well as lattice vibrations at the sufficiently high temperatures recorded in semiconductors, and also by ions in amorphous materials at high temperatures. In our case, the linear variations of both thermal and electrical conductivities suggest also that ionization of point defects related to nonstoichiometry, impurities, and dopants plays some role in the thermal conductivity at intermediate and high temperatures. They create free carriers, such as electrons and holes, with concentrations that increase with temperature. The magnitude of this electronic component of thermal conductivity is very low, since [sigma]/k is about 10[sup [minus]6]. Also, there is reason to expect the existence of electrically charged ceramic particles in a liquid-phase sintering medium that may introduce free charges. The ionic component in heat transfer, related to the diffusion of alkali ions, does not play any major role in this range of temperature and can be neglected. This component may take place above some critical temperature, across the surface, or through the volume of the material and is strongly dependent on the glass structure. Figure 7 shows the effect of porosity on the thermal conductivity of Beulah coal ash. Thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of porosity.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  18. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  19. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  20. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  1. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  2. [Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

  3. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  4. Proceedings of the fifth advanced coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, A.; Alpert, S.; Beck, B.; Chen, C.; Dalrymple, D.; Gummel, P.; Henley, J.; Hileman, E.; Holmgren, J.; Lau, F.

    1987-01-01

    The Fifth Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China in September 1987, was sponsored by the Shanxi Provincial Government, Shanxi Science and Technology Association, Shanxi Energy Research Association, and the Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation. Opening and closing speeches, summaries of the technical sessions, and lists of delegates are included. Thirteen papers presented by the international delegation of specialists discuss current coal gasification processes and research and development activities. Papers have been indexed separately.

  5. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a completion of a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing techniques developed in our laboratory for this purpose. The appended report is a manuscript being submitted to the Journal of Magnetic Resonance on this subject.

  7. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  9. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T.

    1998-04-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

  10. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  11. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  12. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-07

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle.

  13. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  14. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  16. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  17. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1996-04-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components:(1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub- micrometer and micrometer sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct liquefaction of coal. Progress reports for these tasks are presented.

  18. Resource targets for advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J. H.; Whipple, D. W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems are identified. A comprehensive examination of conventional and unconventional coals with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry was made. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions of subregions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  19. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  20. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1999-03-31

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.

  1. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1998-09-30

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured.

  2. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  3. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  4. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P. Ochodek, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently, necessary steps in making coal utilization more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fueled by pulverized coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper than coal) do not result in an increased efficiency of the standing equipment by applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalization of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in the near future.

  5. Advancing apparatus for coal-mining machine in underground mine

    SciTech Connect

    Schupphaus, H.

    1984-05-29

    A coal-mining machine is advanced along a face conveyor by providing a rack extending along the conveyor and a plurality of advancing units. Each advancing unit includes a hydraulic motor to rotate a drive wheel while meshing with the teeth of the gear rack. The advancing units arranged side-by-side along the mining machine have curved end faces to abut against one another. Runners are provided on the advancing units at the opposite ends of the mining machine which extend partially around the rack for guiding and maintaining the drive wheel engaged with the teeth of the rack.

  6. Advanced froth flotation techniques for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    Advanced column flotation cells offer many potential advantages for the treatment of fine coal. The most important of these is the ability to achieve high separation efficiencies using only a single stage of processing. Unfortunately, industrial flotation columns often suffer from poor recovery, low throughput and high maintenance requirements as compared to mechanically-agitated conventional cells. These problems can usually be attributed to poorly-designed air sparging systems. This article examines the problems of air sparging in greater detail and offers useful guidelines for designing bubble generators for industrial flotation columns. The application of these principles in the design of a successful advanced fine coal flotation circuit is also presented.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  8. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  9. Advanced thermal control for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    In optical systems just like any other space borne system, thermal control plays an important role. In fact, most advanced designs are plagued with volume constraints that further complicate the thermal control challenges for even the most experienced systems engineers. Peregrine will present advances in satellite thermal control based upon passive heat transfer technologies to dissipate large thermal loads. This will address the use of 700 W/m K and higher conducting products that are five times better than aluminum on a specific basis providing enabling thermal control while maintaining structural support.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  12. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  13. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  14. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  15. Improvement of coal water slurry property through coal physicochemical modifications by microwave irradiation and thermal heat

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Yanchang Li; Jianzhong Liu; Kefa Cen

    2008-07-15

    To improve the coal water slurry (CWS) property made from Chinese Shenhua coal with high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, microwave irradiation and thermal heat were employed to modify the coal physicochemical property. Microwave irradiation reduces the inherent moisture and reforms the oxygenic function groups, while it decreases the total specific surface area. Thermal heat markedly decreases the inherent moisture, volatile, and oxygen contents, while it dramatically increases the total specific surface area. Therefore, microwave irradiation gives a higher CWS concentration and a better rheological behavior than thermal heat, while it remarkably reduces the operation time and energy consumption. The maximum CWS concentration given by microwave irradiation at 420 W for 60 s is 62.14%, which is not only higher than that of 60.41% given by thermal heat at 450{sup o}C for 0.5 h but also higher than the initial 58.23%. Meanwhile, the minimum shear stress given by microwave irradiation is 36.4 Pa at the shear rate of 100 s{sup -1}, which is not only lower than that of 42.4 Pa given by thermal heat but also lower than the initial 79.8 Pa. The minimum unit energy consumption of 0.115 kWh/(kg of coal) and electricity cost of 4.6 U.S. $/(ton of coal) for CWS concentration promotion by 1% are obtained at 420 W for 20 s in the microwave oven. The unit energy consumptions for CWS concentration promotion and inherent moisture removal by thermal heat are, respectively, 214 and 22.5 times higher than those by microwave irradiation, while the energy use efficiencies are on the converse. 27 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Thermal Conductivity and Sintering Behavior of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings, having significantly reduced long-term thermal conductivities, are being developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  17. Advanced cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis--two counties, Virginia, 2006.

    PubMed

    2006-08-25

    This report describes 11 newly identified cases of advanced coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), including progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), in working coal miners from Lee and Wise counties in southwestern Virginia. PMF is a disabling and potentially fatal form of CWP, an occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation of coal mine dust. The continuing occurrence of advanced forms of CWP emphasizes the importance of comprehensive measures to control coal mine dust effectively and reduce the potential for inhalation exposures in coal mining.

  18. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  19. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  1. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Whipple, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is presented for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. Coal reserve data and the cost of operating a mine are used to obtain the minimum acceptable selling price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production. Based on this information, market supply curves can be generated. Demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. The results show a growth in the size of the markets for compliance and low sulphur coal regions. A significant rise in the real price of coal is not expected even by the year 2000. The model predicts heavy reliance on mines with thick seams, larger block size and deep overburden.

  2. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  3. Advanced burner technology for low volatile coal and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Tigges, K.D.; Streffing, M.; Lisauskas, R.; Ake, T.

    1997-12-31

    Today China is one of the countries with the highest coal production. Approximately three quarters of the produced coal is high-volatile and medium-volatile hard coal and only about 20% is anthracite. However the actual portion of the anthracite used in power plants is even lower. The reason for this is not due to the low amount available, but to the difficulty of ensuring stable and reliable ignition and combustion of anthracite. Up to now, the so-called Downshot firing system has been used to fire difficult anthracite coals. The experience gained with this type of firing system is, however, far from satisfactory. The numerous difficulties in the plants of all manufactures have shown that attempts should be made to develop efficient burners to be able to use the simple, service-proved and reliable opposed-burner system. Deutsche Babcock started this work in the early 1980`s and developed a second generation low-NOx burner -- the DS burner -- which is also well suited for the combustion of anthracite. The development is based on state-of-the-art advanced computer simulation and full-scale combustion tests on a wide range of coals. Performance has been evaluated on coals with volatile matter content ranging from 50% down to as low as 5%. DS burners are characterized by extremely reliable and stable ignition which allows operation at low part loads even when firing difficult coal. The excellent flame stability of this burner is the reason why the complex Downshot firing system with its numerous disadvantages is no longer necessary and opposed burner system may be applied even for firing anthracite. The paper describes the development of the burner for difficult coals and explains the full scale combustion tests, the laboratory tests of the ignitability and compares these results with the computer simulation of the DS burner flame.

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  6. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  7. Advanced solderless flexible thermal link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian G.; Jensen, Scott M.; Batty, J. Clair

    1996-10-01

    Flexible thermal links play an important role int he thermal management of cryogenically cooled components. The purpose of these links is to provide a means of transferring heat from a cooled component to a cooler reservoir with little increase in temperature. The standard soldered approach although effective proves to be time consuming and contributes to added thermal impedances which degrade the performance of the link. For system with little tolerance for temperature differences between cooled components and a cooling source this is undesirable. The authors of this paper have developed a technique by which thin metal foil or braided wire can be attached to metal end blocks without any solder using the swaging process. Swaging provides a fast, simple method for providing a low thermal impedance between the foils and blocks. This paper describes the characteristics of these thermal links in terms of length, mass, thermal resistance, flexibility, and survivability.

  8. Thermally induced structural changes in coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Flagan, R.C.; Gavalas, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the temperature-time history during coal devolitization and oxidation on the physical properties and the reactivity of resulting char were studied experimentally for temperatures and residence times typical of pulverized combustion. Experiments were also carried out at somewhat lower temperatures and correspondingly longer residence times. An electrically heated laminar flow reactor was used to generate char and measure the rates of oxidation at gas temperatures about 1600K. Partially oxidized chars were extracted and characterized by gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and oxidation in a thermogravimetric analysis system (TGA). A different series of experiments was conducted using a quadrople electrodynamic balance. Single particles were suspended electrodynamically and heated by an infrared laser in an inert or oxygen-containing atmosphere. During the laser heating, measurements were taken of particle mass, size/shape, and temperature.

  9. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  10. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  11. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  12. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical progress report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. In the first six months of this project, bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The results of microstructural characterization of these alloys were presented in the first semiannual report. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. An increase in the volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to a significant increase in hardness of these composites.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  14. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  15. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  16. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  17. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  18. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  19. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  20. Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  2. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  3. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  5. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet engine fuels has five components: development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer-sized and micrometer particles suspended in fuels during thermal stresses; characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct coal liquefaction. Progress is described.

  6. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  7. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  9. Technology and development requirements for advanced coal conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A compendium of coal conversion process descriptions is presented. The SRS and MC data bases were utilized to provide information paticularly in the areas of existing process designs and process evaluations. Additional information requirements were established and arrangements were made to visit process developers, pilot plants, and process development units to obtain information that was not otherwise available. Plant designs, process descriptions and operating conditions, and performance characteristics were analyzed and requirements for further development identified and evaluated to determine the impact of these requirements on the process commercialization potential from the standpoint of economics and technical feasibility. A preliminary methodology was established for the comparative technical and economic assessment of advanced processes.

  10. Ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate oxidation of coal tar DNAPLs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Libin; Wang, Li; Hu, Xingting; Wu, Peihui; Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Chumei; Wang, Xiangyang; Deng, Dayi

    2016-11-15

    The feasibility of ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate for effective oxidation of twenty 2-6 ringed coal tar PAHs in a biphasic tar/water system and a triphasic tar/soil/water system were investigated and established. The results indicate that ultrasonic assistance, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature are all required to achieve effective oxidation of coal tar PAHs, while the heating needed can be provided by ultrasonic induced heating as well. Further kinetic analysis reveals that the oxidation of individual PAH in the biphasic tar/water system follows the first-order kinetics, and individual PAH oxidation rate is primary determined by the mass transfer coefficients, tar/water interfacial areas, the aqueous solubility of individual PAH and its concentration in coal tar. Based on the kinetic analysis and experimental results, the contributions of ultrasound, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature to PAHs oxidation were characterized, and the effects of ultrasonic intensity and oxidant dosage on PAHs oxidation efficiency were investigated. In addition, the results indicate that individual PAH degradability is closely related to its reactivity as well, and the high reactivity of 4-6 ringed PAHs substantially improves their degradability.

  11. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  12. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  13. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  14. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  15. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  16. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  17. Advances in Electrically Driven Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is a vibrant technology development initiative incorporating ISS based technology demonstrations, development of innovative fluid management techniques and fundamental research efforts. The program emphasizes high temperature high heat flux thermal management required for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews i.) preliminary results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched on STP-H5 payload in February 2017 ii.) advances in liquid phase flow distribution control iii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment under the NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program.

  18. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  19. Chemistry of thermally altered high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria; Brassell, S.; Elswick, E.; Hower, J.C.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The optical properties and chemical characteristics of two thermally altered Pennsylvanian high volatile bituminous coals, the non-coking Danville Coal Member (Ro = 0.55%) and the coking Lower Block Coal Member (Ro = 0.56%) were investigated with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Samples of the coals were heated to temperatures of 275????C, 325????C, 375????C and 425????C, with heating times of up to one hour. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) rises with temperature in both coals, with the Lower Block coal exhibiting higher reflectance at 375????C and 425????C compared to the Danville coal. Petrographic changes include the concomitant disappearance of liptinites and development of vesicles in vitrinites in both coals, although neither coal developed anisotropic coke texture. At 375????C, the Lower Block coal exhibits a higher aromatic ratio, higher reflectance, higher carbon content, and lower oxygen content, all of which indicate a greater degree of aromatization at this temperature. The Lower Block coal maintains a higher CH2/CH3 ratio than the Danville coal throughout the heating experiment, indicating that the long-chain unbranched aliphatics contained in Lower Block coal liptinites are more resistant to decomposition. As the Lower Block coal contains significant amounts of liptinite (23.6%), the contribution of aliphatics from these liptinites appears to be the primary cause of its large plastic range and high fluidity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  2. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  3. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  4. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  5. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  6. Advances in Scientific Balloon Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohaboj, T.; Cathey, H. M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program office has long acknowledged that the accurate modeling of balloon performance and flight prediction is dependant on how well the balloon is thermally modeled. This ongoing effort is focused on developing accurate balloon thermal models that can be used to quickly predict balloon temperatures and balloon performance. The ability to model parametric changes is also a driver for this effort. This paper will present the most recent advances made in this area. This research effort continues to utilize the "Thrmal Desktop" addition to AUTO CAD for the modeling. Recent advances have been made by using this analytical tool. A number of analyses have been completed to test the applicability of this tool to the problem with very positive results. Progressively detailed models have been developed to explore the capabilities of the tool as well as to provide guidance in model formulation. A number of parametric studies have been completed. These studies have varied the shape of the structure, material properties, environmental inputs, and model geometry. These studies have concentrated on spherical "proxy models" for the initial development stages and then to transition to the natural shaped zero pressure and super pressure balloons. An assessment of required model resolution has also been determined. Model solutions have been cross checked with known solutions via hand calculations. The comparison of these cases will also be presented. One goal is to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed full models. This papa presents the step by step advances made as part of this effort, capabilities, limitations, and the lessons learned. Also presented are the plans for further thermal modeling work.

  7. Performance and risks of advanced pulverized-coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nalbandian, H.

    2009-07-01

    This article is based on an in-depth report of the same title published by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/135 (see Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2008 00535). It discusses the commercial, developmental and future status of pulverized fuel power plants including subcritical supercritical and ultra supercritical systems of pulverized coal combustion, the most widely used technology in coal-fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO[sub 2] per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO[sub 2] emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  9. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-04-30

    Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

  10. Interaction and reactivity of the components of a fat coal in the process of thermal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bronshtein, A.P.; Aksenov, L.N.; Bulashev, V.M.; Makarov, G.N.; Povalyaev, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are given of an investigation of the mutual influence of the components of a fat coal and its plastic mass on the process of their thermal degradation. Features of their behavior on heating in the composition of the coal and autonomously are discussed. An interpretation of the effects detected is given.

  11. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Work has centered upon obtaining bulk samples of feedstocks for the project, up-dating the background literature, and preparing and testing a computer program to perform material balance calculations for the continuous flow liquefaction unit.

  12. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  13. Recent advances in the perchloroethylene coal cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, K.L.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The perchloroethylene coal desulfurization process has been shown to selectively remove both inorganic and organic sulfur as well as mineral matter from high sulfur Midwestern coals. The process consists of four stages: a wet grinding of the coal to {minus}200 mesh, an extraction stage used to remove organic sulfur, a float sink stage to remove pyritic sulfur and mineral matter, and finally, a steam stripping stage to remove residual perchloroethylene from the coal. Using this process, up to 70% of the organic sulfur and over 90% of the pyritic sulfur can be removed from the coal. Recent work has studied the effects of parameters such as type of coal, particle size, moisture content, process temperatures, etc., on the sulfur removal efficiency. In addition, a kinetic relation was established for several types of Midwestern coals and minimum extraction time was established. The kinetic study was also used to conduct simulation studies of batch, plug flow reactor, and continuous stirred tank reactor.

  14. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  15. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. 76 FR 55837 - Workshops To Discuss Revisions to Federal and Indian Coal Valuation Regulations: Advance Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Revisions to Federal and Indian Coal Valuation Regulations: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking AGENCY... existing royalty valuation regulations at 30 CFR parts 1202 and 1206 for coal produced from Federal and..., Colorado 80226, telephone number (303) 231-3585. Workshop 2--Marriott St. Louis Airport, 10700 Pear...

  17. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

  18. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

  19. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  20. Mechanical and thermal friability of coals and modes of water bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.; Tye, C.

    1984-01-01

    The laboratory method developed to define mechanical and thermal friabilities of coals shows repeatable and consistent results. The method shows promise for prediction of a coal's behavior in various handling and thermal operations. This method is valid only if coals are compared with their intrinsic moisture intact, mine-fresh from an un-weathered surface; any predrying, however gentle, significantly reduces their friability. For this method to be valid, samples must consist of +1 in. (+2.5 cm) lumps, which must be uniform and representative of the vein, since significant variation occurs between different lithotypes. Intrinsic moisture, entrained in or bound to the coal is a positive factor contributing to the coal's structural integrity. Simply removing the moisture, with no concurrent damage by thermal expansion, substantially weakens to the coal. Differential calorimetry is a simple, effective method of determining comparative heats of wetting when a porous solid is immersed in a liquid. This exthermic heat is directly proportional to the specific surface of the solid. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and modes of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstratng that such data are possible. 26 references, 3 tables, 16 figures.

  1. Thermal behaviour and kinetics of coal/biomass blends during co-combustion.

    PubMed

    Gil, M V; Casal, D; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

    2010-07-01

    The thermal characteristics and kinetics of coal, biomass (pine sawdust) and their blends were evaluated under combustion conditions using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). Biomass was blended with coal in the range of 5-80 wt.% to evaluate their co-combustion behaviour. No significant interactions were detected between the coal and biomass, since no deviations from their expected behaviour were observed in these experiments. Biomass combustion takes place in two steps: between 200 and 360 degrees C the volatiles are released and burned, and at 360-490 degrees C char combustion takes place. In contrast, coal is characterized by only one combustion stage at 315-615 degrees C. The coal/biomass blends presented three combustion steps, corresponding to the sum of the biomass and coal individual stages. Several solid-state mechanisms were tested by the Coats-Redfern method in order to find out the mechanisms responsible for the oxidation of the samples. The kinetic parameters were determined assuming single separate reactions for each stage of thermal conversion. The combustion process of coal consists of one reaction, whereas, in the case of the biomass and coal/biomass blends, this process consists of two or three independent reactions, respectively. The results showed that the chemical first order reaction is the most effective mechanism for the first step of biomass oxidation and for coal combustion. However, diffusion mechanisms were found to be responsible for the second step of biomass combustion.

  2. Investigation of coal stockpiles of Tuncbilek thermal power plant with respect to time under atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal power plants have delayed the coal that they will use at stockpiles mandatorily. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stockyards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started itself. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research a coal stockpile at Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant which was formed in 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m height with a weight of 120 tons to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Later, internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over two layers in the stockpile. The parameters, such as air temperature, humidity, atmosphere pressure, wind speed and direction, which are effective on the stockpiles, were measured and used to obtain the graphs of stockpiles' internal temperature.

