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Sample records for advanced thermal management

  1. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  2. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  3. Advances in Electrically Driven Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is a vibrant technology development initiative incorporating ISS based technology demonstrations, development of innovative fluid management techniques and fundamental research efforts. The program emphasizes high temperature high heat flux thermal management required for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews i.) preliminary results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched on STP-H5 payload in February 2017 ii.) advances in liquid phase flow distribution control iii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment under the NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program.

  4. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  5. Advanced thermal management techniques for space power electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Angel Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Current thermal management techniques are not sufficient for the increasing waste heat dissipation of novel electronic technologies. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. The benefits and limitations of emerging cooling technologies are discussed. These technologies include: liquid pumped devices, mechanically pumped two-phase cooling, capillary pumped evaporative cooling, and thermoelectric devices. Currently, liquid pumped devices offer the most promising alternative for electronics thermal control.

  6. Advances in LED packaging and thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses and cost are key light-emitting diode (LED) packaging issues. Heat dissipation limits power levels. Thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. An OIDA LED workshop cited a need for better thermal materials. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required LEDs. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  7. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  8. Advanced thermal management needs for Lunar and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C. ); Webb, B.J. )

    1993-01-15

    Significant improvements in thermal management technologies will be required to support NASA's planned Lunar and Mars missions. The developments needed include the application of advanced materials to reduce radiator system masses, enhanced survivability, and the use of alternative working fluids. Current thermal management systems utilize one of two heat rejection alternatives; either single phase pumped loops, or two phase heat pipes constructed with thick walled metal casings. These two technologies have proven themselves to be reliable performers in the transport and rejection of waste heat from spacecraft. As thermal management needs increase with increased power consumption and activity required on spacecraft, these metal based thermal management systems will become mission limiting. Investigations into the use of light weight ceramic materials for high temperature thermal management systems have been conducted by NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense since the early 1980s, with results showing that significant mass savings can be obtained by replacing some of the metallic functions with ceramic materials.

  9. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  10. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  11. Thermal management of advanced fuel cell power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Hedstrom, J.; Huff, J.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that fuel cell devices are particularly attractive for the high-efficiency, high-reliability space hardware necessary to support upcoming space missions. These low-temperature hydrogen-oxygen systems necessarily operate with two-phase water. In either PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) or AFCs (alkaline fuel cells), engineering design must be critically focused on both stack temperature control and on the relative humidity control necessary to sustain appropriate conductivity within the ionic conductor. Water must also be removed promptly from the hardware. Present designs for AFC space hardware accomplish thermal management through two coupled cooling loops, both driven by a heat transfer fluid, and involve a recirculation fan to remove water and heat from the stack. There appears to be a certain advantage in using product water for these purposes within PEM hardware, because in that case a single fluid can serve both to control stack temperature, operating simultaneously as a heat transfer medium and through evaporation, and to provide the gas-phase moisture levels necessary to set the ionic conductor at appropriate performance levels. Moreover, the humidification cooling process automatically follows current loads. This design may remove the necessity for recirculation gas fans, thus demonstrating the long-term reliability essential for future space power hardware.

  12. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  13. Joining and Integration of Advanced Carbon-Carbon Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal management applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of carbon-carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal management applications.

  14. Advances in thermal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kitto, J.B.; Fiveland, W.A.; Latham, C.E.; Peterson, G.P.

    1995-03-01

    Heat transfer--more broadly, thermal engineering--is playing an increasingly critical role in the development and successful application of advanced technology in virtually all fields. From space stations to hazardous-waste destruction to high-speed transport, from ozone-protecting refrigerants to ``night vision`` goggles, a vast range of technologies depend on energy management, heat-flow control, and temperature control to successfully meet their design objectives and attain commercial success. Meeting the continually escalating demand for electricity and ``cheap`` process that will remain a challenge. Environmental protection can depend not only on using energy more efficiently, but on changing the energy conversion process to reduce initial pollutant formation. Further advances in electronics, materials processing, and manufacturing will depend in part on more precise energy management and temperature control. The scale of thermal engineering is quite broad, extending from the very large to the near-molecular level, and from very high temperatures of thousands of degrees to very low ones approaching absolute zero. This breadth of application is illustrated by a review of three specific areas: application of advanced numerical modeling to large boiler furnaces (approaching 100 m in height) in order to improve environmental performance; application of microscale ({approximately}100 {micro}) heat pipes to cool high-performance electronic circuits; and a look at some of the manufacturing processes where heat transfer and thermal analysis improve quality, performance and cost.

  15. MATLAB/Simulink Framework for Modeling Complex Coolant Flow Configurations of Advanced Automotive Thermal Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, Gene; Lustbader, Jason; Leighton, Daniel; Kiss, Tibor

    2016-04-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was extended by including a newly developed coolant loop solution method aimed at reducing the simulation effort for arbitrarily complex thermal management systems. The new approach does not require the user to identify specific coolant loops and their flow. The user only needs to connect the fluid network elements in a manner consistent with the desired schematic. Using the new solution method, a model of NREL's advanced combined coolant loop system for electric vehicles was created that reflected the test system architecture. This system was built using components provided by the MAHLE Group and included both air conditioning and heat pump modes. Validation with test bench data and verification with the previous solution method were performed for 10 operating points spanning a range of ambient temperatures between -2 degrees C and 43 degrees C. The largest root mean square difference between pressure, temperature, energy and mass flow rate data and simulation results was less than 7%.

  16. Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

  17. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  18. Advanced fault management for the Space Station External Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, William S.; Hill, Timothy; Robertson, Charles

    1992-07-01

    The Thermal Control System Automation Project is developing three related software systems. The first is a high-fidelity simulator of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS), which provides heating, cooling, and control necessary to maintain elements, systems, and components within their required temperature range. The second is an SSF run-time object data base. The third is a knowledge-based system (KBS) to monitor, control, and perform fault detection, isolation, and recovery on the SSF EATCS. The paper describes the EATCS hardware, the KBS design, the model-based sensor validation, the rule-based diagnosis, human interface issues, and future plans for the KBS.

  19. MATLAB/Simulink Framework for Modeling Complex Coolant Flow Configurations of Advanced Automotive Thermal Management Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, Eugene; Lustbader, Jason; Leighton, Daniel; Kiss, Tibor

    2016-03-22

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was extended by including a newly developed coolant loop solution method aimed at reducing the simulation effort for arbitrarily complex thermal management systems. The new approach does not require the user to identify specific coolant loops and their flow. The user only needs to connect the fluid network elements in a manner consistent with the desired schematic. Using the new solution method, a model of NREL's advanced combined coolant loop system for electric vehicles was created that reflected the test system architecture. This system was built using components provided by the MAHLE Group and included both air conditioning and heat pump modes. Validation with test bench data and verification with the previous solution method were performed for 10 operating points spanning a range of ambient temperatures between -2 degrees C and 43 degrees C. The largest root mean square difference between pressure, temperature, energy and mass flow rate data and simulation results was less than 7%.