  3. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFC's for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-sq cm per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  4. Mössbauer characterization of feed coal, ash and fly ash from a thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.; Moreno Gutiérrez, M.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was apply 57Fe Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature in order to study the occurrence of iron-containing mineral phases in: 1) feed coal; 2) coal ash, obtained in different stages of the ASTM D3174 standard method; and 3) fly ash, produced when coal is burned in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant localized in Boyacá, Colombia. According to obtained results, we can conclude the occurrence of pyrite and jarosite in the feed coal; Fe2+ and Fe3+ crystalline paramagnetic phases, superparamagnetic hematite and hematite in coal ash; Fe2+ and Fe3+ noncrystalline and crystalline phases, magnetite and hematite in fly ash. Precisely, for a basic understanding, this work discusses some the possible transformations that take place during coal combustion.

  5. Pilot Plant Program for the AED Advanced Coal Cleaning System. Phase II. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc. (AED), has developed a proprietary coal cleaning process which employs a combination of ionization and electrostatic separation to remove both sulfur and ash from dry pulverized coal. The Ohio Department of Energy sponsored the first part of a program to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate the process in a continuous-flow pilot plant. Various coals used by Ohio electric utilities were characterized and classified, and sulfur reduction, ash reduction and Btu recovery were measured. Sulfur removal in various coals ranged from 33 to 68% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal ranged from 17 to 59% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal of particles greater than 53 microns ranged from 46 to 88%. Btu recovery ranged from 90 to 97%. These results, especially the large percentage removal of ash particles greater than 53 microns, suggest that the AED system can contribute materially to improved boiler performance and availability. The study indicated the following potential areas for commercial utilization of the AED process: installation between the pulverizer and boiler of conventional coal-fired power utilities; reclamation of fine coal refuse; dry coal cleaning to supplement, and, if necessary, to take the place of conventional coal cleaning; upgrading coal used in: (1) coal-oil mixtures, (2) gasification and liquefaction processes designed to handle pulverized coal; and (3) blast furnaces for making steel, as a fuel supplement to the coke. Partial cleaning of coking coal blends during preheating may also prove economically attractive. Numerous other industrial processes which use pulverized coal such as the production of activated carbon and direct reduction of iron ore may also benefit from the use of AED coal cleaning.

  6. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, March 1 - September 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utili- zation of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NNM methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 29}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  7. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.S.

    1992-07-17

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500[degrees]F (815[degrees]C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650[degrees]F (900[degrees]C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  8. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, N. S.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500 F (815 C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650 F (900 C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  9. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  10. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  11. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  13. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  14. Thermal effects of magmatic sills on coal seam metamorphism and gas occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Long-biao; Cheng, Yuan-ping; Yin, Guang-zhi; Cai, Chun-cheng; Xu, Chao; Jin, Kan

    2014-04-01

    Igneous intrusions in coal seams are found in 80 % of coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield, China, and coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred 11 times under a 120-m-thick sill in the Haizi mining field. The magma's heat had a significant controlling effect on coal seam gas occurrence. Based on theoretical analysis, experimental tests and site validation, we analyzed the temperature distribution following magma intrusion into coal measure strata and the variations in multiple physical parameters and adsorption/desorption characteristics between the underlying coal seams beneath the sill in the Haizi mining field and coal seams uninfluenced by magma intrusion in the adjacent Linhuan mining field. The research results show that the main factors controlling the temperature distribution of the magma and surrounding rocks in the cooling process include the cooling time and the thickness and initial temperature of the magmatic rock. As the distance from sill increases, the critical effective temperature and the duration of sustained high temperatures decrease. The sill in the Haizi mining field significantly promoted coal seam secondary hydrocarbon generation in the thermally affected area, which generated approximately 340 m3/t of hydrocarbon. In the magma-affected area, the metamorphic grade, micropore volume, amount of gas adsorption, initial speed of gas desorption, and amount of desorption all increase. Fluid entrapment by sills usually causes the gas pressure and gas content of the underlying coal seams to increase. As a result, the outburst risks from coal seams increases as well.

  15. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  16. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  17. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  18. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  19. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  20. Kinetics of thermal and catalytic coal liquefaction with plastic-derived liquids as solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W.; Liang, J.; Anderson, L.L.

    1997-05-01

    Results of a kinetic study of thermal and catalytic (Fe impregnated on coal) liquefaction of DECS-6 coal with plastic-derived liquids (PDL) as solvent have been obtained. The experimental work was conducted in 27-cm{sup 3} horizontally shaken microreactors at temperatures of 360--400 C with isothermal reaction times ranging from 0 to 180 min. The reaction pressure was about 2000 psig H{sub 2}, and the solvent-to-coal weight ratio was 2:1. Experimental data were correlated by a kinetic model which assumed the reaction pathways: coal to preasphaltenes, coal to asphaltenes, coal to gas + oil, preasphaltenes to asphaltenes, preasphaltenes to gas + oil, and asphaltenes to gas + oil. It was shown that this reaction model fit experimental data reasonably well at the conditions used, and the six rate constants exhibited Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. Some reactions were also carried out at a higher temperature (420 C) to validate the model at reaction conditions other than conditions used for obtaining the kinetic parameters. Direct coal liquefaction reactions were predominant for both thermal and catalytic DECS-6 coal liquefaction with PDL as solvent, although the catalyst promoted consecutive reactions to a larger extent.

  1. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  2. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, data reduction/evaluation and interpretation from the long term four hundred hours Proof-of-Concept System Test under Task 3 were completed. Cumulatively, a total of approximately 563 hours of coal testing was performed with 160 hrs on 100% coal and over 400 hours with co-firing coal and gas. The primary objectives of this testing were to: (1) obtain steady state operation consistently on 100% coal; (2) increase carbon conversion efficiency from 95% to the project goal of 98%; and (3) maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lbs/MBtu. The following specific conclusions are based on results of coal-fired testing at Penn State and the initial economic evaluation of the HEACC system: a coal handling/preparation system can be designed to meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal combustion to a gas/oil-designed boiler; the boiler thermal performance requirements were met; the NOx emission target of was met; combustion efficiencies of 95% could be met on a daily average basis, somewhat below the target of 98%; the economic playback is very sensitive to fuel differential cost, unit size, and annual operating hours; continuous long term demonstration is needed to quantify ash effects and how to best handle ashes. The following modifications are recommended prior to the 1,000 hour demonstration phase testing: (1) coal feeding improvements--improved raw coal/storage and transport, installation of gravimetric feeder, and redesign/installation of surge bin bottom; (2) burner modification--minor modification to the tip of the existing HEACC burner to prevent change of flame shapes for no apparent reason.

  3. Regularities of influence of disturbances on thermal emission memory in coal specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchurin, S.V.; Shkuratnik, V.L.; Vinnikov, V.A.

    2008-03-15

    Features of thermal emission memory are studied experimentally on anthracite specimens under cyclic heating with time delays, wetting, freezing, variable startup temperatures and different thermal loading rates. The regularities of acoustic emission in coal are considered under heating the specimens with time delay and wetting.

  4. Regularities of acoustic emission and thermoemission memory effect in coal specimens under varying thermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shkuratnik, V.L.; Kuchurin, S.V.; Vinnikov, V.A.

    2007-07-15

    The experimental data on acoustic emission regularities are presented for specimens of different genetic coal types exposed to a wide range of cyclic heating modes. Peculiarities of formation and manifestation of thermal-emission memory effect depending on amplitude and duration of the thermal-field action are revealed.

  5. Advanced pulverized coal combustor for control of NO/sub x/ emissions. First quarterly report, September 24-December 24, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pam, R.; Chu, E. K.; Kelly, J. T.

    1981-01-30

    The first quarter results under the Advanced Pulverized Coal Combustor for Control of NO/sub x/ Emissions Program (DOE Contract DE-AC22-80PC30296) are reported. A preliminary gas phase reaction model for predicting fuel NO/sub x/ formation during combustion of methane fuel has been constructed. Predictions of NO/sub x/ formation under stirred reactor conditions agree with existing experimental data. Thermal NO/sub x/ and coal reaction data will be developed and verified during the next reporting period. Progress has been made in formulating the changes necessary to upgrade the Acurex PROF code for use as the comprehensive data analysis tool in this program. The radiation modeling and the incorporation of the needed modifications into the PROF code will occur during the next reporting period. The idealized combustor was designed, and requests for bids to fabricate the combustor were submitted. Combustor fabrication will be completed during the next reporting period.

  6. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  7. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  8. Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev

    2008-10-15

    The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  10. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  12. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  13. Advances in LED packaging and thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses and cost are key light-emitting diode (LED) packaging issues. Heat dissipation limits power levels. Thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. An OIDA LED workshop cited a need for better thermal materials. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required LEDs. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  15. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, Cold Flow Burner Development''. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  16. The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

  17. The thermal efficiency and cost of producing hydrogen and other synthetic aircraft fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made of the cost and thermal efficiency of producing liquid hydrogen, liquid methane and synthetic aviation kerosene from coal. These results are combined with estimates of the cost and energy losses associated with transporting, storing, and transferring the fuels to aircraft. The results of hydrogen-fueled and kerosene-fueled aircraft performance studies are utilized to compare the economic viability and efficiency of coal resource utilization of synthetic aviation fuels.

  18. Catalytic and thermal cracking of coal-derived liquid in a fixed-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsi, A.

    1996-04-01

    A coal-derived liquid, obtained from the Coal Technology Corp.`s mild gasification process, was cracked over char produced from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal mixed with Plum Run dolomite in the Foster Wheeler carbonizer. For the purpose of comparison, calcined Plum Run dolomite (PRD), char produced from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and silicon carbide (an inert material) were also studied. Coal liquid feed was analyzed by sulfur-selective gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and for elemental composition. The gaseous products of cracking were analyzed for hydrocarbons using GC. Most sulfur in the feed was present in molecules heavier than dibenzothiophene and was distributed in a variety of structures. The surviving coal liquid was analyzed by LC. The results indicated that deoxygenation of phenols, dealkylation of aromatic compounds (AR), and condensation of aromatic structures are some of the reactions occurring on the surface of bed materials. Energies of activation for homogeneous and for heterogeneous pyrolysis of the coal liquid were calculated after separating the rate of thermal cracking from the sum of rates of thermal and catalytic cracking.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Coal Measures Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Mao, Xianbiao; Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Mao, Rongrong; Lu, Aihong

    2016-09-01

    Many projects such as the underground gasification of coal seams and coal-bed methane mining (exploitation) widely involve the dynamic problems of coal measures sandstone achieved via thermal treatment. This study examines the dynamic mechanical properties of coal measures sandstone after thermal treatment by means of an MTS653 high-temperature furnace and Split Hopkinson pressure bar test system. Experimental results indicate that 500 °C is a transition point for the dynamic mechanical parameters of coal measures sandstone. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength increase linearly from 25 to 500 °C while the dynamic peak strain decreases linearly over the same temperature range. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength drop quickly from 500 to 800 °C, with a significant increase in the dynamic peak strain over the same temperature range. The rock mechanics are closely linked to material composition and mesoscopic structure. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the molecules inside the sandstone increase in density due to the thermal expansion of the material particles, which effectively improves the deformation resistance and carrying capacity of the sandstone and reduces the likelihood of axial deformation. With heat treatment that exceeds 500 °C, the dynamic mechanical properties rapidly weaken due to the decomposition of kaolinite; additionally, hot cracking of the mineral particles within the materials arises from coal sandstone internal porosity, and other defects gradually appear.

  1. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper submitted earlier on the use of (bicyclo[3.2.1]4pyrrolidino-N-methyl-octan-8-one triflate) ([sup 13]CO-123) as a [sup 13]C intensity standard was accepted for publication. Subsequently, [sup 13]CO-321 was used in this manner for quantitative [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR analysis (including spin counting) of Argonne Premium coals. The cross-polarization time constants, T[sub CH], and the rotating-frame proton spin-lattice relaxation times, T[sub 1p][sup H], were determined for each major peak of each coal via a combination of variable contact-time and variable spin-lock (T[sub 1p][sup H]) experiments. Two or three components of rotating-frame [sup 1]H relaxation decay and two or three components of T[sub CH] behavior were observed for each major [sup 13]C peak of each coal. These data were used to determine the number of carbon atoms detected in each coal; these values are in the range between 77% and 87% of the amount of carbon known to be in each coal from elemental analysis data, except for Pocahontas No. 3, for which only 50% of the carbon was detected. In an attempt to use [sup 1]H CRAMPS to elucidate chemical functionality in coal, pyridine-saturated samples of the Argonne Premium coals were examined in detail in terms of their [sup 1]H CRAMPS NMR spectra. These spectra were deconvoluted to yield relative concentrations for individual peaks.

  2. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  3. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  4. The Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This reports presents the operating results for Run 252 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run operated in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode (CC-ITSL) using Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The primary run objective was demonstration of unit and system operability in the CC-ITSL mode with catalytic-catalytic reactors and with ash recycle. Run 252 began on 26 November 1986 and continued through 3 February 1987. During this period 214.4 MF tons of Illinois No. 6 coal were fed in 1250 hours of operation. 3 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, August 1992--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.; Bortiatynski, J.; Burgess, C.; Dutta, R.; Gergova, K.; Lai, W.C.; Li, J.; McKinney, D.; Parfitt, D.; Peng, Y.; Sanghani, P.; Yoon, E.

    1993-02-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five borad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and miocrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Pyrolysis of four isomers of butylbenzene was investigated in static microautoclave reactors at 450{degrees}C under 0.69 MPa of UHP N{sub 2}. Thee rates of disappearance of substrates were found to depend upon the bonding energy of C{alpha}-C{beta} bond in the side chain in the initial period of pyrolysis reactions. Possible catalytic effects of metal surfaces on thermal degradation and deposit formation at temperatures >400{degrees}C have been studied. Carbon deposition depends on the composition of the metal surfaces, and also depends on the chemical compositions of the reactants. Thermal stressing of JP-8 was conducted in the presence of alumina, carbonaceous deposits recovered from earlier stressing experiments, activated carbon, carbon black, and graphite. The addition of different solid carbons during thermal stressing leads to different reaction mechanisms. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, along with {sup 13}C-labeling techniques, have been used to examine the thermal stability of a jet fuel sample mixed with 5% benzyl alcohol. Several heterometallic complexes consisting of two transition metals and sulfur in a single molecule were synthesized and tested as precursors of bimetallic dispersed catalysts for liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coals.

  6. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  7. Development of Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses ground based proof of concept hardware under development at NASA GSFC to address high heat flux thermal management in silicon substrates and embedded thermal management systems. The goal is to develop proof of concept hardware for space flight validation. The space flight hardware will provide gravity insensitive thermal management for electronics applications such as transmit/receive modules that are severely limited by thermal concerns.

  8. Use of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen in the production of thermally expanded graphite (Short Communication)

    SciTech Connect

    T.P. Miloshenko; O.Yu. Fetisova; M.L. Shchipko; B.N. Kuznetsov

    2008-06-15

    The applicability of coal tar pitch and petroleum bitumen to the production of thermally expanded graphite was studied. The dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific surface area on the amount of added substances was examined.

  9. Emission control of mercury and sulfur by mild thermal upgrading of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Zhang; Gang Chen; Rajender Gupta; Zhenghe Xu

    2009-01-15

    Mercury and sulfur emissions from power plants is becoming increasingly an environmental concern. In this study, two Chinese coals from the Guizhou province and one Canadian coal from Alberta were selected to study the potential of thermal upgrading as mercury and sulfur emission control strategy prior to coal use. A low-temperature asher (LTA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the occurrence of mercury and sulfur in coal. An experiment of mild thermal upgrading at different atmospheres was performed to explore the removal efficiencies of mercury before combustion. Our study shows that mercury is associated with different minerals in these coal samples. The correlation between mercury and sulfur is also investigated. Mercury was found to be removed effectively by mild thermal upgrading at 400{sup o}C under a 4% O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere increased the removal of pyritic sulfur significantly at low temperatures. The mercury release rate was found to be higher under an oxidizing atmosphere than under a nitrogen atmosphere between 300 and 400{sup o}C during mild thermal upgrading. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  11. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  13. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1990-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. The work plan for the froth quarter called for completion of the washability interpolation routine, gravity separation models, and dewatering models. As these items were completed, work in the areas of size reduction, classification and froth flotation were scheduled to begin. As each model was completed, testing and validation procedures were scheduled to begin. Costing models were also planned to be implemented and tested as each of the gravity separation models were completed. 1 tab.

  14. Advances in Ammonia Removal from Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt%. During coal gasification, this fuel bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia (NH{sub 3}). When hot coal gas is used to generate electricity in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, NH{sub 3} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Similarly, while the efficiency of integrated gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (IGFC) power plants is not affected by NH{sub 3}, NO{sub x} is generated during combustion of the anode exhaust gas. Thus NH{sub 3} must be removed from hot coal gas before it can be burned in a turbine or fuel cell. The objective of this study is to develop a successful combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent so that the sorbent-catalyst activity remains stable for NH{sub 3} decomposition in addition to H{sub 2}S removal under cycle sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 750{degrees}C.

  15. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  16. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first quarter of the project, the thrust of the work was directed towards setting up the experimental facilities and undertaking preliminary tests to gauge the ability of coal tar derived binder in fabricating the brake skeletons. In addition systematic scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), fly ash (ADM), FBC fly ash, FBC spent bed bottom ash, bottom ash (ADM), and scrubber sludge residues to characterize their geometrical shape and thermal stability. The PCC fly ash particles being highly spherical in shape and thermally inert up to 1100{degrees}C will make an excellent raw material for our composites. This is born out by fabricating brake skeletons from PCC fly ash colloids. Unlike the PCC fly ash and FBC fly ash, the scrubber sludge particles are not suitable hosts for our brake lining materials because of a whisker-like particle structure. Six different compositions of various combustion residues were tested in the fabrication of brake skeletons, and our tar derived binder shows great promise in the fabrication of composite materials.

  17. Advanced concepts in coal liquefaction: Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-11-01

    The overall objective of this Project was to find the ways to effectively reduce the cost of coal liquids to about dollar 25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The work described herein is primarily concerned with the testing at the laboratory scale of three reactor configuration concepts, namely (1) a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor as a ``finishing reactor`` in coal liquefaction, (2) three-stage well-mixed reactors in series, and (3) interstage stream concentration/product separation. The three reactor configurations listed above were tested during this project using a 20 cc tubing microreactor, a fixed-bed plug flow reactor, and a two-stage modified Robinson-Mahoney reactor system. The reactor schemes were first evaluated based on theoretical modelling studies, then experimentally evaluated at the microautoclave level and laboratory scale continuous operations. The fixed-bed ``finishing reactor`` concept was evaluated in both the upflow and the downflow modes of operation using a partially converted coal-solvent slurry as feed. For most of the testing of concepts at the microautoclave level, simulated coal, recycle oil, and slurry feedstocks were either specially prepared (to represent a specific state of coal/resid conversion) and/or obtained from HRI`s other ongoing bench-scale and PDU scale coal liquefaction experiments. The three-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and interstage product stream separation/concentration concepts were tested using a simulated three-stage CSTR system by employing a laboratory-scale ebullated-bed system and a modified version of the HRI`s existing Robinson-Mahoney fixed catalyst basket reactor system. This testing was conducted as a fourteen day long continuous run, divided into four Conditions to allow for a comparison of the new three-stage CSTR and interstage product concentration concepts with a two-stage CSTR baseline configuration.

  18. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  19. Investigation on thermal and trace element characteristics during co-combustion biomass with coal gangue.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2015-01-01

    The thermochemical behaviors during co-combustion of coal gangue (CG), soybean stalk (SS), sawdust (SD) and their blends prepared at different ratios have been determined via thermogravimetric analysis. The simulate experiments in a fixed bed reactor were performed to investigate the partition behaviors of trace elements during co-combustion. The combustion profiles of biomass was more complicated than that of coal gangue. Ignition property and thermal reactivity of coal gangue could be enhanced by the addition of biomass. No interactions were observed between coal gangue and biomass during co-combustion. The volatilization ratios of trace elements decrease with the increasing proportions of biomass in the blends during co-combustion. Based on the results of heating value, activation energy, base/acid ratio and gaseous pollutant emissions, the blending ratio of 20-30% biomass content is regarded as optimum composition for blending and could be applied directly at current combustion application with few modifications.

  20. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin

    1992-10-01

    It is the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Under the reaction conditions employed, the behavior of other trace elements of concern will also be evaluated. The recovery of the chlorine removed from the coal as a marketable byproduct, calcium chloride suitable for use as a road deicer, is also being investigated using a novel absorption/crystallization device. A value of 6.29 hr{sup {minus}1} was determined for the dechlorination rate constant of IBC-109 coal at 385{degrees}C, and an activation energy of 34.7 kcal/mol was obtained from an Arrhenius plot over the temperature range of 300--385{degrees}C. A significant removal of chlorine (84.3%) was attained while retaining 92% of the energy of the coal in the solid product by preheating the coal at lower temperatures prior to a six-minute reaction at 385{degrees}C. Volatiles lost during the thermal dechlorination may be recovered for their heating value, and/or as a source of chemical feedstocks; this aspect will require further study, but it appears that the overall energy balance on the system should prove to be favorable. The design of the bench scale fluidized bed thermal dechlorination unit has been completed, and components ordered. Operation of this system should provide the information required for further scale-up of the process.

  1. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  2. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Shirey, G.A.; Stoessner, R.D.; Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA )

    1988-12-30

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) and Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF) procedures for their effectiveness in cleaning fine (minus 100 mesh) coal. The two processes will be tested in a circuit capable of processing 0.124 to 0.15 tons per hour of coal at the EPRI-CQDC. Performance of the two processes will be evaluated, and the economics of fine coal cleaning by both processes will be determined. During the past quarter, efforts were concentrated on the following tasks: installation of process equipment and characterization of the test feed coal; start-up of the ASH and AFF circuits; and initialization of the AFF Test Program. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  4. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  5. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  6. Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0183 (YIP 11) Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport Evelyn Wang MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport AFOSR Grant FA9550-11-1-0059 Final Report Evelyn N. Wang Associate Professor...heated channel wall. Small fluctuations in the measured heater surface temperature (± 3-8 °C) indicated increased flow stability, and the heat transfer

  7. Cofiring of coal and biomass in advanced fluidized bed gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    The cofiring of coal and biomass is now being considered by the scientific community and as a viable option to the sustained year round operation of biomass based plants which are currently limited in duration due to the biomass growing season dependency. There are many industrial applications which would also accommodate the use of waste residuals including biomass resources for production of cogenerated electricity, steam and syn-gas based chemicals and fuels (methanol, ethanol, ammonia, etc.). A good example of this is the bagasse-based biomass project NREL is currently supporting using the IGT U-Gas gasifier technology which is under way in a pilot plant operation located in Maui, Hawaii in the sugar cane fields accessible to a nearby seaport which could accommodate other alternate fuel handling facilities. In addition the use of bagasse types of biomass wastes can support the environmental clean-up and disposal of these and other types of wastes such as wood wastes from pulp and paper mills, and vegetation and floral wastes in tropical regions such as South Asia. Using cofiring of coal fines and biomass can be economically attractive in areas where high and low grade coal is mined and can add to the electrification and district heating of these remotely located villages and hamlets. Large scale facilities can be envisioned, but there is a need for testing and proving these options in areas where there is no existing infrastructure for providing local electric and district heat. Industrial scale coal-based IGCC facilities are economically operated in many places in China and in urban industrial complexes such as the Shanghai Coke and Chemical Plant Group (SCCPG) in the southern region of Shanghai (SCCPG has a license for the U-Gas gasification technology in China).

  8. Combustion of coal/water mixtures with thermal preconditioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Novack, M.; Roffe, G.; Miller, G.

    1985-12-01

    Thermal preconditioning is a process in which coal/water mixtures are vaporized to produce coal/steam suspensions, and then superheated to allow the coal to devolatilize producing suspensions of char particles in hydrocarbon gases and steam. This final product of the process can be injected without atomization, and burned directly in a gas turbine combustor. This paper reports on the results of an experimental program in which thermally preconditioned coal/water mixture was successfully burned with a stable flame in a gas turbine combustor test rig. Tests were performed at a mixture flowrate of 300 lb/hr and combustor pressure of 8 atmospheres. The coal/water mixture was thermally preconditioned and injected into the combustor over a temperature range from 350 to 600/sup 0/F, and combustion air was supplied at between 600 to 725/sup 0/F. Test durations generally varied between 10 to 20 minutes. Major results of the combustion testing were that: a stable flame was maintained over a wide equivalence ratio range, between phi = 2.4 (rich) to 0.2 (lean); and, combustion efficiency of over 99% was achieved when the mixture was preconditioned to 600/sup 0/F and the combustion air preheated to 725/sup 0/F. Measurements of ash particulates captured in the exhaust sampling probe located 20 inches from the injector face, show typical sizes collected to be about 1 micron, with agglomerates of these particulates to be not more than 8 microns. The original mean coal particle size for these tests, prior to preconditioning was 25 microns. System studies indicate that preconditioning can be incorporated into either stationary or mobile power plant designs without system derating. On the basis of these results, thermal pretreatment offers a practical alternative to fuel atomization in gas turbine applications. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  10. Testing of advanced liquefaction concepts in HTI Run ALC-1: Coal cleaning and recycle solvent treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Derbyshire, F.L.; Givens, E.N.; Hu, J.; Lee, T.L.K.; Miller, J.E.; Stephens, H.P.; Peluso, M.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Liquefaction Concepts Program to promote the development of new and emerging technology that has potential to reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. Laboratory research performed by researchers at CAER, CONSOL, Sandia, and LDP Associates in Phase I is being developed further and tested at the bench scale at HTI. HTI Run ALC-1, conducted in the spring of 1996, was the first of four planned tests. In Run ALC-1, feed coal ash reduction (coal cleaning) by oil agglomeration, and recycle solvent quality improvement through dewaxing and hydrotreatment of the recycle distillate were evaluated. HTI`s bench liquefaction Run ALC-1 consisted of 25 days of operation. Major accomplishments were: 1) oil agglomeration reduced the ash content of Black Thunder Mine coal by 40%, from 5.5% to 3.3%; 2) excellent coal conversion of 98% was obtained with oil agglomerated coal, about 3% higher than the raw Black Thunder Mine coal, increasing the potential product yield by 2-3% on an MAF coal basis; 3) agglomerates were liquefied with no handling problems; 4) fresh catalyst make-up rate was decreased by 30%, with no apparent detrimental operating characteristics, both when agglomerates were fed and when raw coal was fed (with solvent dewaxing and hydrotreating); 5) recycle solvent treatment by dewaxing and hydrotreating was demonstrated, but steady-state operation was not achieved; and 6) there was some success in achieving extinction recycle of the heaviest liquid products. Performance data have not been finalized; they will be available for full evaluation in the new future.

  11. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  12. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  13. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  15. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  16. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  17. Heat and mass transfer in a coal-water fuel particle at the stage of "thermal" treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of heat and mass transfer has been solved numerically under the conditions of coal-water fuel particle ignition. The concurrent processes of evaporation, filtration of steam, thermal decomposition of the organic part of coal, thermal and chemical interaction of steam and coke carbon, and oxidation of products of their reaction and volatiles by the external oxidizer have been taken into account. The scales of influence of individual thermophysical and thermochemical properties of coals on the characteristics and conditions of ignition of coal-water slurry have been determined.

  18. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Some of our accomplishments and findings are: The product distribution and reaction mechanisms for pyrolysis of alkylcyclohexanes at 450{degree}C have been investigated in detail. In this report we present results of pyrolysis of cyclohexane and a variety of alkylcyclohexanes in nitrogen atmospheres, along with pseudo-first order rate constants, and possible reaction mechanisms for the origin of major pyrolysis products are presented. Addition of PX-21 activated carbon effectively stops the formation of carbonaceous solids on reactor walls during thermal stressing of JPTS. A review of physical and chemical interactions in supercritical fluids has been completed. Work has begun on thermal stability studies of a second generation of fuel additives, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-naphthol, 9,10-phenanthrenediol, phthalan, and 1,2-benzenedimethanol, and with careful selection of the feedstock, it is possible to achieve 85--95% conversion of coal to liquids, with 40--50% of the dichloromethane-soluble products being naphthalenes. (Further hydrogenation of the naphthalenes should produce the desired highly stable decalins.)

  19. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  20. 78 FR 49061 - Valuation of Federal Coal for Advance Royalty Purposes and Information Collection Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...ONRR proposes new regulations to implement the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) governing the payment of advance royalty on coal resources produced from Federal leases. The EPAct provisions amend the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (MLA). ONRR also proposes to add information collection requirements that are applicable to all solid minerals leases and also are necessary to......

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  2. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  3. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  4. Local treatment of coal-water slurries from thermal power plants with the use of coagulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapulova, G. I.; Logunova, N. I.

    2015-04-01

    The coagulation of coal particles in a coal-water slurry from the Novo-Irkutsk thermal power plant was studied. The advisability of the application of highly basic aluminum hydroxochloride of grade B for the treatment of contaminated water with a concentration of suspended particles of 30 g/dm3 was shown. The granulometric analysis of coal particles was performed. The application of the reagent was revealed to be efficient for the coagulation of both coarse particles and a finely dispersed fraction. Carbonate hardness values of up to 1.5 mmol-equiv/dm3 and pH ≤ 7.8 were shown to be typical for the contaminated water from the fuel supply shop. They were the most optimal parameters for hydrolysis and efficient flocculation and did not require the addition of sodium bicarbonate and flocculants. The process flowsheet of the separate purification of a coal-water slurry was developed for the fuel supply shop. Among the advantages of this purification method are the return of rather highly purified water for thermal power plant needs, and also the production of additional fuel in the form of recovered coal particles. The product was characterized by improved engineering parameters in comparison with the initial fuel, i.e., had a higher calorific value and a lower sulfur content. The purified water corresponded to the normative requirements to the content of residual aluminum. This technology of purification was resource-saving, environmental-friendly, and economically profitable.

  5. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  6. Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

  7. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  8. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This is being accomplished by utilization the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. 31 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    most JP-8 specifications; and (c) the steady escalation in prices of crude oil and refined petroleum products resulted in increased interest in...Laboratory-scale testing led to a standardized recipe of a 50:50 blend of RCO with light cycle oil (LCO), a by-product of catalytic cracking ...1350- 1367. Song, C. Selective conversion of polycyclic hydrocarbons to specialty chemicals over zeolite catalysts . Cattech., 2002, 6, 64-77. Song, C

  11. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Shannon Ranio, Kelly Rhoades, Larry Schaaf, Abby Smith, Virginia Smith, Ronald Wasco, Ronald Wincek, Kevin Witt , Elizabeth Young, James Zello Graduate...Sarah Edwards, Anne Fickinger, Kathryn Fisher, Julien Fort, Melanie Fox, Christina Gallo, Jessica Goodeluinas, William Greenland, Elizabeth Grobe

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  13. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel

    1999-01-11

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eleventh quarter of this project, Task 7 (Operation and Testing) was nearly completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, and Pittston Coal Company. As a result of this work, a model-based control system has now been installed which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. The system has gone through a shake-down period, training has been carried out for plant operators, and the bulk of the control logic testing has been completed with the results of these tests awaiting analysis under Task 8 (System Evaluation). The flotation model has been shown to predict incremental ash quite successfully, implying that this approach may provide the basis for a useful ''soft sensor'' for on-line incremental ash analysis.

  14. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the tenth quarter of this project, Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, Pittston Coal Company, and FGR Automation. As a result of this work, a model-based control system is now in place which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. Testing of this control system is expected to be carried out during the next quarter, and the results of this testing will be reported in the Eleventh Quarterly report. In addition, calibration of the video-based ash analyzer was continued and an extensive set of calibration data were obtained showing that the plant is running remarkably well under manual control. This may be a result of increased attention being paid to froth flotation as a result of this project.

  15. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1992-12-31

    The evaluation of various catalyst pre or pyrene coal conversion continued. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate. A technique to measure the effect of coal swelling and catalyst impregnation upon coal liquefaction has been developed, and experimentation is under way. Reactivity tests have been performed using S0{sub 2}-treated and untreated swelled Black Thunder Coal. Thermal reactions with swelled coals yielded much less coal conversion and pyrene conversion than did the swelled coal reactions with Molyvan-L. The study of bottoms processing consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The batch deasphalting screening tests have been completed. While n-butane/pentane solvent blends initially appeared best, pentane alone at 380{degree}F provided an oil yield (63.6 wt%) that was desired for subsequent tests. The production of asphalt for the transport tests is underway. The target deasphalted oil yields are 40, 50 and 60 wt% of feed. This would produce asphalt with ash levels ranging from 20 to 30 wt% with which to run the transport tests.

  16. Advanced thermal management techniques for space power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Angel Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Current thermal management techniques are not sufficient for the increasing waste heat dissipation of novel electronic technologies. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. The benefits and limitations of emerging cooling technologies are discussed. These technologies include: liquid pumped devices, mechanically pumped two-phase cooling, capillary pumped evaporative cooling, and thermoelectric devices. Currently, liquid pumped devices offer the most promising alternative for electronics thermal control.

  17. Advances in the development of wire mesh reactor for coal gasification studies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Cai; Chen, Lei; Liu, Gang; Li, Wenhua; Huang, Baoming; Zhu, Hongdong; Zhang, Bing; Zamansky, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    In an effort to further understand the coal gasification behavior in entrained-flow gasifiers, a high pressure and high temperature wire mesh reactor with new features was recently built. An advanced LABVIEW-based temperature measurement and control system were adapted. Molybdenum wire mesh with aperture smaller than 70 mum and type D thermocouple were used to enable high carbon conversion (>90%) at temperatures >1000 degrees C. Gaseous species from wire mesh reactor were quantified using a high sensitivity gas chromatography. The material balance of coal pyrolysis in wire mesh reactor was demonstrated for the first time by improving the volatile's quantification techniques.

  18. Advances in the development of wire mesh reactor for coal gasification studies - article no. 084102

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, C.; Chen, L.; Liu, G.; Li, W.H.; Huang, B.M.; Zhu, H.D.; Zhang, B.; Zamansky, V.

    2008-08-15

    In an effort to further understand the coal gasification behavior in entrained-flow gasifiers, a high pressure and high temperature wire mesh reactor with new features was recently built. An advanced LABVIEW-based temperature measurement and control system were adapted. Molybdenum wire mesh with aperture smaller than 70 {mu} m and type D thermocouple were used to enable high carbon conversion ({gt}90%) at temperatures {gt}1000 {sup o}C. Gaseous species from wire mesh reactor were quantified using a high sensitivity gas chromatography. The material balance of coal pyrolysis in wire mesh reactor was demonstrated for the first time by improving the volatile's quantification techniques.

  19. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  20. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  1. Therma1 Conductivity and Durability of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling, thus helping to achieve engine emission and efficiency goals. Future TBCs must be designed with increased phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance in order to effectively protect engine hot-section components. Advanced low conductivity TBCs are being developed at NASA by incorporating multi-component oxide dopants into zirconia-yttria or hafnia-yttria to promote the formation of thermodynamically stable defect clusters within the coating structures. This presentation will primarily focus on thermal conductivity and durability of the novel defect cluster thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoil and combustor applications, determined by a unique CO2 laser heat-flux approach. The laser heat-flux testing approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity under simulated engine temperature and thermal gradient conditions. The conductivity increase due to coating sintering (and/or phase change) and the conductivity decrease due to coating delamination have been determined under steady-state, cyclic, uniform or non-uniform heat-flux conditions. The coating radiation flux resistance has been evaluated by varying coating thermal gradients, and also by using a laser-heated radiative-flux source. Advanced multi-component TBC systems have been shown to have significantly reduced thermal conductivity and improved high temperature stability due to the nano-sized, low mobility defect clusters associated with the paired rare earth dopant additions. The effect of oxide defect cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, thermal stability and furnace cyclic durability will also be discussed. The current low conductivity TBC systems have demonstrated long-term cyclic durability at very high

  2. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance.

  3. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  4. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September-November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-02-07

    Wyoming subbituminous coal was liquefied using three different two-stage process configurations in bench-scale tests. These process configurations differed in the type of fractionated deashing resid being recycled to the individual stages. The objective of these runs was to determine whether, by recycle of specific resid streams to the thermal stage, the second stage catalyst life could be improved without detrimentally affecting distillate yield or hydrogen consumption. The results indicate that the two-stage process configuration consisting of hydrotreating the Light Deashed Resid and direct recycle of heavy Deashed Resid to the thermal stage produced the best results. This process configuration resulted in a distillate yield of 54 wt % (MAF coal basis) and overall coal conversion in the 93 to 95% range, as measured by pyridine-soluble analytical test while operating in a total distillate mode. These results are very encouraging from the lower rank Wyoming subbituminous coal. Among the three two-stage process configurations tested, the particular process configuration of hydrotreating Light Deashed Resid resulted in the least amount of catalyst deactivation. As a part of this research effort, a test procedure for quick evaluation of various resids and catalysts in terms of coke precursors was also developed. This procedure utilizing as-produced oxide-form extrudates of catalyst is able to simulate closely in a batch reactor test the performance of a presulfided and extrudate form of catalyst in a continuous reactor. The CSD unit, being able to not only deash but also fractionate the resid, greatly increased the flexibility of options for coal liquefaction. New process concepts evolved incorporating reside fractionation and selective resid recycle in coal liquefaction. 17 figures, 28 tables.

  5. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  6. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  7. Thermally induced structural changes in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flagan, R.C.; Gavalas, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the temperature-time history during coal devolitization and oxidation on the physical properties and the reactivity of resulting char were studied experimentally for temperatures and residence times typical of pulverized combustion. Experiments were also carried out at somewhat lower temperatures and correspondingly longer residence times. An electrically heated laminar flow reactor was used to generate char and measure the rates of oxidation at gas temperatures about 1600K. Partially oxidized chars were extracted and characterized by gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and oxidation in a thermogravimetric analysis system (TGA). A different series of experiments was conducted using a quadrople electrodynamic balance. Single particles were suspended electrodynamically and heated by an infrared laser in an inert or oxygen-containing atmosphere. During the laser heating, measurements were taken of particle mass, size/shape, and temperature.

  8. Development of Energy Efficient Technologies for Burning Coal in Modern Thermal Power Plants and Efficiency Assessment Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskiy, Vitali; Zubova, Marina; Sedelnikov, Nikolai; Dihnova, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Universal ecological energy-efficient burner was described. The burner allows to burn different types of coal and lignite without the use of fuel oil for kindling the boiler. Efficiency assessment tools of the introduction of the burner for combustion of coal in modern thermal power plants were given.