  20. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  1. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  2. Advanced solderless flexible thermal link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian G.; Jensen, Scott M.; Batty, J. Clair

    1996-10-01

    Flexible thermal links play an important role int he thermal management of cryogenically cooled components. The purpose of these links is to provide a means of transferring heat from a cooled component to a cooler reservoir with little increase in temperature. The standard soldered approach although effective proves to be time consuming and contributes to added thermal impedances which degrade the performance of the link. For system with little tolerance for temperature differences between cooled components and a cooling source this is undesirable. The authors of this paper have developed a technique by which thin metal foil or braided wire can be attached to metal end blocks without any solder using the swaging process. Swaging provides a fast, simple method for providing a low thermal impedance between the foils and blocks. This paper describes the characteristics of these thermal links in terms of length, mass, thermal resistance, flexibility, and survivability.

  3. Feasibility study: management of selected aspects of the advanced Solar Thermal Technology Program by a University consortium. Final report, June 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; Brown, J.H.U.

    1981-02-01

    To increase the involvement of universities and advanced technology industries in task-oriented supporting research for the Solar Thermal Energy System (STES) program, organizational issues are considered. A generic and discipline focused program is considered which could provide applied research capabilities for all elements in the STES program. A management structure is presented which is organized around the management and research capabilities of universities. The proposed organization structure is designed to effectively plan, implement, and manage an applied research program dedicated to providing research support for and in coordination with the STES program. The chief aim is to enhance and expand the involvement of universities in the STES program through one or two university management and through the active participation by other universities and industries in an executive advisory board. A large number of consortia development studies were considered and university and industry views were consolidated. A two university team management approach is believed to have distinct advantages.

  4. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (<10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scattering from a diamond placed edge-on to the x-ray beam. Because of the high peak power density of the x-ray beams, this diamond experiences high temperatures and has to be clamped to a water-cooled heat spreader using thermal interface materials (TIMs), which play a key role in reducing the temperature of the diamond. To evaluate temperature changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This paper presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.

  5. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; ...

    2017-02-07

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (<10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scattering from a diamond placed edge-on to the x-ray beam. Because of the high peak power density of the x-ray beams, this diamond experiences high temperatures and has to be clamped to a water-cooled heat spreader using thermal interface materials (TIMs),more » which play a key role in reducing the temperature of the diamond. To evaluate temperature changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This study presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.« less

  6. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  7. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  8. Development of Advanced Spacecraft Thermal Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses ground based proof of concept hardware under development at NASA GSFC to address high heat flux thermal management in silicon substrates and embedded thermal management systems. The goal is to develop proof of concept hardware for space flight validation. The space flight hardware will provide gravity insensitive thermal management for electronics applications such as transmit/receive modules that are severely limited by thermal concerns.

  9. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  10. Advanced thermal control for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    In optical systems just like any other space borne system, thermal control plays an important role. In fact, most advanced designs are plagued with volume constraints that further complicate the thermal control challenges for even the most experienced systems engineers. Peregrine will present advances in satellite thermal control based upon passive heat transfer technologies to dissipate large thermal loads. This will address the use of 700 W/m K and higher conducting products that are five times better than aluminum on a specific basis providing enabling thermal control while maintaining structural support.

  11. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  12. Thermal Conductivity and Sintering Behavior of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings, having significantly reduced long-term thermal conductivities, are being developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  13. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  14. Micro-Scale Avionics Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in the thermal management of avionics and commercial ground-based microelectronics are converging, and facing the same dilemma: a shortfall in technology to meet near-term maximum junction temperature and package power projections. Micro-scale devices hold the key to significant advances in thermal management, particularly micro-refrigerators/coolers that can drive cooling temperatures below ambient. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) Stirling cooler is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this challenge with predicted efficiencies that are an order of magnitude better than current and future thermoelectric coolers.

  15. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  16. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  17. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  18. Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

  19. Study of thermal management for space platform applications: Unmanned modular thermal management and radiator technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate techniques for thermal management of unmanned modules docked to a large 250 kW platform were evaluated. Both automatically deployed and space constructed radiator systems were studied to identify characteristics and potential problems. Radiator coating requirements and current state-of-the-art were identified. An assessment of the technology needs was made and advancements were recommended.

  20. Atomizer for thermal management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, Charles L. (Inventor); Weiler, Jeff (Inventor); Palmer, Randal T. (Inventor); Appel, Philip W. (Inventor); Knight, Paul A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An atomizer for thermal management system for efficiently thermally managing one or more heat producing devices. The atomizer for thermal management system includes a housing having a coolant passage and a dispensing end, an orifice within the dispensing end, and an actuator manipulating a plunger within the housing. The plunger includes a head that is sealable within a recessed portion of the orifice to open or close the orifice. The coolant passes through the coolant passage into the orifice for spraying upon a heat producing device. The actuator may reciprocate so that the coolant spray emitted through the orifice is pulsating. The pulsing frequency may be increased to increase cooling or decreased to decrease cooling of the heat producing device.

  1. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  2. Management of advanced corneal ectasias.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Dubey, Aditi; Jhanji, Vishal; Sharma, Namrata; Das, Sujata; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-01-01

    Corneal ectasias include a group of disorders characterised by progressive thinning, bulging and distortion of the cornea. Keratoconus is the most common disease in this group. Other manifestations include pellucid marginal degeneration, Terrien's marginal degeneration, keratoglobus and ectasias following surgery. Advanced ectasias usually present with loss of vision due to high irregular astigmatism. Management of these disorders is difficult due to the peripheral location of ectasia and associated severe corneal thinning. Newer contact lenses such as scleral lenses are helpful in a selected group of patients. A majority of these cases requires surgical intervention. This review provides an update on the current treatment modalities available for management of advanced corneal ectasias.

  3. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  4. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  5. Management of advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Van Bakel, Adrian B; Chidsey, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) due to progressive systolic dysfunction has become a modern-day epidemic. Despite the increased incidence and prevalence, significant progress has been made in the past 10 to 15 years in the treatment of CHF at all stages. The current outlook for patients with newly diagnosed, mild heart failure is encouraging. It should be noted, however, that most of the morbidity and health care expenditure is incurred by a minority of patients diagnosed with CHF who are in the advanced stages of their disease. The thrust of this article will be to provide practical advice beyond current guidelines on the management of advanced CHF.

  6. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  8. Advances in Scientific Balloon Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohaboj, T.; Cathey, H. M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program office has long acknowledged that the accurate modeling of balloon performance and flight prediction is dependant on how well the balloon is thermally modeled. This ongoing effort is focused on developing accurate balloon thermal models that can be used to quickly predict balloon temperatures and balloon performance. The ability to model parametric changes is also a driver for this effort. This paper will present the most recent advances made in this area. This research effort continues to utilize the "Thrmal Desktop" addition to AUTO CAD for the modeling. Recent advances have been made by using this analytical tool. A number of analyses have been completed to test the applicability of this tool to the problem with very positive results. Progressively detailed models have been developed to explore the capabilities of the tool as well as to provide guidance in model formulation. A number of parametric studies have been completed. These studies have varied the shape of the structure, material properties, environmental inputs, and model geometry. These studies have concentrated on spherical "proxy models" for the initial development stages and then to transition to the natural shaped zero pressure and super pressure balloons. An assessment of required model resolution has also been determined. Model solutions have been cross checked with known solutions via hand calculations. The comparison of these cases will also be presented. One goal is to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed full models. This papa presents the step by step advances made as part of this effort, capabilities, limitations, and the lessons learned. Also presented are the plans for further thermal modeling work.

  9. Managing advanced unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Marques, André

    2014-05-21

    The only proven therapy for glaucoma is intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, which can be accomplished by different means. Each should be properly discussed with patients in order to best preserve visual function and quality of life. We report a case of unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, treated for years with triple topical IOP-lowering drugs. The patient presented with advanced optic neuropathy and important ocular side effects secondary to the treatment. Having discussed his options and prognosis, laser trabeculoplasty was performed while maintaining the remaining therapy considering the advanced stage of glaucoma. His IOP was effectively reduced and no progression was noted after 1-year follow-up. Although medical therapy is the mainstream in glaucoma management, its side effects should not be ignored, especially in unilateral cases. Surgery might have been a better solution, but we chose to perform laser trabeculoplasty, an effective and safer alternative, considering the unlikely but serious risk of the "wipe-out phenomenon" in this case.

  10. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  11. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  12. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  13. Thermal energy management process experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal energy management processes experiment (TEMP) will demonstrate that through the use of two-phase flow technology, thermal systems can be significantly enhanced by increasing heat transport capabilities at reduced power consumption while operating within narrow temperature limits. It has been noted that such phenomena as excess fluid puddling, priming, stratification, and surface tension effects all tend to mask the performance of two-phase flow systems in a 1-g field. The flight experiment approach would be to attack the experiment to an appropriate mounting surface with a 15 to 20 meter effective length and provide a heat input and output station in the form of heaters and a radiator. Using environmental data, the size, location, and orientation of the experiment can be optimized. The approach would be to provide a self-contained panel and mount it to the STEP through a frame. A small electronics package would be developed to interface with the STEP avionics for command and data handling. During the flight, heaters on the evaporator will be exercised to determine performance. Flight data will be evaluated against the ground tests to determine any anomalous behavior.

  14. Managing advanced unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marques, André

    2014-01-01

    The only proven therapy for glaucoma is intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, which can be accomplished by different means. Each should be properly discussed with patients in order to best preserve visual function and quality of life. We report a case of unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, treated for years with triple topical IOP-lowering drugs. The patient presented with advanced optic neuropathy and important ocular side effects secondary to the treatment. Having discussed his options and prognosis, laser trabeculoplasty was performed while maintaining the remaining therapy considering the advanced stage of glaucoma. His IOP was effectively reduced and no progression was noted after 1-year follow-up. Although medical therapy is the mainstream in glaucoma management, its side effects should not be ignored, especially in unilateral cases. Surgery might have been a better solution, but we chose to perform laser trabeculoplasty, an effective and safer alternative, considering the unlikely but serious risk of the “wipe-out phenomenon” in this case. PMID:24850557

  15. Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

    2013-06-01

    Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

  16. SSME Advanced Health Management: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plowden, John

    2000-01-01

    This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.

  17. Demonstration of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony; Wynne, Robert; Miller, Michael; Meyer, Al; Smith, William

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates and integrated heat exchanger technology to collect the heat from the cooling plates (Ref. 1). The next step in the development of this passive thermal approach was the demonstration of the control of the heat removal process and the demonstration of the passive thermal control technology in actual fuel cell stacks. Tests were run with a simulated fuel cell stack passive thermal management system outfitted with passive cooling plates, an integrated heat exchanger and two types of cooling flow control valves. The tests were run to demonstrate the controllability of the passive thermal control approach. Finally, successful demonstrations of passive thermal control technology were conducted with fuel cell stacks from two fuel cell stack vendors.

  18. Boron nitride nanomaterials for thermal management applications.

    PubMed

    Meziani, Mohammed J; Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Ping; Lu, Fushen; Hou, Zhiling; Anderson, Ankoma; Maimaiti, Halidan; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2015-05-18

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNs) are analogous to their two-dimensional carbon counterparts in many materials properties, in particular, ultrahigh thermal conductivity, but also offer some unique attributes, including being electrically insulating, high thermal stability, chemical and oxidation resistance, low color, and high mechanical strength. Significant recent advances in the production of BNNs, understanding of their properties, and the development of polymeric nanocomposites with BNNs for thermally conductive yet electrically insulating materials and systems are highlighted herein. Major opportunities and challenges for further studies in this rapidly advancing field are also discussed.

  19. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  20. Platelet actively cooled thermal management devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueggenburg, H. H.; Hidahl, J. W.; Kessler, E. L.; Rousar, D. C.

    1992-07-01

    An overview of 28 years of actively-cooled platelet thermal management devices design and development history is presented. Platelet devices are created by bonding together thin metal sheets (platelets) which contain chemically-etched coolant pasages. The bonding process produces an intricate and precise matrix of coolant passages and structural walls contained within a monolithic structure. Thirteen specific applications for platelet thermal management devices are described. These devices are cooled using convective, film, and transpiration cooling techniques. Platelet thermal management devices have been fabricated from a variety of metals, cooled with a variety of fluids, and operated at heat fluxes up to 200 Btu/sq in.-sec.

  1. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  2. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  3. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  4. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  5. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  6. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  7. Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0183 (YIP 11) Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport Evelyn Wang MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport AFOSR Grant FA9550-11-1-0059 Final Report Evelyn N. Wang Associate Professor...heated channel wall. Small fluctuations in the measured heater surface temperature (± 3-8 °C) indicated increased flow stability, and the heat transfer

  8. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-08

    This project will develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter designs). The use of WBG-based devices in automotive power electronics will improve efficiency and increase driving range in electric-drive vehicles; however, the implementation of this technology is limited, in part, due to thermal issues. This project will develop system-level thermal models to determine the thermal limitations of current automotive power modules under elevated device temperature conditions. Additionally, novel cooling concepts and material selection will be evaluated to enable high-temperature silicon and WBG devices in power electronics components. WBG devices (silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN]) promise to increase efficiency, but will be driven as hard as possible. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability.

  9. Advanced practice nurse as outcomes manager.

    PubMed

    Houston, S; Luquire, R

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes management as a patient management system has been designed to impact and improve select outcomes. Central to the development and implementation of best practice senario identified throughout outcomes management is the advanced practice nurse. SLEH has been in the forefront of development and implementation of an outcomes management program. This article describes the outcomes management position and shares the job description and performance evaluation used at this institution. The tools allow for measuring and quantifying the impact of the outcomes manager position on improving patient outcomes. The improvement of outcomes has increased the value of the advanced practice nurse and provided the institution with a solid future necessary for survival in a managed care market.