  9. Geologic controls on thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in the Appalachian basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Hower, J.C.; Ryder, R.T.; Levine, J.R.; Trippi, M.H.; Grady, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin were determined by compiling and contouring published and unpublished vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. VR isograd values range from 0.6% in eastern Ohio and eastern Kentucky (western side of the East Kentucky coal field) to greater than 5.5% in eastern Pennsylvania (Southern Anthracite field, Schuylkill County), corresponding to ASTM coal rank classes of high volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite. VR isograds show that thermal maturity of Pennsylvanian coals generally increases from west to east across the basin. The isograds patterns, which are indicative of maximum temperatures during burial, can be explained by variations in paleodepth of burial, paleogeothermal gradient, or a combination of both. However, there are at least four areas of unusually high-rank coal in the Appalachian basin that depart from the regional trends and are difficult to explain by depth of burial alone: 1) a west-northwestward salient centered in southwestern Pennsylvania; 2) an elliptically-shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; 3) the eastern part of Black Warrior coal field, Alabama; and 4) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, in eastern Pennsylvania. High-rank excursions in southwest Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland, associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to higher heat flow from fluids, the Pennsylvania Anthracite region also experienced greater depth of burial. The high-rank excursion in southwest Virginia was probably primarily controlled by overburden thickness, but may also have been influenced by higher geothermal gradients.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a contract entitled Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technology - Froth Flotation'', to ICF Kaiser Engineers with the following team members, Ohio Coal Development Office, Babcock and Wilcox, Consolidation Coal Company, Eimco Process Equipment Company, Illinois State Geological Survey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Process Technology, Inc. This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  12. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Stoessner, R.D. ); Shirey, G.A.; Zawadzki, E.A. ); Welsh, C.F. ); Miller, J.D. ); Shell, W.P. )

    1990-05-27

    In May 1988, the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) were awarded a contract from the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center (DOE-PETC) to evaluate the performance of a two-inch Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) for cleaning fine minus-100-mesh coal. A 24-month study was successfully completed, optimizing the performance of the ASH for cleaning raw classified, naturally-occurring minus-100-mesh Upper Freeport coal, and comparing its performance with Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF), a procedure utilizing conventional flotation equipment operated in an advanced manner (low impeller speeds, starvation float, multiple-stage cleaning, etc.) with highly selective reagents to optimize ash and pyritic sulfur rejection. The economics of cleaning fine coal by both processes at commercial scale, for retrofit and greenfield applications were found to be comparable within the accuracy of the study. Technical performance of the two processes were also found to be essentially identical. Thus, the ASH would be the best choice for a retrofit installation into an existing plant because of requiring less space. Both processes were successful in achieving excellent separations when cleaning the Upper Freeport coal. Both the ASH and AFF circuits were able to produce a clean-coal product of yield (65--80 percent weight recovery) and quality (5--6 percent ash) equivalent to that as theoretically determined by float-sink washability analyses. Combining either of the two fine coal flotation processes with a classifying cyclone circuit resulted in pyritic sulfur rejection values of about 85 percent. 47 refs., 109 figs., 75 tabs.

  13. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Galica, M.A.

    1994-02-01

    This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

  16. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  17. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, 'Ken-Flote' column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  18. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop additional confidence in the conceptual design of the advanced froth flotation circuit, a 2-3 TPH Proof-of-Concept (POC) facility was necessary. During operation of this facility, the ICF KE team will demonstrate the ability of the conceptual flowsheets to meet the program goals of maximum pyritic sulfur reduction coupled with maximum energy recovery on three DOE specified coals. The POC circuit was designed to be integrated into the Ohio Coal Development's facility near Beverly, Ohio. OCDO's facility will provide the precleaning unit operations and ICF KE will add the advanced froth flotation circuitry. The work in this task will include the POC conceptual design, flowsheet development, equipment list, fabrication and construction drawings, procurement specifications and bid packages and a facilities.

  20. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  1. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  2. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Floatation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G H; Adel, G T

    1998-06-01

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eighth quarter of this project, the analysis of data collected during Task 2 (Sampling and Data Analysis) was completed, and significant progress was made on Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation). Previously, a plant sampling campaign had been conducted at Pittston's Moss No. 3 preparation plant to provide data for the development of a mathematical process model and a model-based control system. During this campaign, a one-half factorial design experiment, blocked into low and high feed rates, was conducted to investigate the effects of collector, frother, and pulp level on model parameters. In addition, samples were collected during the transient period following each change in the manipulated variables to provide data for confirmation of the dynamic process simulator. A residence time distribution (RTD) test was also conducted to estimate the mean residence time. This is a critical piece of information since no feed flowrate measurement is available, and the mean residence time can be used to estimate the feed flowrate. Feed samples were taken at timed intervals and floated in a laboratory flotation cell to investigate the magnitude of feed property disturbances and their duration.

  3. An Advanced Control System For Fine Coal Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

    1998-08-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the ninth quarter of this project, Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation) and Task 4 (Sensor Testing) were nearly completed, and Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was initiated. Previously, data collected from the plant sampling campaign (Task 2) were used to construct a population balance model to describe the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flotation circuit. The details of this model were presented in the Eighth Quarterly Technical Progress Report. During the past quarter, a flotation circuit simulator was designed and used to evaluate control strategies. As a result of this work, a model-based control strategy has been conceived which will allow manipulated variables to be adjusted in response to disturbances to achieve a target incremental ash value in the last cell of the bank. This will, in effect, maximize yield at an acceptable product quality. During this same period, a video-based ash analyzer was installed on the flotation tailings stream at the Moss No. 3 preparation plant. A preliminary calibration curve was established, and data are continuing to be collected in order to improve the calibration of the analyzer.

  4. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further

  5. Determination of 30 elements in coal and fly ash by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty elements are determined in coal and fly ash by instrumental neutron-activation analysis using both thermal and epithermal irradiation. Gamma-ray spectra were recorded 7 and 20 days after the irradiations. The procedure is applicable to the routine analysis of coals and fly ash. Epithermal irradiation was found preferable for the determination of Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U, whereas thermal irradiation was best for Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Yb and Lu. Results for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) agree with those of other investigators. ?? 1977.

  6. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  7. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  8. Mechanical and thermal control of cleating and shearing in coal: examples from the Alabama coalbed methane field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pashin, Jack; Carroll, R.E.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1999-01-01

    Natural fractures provide most of the interconnected macroporosity in coal. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of these fractures and the associated mechanisms of formation is essential for effective coalbed methane exploration and field management. Natural fractures in coal can be divided into two general types: cleat and shear structures. Cleat has been studied for more than a century, yet the mechanisms of cleat formation remain poorly understood (see reviews by Close, 1993; Laubach et al.,1998). An important aspect of cleating is that systematic fracturing of coal is takes place in concert with devolatization and concomitant shrinkage of the coal matrix during thermal maturation (Ammosov and Eremin, 1960). Coal, furthermore, is a mechanically weak rock type that is subject to bedding-plane shear between more competent beds like shale, sandstone, and limestone. Yet, the significance of shear structures in coal has only begun to attract scientific interest (Hathaway and Gayer, 1996; Pashin, 1998).

  9. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  10. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  11. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  12. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  13. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  14. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  15. Thin-film infrared absorber structures for advanced thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. D.; Pedder, D. J.

    1988-06-01

    Imaging thermal detector technology is a rapidly advancing field in which the current emphasis is towards the development of very large arrays of very small pyroelectric detector elements. For maximum responsivity, each of the thin pyroelectric elements in an array must be provided with a thermal absorber to convert incoming infrared radiation into heat. This paper describes one such absorber structure, comprising a thin metal film, impedance matched to free space, and a quarter-wave polymer film which offers an acceptably low thermal mass. The structure and properties of this thin-film absorber are compared with those of an electroplated platinum black absorber commonly used in thermal detectors. The theory of the absorber is presented and good agreement is shown between calculated and experimentally derived absorption spectra.

  16. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  17. Development of advanced capitalism: a case study of retired coal miners in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Legeay, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation develops a critical analysis of changes in American society during the last fifty years. It is focused in particular on the southern West Virginia coal fields, and examines the changes in class structure (specifically, coal miners), the labor process, the union, class consciousness, community and leisure. The study is grounded within a theoretical perspective that is dialectical. It is concerned with the interaction between specific social categories (such as the union) and the greater whole of capitalist development. It is centrally concerned with continuing a research orientation to which the Frankfurt School gave a powerful contribution: the development of advanced capitalism in the modern epoch. The study utilizes life-history interviews with retired coal miners, almost all of whom had experience with the exploitive company towns of an earlier time. Thus, techniques for the study of oral history are instrumental in developing an analysis of social developments, inasmuch as they provide data appropriate for an analysis of the transformation from early to late capitalism. Finally, this dissertation examines a problem central to dialectical theory, that of the relation between theory and praxis, by approaching the life histories as exemplifications of collective (i.e., social) experience. It integrates the biographical experience of individual miners with the theoretical dimensions of political economy in early and late capitalism. The current crisis in the coal fields is examined, with a view to possible transformation.

  18. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  19. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  20. Preliminary thermal-maturity map of the Cameo and Fairfield or equivalent coal zone in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuccio, Vito F.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    1983-01-01

    This map was prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Western Gas Sands Project and was constructed to show the thermal maturity of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation (or Group) in the Piceance Creek Basin. The ability of a source rock to generate oil and gas is directly related to its kerogen content and thermal maturity; hence, thermal maturity is commonly used as an exploration tool. This publication consists of two parts: a coal rank map for the basinwide Cameo and Fairfield or equivalent coal zone and three cross sections showing the variation in a coal rank for the entire Mesaverde. Structure contours on the map show the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation and its equivalent the Trout Creek Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation of the Mesaverde Group, which immediately underlie the Cameo and Fairfield zone. The structure contours show the fairly strong correlation between structure and coal rank in the basin, suggesting that maximum overburden was the key factor in determining the coal ranks. Even in the southern part of the basin where extensive plutonism occurred during the Oligocene, coal ranks still generally follow structure; indicating that the plutons had little affect on the coals. On the cross sections both the top of the Rollins and Trout Creek, and the top of the Mesaverde Formation/Group are shown. A complete analysis of the entire Mesaverde in the basin would require more information than is presently available.

  1. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  2. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Boehman, A.; Coleman, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 5 subtasks which are described: Literature review on thermal stability of jet fuels; Pyrolytic and catalytic reactions of potential endothermic fuels: cis- and trans-decalin; Use of site specific {sup 13}C-labeling to examine the thermal stressing of 1-phenylhexane: A case study for the determination of reaction kinetics in complex fuel mixtures versus model compound studies; Estimation of critical temperatures of jet fuels; and Surface effects on deposit formation in a flow reactor system. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Characterization of solid gums, sediments, and carbonaceous deposits, is subtask, Studies of surface chemistry of PX-21 activated carbon during thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Exploratory screening and development potential of jet fuel thermal stabilizers over 400 C; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, are 4 subtasks: Novel approaches to low-severity coal liquefaction and coal/resid co-processing using water and dispersed catalysts; Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels; Design of a batch mode and a continuous mode three-phase reactor system for the liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids; and Exploratory studies on coal liquids upgrading using mesopores molecular sieve catalysts. 136 refs., 69 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1993-09-30

    This project addressed two main goals and one much smaller one. The main goals were (1) to improve the significance, reliability and information content in high-resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization of coal samples and (2) to develop chemically informative NMR imaging techniques for coal. The minor goal was to explore advanced features of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) as a technique for coal characterization; this included the development of two DNP probes and the examination of DNP characteristics of various carbonaceous samples, including coals. {sup 13}C NMR advances for coal depended on large-sample MAS devices, employing either cross-polarization (CP) or direct polarization (DP) approaches. CP and DP spin dynamics and their relationships to quantitation and spin counting were elucidated. {sup 1}H NMR studies, based on CRAMPS, dipolar dephasing and saturation with perdeuteropyridine, led to a {sup 1}H NMR-based elucidation of chemical functionality in coal. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR imaging techniques, based on magic-angle spinning and rotating magnetic field gradients, were developed for introducing chemical shift information (hence, chemical detail) into the spatial imaging of coal. The TREV multiple-pulse sequence was found to be useful in the {sup 1}H CRAMPS imaging of samples like coal.

  4. Isotopically exchangeable organic hydrogen in coal relates to thermal maturity and maceral composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopic exchangeability (Hex) and ??Dn values of non-exchangeable organic hydrogen were investigated in coal kerogens ranging in rank from lignite to graphite. The relative abundance of Hex is highest in lignite with about 18% of total hydrogen being exchangeable, and decreases to around 2.5% in coals with Ro of 1.7 to ca. 5.7%. At Still higher rank (Ro > 6%), Hex increases slightly, although the abundance of total hydrogen decreases. ??Dn is influenced by original biochemical D/H ratios and by thermal maturation in contact with water. Therefore, ??Dn does not show an overall consistent trend with maturity. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  6. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  7. Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blosser, Max Leon

    2000-10-01

    Metallic thermal protection systems are a key technology that may help achieve the goal of reducing the cost of space access. A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. Multi-disciplinary background information was assembled and reviewed critically to provide a basis for development of improved metallic thermal protection systems. The fundamentals of aerodynamic heating were reviewed and applied to the development of thermal protection systems. General approaches to thermal protection were categorized and critiqued. The high temperature materials used for thermal protection systems (TPS), including insulations, structural materials, and coatings were reviewed. The history of metallic TPS from early pre-Shuttle concepts to current concepts for a reusable launch vehicle was reviewed for the first time. A current advanced metallic TPS concept was presented and systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element computational models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results from this study identify factors that have the most potential to improve metallic TPS performance. The thermal properties of the underlying vehicle

  8. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  9. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 -- Industrial boiler retrofit. Proof of concept testing summary (Task 3.0 Final topical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility, Pittsburgh Energy Technical Center (PETC) has supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories in cooperation with the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University to develop the High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC). The objective of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall objective the following specific areas were targeted: a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The work carried out under this program is broken into five major Tasks: review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; installation and testing of a HEACC system in a retrofit application; economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and long term demonstration under user demand conditions. This report summarizes the work done under Task 3, the installation and testing of the HEACC burner in a 15,000 lb/hr package boiler located at Penn State. The period of testing was approximately 400 hours. Key findings are presented.

  10. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve

  11. Exploration of coal-based pitch precursors for ultra-high thermal conductivity graphite fibers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, G.V.

    1996-12-27

    Goal was to explore the utility of coal-based pitch precursors for use in ultra high thermal conductivity carbon (graphite) fibers. From graphite electrode experience, it was established that coal-based pitches tend to form more highly crystalline graphite at lower temperatures. Since the funding was limited to year 1 effort of the 3 year program, the goal was only partially achieved. The coal-base pitches can form large domain mesophase in spite of high N and O contents. The mesophase reactivity test performed on one of the variants of coal-based pitch (DO84) showed that it was not a good candidate for carbon fiber processing. Optimization of WVU`s isotropic pitch process is required to tailor the pitch for carbon fiber processing. The hetero atoms in the coal pitch need to be reduced to improve mesophase formation.

  12. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  13. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Thermal Power Model in Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Fabanich, William A.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal power model that was built using the Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit (EU) test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's Ideas TMG thermal model. ASRG performance under (1) ASC hot-end temperatures, (2) ambient temperatures, and (3) years of mission for the general purpose heat source fuel decay was predicted using this model for the flight unit. The results were compared with those reported by Lockheed Martin and showed good agreement. In addition, the model was used to study the performance of the ASRG flight unit for operations on the ground and on the surface of Titan, and the concept of using gold film to reduce thermal loss through insulation was investigated.

  14. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  16. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  17. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  18. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  19. Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

  20. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  2. Sulfur speciation in hard coal by means of a thermal decomposition method.

    PubMed

    Spiewok, W; Ciba, J; Trojanowska, J

    2002-02-01

    A new method for the determination of organic and pyritic sulfur in hard coal is presented. The method is based on controlled thermal decomposition of coal sample in oxygen-free and oxygen atmospheres. The results for sulfur liberated in an argon atmosphere at temperatures up to 773 K were close to organic sulfur contents (Sorg), although owing to the definition of 'organic sulfur' the values were not directly comparable. Sorg contents are calculated from the difference between total sulfur content in coal and contents of this element in the form of sulfides, sulfates and pyrites. Sulfur contents, found in the second stage of analysis, were close to pyritic sulfur contents. The difference between total sulfur content and the sum of sulfur values obtained in stages I and II corresponded to sulfur contents in those samples which were neither decomposed nor oxidized at temperatures up to 1173 K. Although not comparable with such conventional concepts for industrial purposes these data are attractive due to the ease and rapidity of the new method for the control of sulfur streams in industrial processes.

  3. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  6. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  7. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  8. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  9. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1994-12-31

    This research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Trace elements considered in this project will include mercury, selenium, cadmium, and chlorine. Work in the first quarter has focused on trace element analysis procedures and sample acquisition. Several experts in the field of trace element analysis of coal have been consulted and these procedures are presently being evaluated.

  10. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. This project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance to rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was conducted on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent. 10 figs.

  11. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies'', DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS[sub 2] + B(OH)[sub 4][sup =] ------> [S[sub 2]Fe-B(OH)[sub 4

  12. Task 4 -- Conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system (CFATS)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-15

    Solar is developing the technologies for a highly efficient, recuperated, Advanced Turbine System (ATS) that is aimed at the dispersed power generation market. With ultra-low-emissions in mind the primary fuel selected for this engine system is natural gas. Although this gas fired ATS (GFATS) will primarily employ natural gas the use of other fuels particular those derived from coal and renewable resources cannot be overlooked. The enabling technologies necessary to direct fire coal in gas turbines were developed during the 1980`s. This Solar development co-sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) resulted in the testing of a full size coal-water-slurry fired combustion system. In parallel with this program the DOE funded the development of integrated gasification combined cycle systems (IGCC). This report describes the limitations of the Solar ATs (recuperated engine) and how these lead to a recommended series of modifications that will allow the use of these alternate fuels. Three approaches have been considered: direct-fired combustion using either a slagging combustor, or a pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC), externally or indirectly fired approaches using pulverized fuel, and external gasification of the fuel with subsequent direct combustion of the secondary fuel. Each of these approaches requires substantial hardware and system modifications for efficient fuel utilization. The integration issues are discussed in the sections below and a recommended approach for gasification is presented.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  14. Recent advances in large-eddy simulation of spray and coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. X.

    2013-07-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is under its rapid development and is recognized as a possible second generation of CFD methods used in engineering. Spray and coal combustion is widely used in power, transportation, chemical and metallurgical, iron and steel making, aeronautical and astronautical engineering, hence LES of spray and coal two-phase combustion is particularly important for engineering application. LES of two-phase combustion attracts more and more attention; since it can give the detailed instantaneous flow and flame structures and more exact statistical results than those given by the Reynolds averaged modeling (RANS modeling). One of the key problems in LES is to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models, including SGS stress models and combustion models. Different investigators proposed or adopted various SGS models. In this paper the present author attempts to review the advances in studies on LES of spray and coal combustion, including the studies done by the present author and his colleagues. Different SGS models adopted by different investigators are described, some of their main results are summarized, and finally some research needs are discussed.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The design criteria for each unit operation have been developed based upon a number of variables. These variables, at this time, are based upon the best engineering design information available to industry. A number of assumptions utilized in the design criteria are uncertain. The uncertainties of inert atmospheres for grinding and flotation as well as pyrite depressants were answered by the Surface Control Project. It was determined that inerting was not required and no new'' reagents were presented that improved the flotation results. In addition, Tasks 5 and 6 results indicated the required reagent dosage for conventional flotation and advanced flotation. Task 5 results also indicated the need for a clean coal,thickener, the flocculent dosages for both the clean coal and refuse thickeners, and final dewatering requirements. The results from Tasks 5 and 6 and summarized in Task 7 indicate several uncertainties that require continuous long duration testing. The first is the possibility of producing a grab product for both the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals in conventional flotation. Second what does long-term recirculation of clarified water do to the product quality The verification process and real data obtained from Tasks 5 and 6 greatly reduced the capital and operating costs for the process. This was anticipated and the test work indeed provided confirming data.

  16. Advanced thermal management needs for Lunar and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C. ); Webb, B.J. )

    1993-01-15

    Significant improvements in thermal management technologies will be required to support NASA's planned Lunar and Mars missions. The developments needed include the application of advanced materials to reduce radiator system masses, enhanced survivability, and the use of alternative working fluids. Current thermal management systems utilize one of two heat rejection alternatives; either single phase pumped loops, or two phase heat pipes constructed with thick walled metal casings. These two technologies have proven themselves to be reliable performers in the transport and rejection of waste heat from spacecraft. As thermal management needs increase with increased power consumption and activity required on spacecraft, these metal based thermal management systems will become mission limiting. Investigations into the use of light weight ceramic materials for high temperature thermal management systems have been conducted by NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense since the early 1980s, with results showing that significant mass savings can be obtained by replacing some of the metallic functions with ceramic materials.