  10. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  11. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  12. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  13. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, S.

    2014-11-01

    This project will investigate and develop thermal-management strategies for wide bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. Research will be carried out to deal with thermal aspects at the module- and system-level. Module-level research will focus on die- and substrate-integrated cooling strategies and heat-transfer enhancement technologies. System-level research will focus on thermal-management strategies for the entire power electronics system to enable smart packaging solutions. One challenge with WBG device-based power electronics is that although losses in the form of heat may be lower, the footprint of the components is also likely to be reduced to reduce cost, weight, and volume. Combined with higher operational temperatures, this creates higher heat fluxes which much be removed from a smaller footprint, requiring advanced cooling strategies.

  14. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  15. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics.

    PubMed

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics.

  16. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  17. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  18. Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

  19. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  20. Therma1 Conductivity and Durability of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling, thus helping to achieve engine emission and efficiency goals. Future TBCs must be designed with increased phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance in order to effectively protect engine hot-section components. Advanced low conductivity TBCs are being developed at NASA by incorporating multi-component oxide dopants into zirconia-yttria or hafnia-yttria to promote the formation of thermodynamically stable defect clusters within the coating structures. This presentation will primarily focus on thermal conductivity and durability of the novel defect cluster thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoil and combustor applications, determined by a unique CO2 laser heat-flux approach. The laser heat-flux testing approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity under simulated engine temperature and thermal gradient conditions. The conductivity increase due to coating sintering (and/or phase change) and the conductivity decrease due to coating delamination have been determined under steady-state, cyclic, uniform or non-uniform heat-flux conditions. The coating radiation flux resistance has been evaluated by varying coating thermal gradients, and also by using a laser-heated radiative-flux source. Advanced multi-component TBC systems have been shown to have significantly reduced thermal conductivity and improved high temperature stability due to the nano-sized, low mobility defect clusters associated with the paired rare earth dopant additions. The effect of oxide defect cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, thermal stability and furnace cyclic durability will also be discussed. The current low conductivity TBC systems have demonstrated long-term cyclic durability at very high

  1. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates that could conduct the heat, provide a sufficiently uniform temperature heat sink for each cell of the fuel cell stack, and be substantially lighter than the conventional thermal management approach. Tests were run with different materials to evaluate the design approach to a heat exchanger that could interface with the edges of the passive cooling plates. Measurements were made during fuel cell operation to determine the temperature of individual cooling plates and also to determine the temperature uniformity from one cooling plate to another.

  2. Prolonging thermal barrier coated specimen life by thermal cycle management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Poolos, N. P.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings applied to the heated side of engine components such as seals, combustor, and blades of a gas turbine offer a potential increase in efficiency through the use of higher gas temperatures or less cooling air or benefits arising from extended component life by reducing component metal temperatures. The considered investigation has the objective to show that while a thermal barrier coated (TBC) specimen can be brought to a fixed temperature using various fuel-air ratio (F/A) values, lower calculated stresses are associated with lower (F/A) values. This implies that control of (F/A) values (i.e., rates of heat input) during the starting transient and to a lesser extent during shutdown and operation, offers a potential method of improving TBC lifetime through thermal cycle management.

  3. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  4. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-06-13

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil - by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines are presented.

  5. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-08-03

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil -- by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines will be presented.

  6. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-09-19

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil - by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines are presented.

  7. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  8. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  9. Annual Report: Turbine Thermal Management (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Richards, George

    2014-04-10

    The FY13 NETL-RUA Turbine Thermal Management effort supported the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hydrogen Turbine Program through conduct of novel, fundamental, basic, and applied research in the areas of aerothermal heat transfer, coatings development, and secondary flow control. This research project utilized the extensive expertise and facilities readily available at NETL and the participating universities. The research approach included explorative studies based on scaled models and prototype coupon tests conducted under realistic high-temperature, pressurized, turbine operating conditions. This research is expected to render measurable outcomes that will meet DOE’s advanced turbine development goals of a 3- to 5-point increase in power island efficiency and a 30 percent power increase above the hydrogen-fired combined cycle baseline. In addition, knowledge gained from this project will further advance the aerothermal cooling and TBC technologies in the general turbine community. This project has been structured to address: • Development and design of aerothermal and materials concepts in FY12-13. • Design and manufacturing of these advanced concepts in FY13. • Bench-scale/proof-of-concept testing of these concepts in FY13-14 and beyond. In addition to a Project Management task, the Turbine Thermal Management project consists of four tasks that focus on a critical technology development in the areas of heat transfer, materials development, and secondary flow control. These include: • Aerothermal and Heat Transfer • Coatings and Materials Development • Design Integration and Testing • Secondary Flow Rotating Rig.

  10. Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Filled Thermoplastics for Thermal Interface Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prindl, John

    Hexagonal Boron Nitride has been shown to enhance thermal conductivity in polymer composites more so than conventional ceramic fillers. However, to see a significant increase in thermal conductivity a high loading level of the advanced ceramic is often needed which can have an adverse effect on the mechanical behavior of the composite part. Applications for thermal management using thermal interface materials (TIM) continue to grow with thermoplastic injection molded parts emerging as an area for market growth. There is a growing need for published technical data in this particular area of application. In the current study, the thermal conductivity and mechanical behavior of hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) loaded thermoplastic composites is investigated. The main objectives of this work is produce a novel data package which illustrates the effects of hBN, loaded at high concentrations, across several different thermoplastic resins with the ultimate goal being to find a desirable formulation for specific thermal management applications. The desired properties for such applications being high thermal conductivity and high electrical resistivity with a minimal decrease in mechanical properties. Hexagonal BN cooling filler agglomerates were compounded into polypropylene (PP), nylon-6 (PA-6), and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) via twin-screw extruder at 3 different loading levels. Injection molded samples were produced and characterized to show varying degrees of thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. Results from this research showed that in all cases, the thermal conductivity increased with increasing levels of hBN addition. The largest increases in thermal conductivity were seen in the PA-6 and TPE systems with the possible indication of exceeding the percolation threshold in the TPE system. This is hypothesized to occur due to the preferential migration of hBN to form conduction pathways around the elastomeric domains in the TPE matrix. Though TPE produced

  11. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  12. Advances in urethral stricture management.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Maxx A; Santucci, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture/stenosis is a narrowing of the urethral lumen. These conditions greatly impact the health and quality of life of patients. Management of urethral strictures/stenosis is complex and requires careful evaluation. The treatment options for urethral stricture vary in their success rates. Urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy are the most commonly performed procedures but carry the lowest chance for long-term success (0-9%). Urethroplasty has a much higher chance of success (85-90%) and is considered the gold-standard treatment. The most common urethroplasty techniques are excision and primary anastomosis and graft onlay urethroplasty. Anastomotic urethroplasty and graft urethroplasty have similar long-term success rates, although long-term data have yet to confirm equal efficacy. Anastomotic urethroplasty may have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. Posterior urethral stenosis is typically caused by previous urologic surgery. It is treated endoscopically with radial incisions. The use of mitomycin C may decrease recurrence. An exciting area of research is tissue engineering and scar modulation to augment stricture treatment. These include the use of acellular matrices or tissue-engineered buccal mucosa to produce grafting material for urethroplasty. Other experimental strategies aim to prevent scar formation altogether.

  13. Advances in urethral stricture management

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Maxx A.; Santucci, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture/stenosis is a narrowing of the urethral lumen. These conditions greatly impact the health and quality of life of patients. Management of urethral strictures/stenosis is complex and requires careful evaluation. The treatment options for urethral stricture vary in their success rates. Urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy are the most commonly performed procedures but carry the lowest chance for long-term success (0–9%). Urethroplasty has a much higher chance of success (85–90%) and is considered the gold-standard treatment. The most common urethroplasty techniques are excision and primary anastomosis and graft onlay urethroplasty. Anastomotic urethroplasty and graft urethroplasty have similar long-term success rates, although long-term data have yet to confirm equal efficacy. Anastomotic urethroplasty may have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. Posterior urethral stenosis is typically caused by previous urologic surgery. It is treated endoscopically with radial incisions. The use of mitomycin C may decrease recurrence. An exciting area of research is tissue engineering and scar modulation to augment stricture treatment. These include the use of acellular matrices or tissue-engineered buccal mucosa to produce grafting material for urethroplasty. Other experimental strategies aim to prevent scar formation altogether. PMID:28105329

  14. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within the cooling plate to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack rather than using a pumped loop cooling system to convectively remove the heat. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components which reduces fuel cell system mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous analysis had identified that low density, ultra-high thermal conductivity materials would be needed for the cooling plates in order to achieve the desired reductions in mass and the highly uniform thermal heat sink for each cell within a fuel cell stack. A pyrolytic graphite material was identified and fabricated into a thin plate using different methods. Also a development project with Thermacore, Inc. resulted in a planar heat pipe. Thermal conductivity tests were done using these materials. The results indicated that lightweight passive fuel cell cooling is feasible.

  15. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  16. Recent advances in understanding and managing asthma

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Su-Ling; Wark, Peter A.B.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the important articles published in the area of asthma research from January 2015 to July 2016. In basic science, significant advances have been made in understanding the link between the innate immune response and type II acquired immune responses in asthma and the role of the airway epithelium. Novel information continues to emerge with regard to the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of severe asthma. There have been important translational clinical trials in the areas of childhood asthma, treatment of allergy to improve asthma outcomes, and improving drug delivery to optimize the management of asthma. In addition, there are increasing data concerning the application of biological agents to the management of severe asthma. This body of work discusses the most notable advances in the understanding and management of asthma. PMID:27610226

  17. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  18. Management of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert C G

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis for locally advanced pancreatic cancer is based on high-quality cross-sectional imaging, which shows tumor invasion into the celiac/superior mesenteric arteries and/or superior mesenteric/portal venous system that is not reconstructable. The optimal management of these patients is evolving quickly with the advent of newer chemotherapeutics, radiation, and nonthermal ablation modalities. This article presents the current status of initial chemotherapy, surgical therapy, ablative therapy, and radiation therapy for patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection offers the best chance of long-term disease control and the only chance for cure for patients with nonmetastatic exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  19. Scramjet Thermal Management (Tenue thermique des superstatoreacteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    combustion). Airbreathing launchers could typically use hydrogen-fuelled DMR. Less energetic fuels like hydrocarbons could also be used at a Mach number ...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE...N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scramjet Thermal Management (Tenue thermique des superstatoréacteurs) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  20. Thin-film infrared absorber structures for advanced thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. D.; Pedder, D. J.

    1988-06-01

    Imaging thermal detector technology is a rapidly advancing field in which the current emphasis is towards the development of very large arrays of very small pyroelectric detector elements. For maximum responsivity, each of the thin pyroelectric elements in an array must be provided with a thermal absorber to convert incoming infrared radiation into heat. This paper describes one such absorber structure, comprising a thin metal film, impedance matched to free space, and a quarter-wave polymer film which offers an acceptably low thermal mass. The structure and properties of this thin-film absorber are compared with those of an electroplated platinum black absorber commonly used in thermal detectors. The theory of the absorber is presented and good agreement is shown between calculated and experimentally derived absorption spectra.

  1. Study of thermal management for space platform applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for the management of the thermal energy of large space platforms using many hundreds of kilowatts over a 10 year life span were evaluated. Concepts for heat rejection, heat transport within the vehicle, and interfacing were analyzed and compared. The heat rejection systems were parametrically weight optimized over conditions for heat pipe and pumped fluid approaches. Two approaches to achieve reliability were compared for: performance, weight, volume, projected area, reliability, cost, and operational characteristics. Technology needs are assessed and technology advancement recommendations are made.

  2. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  3. Recent advances in understanding and managing gout.

    PubMed

    Igel, Talia F; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    Gout is the most common crystal arthropathy and the leading cause of inflammatory arthritis. It is associated with functional impairment and, for many, a diminished health-related quality of life. Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of gout and its associated conditions on patient morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, gout remains under-diagnosed and under-treated in the general community. Despite major advances in treatment strategies, as many as 90% of patients with gout are poorly controlled or improperly managed and their hyperuricemia and recurrent flares continue. The introduction of novel urate-lowering therapies, new imaging modalities, and a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of gout raise the possibility of better gout care and improved patient outcomes. Here, we spotlight recent advances in the diagnosis and management of gout and discuss novel therapeutics in gout treatment.

  4. Recent advances in understanding and managing gout

    PubMed Central

    Igel, Talia F.; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Gout is the most common crystal arthropathy and the leading cause of inflammatory arthritis. It is associated with functional impairment and, for many, a diminished health-related quality of life. Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of gout and its associated conditions on patient morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, gout remains under-diagnosed and under-treated in the general community. Despite major advances in treatment strategies, as many as 90% of patients with gout are poorly controlled or improperly managed and their hyperuricemia and recurrent flares continue. The introduction of novel urate-lowering therapies, new imaging modalities, and a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of gout raise the possibility of better gout care and improved patient outcomes. Here, we spotlight recent advances in the diagnosis and management of gout and discuss novel therapeutics in gout treatment. PMID:28357052

  5. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  6. Recent advances in the management of acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Ntali, Georgia; Karavitaki, Niki

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition of GH excess associated with significant morbidities (e.g. hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus, cardiac, cerebrovascular, respiratory disease and arthritis) and, when uncontrolled, high mortality. Surgery, medical treatment and radiotherapy remain our therapeutic tools. Advances in these options during the last years have offered further perspectives in the management of patients and particularly those with challenging tumours; the impact of these on the long-term morbidity and mortality remains to be assessed. PMID:26918140

  7. Recent advances in managing and understanding uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Chou; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2017-01-01

    Uveitis is a sight-threatening disease entity with intraocular inflammation that arises from various causes. It mainly affects working-age individuals and may lead to irreversible visual loss if not treated properly in a timely manner. This article reviews recent advances in the management and understanding of uveitis since 2014, including treatment with new immunosuppressive therapies that use biological agents, local therapy with steroid implants, and imaging studies for the evaluation of uveitis. PMID:28357059

  8. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  9. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1996-04-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components:(1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub- micrometer and micrometer sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct liquefaction of coal. Progress reports for these tasks are presented.