  17. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next large aperture UVOIR space observatory. A key science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet which will be 10(exp -10) times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront error (WFE). This paper investigates parametric relationships between primary mirror physical parameters and thermal WFE stability. Candidate mirrors are designed as a mesh and placed into a thermal analysis model to determine the temperature distribution in the mirror when it is placed inside of an actively controlled cylindrical shroud at Lagrange point 2. Thermal strains resulting from the temperature distribution are found and an estimation of WFE is found to characterize the effect that thermal inputs have on the optical quality of the mirror. This process is repeated for several mirror material properties, material types, and mirror designs to determine how to design a mirror for thermal stability.

  18. High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 μg/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200μg/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global

  19. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  20. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  1. Thermal degradations of wood biofuels, coals and hydrolysis lignin from the Russian Federation: Experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Popova, Evgeniya; Chernov, Aleksandr; Maryandyshev, Pavel; Brillard, Alain; Kehrli, Damaris; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Lyubov, Viktor; Brilhac, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    The thermal degradation of wood biofuels (spruce, pine), of coals from different fields of the Russian Federation and of hydrolysis lignin is investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer under different heating conditions and under non-oxidative or oxidative atmospheres. The samples are indeed submitted to a linear temperature ramp of 10K/min or to a temperature ramp of 200K/min up to a residence temperature between 250 and 450°C where they are maintained during 4h (isothermal conditions). The values of the kinetic parameters are determined for these different samples in both thermal conditions, either using the differential isoconversional method or by means of an Extended Independent Parallel Reaction (EIPR) model. The values of the kinetic parameters obtained with this EIPR model for spruce trunk are also compared with that of its main constituents (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin).

  2. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was completed on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: Static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent while pyrite rejection was 70 to 75 percent. Flotation tests were also conducted on a slurry sample obtained from The Ziegler {number sign}26 Preparation Plant in Sesse, Illinois. Base-line flotation testing was completed using batch flotation to identify optimum reagent addition. Column flotation of the Ziegler slurry provided a clean coal containing 4--6 percent ash with a combustible recovery of 90--95 percent and pyrite rejection of 60--67 percent. Efforts are in progress in installing a 6-inc. I.D. pilot column at the Ziegler {number sign}26. 9 figs.

  3. Thermal pollution consequences of the implementation of the president's energy message on increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, F L

    1979-01-01

    The thermal consequences of coal utilization are most meaningfully assessed in comparison with the form of power generation replaced by coal which is most likely nuclear. The different effects are influenced by siting decisions and the intrinsic thermal efficiencies of the two fuel systems. Nuclear power plants discharge 50% more waste Rheat to the atmosphere through cooling towers or to a water body than coal-fired plants. Coal-fired plants require about 2/3 as much water as nuclear power plants. Nearly every property of water is affected nonlinearly by temperature, and biological effects may amplify these changes because protein denaturation takes place more rapidly above 30 degrees C and these high temperatures affect bactericidal and viricidal activity of chlorine compounds. Usually algal populations change from a dominance of diatoms and green algae to dominance by blue-green algae. All organisms experience elevated metabolic rates at higher temperatures which may affect total energy needs, foraging ability, reproduction, migration and susceptibility to disease. Intake structures inevitably draw many organisms into the cooling system of a power plant, but the number and kind are influenced by its location, configuration, and mode of operation. Use of water recirculation systems reduces water use and with it, the number of organisms entrained. Mechanical damage in the cooling system to small organisms is generally low, but fish and their larvae and eggs may be seriously damaged. Discharge effects may also be severe but are generally local. The near field, where there are strong shear velocities and rapid temperature changes are particularly stressful to fish, and stringent limitations on the timing and strength of discharges may be required to reduce these stresses to nondamaging levels. Off-stream cooling systems may increase cloudiness, ground fog, precipitation, temperature and local winds, but these effects generally extend no further than 1000 m even in

  4. Thermal Maturity of Pennsylvanian Coals and Coaly Shales, Eastern Shelf and Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Guevara, Edgar H.; Hentz, Tucker F.; Hook, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology are engaged in an ongoing collaborative study to characterize the organic composition and thermal maturity of Upper Paleozoic coal-bearing strata from the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin and from the Fort Worth basin, north-central Texas. Data derived from this study will have application to a better understanding of the potential for coalbed gas resources in the region. This is an important effort in that unconventional resources such as coalbed gas are expected to satisfy an increasingly greater component of United States and world natural gas demand in coming decades. In addition, successful coalbed gas production from equivalent strata in the Kerr basin of southern Texas and from equivalent strata elsewhere in the United States suggests that a closer examination of the potential for coalbed gas resources in north-central Texas is warranted. This report presents thermal maturity data for shallow (<2,000 ft; <610 m) coal and coaly shale cuttings, core, and outcrop samples from the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups from the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin. Data for Lower Pennsylvanian Atoka Group strata from deeper wells (5,400 ft; 1,645 m) in the western part of the Fort Worth basin also are included herein. The data indicate that the maturity of some Pennsylvanian coal and coaly shale samples is sufficient to support thermogenic coalbed gas generation on the Eastern Shelf and in the western Fort Worth basin.

  5. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  7. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  8. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal process. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1986--July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Mining and Minerals Resources Research Institute (MMRRI) to monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with select advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period to collect data on the field disposal behavior of these wastes. There has been considerable research on the characteristics and laboratory leaching behavior of coal wastes -- a lesser amount on wastes from advanced coal processes. However, very little information exists on the field disposal behavior of these wastes. Information on field disposal behavior is needed (1) as input to predictive models being developed, (2) as input to the development of rule of thumb design guidelines for the disposal of these wastes, and (3) as evidence of the behavior of these wastes in the natural environment.

  9. Stabilization of Heavy Metal Containing Hazardous Wastes with Byproducts from Advanced Clean Coal Technology Systems.

    PubMed

    Pritts, Jesse W; Neufeld, Ronald D; Cobb, James T

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the success of residues from advanced Clean Coal Technology (CCT) systems as stabilization agents for heavy metal containing hazardous wastes. In the context examined here, stabilization refers to techniques that reduce the toxicity of a waste by converting the hazardous constituents to a less soluble, mobile, or toxic form.(1) Three advanced CCT byproducts were used: coal waste-fired circulating fluidized bed combustor residue, pressurized fluidized bed combustor residue, and spray drier residue. Seven metal-laden hazardous wastes were treated: three contaminated soils, two air pollution control dusts, wastewater treatment plant sludge, and sandblast waste. Each of the seven hazardous wastes was treated with each of the three CCT byproducts at dosages of 10, 30, and 50% by weight (byproduct:waste). The treatment effectiveness of each mixture was evaluated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Of the 63 mixtures evaluated, 21 produced non-hazardous residues. Treatment effectiveness can likely be attributed to mechanisms such as precipitation and encapsulation due to the formation of hydrated calcium silicates and calcium sulfo-alu-minates. Results indicate that these residues have potential beneficial uses to the hazardous waste treatment community, possibly substituting for costly treatment chemicals.

  10. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  11. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  12. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-09-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  13. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  14. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-04-02

    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  15. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  16. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant.

  17. Ethylene/propylene oxide block copolymer interfacial phenomena in relation to coal cleaning by advanced flotation methods

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, J.L.; Chander, S.

    1995-12-01

    Surface tension of aqueous ethylene/propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer reagents were measured to understand their role in advanced coal flotation. Coal flotation is one of the most promising methods for separating the combustible matter in coal from ash forming minerals. The use of EO/PO block copolymer reagents enhances the rejection of ash minerals during coal flotation procedures. Since the mechanism whereby this enhancement is achieved is not known very well, an investigation of the surface tension characteristics of EO/PO block copolymer reagents was performed at various concentrations. Data obtained were used to compute adsorption densities at the liquid/gas interface. The adsorption characteristics of nine different EO/PO block copolymers were determined to examine the effect of percent ethylene oxide and formula weight. These studies predict that flotation experiments are most efficient when surfactants with low ethylene oxide percentages are utilized.

  18. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  20. Mathematical description of the kinetics of the thermal degradation of coals over a wide range of rates of heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, L.N.; Bronshtein, A.P.; Zadorina, E.N.; Zagorets, A.M.; Makarov, G.N.; Polyakov, A.A.; Shlenskii, O.F.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the most effective regimes for the thermal processing of solid fuels and the control of these processes requires a well-based selection of mathematical models for them. In the reported theoretical study, the question is considered of the possibility of using the traditional equations of chemical kinetics for describing the thermal degradation of the organic matter of coals. Various methods are proposed for the detemination of thermogravimetric curves. 14 refs.

  1. Cyclone as a precleaner to ESP--a need for Indian coal based thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Manjunath, S; Rao, C V Chalapati; Bopche, A M

    2003-11-01

    Almost all coal based thermal power plants (CTPP) in India use electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for reduction of particulate matter (PM) in flue gas generated due to the combustion of Indian coal. This coal is characterized by high ash content, low calorific value and low sulfur content resulting in the generation of a very large amount of highly electrically-resistive fly-ash; thereby requiring a very large size ESP to minimize the fly-ash emissions. However, the flue-gas particle size distribution analysis showed that 60% of the particles are above 15 microm size, which can be conveniently removed using a low-cost inertial separator such as a cyclone separator. It is proposed that a cyclone be used, as a pre-cleaner to ESP so that the large size fraction of fly-ash can be removed in the pre-cleaning and the remaining flue-gas entering the ESP will then contain only small size particles with low dust loading, thereby requiring a small ESP, and improving overall efficiency of dust removal. A low efficiency (65%), high throughput cyclone is considered for pre-cleaning flue gas and the ESP is designed for removal of the remaining 35% fly-ash from the flue gas. It is observed that with 100% dust load, the ESP requires six fields per pass, whereas with cyclone as a pre-cleaner, it requires only five fields per pass. Introducing cyclone into the flue gas path results in additional head loss, which needs to be overcome by providing additional power to induced draft (ID) fan. The permissible head loss due to the cyclone is estimated by comparing the power requirement in the bag filter control unit and cyclone-ESP combined unit. It is estimated that a head loss of 10 cm of water can be permitted across the cyclone so as to design the same for 65% efficiency.

  2. Organic petrology, thermal maturity, geology, and petroleum source rock potential of Lower Permian coal, Karoo supersystem, Zambia

    SciTech Connect

    Utting, J. ); Wielens, H. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on data concerning organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Karoo coal measures (Lower Permian) which are of considerable importance in determining the hydrocarbon potential of sediments in the rift-valley and half-graben complexes of the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys of eastern and southern Zambia, respectively, and in the extensive sedimentary basin developed on relatively stable Precambrian basement in western Zambia, a total area in excess of 3000 km{sup 2}. Samples from seven outcrop and subsurface localities situated in the northeast (northern Luangwa Valley), east (mid-Luangwa Valley), south (mid-Zambezi Valley), and the Western Province of Zambia were studied. The coal measures are from 9 to 280 m thick, but individual coal seams are generally less than 6 m. The coal macerals contain an average of 60% vitrinite and 9% liptinite, enough to have potential to generate hydrocarbon. A few samples contain twice this amount of liptinite. Reflected-light microscopy and the thermal alteration index of spores were used to determine the thermal maturity. The organic matter in samples studied is within the oil generation zone (thermal alteration index 2{minus} to 2+; %R{sub 0} max = 0.5-0.9). The petrological and palynological data indicate that the organic matter consists of Types II (generally approximately 25% in carbonaceous shale samples), III, and IV, indicating source rock potential. Late Karoo ( ) and post-Karoo fault blocks with differential vertical displacements may have produced structural traps suitable for oil and gas accumulation.

  3. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  4. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  5. Quantitative differentiation between coal, black carbon and soil organic matter in a minesoil matrix using thermal analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jaclyn; Baumgartl, Thomas; Erskine, Peter; Peltre, Clement; Plante, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Minesoils are created during the rehabilitation of mined lands, typically covering newly constructed landforms. These soils are developmentally young, with little to no organic matter due to losses during stockpiling, disturbance and dilution from mixing with overburden material. Increasing soil organic matter (SOM) content in minesoils can improve soil quality for subsequent use, and thus SOM levels could potentially be used as an indicator of rehabilitation success. Assessment of SOM accumulation in minesoils from coal mines is problematic because of the varying amounts of coal dispersed in them. A further complication is the potential presence of a third carbon source, pyrogenic or black carbon (BC) derived from vegetation burning. Black carbon is nearly ubiquitous in Australian soils and especially in Vertisols, which are common in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, an active coal mining region. The quantification of SOM accumulation in coal minesoils is therefore complicated by the varying presence of both coal and BC. The objective of this study was to quantitatively differentiate between coal, BC and soil organic matter in a minesoil matrix as a means of assessing SOM accumulation during rehabilitation. Multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is a chemometric deconvolution technique that makes it possible to decompose an unresolved mixture signal into several individual components and to estimate their concentration in the original mixture. We applied MCR-ALS to resolve curves generated during ramped combustion/oxidation. As a proof-of-principle, mixtures containing coal and/or BC (reference chestnut wood char) were created using three different matrices: sand, Vertisol and minesoil. Samples were analyzed using a Netzsch STA 409PC Luxx thermal analyser coupled to a LI-840 CO2/H2O infrared gas analyser (IRGA) for evolved gas analysis (EGA). MCR-ALS analyses were performed on area-normalized CO2-EGA curves, using individual

  6. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  7. Thermal oxidation purification of gaseous emissions to remove tar vapor and coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Zhilina, N.B.; Andreikov, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the production of molded coke one source of emissions of toxic substances is the excess heat carrier gas (640 m/sup 3/ per ton of charge). In addition to the gaseous components, it contains, g/m/sup 3/: water 360, tar vapor 3-5, coal dust 2-6. The goal of the present article was to evaluate the possibility of purifying this gas by thermal oxidation. The investigations were conducted on a laboratory apparatus with a quartz reactor (length 200 mm, diameter 14 mm), heated by a tube furnace. The tar is injected by a plunger metering pump into a gas mixture, where it is evaporated at 150/sup 0/C in a current of gas; then the tar vapors enter the reactor. The tar for oxidation was obtained in the low-temperature (600/sup 0/C) semicoking of coal; in the experiments a fraction (70 wt.% tar) with a boiling point up to 360/sup 0/C was used. The fraction contained 8% bases, 35% phenols, and 57% neutral part, consisting of paraffins, naphthenes, alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons and neutral oxygen-containing compounds.

  8. Structural and thermal behavior of coal combustion and gasification by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Valimbe, P.S.; Malhotra, V.M.; Banerjee, D.

    1995-12-31

    We have initiated studies which attempt to convert coal combustion and coal gasification by-products into high-value composite materials. However, before conversion strategies can be put in place, the raw materials must be characterized. Therefore, we undertook systematic microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on PCC fly ash, FBC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, and scrubber sludge. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure does not exactly match either conventional gypsum or hannebachite. SEM images indicate that unlike PCC fly ash particles, which are mainly spherical, the FBC fly ash and FBC spent bed ash particles are irregularly shaped and show considerable fusion. FBC fly ashes are mainly composed of anhydrite, lime, portlandite, calcite, hematite, magnetite and various glass phases. The DTA and DSC data suggest that the PCC fly ash is thermally stable up to 1100{degrees}C. However, this is not the case for FBC residue.

  9. Aerosols near by a coal fired thermal power plant: chemical composition and toxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayasekher, T

    2009-06-01

    Industrial processes discharge fine particulates containing organic as well as inorganic compounds into the atmosphere which are known to induce damage to cell and DNA, both in vitro and in vivo. Source and area specific studies with respect to the chemical composition, size and shape of the particles, and toxicity evaluations are very much limited. This study aims to investigate the trace elements associated with the aerosol particles distributed near to a coal burning thermal power plant and to evaluate their toxicity through Comet assay. PM(10) (particles determined by mass passing an inlet with a 50% cut-off efficiency having a 10-microm aerodynamic diameter) samples were collected using respirable dust samplers. Twelve elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Se, Hg, and As) were analyzed using ICP-AES. Comet assay was done with the extracts of aerosols in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Results show that Fe and Zn were found to be the predominant elements along with traces of other analyzed elements. Spherical shaped ultrafine particles of <1 microm aerodynamic diameter were detected through scanning electron microscope. PM(10) particles near to the coal burning power plant produced comets indicating their potential to induce DNA damage. DNA damage property is found to be depending upon the chemical characteristics of the components associated with the particles besides the physical properties such as size and shape.

  10. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  11. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Penn State program in advancd thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding them formation of vcarbonaceous solids; and, (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal.

  12. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote column flotation to maximize BTU recovery with minimum product sulfur and ash content from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyrite. During this contract period, samples were obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant and characterized. Analysis of the flotation feed slurry indicate that a significant amount of pyrite is present in the 5 microns size range as free particles. The coal is hydrophobic in nature and optimum reagent addition is 0.75 lb/ton frother and 1.5 lb/ton fuel oil. The best flotation results were obtained near pH 6 for all frothers tested. Two ash depressants tested showed no significant improvement in ash rejection. A pyrite depressant was also tested which indicated improved pyrite rejection from 28 to 37 percent at a dosage of 5 lb/ton. Efforts are in progress to design a test matrix to determine optimum operating conditions for column flotation testing with this substrate. The test matrixes will be designed to investigate three different bubble generating mechanisms. The objective is to identify column operating variables that will provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  14. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  15. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chen

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  16. The influence of thermal annealing on oxygen uptake and combustion rates of a bituminous coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Osvalda Senneca; Piero Salatino; Daniela Menghini

    2007-07-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on the combustion reactivity of a bituminous coal char has been investigated with a focus on the role of the formation of surface oxides by oxygen chemisorption. The combined use of thermogravimetric analysis and of analysis of the off-gas during isothermal combustion of char samples enabled the determination of the rate and extent of oxygen uptake along burn-off. Combustion was carried out at temperatures between 350 and 510{sup o}C. Char samples were prepared by controlled isothermal heat treatment of coal for different times (in the range between 1 s and 30 min) at different temperatures (in the range 900-2000{sup o}C). Results indicate that oxygen uptake is extensive along burn-off of chars prepared under mild heat treatment conditions. The maximum oxygen uptake is barely affected by the combustion temperature within the range of combustion conditions investigated. The severity of heat treatment has a pronounced effect on char combustion rate as well as on the extent and rate at which surface oxides are built up by oxygen chemisorption. Chars prepared under severe heat treatment conditions show negligible oxygen uptake and strongly reduced combustion rates. Altogether it appears that a close correlation can be established between the extent and the accessibility of active sites on the carbon surface and the combustion rate. Despite the investigation has been carried out at temperatures well below those of practical interest, results provide useful insight into the relationship existing between thermal annealing, formation of surface oxide and combustion reactivity which is relevant to the proper formulation of detailed kinetic models of char combustion. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  18. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale over the past two years has identified highly efficient methods for treating fine coal (i.e., -28 mesh). In this study, a circuit comprised of the three advanced fine coal cleaning technologies is being tested in an operating preparation plant to evaluate circuit performance and to compare the performance with the current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon concentrator and a Jameson froth flotation cell. The Floatex hydrosizer is being used as a primary cleaner for the nominally -16 mesh Illinois No. 5 fine coal circuit feed. The overflow of the Floatex is screened at 48 mesh using a Sizetec vibratory screen to produce a clean coal product from the screen overflow. The screen overflow is further treated by the Falcon and Jameson Cell. During this reporting period, tests were initiated on the fine coal circuit installed at the Kerr-McGee Galatia preparation plant. The circuit was found to reduce both the ash content and the pyritic sulfur content. Additional in-plant circuitry tests are ongoing.

  19. Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-25

    The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)

  20. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope lower enclosure thermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Warner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The exterior of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure requires cooling to eliminate so-called external dome seeing caused by solar loading during the observing day. This is achieved by way of coolant circulation through external plate coil panels, thereby maintaining the exterior surfaces of the enclosure at or just below ambient air temperature. As the distance from the optical path increases (e.g., on the surface of the lower enclosure), the stringency of the temperature requirement is diminished, thereby allowing a greater difference between the surface temperature and the ambient air temperature. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled performance of an active thermal control strategy on the lower enclosure to a passive strategy that employs concrete panels. A life-cycle cost analysis of each option is also presented.