  10. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  11. Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blosser, Max Leon

    2000-10-01

    Metallic thermal protection systems are a key technology that may help achieve the goal of reducing the cost of space access. A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. Multi-disciplinary background information was assembled and reviewed critically to provide a basis for development of improved metallic thermal protection systems. The fundamentals of aerodynamic heating were reviewed and applied to the development of thermal protection systems. General approaches to thermal protection were categorized and critiqued. The high temperature materials used for thermal protection systems (TPS), including insulations, structural materials, and coatings were reviewed. The history of metallic TPS from early pre-Shuttle concepts to current concepts for a reusable launch vehicle was reviewed for the first time. A current advanced metallic TPS concept was presented and systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element computational models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results from this study identify factors that have the most potential to improve metallic TPS performance. The thermal properties of the underlying vehicle

  12. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  13. Thermal management concepts for higher efficiency heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-05-19

    Thermal management is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, aerodynamics, driver/passenger comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and component life. This review paper provides an assessment of thermal management for large trucks, particularly as it impacts these features. Observations arrived at from a review of the state of the art for thermal management for over-the-road trucks are highlighted and commented on. Trends in the large truck industry, pertinent engine truck design and performance objectives, and the implications of these relative to thermal management, are presented. Finally, new thermal management concepts for high efficiency vehicles are described.

  14. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Thermal Power Model in Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Fabanich, William A.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal power model that was built using the Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit (EU) test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's Ideas TMG thermal model. ASRG performance under (1) ASC hot-end temperatures, (2) ambient temperatures, and (3) years of mission for the general purpose heat source fuel decay was predicted using this model for the flight unit. The results were compared with those reported by Lockheed Martin and showed good agreement. In addition, the model was used to study the performance of the ASRG flight unit for operations on the ground and on the surface of Titan, and the concept of using gold film to reduce thermal loss through insulation was investigated.

  15. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  16. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  17. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  18. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies for Advanced Green Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Meyer, Michael L.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the Exploration Vision for returning to the Moon and beyond, NASA and its partners are developing and testing critical cryogenic fluid propellant technologies that will meet the need for high performance propellants on long-term missions. Reliable knowledge of low-gravity cryogenic fluid management behavior is lacking and yet is critical in the areas of tank thermal and pressure control, fluid acquisition, mass gauging, and fluid transfer. Such knowledge can significantly reduce or even eliminate tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, and simplify vehicle operations. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) Project is performing experimental and analytical evaluation of several areas within Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) to enable NASA's Exploration Vision. This paper discusses the status of the PCAD CFM technology focus areas relative to the anticipated CFM requirements to enable execution of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  19. Advances in craniosynostosis research and management.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, J; Miguéns, J; Lauritzen, C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the most recent advances in the field of craniosynostosis basic and clinical research and management, and to give an overview of the more frequently adopted surgical strategies. After reviewing some basic concepts regarding normal craniofacial embryology and growth, aetiopathogenesis of craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis, classification and diagnosis and historical evolution of surgical treatment, the authors elaborate on a selection of topics that have modified our current understanding of and therapeutical approach to these disease processes. Areas covered include advances in molecular biology and genetics, imaging techniques and surgical planning, resorbable fixation technology, bone substitutes and tissue engineering, distraction osteogenesis and the spring-mediated cranioplasties, resorbable distractor devices, minimally invasive surgery and in utero surgery. A review of the main subtypes of craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis is presented, including their specific clinical features and a commentary on the presently available surgical options.

  20. Recent advances in the management of liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Nadar A.; Tseng, William; Borges, Camille; Chen, Peter; Eisenberg, Burton

    2016-01-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma. With its various subtypes, the natural history of this disease can vary significantly from a locally recurrent tumor to a highly malignant one carrying a poor prognosis. Progress in the understanding of the specific molecular abnormalities in liposarcoma provides greater opportunity for new treatment modalities. Although surgical resection and radiation therapy remain the keystones for the management of primary liposarcoma, the inclusion of novel agents that target known abnormalities in advanced liposarcoma enhances the potential for improved outcomes. PMID:28105325

  1. Recent advances in understanding and managing chordomas

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Carl; Aoun, Salah; Moreno, Jessica R.; Bagley, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are rare primary bone tumors arising from embryonic remnants of the notochord. They are slow-growing, locally aggressive, and destructive and typically involve the axial skeleton. Genetic studies have identified several mutations implicated in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Treatment poses a challenge given their insidious progression, degree of local invasion at presentation, and high recurrence rate. They tend to respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy and radiation. This makes radical resection the mainstay of their treatment. Recent advances in targeted chemotherapy and focused particle beam radiation, however, have improved the management and prognosis of these tumors. PMID:28105324

  2. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-10-01

    Fullerenes are selected as the first option for investigating advanced thermal management technologies for hydrogen storage because of their potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Experimental results indicate that about 6 wt% of hydrogen (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model assuming thermally activated hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes was developed to explain the experimental findings. The activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes, respectively. The difference is interpreted as the heat released during hydrogenation. There are indications that the activation energies and the heat of hydrogenation can be modified by the use of catalysts. Preliminary hydrogen storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed. A 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with an inner diameter of 0.02 m was assumed to be filled with fullerene powders. The results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. The rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity of the material inside the cylinder, e.g., by incorporating a metal mesh. Results from the simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient hydrogen storage devices using fullerenes. While the preliminary models developed in this study explain some of the observation, more controlled experiments, rigorous model development, and physical property determinations are needed for the development of practical hydrogen storage devices. The use of catalysts to optimize the hydrogen storage characteristics of fullerenes also needs to be pursued. Future cooperative work between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Material & Electrochemical Research Corporation (MER) is planned to address these needs.

  3. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next large aperture UVOIR space observatory. A key science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet which will be 10(exp -10) times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront error (WFE). This paper investigates parametric relationships between primary mirror physical parameters and thermal WFE stability. Candidate mirrors are designed as a mesh and placed into a thermal analysis model to determine the temperature distribution in the mirror when it is placed inside of an actively controlled cylindrical shroud at Lagrange point 2. Thermal strains resulting from the temperature distribution are found and an estimation of WFE is found to characterize the effect that thermal inputs have on the optical quality of the mirror. This process is repeated for several mirror material properties, material types, and mirror designs to determine how to design a mirror for thermal stability.

  4. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  5. Improving management of patients with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drudge-Coates, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Development of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer is associated with skeletal-related events (SREs) such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, the requirement for surgery or palliative radiotherapy to bone, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. Skeletal morbidity may reduce patient mobility, limit functional independence, and impair quality of life (QOL). Proactive management of new or worsening bone pain or motor impairment is crucial because of the potential for rapid progression of symptoms. Administration of bisphosphonate therapy as a monthly infusion to patients with bone metastases prevents or delays the onset and reduces the frequency of SREs and provides clinically meaningful improvements in bone pain and QOL. In addition to administration of therapy, the monthly infusion visit allows a dedicated team of healthcare professionals to regularly assess SREs, response to therapy, adverse events (AEs), QOL, and adherence to oral medications and supplements. The continuity of care that occurs during the monthly infusion visit provides oncology nurses with an opportunity to educate patients about effective strategies to manage SREs and AEs. In addition, regular interaction provides oncology nurses with an opportunity to recognize and proactively address subtle changes in the patients’ medical condition. Using a multidisciplinary medical team also eliminates barriers between the various healthcare professionals involved in patient management. Consequently, the monthly infusion visit can result in effective patient management and improved clinical outcomes in patients with malignant bone disease. PMID:21206517

  6. Advanced phase change composite by thermally annealed defect-free graphene for thermal energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xin, Guoqing; Sun, Hongtao; Scott, Spencer Michael; Yao, Tiankai; Lu, Fengyuan; Shao, Dali; Hu, Tao; Wang, Gongkai; Ran, Guang; Lian, Jie

    2014-09-10

    Organic phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized as latent heat energy storage and release media for effective thermal management. A major challenge exists for organic PCMs in which their low thermal conductivity leads to a slow transient temperature response and reduced heat transfer efficiency. In this work, 2D thermally annealed defect-free graphene sheets (GSs) can be obtained upon high temperature annealing in removing defects and oxygen functional groups. As a result of greatly reduced phonon scattering centers for thermal transport, the incorporation of ultralight weight and defect free graphene applied as nanoscale additives into a phase change composite (PCC) drastically improve thermal conductivity and meanwhile minimize the reduction of heat of fusion. A high thermal conductivity of the defect-free graphene-PCC can be achieved up to 3.55 W/(m K) at a 10 wt % graphene loading. This represents an enhancement of over 600% as compared to pristine graphene-PCC without annealing at a comparable loading, and a 16-fold enhancement than the pure PCM (1-octadecanol). The defect-free graphene-PCC displays rapid temperature response and superior heat transfer capability as compared to the pristine graphene-PCC or pure PCM, enabling transformational thermal energy storage and management.

  7. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  8. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kokelaar, RF; Evans, MD; Davies, M; Harris, DA; Beynon, J

    2016-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer). Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0) resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. PMID:27785074

  9. Advancement in thermal interface materials for future high-performance electronic applications. Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Huber, Dale L.; Rightley, Michael J.; Emerson, John Allen

    2006-02-01

    As electronic assemblies become more compact and increase in processing bandwidth, escalating thermal energy has become more difficult to manage. The major limitation has been nonmetallic joining using poor thermal interface materials (TIM). The interfacial, versus bulk, thermal conductivity of an adhesive is the major loss mechanism and normally accounts for an order magnitude loss in conductivity per equivalent thickness. The next generation TIM requires a sophisticated understanding of material and surface sciences, heat transport at submicron scales, and the manufacturing processes used in packaging of microelectronics and other target applications. Only when this relationship between bond line manufacturing processes, structure, and contact resistance is well-understood on a fundamental level will it be possible to advance the development of miniaturized microsystems. This report examines using thermal and squeeze-flow modeling as approaches to formulate TIMs incorporating nanoscience concepts. Understanding the thermal behavior of bond lines allows focus on the interfacial contact region. In addition, careful study of the thermal transport across these interfaces provides greatly augmented heat transfer paths and allows the formulation of very high resistance interfaces for total thermal isolation of circuits. For example, this will allow the integration of systems that exhibit multiple operational temperatures, such as cryogenically cooled detectors.

  10. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  11. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  12. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-09-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  13. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  14. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  15. Management of thrombocytopenia in advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gangireddy, V G R; Kanneganti, P C; Sridhar, S; Talla, S; Coleman, T

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia (defined as a platelet count <150×10(9)) is a well-known complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and has been observed in 76% to 85% of patients. Significant thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50×10(9) to 75×10(9)) occurs in approximately 13% of patients with cirrhosis. Thrombocytopenia can negatively impact the care of patients with severe liver disease by potentially interfering with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Multiple factors can contribute to the development of thrombocytopenia including splenic platelet sequestration, immunological processes, bone marrow suppression by chronic viral infection, and reduced levels or activity of the hematopoietic growth factor thrombopoietin. The present review focuses on the etiologies and management options for severe thrombocytopenia in the setting of advanced liver disease.

  16. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  17. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  18. Graphite Foam Heat Exchangers for Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, J.W.

    2004-06-07

    Improved thermal management is needed to increase the power density of electronic and more effectively cool electronic enclosures that are envisioned in future aircraft, spacecraft and surface ships. Typically, heat exchanger cores must increase in size to more effectively dissipate increased heat loads, this would be impossible in many cases, thus improved heat exchanger cores will be required. In this Phase I investigation, MRi aimed to demonstrate improved thermal management using graphite foam (Gr-foam) core heat exchangers. The proposed design was to combine Gr-foams from POCO with MRi's innovative low temperature, active metal joining process (S-Bond{trademark}) to bond Gr-foam to aluminum, copper and aluminum/SiC composite faceplates. The results were very favorable, so a Phase II SBIR with the MDA was initiated. This had primarily 5 tasks: (1) bonding, (2) thermal modeling, (3) cooling chip scale packages, (4) evaporative cooling techniques and (5) IGBT cold plate development. The bonding tests showed that the ''reflow'' technique with S-Bond{reg_sign}-220 resulted in the best and most consistent bond. Then, thermal modeling was used to design different chip scale packages and IGBT cold plates. These designs were used to fabricate many finned graphite foam heat sinks specifically for two standard type IC packages, the 423 and 478 pin chips. These results demonstrated several advantages with the foam. First, the heat sinks with the foam were lighter than the copper/aluminum sinks used as standards. The sinks for the 423 design made from foam were not as good as the standard sinks. However, the sinks made from foam for the 478 pin chips were better than the standard heat sinks used today. However, this improvement was marginal (in the 10-20% better regime). However, another important note was that the epoxy bonding technique resulted in heat sinks with similar results as that with the S-bond{reg_sign}, slightly worse than the S-bond{reg_sign}, but still

  19. Advanced data management system architectures testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Architecture and Tools Testbed is to provide a working, experimental focus to the evolving automation applications for the Space Station Freedom data management system. Emphasis is on defining and refining real-world applications including the following: the validation of user needs; understanding system requirements and capabilities; and extending capabilities. The approach is to provide an open, distributed system of high performance workstations representing both the standard data processors and networks and advanced RISC-based processors and multiprocessor systems. The system provides a base from which to develop and evaluate new performance and risk management concepts and for sharing the results. Participants are given a common view of requirements and capability via: remote login to the testbed; standard, natural user interfaces to simulations and emulations; special attention to user manuals for all software tools; and E-mail communication. The testbed elements which instantiate the approach are briefly described including the workstations, the software simulation and monitoring tools, and performance and fault tolerance experiments.