  1. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas; Stahl, Phil; Arnold, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next Ultraviolet, Optical, Infrared (UVOIR) space observatory. A likely science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet that is 10-10 times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront. This paper investigates two topics: 1) parametric relationships between a primary mirror's thermal parameters and wavefront stability, and 2) optimal temperature profiles in the telescope's shroud and heater plate that minimize static wavefront error (WFE) in the primary mirror.

  2. Generating a representative signal of coal ash content to anticipate combustion control in a thermal power station.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Fernández, Ismael; Santurio-Díaz, José M; Folgueras-Díaz, Belén; López-Bobo, M Rosario; Fernández-Viar, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal ash in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. An installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, that could faithfully reproduce the operation of a belt feeder. In order to measure the ash content, a natural radioactivity meter was installed and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes were tested, eventually showing the possibility of achieving the objective.

  3. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  4. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Terra, the Earth Observing System's (EOS) flagship satellite platform on December 18, 1999. The polar-orbiting Terra contains five remote sensing instruments, which enable the scientific study and analyses of global terrestrial processes and manifestations of global change. One of the five instruments is the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is built in Japan by a consortium of government, industry, and research groups. It has three spectral bands in the visible near-infrared region (VNIR), six bands in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR), and five bands in the thermal infrared region (TIR), with 15-, 30-, and 90-meter ground resolutions, respectively. This combination of wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution allows ASTER to discriminate among a wide variety of surface materials. The VNIR subsystem also has a backward-viewing telescope for high-resolution (15-meter) stereoscopic observation in the along-track direction, which facilitates the generation of digital elevation models (DEM).

  5. Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    organic matter is lacking suggests that they originated elsewhere and subsequently migrated through the dump piles. During their migration, the compounds fractionated, were adsorbed on minerals and/or interacted. The absence of alkenes, and of other unsaturated organic compounds, may reflect primary diagenetic processes that occurred in coals and coal shales during burial and/or organic matter type. Their absence may also be a consequence of heating that lasted many years, hydropyrolysis, and/or the participation of minerals in the reactions occurring within the dumps. The wastes contain compounds typical of organic matter of unaltered kerogen III type and the products of pyrolytic processes, and mixtures of both. In some wastes, organic compounds are completely absent having been destroyed by severe heating. The distributions of n-alkanes in many samples are typical of pyrolysates. In some wastes, narrow n-alkane distributions reflect their generation over small temperature ranges. In others, wider distributions point to greater temperature ranges. Other wastes contain n-alkane distributions typical of unaltered coal and high pristane content or mixtures of pyrolysates and unaltered waste material. The wastes also contain significant amounts of final αβ hopanes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are represented only by two- to five-ring compounds as is typical of the thermal alteration of hard coal. Correlations between the degree of organic matter alteration and the relative contents of individual PAHs and hopanes and geochemical indicators of thermal alteration are generally poor. The properties of the organic matter (its composition and rank), temperature fluctuations within the dumps, migration of organic compounds and mineral involvement are probably responsible for this. The processes taking place in coal waste dumps undergoing self-heating and self-combustion are complicated; they are very difficult to estimate

  6. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  7. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1993-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

  8. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin

    1992-12-31

    It was the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Reaction rate constants and activation energy have been determined, and energy and mass balances performed. Substitution of a synthetic flue gas (7% 0{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 81% N{sub 2}) for nitrogen in the tube furnace resulted in at least equivalent chlorine removal (85.5%) compared to nitrogen. The fluidized bed dechlorination system modifications have resulted in a steady increase in performance, the most recent run providing 64% reduction in chlorine concentration. Addition of supplemental heat to the column should permit attainment of the slightly higher temperatures required to attain over 80% removal of the chlorine. Calcium chloride by-product of 67% purity has been produced. A bench scale catenary grid concentrator with supplemental heating coils and limited insulation is capable of concentrating CaCl{sub 2} solution up to essentially 40%, with no sign of scale or plugging. Further development of the process should include a thorough evaluation of the use of combustion gases to serve as the fluidizing medium and to provide the energy for the thermal dechlorination process.

  9. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, Chengliang; Raichur, A.M.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The flotation characteristics of coal-pyrites under various conditions was studied and compared with ore-pyrite and coal to determine the causes of pyrite rejection difficulties in coal flotation. Both the native and induced floatabilities of pyrites were investigated. It was found that both coal- and ore-pyrites, ff prepared by dry-grinding, show little or no floatability in the absence of any chemical reagents. After ultrasonic pretreatment, ore-pyrite floats effectively in the acidic to neutral pH range. Kentucky No. 9 coal-pyrite (KYPY) shows significant flotation in the pH range 7--10. With ethyl xanthate as collector, ore-pyrite floats well up to pH = 10; while coal-pyrite reveals no flotation above pH = 6. For the first time, the effect of coal collector on the floatability of coal-pyrite has been studied. It was shown that in the presence of fuel oil--a widely used collector for promoting coal flotation, coal-pyrite, particularly for the fine sizes, shows good flotation below pH = 11, whereas ore-pyrite has no or little floatability. These studies demonstrate that one of the main causes of the coal-pyrite flotation in coal separation is the oil-induced floatability due to adsorption/attachment of oil droplets on the coal-pyrite surfaces, the native'' or self-induced'' floatability of pyrite is no as profound as the oil-induced flotation.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  13. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Derived Jet Fuels Compositional Factors Affecting Thermal Degradation of Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    cyclization of n-butylbenzene or similar compounds, followed by dehydrogenation, Eq. 3. They can also be formed from the Diels - Alder type reaction between...after 4 hours. Tetralin can also undergo, to a small extent, ring contraction [111 to form 1-methylindan (Eq.3B). In addition, the Diels - Alder type ...may be the attack of ethyl radical on biphenyl to form 2-ethylbiphenyl, followed by condensation , Eq. 9. The Diels - Alder reaction between ethylene and

  14. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Boehman, A.; Coleman, M.M.

    1994-07-01

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 3 subtasks which are described: Pyrolysis of n-alkylbenzenes; Thermal decomposition of n-tetradecane in near-critical region; and Re-examining the effects of reactant and inert gas pressure on tetradecane pyrolysis--Effect of cold volume in batch reactor. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, is subtask, Effects of high surface area activated carbon and decalin on thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Screening potential jet fuel stabilizers using the model compound dodecane; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, is subtask, Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels. 25 refs., 64 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  16. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  18. Use of stable sulphur isotopes to monitor directly the behaviour of sulphur in coal during thermal desulphurization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed using stable sulphur isotope analyses to monitor the behaviour of sulphur forms in a coal during thermal desulphurization. In this method, the natural stable isotopic composition of the pyritic and organic sulphur in coal is used as a tracer to follow their mobility during the desulphurization process. This tracer method is based on the fact that the isotopic compositions of pyritic and organic sulphur are significantly different in some coals. Isotopic results of pyrolysis experiments at temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 ??C indicate that the sulphur released with the volatiles is predominantly organic sulphur. The pyritic sulphur is evolved in significant quantities only when pyrolysis temperatures exceed 500 ??C. The presence of pyrite seems to have no effect on the amount of organic sulphur evolved during pyrolysis. The chemical and isotopic mass balances achieved from three different samples of the Herrin (No. 6) coal of the Illinois Basin demonstrate that this stable isotope tracer method is quantitative. The main disadvantage of this tracing technique is that not all coals contain isotopically distinct organic and pyritic sulphur. ?? 1987.

  19. Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC as genotoxicity indicator of exposure to coal and emissions from a thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ana Paula Simões; Da Silva, Juliana; Roloff, Joice; Reyes, Juliana; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny F; Rohr, Paula; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    During coal combustion, hazardous elements are discharged that impair environmental quality. Plant cover is the first available surface for the atmospheric pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity in the aqueous extract of the native plant, Baccharis trimera, exposed to coal and emissions from a thermal power plant (coal-fired power plant in Candiota, Brazil), correlating seasonality, wind tunnel predominance, and presence of inorganic elements. The presence of inorganic elements in the aerial parts of B. trimera was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry, and genotoxicity was evaluated by ex vivo comet assay. The genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of B. trimera from four sites located in the area around power plant were analyzed by comet assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. Winter samples showed greater levels of metals than summer samples. Genotoxicity was detected in B. trimera extracts collected from the region exposed to extraction and burning coal. Extracts from the site impacted by the dominant wind induced more damage to DNA than those from other sites. Based on our data, we can suggest that in winter the inorganic elements from extraction and burning of coal and carried through the wind tunnel were responsible for the genotoxicity observed in aqueous extract of B. trimera.

  20. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the influence of the impurity content, particularly coal/carbon content, on the electrochemical oxidation of pyrite surfaces was investigated. The studies demonstrate that the coal/carbon content in coal-pyrite has a determining effect on the surface reactivity of pyrite. The oxidation behavior of high carbon-content coal-pyrite is completely different from that of purer coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. The effects of flotation gases on the flotation behavior of coal and the surface hydrophobicity of various coal-pyrite were investigated. It was found from the lab-scale column flotation studies that among the various gases studied (air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide), carbon dioxide produced the best results with a combustible recovery of 90% and ash-content of less than 9 percent. Finally, the surface energetic studies revealed that the surfaces of pyrites and coals produced by wet grinding is more heterogenous than that prepared by dry grinding.

  1. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  2. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  3. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  4. Development and testing of advanced cryogenic thermal switch concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marland, B.; Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of two advanced cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW) options for use in long-life cryogenic space systems. The principal application for these two CTSW options in such systems is in implementing cryocooler redundancy with a minimum parasitic heating penalty. The two CTSW configurations covered in the paper are a hydrogen gas-gap (H2-GG) design, flown on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Hitchhiker flight experiment, and a differential thermal expansion (DTE) design. Both options are constructed primarily of beryllium for CTE compatibility with beryllium cryogenic components. The H2-GG design utilizes a flat 2-mil gap between two cylindrical beryllium halves that are supported by a thin-walled titanium tube. A highly convoluted stainless steel bellows seals the unit. The H2-GG CTSW is nominally ``off'' (evacuated) until actuated ``on'' by heating a metal hydride getter, which evolves hydrogen and provides thermal conductance across the gap. The H2-GG design has demonstrated an ``on'' conductance of 1.0 W/K, an ``off'' resistance of 1000-1500 K/W and a range of operation from 15K-300K. The DTE design, which has just three parts, is very similar to the H2-GG design except that a stainless steel tube replaces the titanium tube and the bellows and getter are no longer needed. The DTE CSTW is actuated ``on'' (both sides cold) by the higher CTE of stainless steel compared to beryllium and actuated ``off'' by temporarily applying power to a small heater on the stainless steel tube to expand the tube enough to open the gap. After the smaller of the two beryllium parts warms sufficiently, the heater is no longer needed and the DTE CTSW remains ``off'' (one side cold, one side warm). The DTE design has demonstrated the potential for an ``on'' conductance greater than 1.0 W/K, an ``off'' resistance of 1400 K/W and a range of operation from less than 4K to 300K. This paper describes the design of each CTSW option and the

  5. [Toxicity of chemicals produced by thermal destruction of synthetic materials based on polyvinyl chloride and used in coal mines].

    PubMed

    Bolonova, L N; Sukhanov, V V; Teplova, T E

    1996-01-01

    The experiments on mongrel white rats studied toxicity of the products appearing during thermal destruction of conveyer tape TK-200 based on polyvinyl chloride and used in coal mines. The studies helped to define parameters of acute toxicity and the MACs for products of the conveyer tape burning, considering the main contents and the exposure intensity for 30-120 minutes; to determine jeopardy class; to calculate specific volatilization; to design recommendations for prevention of poisoning during fire in the mines.

  6. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

  7. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  8. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  10. Assessment of trace elements leaching of coal combustion residues from Bokaro Thermal Power Station.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, Prabhat

    2007-01-01

    The leaching behaviour of coal combustion residues (CCRs) viz. fly ash, bottom ash and pond ash from Bokaro Thermal Power Station (BTPS), Jharkhand was investigated by open column percolation experiment. The study aims to determine the long-term leaching of trace/ heavy elements CCRs from BTPS. The results ofpotentiometric analysis ofleachates reflected that CCRs are slightly acidic to alkaline but overall on the long-term basis these are alkaline in nature. From the long-term leaching study of approximately two years, it has been revealed that of the twenty three elements those were analysed by open column percolation experiments, only Ca, Mg, Na and K were found to be leaching throughout the study period though their concentrations reduced considerably with time. Other elements such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb found to leach at significant concentration levels for sometime but found to be absent on long-term basis. Elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Al, Co, B etc. were not found in the leachate. Conclusion of this study is that CCRs from BTPS are environmentally benign with respect to leaching of trace elements.

  11. Solar-driven coal gasification in a thermally irradiated packed-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas Piatkowski; Aldo Steinfeld

    2008-05-15

    Coal gasification for high-quality synthesis gas production is considered using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The solar reactor consists of two cavities separated by a radiant emitter plate, with the upper one serving as the solar absorber and the lower one containing the reacting packed bed that shrinks as the reaction progresses. A 5 kW prototype reactor with an 8 cm depth, 14.3 cm diameter cylindrical bed was fabricated and tested in a high-flux solar furnace, subjected to solar flux concentrations up to 2600 suns and packed-bed temperatures up to 1440 K. The reactor is modeled by formulating the 1D unsteady energy conservation equation that couples conductive-radiative heat transfer with the reaction kinetics and solving it by the finite volume technique for a transient shrinking domain. The overall reaction rate was determined experimentally by thermogravimetry, while the effective thermal conductivity was determined experimentally in a radial heat flow oven. Model validation was accomplished in terms of bed temperatures, gasified mass, and bed shrink rates measured in solar experiments conducted with beech charcoal. Heat transfer through the bed proved to be the rate-controlling mechanism, indicating an ablation regime. 31 refs., 18 figs.

  12. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  13. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  14. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  15. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, May--July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Mineral Research Center (EMRC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. The specific objectives for the reporting period were as follows: review fourth site candidates; obtain site access for the Freeman United site; select an ash supplier for the Illinois site and initiate subcontracts for on-site work; commence construction of the Freeman United test cell; and obtain waste for the Colorado Ute test site. Accomplishments under each task are discussed.

  16. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  17. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  18. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature

  19. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 2, Corrosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report, December 1988--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.

    1993-06-01

    The environment within the advanced industrial gas turbine is highly oxidizing and contains the compounds, salts and oxides that accelerate the rate of oxidation of structural materials. Protective coatings which differ from each other and the superalloys in composition and phase morphology, enhance the oxidation and corrosion resistance of the superalloys. As temperatures increase, the relativity stability and long term effectiveness of the coatings is of concern. The interdiffusion of coating and alloy constituents can affect chemical and mechanical properties. Long term studies are appropriate. Thermal barrier coatings, introduced at the inception of the current program will further improve the thermal efficiency of industrial gas turbine engines. The interaction between state-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and oxidation and corrosion in the coal fired environment is of concern and should be critically examined. The superior performance of the overlay coating is related to thickness rather than chemistry. With respect to sodium sulfate corrosion, the life of the overlay coating is 2.7 times longer than that of the platinum aluminide which in turn is 2.2 times longer than that of the simple aluminide. The ranking of the coatings is unchanged with respect to eutectic soft corrosion, however the salt is more aggressive. The life of the overlay coating is 1.4 times longer than that of the platinum aluminide which is 1.9 times longer than that of the simple aluminide.

  20. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-05-03

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1- March 31, 1996.

  1. Limiting Factors to Advancing Thermal Battery Technology for Naval Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    batteries are capable of supplanting lithium / thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal...supplanting lithium / thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power...the present lithium thermal battery technology. Improvements benefit missile, small vehicle, and sonobuoy capabilities. The Electrochemistry Branch

  2. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-07-28

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1993. The project has three major objectives: (1) the primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) a secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics; and (3) a third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  4. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  5. Removal of mercury from powder river basin coal by low-temperature thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes work conducted at Western Research Institute (WRI) to remove mercury from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal as part of the research performed under Task 2.1, Development and Optimization of a Process for the Production of a Premium Solid Fuel from Western US Coals, of the 1993 Annual Project Plan. In the tests minus 16 mesh PRB coal was fed to a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor where it was heated by contact with carbon dioxide fluidizing gas. A side stream of the gas from the reactor was passed through traps containing activated carbon where mercury driven from the coal was collected. The feed coal (which contains about 0.062 milligrams of mercury/kilogram of coal), the fines elutriated from the reactor, the activated carbon, and the condensed water from the reactor were analyzed for mercury. The solid products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy (ASTM D3684) while the water was analyzed using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 245.1 which is based upon reduction of mercury to elemental form followed by adsorption at a wave length of 253.7 nanometers. The results of these tests show that about 70 to 80 wt % of the mercury is removed from the coal when the temperature is raised from about 300{degree}F (149{degree}C) to about 550{degree}F (288{degree}C). The remaining 20 wt % of the mercury remains in the char at temperatures up to about 1100{degree}F (593{degree}C). About 0.5 wt % of the mercury in the feed coal is condensed with water recovered from the coal. Nearly all of the mercury driven from the coal remains in the gas stream. Fines elutriated from the reactor contain about the same concentration of mercury as the feed coal.

  6. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Thermal evaluation of advanced solar dynamic heat receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal performance of a variety of concepts for thermal energy storage as applied to solar dynamic applications is discussed. It is recognized that designs providing large thermal gradients or large temperature swings during orbit are susceptible to early mechanical failure. Concepts incorporating heat pipe technology may encounter operational limitations over sufficiently large ranges. By reviewing the thermal performance of basic designs, the relative merits of the basic concepts are compared. In addition the effect of thermal enhancement and metal utilization as applied to each design provides a partial characterization of the performance improvements to be achieved by developing these technologies.

  8. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  9. Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kesterson, Matt; Connel, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Southward, Robin E.; Working, Dennis; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes). This paper presents the initial system modeling studies, including a detailed liquid cooling garment model incorporated into the Wissler human thermal regulatory model, to quantify the necessary improvements in thermal conductivity and garment geometries needed to affect system performance. In addition, preliminary results of thermal conductivity improvements of the polymer components of the liquid cooled ventilation garment are presented. By improving thermal garment performance, major technology drivers will be addressed for lightweight, high thermal conductivity, flexible materials for spacesuits that are strategic technical challenges of the Exploration

  10. Advanced technology applications for second and third generation coal gasification systems. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen coal conversion processes are described and their projected goals listed. Tables show the reactants used, products derived, typical operating data, and properties of the feed coal. A history of the development of each process is included along with a drawing of the chemical reactor used.

  11. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-second quarterly report, January 2, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO{sub x}-NO{sub x} submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  13. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surfaces reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of the pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The product as well as their structure, the mechanism and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc., are directed at identifying the cause and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  14. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  15. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, Chengliang.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof will lead to identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  16. Effect of a cavitation treatment of coals on their physicochemical properties and ability for thermal dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yu. F. Patrakov; N.I. Fedorova; S.A. Semenova

    2007-08-15

    It was found that the cavitation treatment of low-metamorphized coals from the Kuznetsk Basin resulted in not only their mechanical degradation but also changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of coal particles due to the occurrence of oxidation-hydrolysis reactions with water in a supercritical state under cavitation conditions.

  17. An assessment of soil contamination due to heavy metals around a coal-fired thermal power plant in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, A.; Sengupta, D.

    2006-11-01

    Combustion of coals in thermal power plants is one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to generation of huge amounts of ashes, which are disposed off in large ponds in the vicinity of the thermal power plants. This problem is of particular significance in India, which utilizes coals of very high ash content (˜55 wt%). Since the thermal power plants and the ash ponds are located in densely populated areas, there is potential chance for contamination of soil and groundwater of the surrounding areas from the toxic trace elements in the ash. An attempt has been made to study the extent of soil contamination around one of the largest thermal power plants of India located at Kolaghat, West Bengal India. Chemical analysis of the top soils and the soils collected from the different depth profiles surrounding the ash ponds, show that the top soils are enriched in the trace elements Mo, As, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Be, V, Zn, which show maximum enrichment (2-5) in the top soils collected from all the soil profiles. These elements are also enriched in the pond ash. Since there are no other sources of industrial effluents, it can be said that the enrichment of the trace elements (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Ni, Be, V) is attributed to their input from ash from the disposal pond. The study has been further strengthened by log-normal distribution pattern of the elements.

  18. Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

    2013-06-01

    Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

  19. Characterization of PTFE Using Advanced Thermal Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A.; Meyer, M.; Strasser, C.

    2010-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in numerous industrial applications. It is often referred to by its trademark name, Teflon. Thermal characterization of a PTFE material was carried out using various thermal analysis and thermophysical properties test techniques. The transformation energetics and specific heat were measured employing differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal expansion and the density changes were determined employing pushrod dilatometry. The viscoelastic properties (storage and loss modulus) were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Combining thermal diffusivity data with specific heat and density allows calculation of the thermal conductivity of the polymer. Measurements were carried out from - 125 °C up to 150 °C. Additionally, measurements of the mechanical properties were carried out down to - 170 °C. The specific heat tests were conducted into the fully molten regions up to 370 °C.

  20. Magneto-transport properties of oriented Mn{sub 2}CoAl films sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G. Z.; Du, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H. Wu, G. H.; Zhang, H. G.

    2014-06-16

    Spin gapless semiconductors are interesting family of materials by embracing both magnetism and semiconducting due to their unique band structure. Its potential application in future spintronics requires realization in thin film form. In this Letter, we report fabrication and transport properties of spin gapless Mn{sub 2}CoAl films prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. The films deposited at 673 K are well oriented to (001) direction and display a uniform-crystalline surface. Magnetotransport measurements on the oriented films reveal a semiconducting-like resistivity, small anomalous Hall conductivity, and linear magnetoresistance representative of the transport signatures of spin gapless semiconductors. The magnetic properties of the films have also been investigated and compared to that of bulk Mn{sub 2}CoAl, showing small discrepancy induced by the composition deviation.

  1. Thermal maturity and organic composition of Pennsylvanian coals and carbonaceous shales, north-central Texas: Implications for coalbed gas potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Guevara, E.H.; Hentz, T.F.; Hook, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal maturity was determined for about 120 core, cuttings, and outcrop samples to investigate the potential for coalbed gas resources in Pennsylvanian strata of north-central Texas. Shallow (< 600??m; 2000??ft) coal and carbonaceous shale cuttings samples from the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups in Archer and Young Counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin (northwest and downdip from the outcrop) yielded mean random vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values between about 0.4 and 0.8%. This range of Ro values indicates rank from subbituminous C to high volatile A bituminous in the shallow subsurface, which may be sufficient for early thermogenic gas generation. Near-surface (< 100??m; 300??ft) core and outcrop samples of coal from areas of historical underground coal mining in the region yielded similar Ro values of 0.5 to 0.8%. Carbonaceous shale core samples of Lower Pennsylvanian strata (lower Atoka Group) from two deeper wells (samples from ~ 1650??m; 5400??ft) in Jack and western Wise Counties in the western part of the Fort Worth basin yielded higher Ro values of about 1.0%. Pyrolysis and petrographic data for the lower Atoka samples indicate mixed Type II/Type III organic matter, suggesting generated hydrocarbons may be both gas- and oil-prone. In all other samples, organic material is dominated by Type III organic matter (vitrinite), indicating that generated hydrocarbons should be gas-prone. Individual coal beds are thin at outcrop (< 1??m; 3.3??ft), laterally discontinuous, and moderately high in ash yield and sulfur content. A possible analog for coalbed gas potential in the Pennsylvanian section of north-central Texas occurs on the northeast Oklahoma shelf and in the Cherokee basin of southeastern Kansas, where contemporaneous gas-producing coal beds are similar in thickness, quality, and rank.

  2. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  3. Upgrading the solvent used for the thermal extraction of sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nao Kashimura; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Ikuo Saito

    2006-10-15

    HyperCoal is an ash-free coal produced by extraction with an industrial solvent at temperatures around 360{sup o}C, which can be fed directly to gas turbines. We searched for more powerful solvents to extract low-rank coals, such as sub-bituminous coal. Polar materials were successfully concentrated from a polar industrial solvent, crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO), by extraction with a mixture of methanol and water or aqueous HCl. The soluble fraction obtained using the former (MW-S) extracted 73 wt % (daf) of Wyodak Anderson sub-bituminous coal at 360{sup o}C, while that obtained using the latter (AC-S) extracted 63 wt %. These extraction yields were much higher than those with CMNO (43 wt %), indicating that fractionation concentrated the materials that dissolve the constituents of coal. MW-S contained more indole than AC-S. The results of addition tests suggested that indole had a greater ability to extract coal constituents than quinoline. In addition, the addition of 5 wt % methanol to a mixture of 1-methylnaphthalene, indole, and quinoline (30/20/50 wt %) increased the extraction yield from 58 to 69%, which was close to the yield of MW-S (73%). Therefore, the high extraction yield of MW-S can be explained by not only the composition of the nitrogen-containing polar materials in MW-S but also the presence of methanol. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Requirements for the conceptual design of advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual design requirements are presented for underground coal mining systems having substantially improved performance in the areas of production cost and miner safety. Mandatory performance levels are also set for miner health, environmental impact, and coal recovery. In addition to mandatory design goals and constraints, a number of desirable system characteristics are identified which must be assessed in terms of their impact on production cost and their compatibility with other system elements. Although developed for the flat lying, moderately thick seams of Central Appalachia, these requirements are designed to be easily adaptable to other coals.

  5. Advanced Thermal-Barrier Bond Coatings for Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secura, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    New and improved bond coatings developed for use in thermal-barrier systems on Ni, Co-, and Fe-base alloy substrates. Use of these new bond coatings, containing ytterbium instead of yttrium, significantly increased lives of resultant thermal-barrier systems. Uses include many load-bearing applications in high-temperature, hostile environments.

  6. Advanced Thermal Control Technologies for "CEV" (New Name: ORION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric; Westheimer, David; Ewert, Michael; Hasan, Mojib; Anderson, Molly; Tuan, George; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating several technology options for advanced human spaceflight. This presentation covers some recent developments that relate to NASA's Orion spacecraft and future Lunar missions.

  7. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra-efficient and low-emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttria based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  8. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra efficient and low emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttna based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  9. STUDY OF RADON, THORON EXHALATION AND NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN COAL AND FLY ASH SAMPLES OF KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER PLANT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B K; Sapra, B K; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Electricity generation in India is largely dependent on coal-based thermal power plants, and increasing demand of energy raised the coal consumption in the power plants. In recent years, study of natural radioactivity content and radon/thoron exhalation from combustion of coal and its by-products has given considerable attention as they have been recognised as one of the important technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials. In the present study, radon, thoron exhalation rate and the radioactivity concentration of radionuclides in coal and fly ash samples collected from Kota Super Thermal Power Plant, Rajasthan, India have been measured and compared with data of natural soil samples. The results have been analysed and discussed.

  10. Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation.

    PubMed

    Kristovich, Robert L; Dutta, Prabir K

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished.

  11. Nitration of benzo(a)pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Kristovich; Prabir K. Dutta

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo(2)pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Temperatures of up to 500{sup o}C were used. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo(a)pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished. 52 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Assessment of contamination of soil due to heavy metals around coal fired thermal power plants at Singrauli region of India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Prashant; Mittal, Anugya; Prakash, Rajiv; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, T B; Tripathi, S K

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to measure contamination of soil around four large coal-based Thermal Power Plants. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was estimated in all four directions from Thermal Power Plants. The soil in the study area was found to be contaminated to varying degrees from coal combustion byproducts. The soil drawn from various selected sites in each direction was largely contaminated by metals, predominantly higher within 2-4 km distance from Thermal Power Plant. Within 2-4 km, the mean maximum concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was 0.69, 13.69, 17.76, and 3.51 mg/kg, respectively. It was also observed that concentration was maximum in the prevalent wind direction. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was highest 0.69, 13.23, 17.29 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively in west direction where wind was prevalent.

  13. Production of High Energy Aviation Fuels from Advanced Coal Liquids. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    flushing. In addition, there are two common commercial dewaxing catalysts, one licensed by British Petroleum which selectively breaks the long chains...coal liquids used in this program were pruduced from the Close Coupled Integrated Two Stage Liquifactior System (ISTL) plant at Wilsonville Alabama...effort would address two issues; first, it would assess aspects of a domestic resource, coal liquids, that have heretofore been considered to be of

  14. Thermal degradation study of silicon carbide threads developed for advanced flexible thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim; Sawko, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber is a material that may be used in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) for future aerospace vehicles. SiC fiber's mechanical properties depend greatly on the presence or absence of sizing and its microstructure. In this research, silicon dioxide is found to be present on the surface of the fiber. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) show that a thin oxide layer (SiO2) exists on the as-received fibers, and the oxide thickness increases when the fibers are exposed to high temperature. ESCA also reveals no evidence of Si-C bonding on the fiber surface on both as-received and heat treated fibers. The silicon oxide layer is thought to signal the decomposition of SiC bonds and may be partially responsible for the degradation in the breaking strength observed at temperatures above 400 C. The variation in electrical resistivity of the fibers with increasing temperature indicates a transition to a higher band gap material at 350 to 600 C. This is consistent with a decomposition of SiC involving silicon oxide formation.

  15. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  16. Road asphalt modifiers based on oil-resistant rubbers and products of thermal transformations of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sharypov, V.I.; Kiselev, V.P.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Bugaenko, M.B.; Kuznetsov, B.N.

    2008-07-15

    The properties of asphalt binder modifiers prepared by dissolving butadiene-acrylonitrile rubbers and their production waste in liquid products of heat treatment of various brands of coal were studied.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  18. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  19. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; ...

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  20. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  1. A circulating fluidized-bed furnace for combusting anthracite culm and the thermal-contact pyrolysis of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhman, B. B.

    2007-09-01

    A method for thermal-contact pyrolysis of coal and a furnace design for combusting solid fuel in a circulating fluidized bed are proposed. The geometric, aerodynamic, and physicochemical parameters of the pyrolysis zone situated in the near-wall region of the freeboard space are calculated. It is shown that, if the initial fuel is fed through a part of the annular zone’s cross-sectional area, the near-wall clusters are destroyed and the concentration of the dispersed phase in the reaction zone increases, both resulting in the thermochemical processing of recirculating coke-ash particles to proceed more rapidly.

  2. Advanced wellbore thermal simulator GEOTEMP2 research report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    The development of the GEOTEMP2 wellbore thermal simulator is described. The major technical features include a general purpose air and mist drilling simulator and a two-phase steam flow simulator that can model either injection or production.

  3. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  4. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal.

  5. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. [Quarterly] report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-12-31

    The paper submitted earlier on the use of (bicyclo[3.2.1]4pyrrolidino-N-methyl-octan-8-one triflate) ({sup 13}CO-123) as a {sup 13}C intensity standard was accepted for publication. Subsequently, {sup 13}CO-321 was used in this manner for quantitative {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR analysis (including spin counting) of Argonne Premium coals. The cross-polarization time constants, T{sub CH}, and the rotating-frame proton spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1p}{sup H}, were determined for each major peak of each coal via a combination of variable contact-time and variable spin-lock (T{sub 1p}{sup H}) experiments. Two or three components of rotating-frame {sup 1}H relaxation decay and two or three components of T{sub CH} behavior were observed for each major {sup 13}C peak of each coal. These data were used to determine the number of carbon atoms detected in each coal; these values are in the range between 77% and 87% of the amount of carbon known to be in each coal from elemental analysis data, except for Pocahontas No. 3, for which only 50% of the carbon was detected. In an attempt to use {sup 1}H CRAMPS to elucidate chemical functionality in coal, pyridine-saturated samples of the Argonne Premium coals were examined in detail in terms of their {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR spectra. These spectra were deconvoluted to yield relative concentrations for individual peaks.

  6. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The program is being conducted by a team consisting of AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems & Equipment (ASE) (formerly AiResearch Los Angeles Division) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, M; Khan, M A

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were found to be alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent was found to contain large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. All the effluents were found to be responsible for altering the chemical composition of the soil. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased, probably due to being leached to the lower layers of the soil. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both the crops when the irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. The germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. The samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of the effluents on the canal water and its subsequent effect on the crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained

  9. Microstructural evolution in advanced boiler materials for ultra-supercritical coal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanyan

    The goal of improving the efficiency of pulverized coal powerplants has been pursued for decades. The need for greater efficiency and reduced environmental impact is pushing utilities to ultra supercritical conditions (USC), i.e. steam temperatures approaching 760°C under a stress of 35 MPa. The long-term creep strength and environmental resistance requirements imposed by these conditions are clearly beyond the capacity of the currently used ferritic steels and other conventional alloys. As part of a large DOE-funded consortium, new and existing materials based on advanced austenitic stainless steels and nickel base superalloys are being evaluated for these very demanding applications. In the present work, the nickel base superalloys of Inconel 617, CCA617, Haynes 230 and Inconel 740, and austenitic alloys Super 304H and HR6W, were evaluated on their microstructural properties over elevated temperature ageing and creep rupture conditions. The materials were aged for different lengths of time at temperatures relevant to USC applications, i.e., in the range from 700 to 800°C. The precipitation behaviors, namely of the gamma', carbides and eta phase in some conditions in nickel base superalloys, carbides in Haynes 230, Cu-rich precipitates in Super 304H and Laves phase particles in HR6W, were studied in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and related analytical techniques. Particular attention has been given on the structure, morphology and compositional distinctiveness of various phases (including gamma, gamma', carbides, secondary phase precipitates, and other types of particles) and their nature, dislocation structures and other types of defects. The results were presented and discussed in light of associated changes in microhardness in the cases of aged samples, and in close reference to mechanical testing (including tensile and creep rupture tests) wherever available. Several mechanical strengthening

  10. The Coal Tech Advanced Cyclone Combustor Demonstration Project: A DOE assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a technology for retrofitting oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal-fired boilers, by using the patented air-cooled slagging coal combustor in place of oil/gas/coal burners. The project aimed to utilize coals with a wide range of sulfur contents and to achieve efficient combustion under fuel-rich conditions. The three performance goals of the combustor were to limit emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, while maintaining maximum sulfur retention in the slag removed from the combustor. A slagging cyclone combustor is a high-temperature device in which a high-velocity swirling gas is used to burn crushed or pulverized coal. The key novel feature of this combustor is the use of air cooling. This is accomplished by using a ceramic liner which is cooled by secondary air and maintained at a temperature high enough to keep the slag in a liquid, free-flowing state. The arrangement also promotes slag retention in the combustor, an important feature for retrofitting in boilers designed for oil/gas.

  11. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  12. World market: A survey of opportunities for advanced coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, N.A.H.

    1995-06-01

    Although there is a wide range of forecasts for the future of World energy demand and consumption over the next 25 years, all forecasts show marked increases being required for all forms of fossil fuels even when optimistic projections are made for the future adoption of Nuclear and Renewable energy. It is also generally expected that coal usage will in this period experience its greatest growth (a doubling) in the Asia-Pacific region dominated demographically by China and India. In this paper, energy projections and the extent and nature of the coal reserves available worldwide are examined. While most coal technologies can handle a variety of feedstocks, there are often economic factors that will determine the preferred selection. The matching of technology to coal type and other factors is examined with particular reference to the Asia Pacific region. Oil usage is similarly forecast to experience a comparable growth in this region. Over 70% of the World`s oil reserves are heavy oils and refinery crudes are increasing in gravity and sulfur content. The clean coal technologies of gasification and fluid bed combustion can also use low value petroleum residuals as feedstocks. There is therefore a nearer term market opportunity to incorporate such technologies into cogeneration and coproduction schemes adjacent to refineries resulting in extremely efficient use of these resources.

  13. Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - An advanced optics technology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Colin; Labaw, Clayton; Sobel, Harold; Kahle, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of a special optical filter, the Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne multispectral IR imaging instrument operating in the thermal emission region (7.5-14 microns), will achieve signal-to-noise ratios greater than 600 with ambient temperature optics. This instrument will be used to do compositional surface mapping of the terrain, and will refine the ability to categorize rock families and types by providing much higher spectral resolution in the emission region than was previously available. Details of the optical system, the detector, the cooler system, and the support electronics are described.

  14. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Flotation. Sixth quarter, technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-10-27

    Over the past thirty years, process control has spread from the chemical industry into the fields of mineral and coal processing. Today, process control computers, combined with improved instrumentation, are capable of effective control in many modem flotation circuits. Unfortunately, the classical methods used in most control strategies have severe limitations when used in froth flotation. For example, the nonlinear nature of the flotation process can cause single-input, single-output lines to battle each other in attempts to achieve a given objective. Other problems experienced in classical control schemes include noisy signals from sensors and the inability to measure certain process variables. For example, factors related to ore type or water chemistry, such as liberation, froth stability, and floatability, cannot be measured by conventional means. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate an advanced control system for fine coal flotation. The demonstration is being carried out at an existing coal preparation plant by a team consisting of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI&SU) as the prime contractor and J.A. Herbst and Associates as a subcontractor. The objectives of this work are: (1) to identify through sampling, analysis, and simulation those variables which can be manipulated to maintain grades, recoveries, and throughput rates at levels set by management; (2) to develop and implement a model-based computer control strategy that continuously adjusts those variables to maximize revenue subject to various metallurgical, economic, and environmental constraints; and (3) to employ a video-based optical analyzer for on-line analysis of ash content in fine coal slurries.

  15. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, M. L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.

  16. Advanced technology applications for second and third general coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The historical background of coal conversion is reviewed and the programmatic status (operational, construction, design, proposed) of coal gasification processes is tabulated for both commercial and demonstration projects as well as for large and small pilot plants. Both second and third generation processes typically operate at higher temperatures and pressures than first generation methods. Much of the equipment that has been tested has failed. The most difficult problems are in process control. The mechanics of three-phase flow are not fully understood. Companies participating in coal conversion projects are ordering duplicates of failure prone units. No real solutions to any of the significant problems in technology development have been developed in recent years.

  17. Impairment of soil health due to fly ash-fugitive dust deposition from coal-fired thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Raja, R; Nayak, A K; Shukla, A K; Rao, K S; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Panda, B B; Kumar, A; Bhattacharyya, P; Bardhan, G; Gupta, S; Patra, D K

    2015-11-01

    Thermal power stations apart from being source of energy supply are causing soil pollution leading to its degradation in fertility and contamination. Fine particle and trace element emissions from energy production in coal-fired thermal power plants are associated with significant adverse effects on human, animal, and soil health. Contamination of soil with cadmium, nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, chromium, and zinc can be a primary route of human exposure to these potentially toxic elements. The environmental evaluation of surrounding soil of thermal power plants in Odisha may serve a model study to get the insight into hazards they are causing. The study investigates the impact of fly ash-fugitive dust (FAFD) deposition from coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on soil properties including trace element concentration, pH, and soil enzymatic activities. Higher FAFD deposition was found in the close proximity of power plants, which led to high pH and greater accumulation of heavy metals. Among the three power plants, in the vicinity of NALCO, higher concentrations of soil organic carbon and nitrogen was observed whereas, higher phosphorus content was recorded in the proximity of NTPC. Multivariate statistical analysis of different variables and their association indicated that FAFD deposition and soil properties were influenced by the source of emissions and distance from source of emission. Pollution in soil profiles and high risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging interpolation. The concentrations of chromium and arsenic were higher in the soil where FAFD deposition was more. Observance of relatively high concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel, and arsenic and a low concentration of enzymatic activity in proximity to the emission source indicated a possible link with anthropogenic emissions.

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  19. Measurement of CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO emissions from coal-based thermal power plants in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Mukherjee, I.; Santra, A. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mitra, A. P.; Sharma, C.

    Measurements of CO 2 (direct GHG) and CO, SO 2, NO (indirect GHGs) were conducted on-line at some of the coal-based thermal power plants in India. The objective of the study was three-fold: to quantify the measured emissions in terms of emission coefficient per kg of coal and per kWh of electricity, to calculate the total possible emission from Indian thermal power plants, and subsequently to compare them with some previous studies. Instrument IMR 2800P Flue Gas Analyzer was used on-line to measure the emission rates of CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO at 11 numbers of generating units of different ratings. Certain quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) techniques were also adopted to gather the data so as to avoid any ambiguity in subsequent data interpretation. For the betterment of data interpretation, the requisite statistical parameters (standard deviation and arithmetic mean) for the measured emissions have been also calculated. The emission coefficients determined for CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO have been compared with their corresponding values as obtained in the studies conducted by other groups. The total emissions of CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO calculated on the basis of the emission coefficients for the year 2003-2004 have been found to be 465.667, 1.583, 4.058, and 1.129 Tg, respectively.

  20. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  1. Advanced Oxide Material Systems For 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are being developed for low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor containing combustion environments. The 1650 C T/EBC system is required to have better thermal stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance than current coating systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivity, water vapor stability and cyclic durability of selected candidate zirconia-/hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based T/EBC materials are evaluated. The test results have been used to downselect the T/EBC coating materials, and help demonstrate advanced 1650OC coatings feasibility with long-term cyclic durability.

  2. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  3. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-01-21

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.

  4. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW.

  5. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications.

  6. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  7. Techniques for measurement of the thermal expansion of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques available to measure small thermal displacements in flat laminates and structural tubular elements of advanced composite materials are described. Emphasis is placed on laser interferometry and the laser interferometric dilatometer system used at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. Thermal expansion data are presented for graphite-fiber reinforced 6061 and 2024 aluminum laminates and for graphite fiber reinforced AZ91 C and QH21 A magnesium laminates before and after processing to minimize or eliminate thermal strain hysteresis. Data are also presented on the effects of reinforcement volume content on thermal expansion of silicon-carbide whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum.

  8. Testing of pyrite flotation techniques on selected Ohio coals: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Torak, E.R.

    1989-05-01

    The project was conceived to demonstrate the combining of conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies in a cost-effective manner. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that conventional coal cleaning followed by advanced coal cleaning of a crushed mid-gravity portion of the run-of-mine coal would produce a clean coal, suitable for use as a thermal coal, having a lower ash content and a lower sulfur dioxide emission potential than a coal cleaned only be current conventional cleaning technologies. As part of this program a number of advanced flotation techniques were tested to determine the feasibility of including them in the design of their Advanced Coal Preparation Facility. The program consisted of testing the Pittsburgh seam, the Middle Kittanning seam, and the Meigs Creek seam coals in the pilot flotation circuit at EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) in Homer City, Pennsylvania. This report contains all the data from OCDO's pilot flotation test program at the CQDC and the test data from the Middle Kittanning and Meigs Creek reverse flotation tests. 13 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability, for the Advanced Turbine Systems program (gas turbine). The base program consists of three phases: Phase I, program planning (complete); Phase II, development; and Phase III (selected specimen-bench test). Work is currently being performed in Phase II.

  10. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.

    1995-11-01

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barriers to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  11. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.

    1995-12-31

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barrier to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  12. Advanced technology for ancillary coal cleaning operations. Technical progress report, September--December, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The work under contract number DE-AC22-87PC97881 is devoted to experimental research and development to investigate the feasibility of novel ancillary coal-cleaning technologies that offer a potential for reduced capital and operating costs. The ancilliary operations that are specifically addressed in this work include pulse enhanced drying, fines reconstitution by extrusion, and hydraulic wave comminution.

  13. Advanced technology for ancillary coal cleaning operations. Technical progress report, January 1988--March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The work under contract number DE-AC22-87PC97881 is devoted to experimental research and development to investigate the feasibility of novel ancillary coal-cleaning technologies that offer a potential for reduced capital and operating costs. The ancilliary operations that are specifically addressed in this work include pulse enhanced drying, fines reconstitution by extrusion, and hydraulic wave comminution.

  14. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  15. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  16. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  17. The thermal engineering characteristics of plasma-assisted ignition of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2010-06-01

    The parameters playing an important role in implementing a technology of preparing coal for combustion by subjecting it to plasma-assisted thermal—chemical treatment are considered, and their effect on the main characteristics of the obtained product is analyzed. The optimal values of such parameters are determined.

  18. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1992-12-31

    During the first quarter of FY 1993, the Project proceeded close to the Project Plan. The analysis of the feed material has been completed as far as possible. Some unplanned distillation was needed to correct the boiling range of the Black Thunder solvent used during the autoclave tests. Additional distillation will be required if the same solvent is to be used for the bench unit tests. A decision on this is still outstanding. The solvent to be used with Illinois No. 6 coal has not yet been defined. As a result, the procurement of the feed and the feed analysis is somewhat behind schedule. Agglomeration tests with Black Thunder coal indicates that small agglomerates can be formed. However, the ash removal is quite low (about 10%), which is not surprising in view of the low ash content of the coal. The first series of autoclave tests with Black Thunder coal was completed as planned. Also, additional runs are in progress as repeats of previous runs or at different operating conditions based on the data obtained so far. The results are promising indicating that almost complete solubilization (close to 90%) of Black Thunder coal can be achieved in a CO/H{sub 2}O environment at our anticipated process conditions. The design of the bench unit has been completed. In contrast to the originally planned modifications, the bench unit is now designed based on a computerized control and data acquisition system. All major items of equipment have been received, and prefabrication of assemblies and control panels is proceeding on schedule. Despite a slight delay in the erection of the structural steel, it is anticipated that the bench unit will be operational at the beginning of April 1993.

  19. Advanced Liquid-Cooling Garment Using Highly Thermally Conductive Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This design of the liquid-cooling garment for NASA spacesuits allows the suit to remove metabolic heat from the human body more effectively, thereby increasing comfort and performance while reducing system mass. The garment is also more flexible, with fewer restrictions on body motion, and more effectively transfers thermal energy from the crewmember s body to the external cooling unit. This improves the garment s performance in terms of the maximum environment temperature in which it can keep a crewmember comfortable. The garment uses flexible, highly thermally conductive sheet material (such as graphite), coupled with cooling water lines of improved thermal conductivity to transfer the thermal energy from the body to the liquid cooling lines more effectively. The conductive sheets can be layered differently, depending upon the heat loads, in order to provide flexibility, exceptional in-plane heat transfer, and good through-plane heat transfer. A metal foil, most likely aluminum, can be put between the graphite sheets and the external heat source/sink in order to both maximize through-plane heat transfer at the contact points, and to serve as a protection to the highly conductive sheets. Use of a wicking layer draws excess sweat away from the crewmember s skin and the use of an outer elastic fabric ensures good thermal contact of the highly conductive underlayers with the skin. This allows the current state of the art to be improved by having cooling lines that can be more widely spaced to improve suit flexibility and to reduce weight. Also, cooling liquid does not have to be as cold to achieve the same level of cooling. Specific areas on the human body can easily be targeted for greater or lesser cooling to match human physiology, a warmer external environment can be tolerated, and spatial uniformity of the cooling garment can be improved to reduce vasoconstriction limits. Elements of this innovation can be applied to other embodiments to provide effective heat

  20. High-velocity Frictional Behavior of Dunite, Biotite Gneiss, Phyllite and Coal Show Evidence for Melting and Thermal Degasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, K. D.; Mizoguchi, K.; Shimamoto, T.

    2004-12-01

    We conducted high-velocity frictional experiments on dunite, biotite gneiss, phyllite gouge and coal gouge at Kyoto University using a rotary high-velocity frictional testing machine. The purpose was to examine the effect of frictional melting in various rock types and to explore the effect of thermal degassing using coal as an analogue for a volatile fault zone. Experiments were conducted dry at equivalent slip rates of 1 m/s (1200 rpm) at normal stresses of 0.6-16 MPa for distances up to 90 m. Solid cylinders (25 mm diameter) of dunite and biotite gneiss were sheared with aluminum-alloy jackets at high stress, whereas phyllite and coal gouges were sheared with Teflon sleeves at low stress. The metal jackets allow high stress experiments to be performed and are inferred to melt before rock melting occurs. Dunite sheared at 10-16 MPa shows a weakening-strengthening followed by second weakening on melting, similar to previous experiments on gabbro without a metal jacket. Dunite melting is confirmed by, as yet unidentified, dendritic microlites, and a rapid reduction of steady-state frictional strength to 0.15. Under similar conditions, biotite gneiss shows apparent melting, but undergoes continuous strengthening without reaching steady state. Bituminous coal gouge sheared at 0.6 MPa undergoes a highly reproducible rapid weakening from 0.75 to 0.2, with odorous white gas emissions, sometimes accompanied by liquid hydrocarbons. Shear stress decreases prior to gasification and rapidly oscillating sample shortening/elongation occurs during gas emission. A slowly sheared sample (15 rpm) did not show weakening or gas emission. This is the first experimental demonstration of weakening associated with devolatilization during rapid slip. Vitrinite reflectance measurements on sheared coal samples may provide constraints on the temperature during gasification. Phyllite gouge sheared under the same conditions shows a gradual weakening to a steady-state strength of about 0

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 25, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  2. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1994--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1994-07-01

    Research continued on coal-based, thermally stable, jet fuels. Significant progress has been made on the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in highly stressed fuels, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection. Gas chromatography is not able to detect compounds with {>=}6 fused aromatic rings, but such compounds can be identified using the HPLC method. The concentration of such compounds is low in comparison to aromatics of 1-3 rings, but the role of the large compounds in the formation of solid deposits may be crucial in determining the thermal stability of a fuel. The unusual properties of fluid fuels in the near-critical region appear to have significant effects on their thermal decomposition reactions. This issue has been investigated in the present reporting period using n-tetradecane as a model compound for fuel decomposition. Temperature-programmed retention indices are very useful for gas chromatographic and gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of coal and petroleum derived jet fuels. We have demonstrated this in the identification of components in two JP-8 fuels and their liquid chromatographic fractions. The role of activated carbon surfaces as catalysts in the thermal stressing of jet fuel was investigated using n-dodecane and n-octane as model compounds. In some cases the reactions were spiked with addition of 5% decalin to test the ability of the carbon to catalyze the transformation of decalin to naphthalene. We have previously shown that benzyl alcohol and 1,4-benzenedimethanol are effective stabilizers at temperatures {>=}400{degrees}C for jet fuels and the model compound dodecane. The addition of ethanol to hydrocarbon/benzyl alcohol mixtures has a significant effect on the thermal stabilization of jet fuels above 400{degrees}C. Ethanol appears to function by reducing the benzaldehyde formed during the degradation of the benzyl alcohol. This reduction regenerates the benzyl alcohol.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 8 (July - September, 1994), work on the formulation of coal water slurries from flotation concentrates was completed. Parametric and optimization tests were performed on the Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch MicrocelT{sup M} flotation column. Laboratory research on selective agglomeration was completed with limited testing of the Dietz coal and alternate agglomerants. Initial planning has started for the bench-scale agglomeration unit which will utilize heptane as the bridging liquid in a conventional two-stage system, and steam stripping for heptane recovery and recycle. A project review meeting was held at Bechtel to discuss the detailed design of the PDU, which is being designed to process Indiana VII, Sunnyside, and Taggart coals. Process flow, piping and instrument, and equipment layout diagrams are being revised to reflect the process improvements resulting from bench-scale testing. Material Requisition activity has commenced, and will continue next quarter along with the selection of a construction subcontractor.

  4. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-02-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  5. Thermal Properties of Oxides With Magnetoplumbite Structure for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Oxides having magnetoplumbite structure are promising candidate materials for applications as high temperature thermal barrier coatings because of their high thermal stability, high thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity. In this study, powders of LaMgAl11O19, GdMgAl11O19, SmMgAl11O19, and Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxides were synthesized by citric acid sol-gel method and hot pressed into disk specimens. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of these oxide materials were measured from room temperature to 1500 C. The average CTE value was found to be approx.9.6x10(exp -6)/C. Thermal conductivity of these magnetoplumbite-based oxide materials was also evaluated using steady-state laser heat flux test method. The effects of doping on thermal properties were also examined. Thermal conductivity of the doped Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 composition was found to be lower than that of the undoped GdMgAl11O19. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient was found to be independent of the oxide composition and appears to be controlled by the magnetoplumbite crystal structure. Thermal conductivity testing of LaMgAl11O19 and LaMnAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxide coatings plasma sprayed on NiCrAlY/Rene N5 superalloy substrates indicated resistance of these coatings to sintering even at temperatures as high as 1600 C.

  6. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995 No. 16

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the sixteenth quarter (July `95 through September `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions.

  7. Advanced solar thermal storage medium test data and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, H.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of experimentally obtained heat transfer and heat storage characteristics of a solar thermal energy storage bed utilizing containerized water or phase change material (PCM) and rock or brick. It is shown that (1) containers with an L/D ratio of 0.80 and a mass/surface area ratio of 2.74 in a random stacking arrangement have the optimum heat transfer characteristics; and (2) vertical stacking has the least pressure drop across the test bed. It is also found that standard bricks with appropriate holes make an excellent storage medium.

  8. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  9. Development of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Using a High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, high temperature capability thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which initially rises under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later drops under the cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on damage accumulation and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The external radiation resistance of the coating is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser- heated intense radiation-flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature may be derived.

  10. Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Bowyer, J. M.; Gajanana, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic radiation is converted to thermal energy. A heat engine/generator assembly then converts the thermal energy captured by the receiver to electricity. Developmental activity has been concentrated on small power modules which employ 11- to 12-meter diameter dishes to generate nominal power levels of approximately 20 kWe. A comparison of advanced heat engines for the dish power module is presented in terms of the performance potential of each engine with its requirements for advanced technology development. Three advanced engine possibilities are the Brayton (gas turbine), Brayton/Rankine combined cycle, and Stirling engines.

  11. Advanced phase change composite by thermally annealed defect-free graphene for thermal energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xin, Guoqing; Sun, Hongtao; Scott, Spencer Michael; Yao, Tiankai; Lu, Fengyuan; Shao, Dali; Hu, Tao; Wang, Gongkai; Ran, Guang; Lian, Jie

    2014-09-10

    Organic phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized as latent heat energy storage and release media for effective thermal management. A major challenge exists for organic PCMs in which their low thermal conductivity leads to a slow transient temperature response and reduced heat transfer efficiency. In this work, 2D thermally annealed defect-free graphene sheets (GSs) can be obtained upon high temperature annealing in removing defects and oxygen functional groups. As a result of greatly reduced phonon scattering centers for thermal transport, the incorporation of ultralight weight and defect free graphene applied as nanoscale additives into a phase change composite (PCC) drastically improve thermal conductivity and meanwhile minimize the reduction of heat of fusion. A high thermal conductivity of the defect-free graphene-PCC can be achieved up to 3.55 W/(m K) at a 10 wt % graphene loading. This represents an enhancement of over 600% as compared to pristine graphene-PCC without annealing at a comparable loading, and a 16-fold enhancement than the pure PCM (1-octadecanol). The defect-free graphene-PCC displays rapid temperature response and superior heat transfer capability as compared to the pristine graphene-PCC or pure PCM, enabling transformational thermal energy storage and management.

  12. Effects of Doping on Thermal Conductivity of Pyrochlore Oxides for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2006-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides of general composition, A2B2O7, where A is a 3(+) cation (La to Lu) and B is a 4(+) cation (Zr, Hf, Ti, etc.) have high melting point, relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity which make them suitable for applications as high-temperature thermal barrier coatings. The effect of doping at the A site on the thermal conductivity of a pyrochlore oxide La2Zr2O7, has been investigated. Oxide powders of various compositions La2Zr2O7, La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 were synthesized by the citric acid sol-gel method. These powders were hot pressed into discs and used for thermal conductivity measurements using a steady-state laser heat flux test technique. The rare earth oxide doped pyrochlores La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 had lower thermal conductivity than the un-doped La2Zr2O7. The Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 co-doped composition showed the lowest thermal conductivity.

  13. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  14. Thermal helium desorption behavior in advanced ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Sugano, R.; Matsushita, Y.; Ukai, S.

    2005-02-01

    Thermal helium desorption measurements were performed to investigate the difference in the helium trapping and accumulation behavior among a reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel and oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels after implantation of He+ ions at room temperature. Thermal helium desorption spectra (THDS) were obtained during annealing to 1200 °C at a heating rate of 1 °C/s. The THDS of the ODS steels are very similar to that of the RAF steel, except for the presence of the peak in the temperature range from 800 to 1000 °C, where the α γ transformation related helium desorption from the γ-phase is considered to occur in the 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels. The fraction of helium desorption becomes larger at higher temperatures, and this trend is increased with the amount of implanted helium. In the 9Cr-ODS steels, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration mechanism was smaller than that in the RAF steel. This suggests that the bubble formation was suppressed in the ODS steels. In the 12Cr-ODS steel, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration reached more than 90%, suggesting that the trapping capacity of martensite phase in the 9Cr-ODS steel is rather large.

  15. Advances in Moire interferometry for thermal response of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, E. W., Jr.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.; Hyer, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental technique for the precise measurement of the thermal response of both sides of a laminated composite coupon specimen uses Moire interferometry with fringe multiplication which yields a sensitivity of 833 nm (32.8 micro in.) per fringe. The reference gratings used are virtual gratings and are formed by partially mirrorized glass prisms in close proximity to the specimen. Results are compared with both results obtained from tests which used Moire interferometry on one side of composite laminates, and with those predicted by classical lamination theory. The technique is shown to be capable of producing the sensitivity and accuracy necessary to measure a wide range of thermal responses and to detect small side to side variations in the measured response. Tests were conducted on four laminate configurations of T300/5208 graphite epoxy over a temperature range of 297 K (75 F) to 422 K (300 F). The technique presented allows for the generation of reference gratings for temperature regimes well outside that used in these tests.

  16. Advanced development receiver thermal vacuum tests with cold wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    The first ever testing of a full size solar dynamic heat receiver using high temperature thermal energy storage was completed. The heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements for operation on the Space Station Freedom. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partially simulate a low Earth orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to produce flux distributions typical of candidate concentrators. A closed Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles were completed during the test conduct period. The test hardware, execution of testing, test data, and post test inspections are described.

  17. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-07

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm.

  18. Advanced coal liquefaction. Final quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Coal liquid upgrading using compound No. 9, 4-(1-naphthymethyl) bibenzyl, as a model was performed in a catalytic membrane reactor in this quarter. Membrane packed with granular catalyst synthesized from Si-CVD coatedy-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used as a reactor. A control was also performed using the same reactor under a packed-bed operation mode. About 52% conversion of compound No. 9 was obtained in a packed-bed at 400{degrees}C and 200 psi. Under a similar operating condition, compound No. 9 was completely decomposed in the catalytic membrane reactor. The results offer the experimental evidence of enhanced upgrading efficiency of upgrading coal liquid using a membrane reactor. A similar study will be duplicated before the end of the contract.

  19. Advanced research and technology: Direct utilization recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M. J.; Adelman, D. J.

    1980-12-01

    Methods for utilizing coal fly ash through processes for the extraction of alumina and titania, and for the separation and use of an iron-rich fraction are described. Research of the HiChlor process for the extraction of alumina and titania by high temperature chlorination of a fly ash reductant mixture is described. An engineering cost evaluation is presented for a centralized HiChlor processing facility to process the fly ash of several large coal fueled power stations. Investigations for a high temperature lime soda process for extraction of alumina from fly ash included the use of several types of quarry limestones and waste materials to replace the limestone and/or soda ash.

  20. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.