  20. Advanced Management Communication: An Elective Course in Corporate Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argenti, Paul A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a college-level elective course in advanced management communication that would teach future managers how to communicate with shareholders, the media, financial analysts, and the labor force. (SRT)

  1. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment.

  2. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

  3. High-power thermal management issues in space-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnappan, Rengasamy; Donovan, Brian; Chow, Louis

    2002-01-01

    There are several initiatives currently active or planned to enable future military directed energy, surveillance and communication missions. These missions require a very high level of electric power and sophisticated power conditioning systems. In almost all of these systems, there are unique thermal management requirements from electronics and payload operational considerations such as isothermality, high-heat flux, low-pressure drop, efficient fluid management and high heat transfer coefficient. The other space related requirements and issues affecting thermal management are microgravity, scalability based on weight, volume, reliability, safety, and cost considerations. In meeting these requirements for space systems, the thermal designer is faced with many technical challenges and issues. This paper describes some of these key issues and presents the need for initiating advanced developments in certain areas such as spray cooling, two-phase pumped loop and heat pump systems. In addition, it is emphasized to focus attention on extended microgravity effects of thermal systems. .

  4. Lunar base thermal management/power system analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of several lunar surface thermal management and power system studies completed under contract and IR&D is presented. The work includes analysis and preliminary design of all major components of an integrated thermal management system, including loads determination, active internal acquisition and transport equipment, external transport systems (active and passive), passive insulation, solar shielding, and a range of lunar surface radiator concepts. Several computer codes were utilized in support of this study, including RADSIM to calculate radiation exchange factors and view factors, RADIATOR (developed in-house) for heat rejection system sizing and performance analysis over a lunar day, SURPWER for power system sizing, and CRYSTORE for cryogenic system performance predictions. Although much of the work was performed in support of lunar rover studies, any or all of the results can be applied to a range of surface applications. Output data include thermal loads summaries, subsystem performance data, mass, and volume estimates (where applicable), integrated and worst-case lunar day radiator size/mass and effective sink temperatures for several concepts (shielded and unshielded), and external transport system performance estimates for both single and two-phase (heat pumped) transport loops. Several advanced radiator concepts are presented, along with brief assessments of possible system benefits and potential drawbacks. System point designs are presented for several cases, executed in support of the contract and IR&D studies, although the parametric nature of the analysis is stressed to illustrate applicability of the analysis procedure to a wide variety of lunar surface systems. The reference configuration(s) derived from the various studies will be presented along with supporting criteria. A preliminary design will also be presented for the reference basing scenario, including qualitative data regarding TPS concerns and issues.

  5. Advanced Technology Solar Telescope lower enclosure thermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Warner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The exterior of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure requires cooling to eliminate so-called external dome seeing caused by solar loading during the observing day. This is achieved by way of coolant circulation through external plate coil panels, thereby maintaining the exterior surfaces of the enclosure at or just below ambient air temperature. As the distance from the optical path increases (e.g., on the surface of the lower enclosure), the stringency of the temperature requirement is diminished, thereby allowing a greater difference between the surface temperature and the ambient air temperature. This paper presents a comparison of the modeled performance of an active thermal control strategy on the lower enclosure to a passive strategy that employs concrete panels. A life-cycle cost analysis of each option is also presented.

  6. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas; Stahl, Phil; Arnold, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next Ultraviolet, Optical, Infrared (UVOIR) space observatory. A likely science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet that is 10-10 times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront. This paper investigates two topics: 1) parametric relationships between a primary mirror's thermal parameters and wavefront stability, and 2) optimal temperature profiles in the telescope's shroud and heater plate that minimize static wavefront error (WFE) in the primary mirror.

  7. Thermal Management Using Pulsating Jet Cooling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, S.; Dinneen, P.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

    2014-07-01

    The existing methods of heat removal from compact electronic devises are known to be deficient as the evolving technology demands more power density and accordingly better cooling techniques. Impinging jets can be used as a satisfactory method for thermal management of electronic devices with limited space and volume. Pulsating flows can produce an additional enhancement in heat transfer rate compared to steady flows. This article is part of a comprehensive experimental and numerical study performed on pulsating jet cooling technology. The experimental approach explores heat transfer performance of a pulsating air jet impinging onto a flat surface for nozzle-to-surface distances 1 <= H/D <= 6, Reynolds numbers 1,300 <= Re <= 2,800 pulsation frequency 2Hz <= f <= 65Hz, and Strouhal number 0.0012 <= Sr = fD/Um <= 0.084. The time-resolved velocity at the nozzle exit is measured to quantify the turbulence intensity profile. The numerical methodology is firstly validated using the experimental local Nusselt number distribution for the steady jet with the same geometry and boundary conditions. For a time-averaged Reynolds number of 6,000, the heat transfer enhancement using the pulsating jet for 9Hz <= f <= 55Hz and 0.017 <= Sr <= 0.102 and 1 <= H/D <= 6 are calculated. For the same range of Sr number, the numerical and experimental methods show consistent results.

  8. Power Management for Space Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Space power systems include the power source, storage, and management subsystems. In current crewed spacecraft, solar cells are the power source, batteries provide storage, and the crew performs any required load scheduling. For future crewed planetary surface systems using Advanced Life Support, we assume that plants will be grown to produce much of the crew's food and that nuclear power will be employed. Battery storage is much more costly than nuclear power capacity and so is not likely to be used. We investigate the scheduling of power demands by the crew or automatic control, to reduce the peak power load and the required generating capacity. The peak to average power ratio is a good measure of power use efficiency. We can easily schedule power demands to reduce the peak power from its maximum, but simple scheduling approaches may not find the lowest possible peak to average power ratio. An initial power scheduling example was simple enough for a human to solve, but a more complex example with many intermittent load demands required automatic scheduling. Excess power is a free resource and can be used even for minor benefits.

  9. Traumatic hemorrhagic shock: advances in fluid management.

    PubMed

    Cherkas, David

    2011-11-01

    A number of concerns have been raised regarding the advisability of the classic principles of aggressive crystalloid resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. This issue reviews the advances that have led to a shift in the emergency department (ED) protocols in resuscitation from shock state, including recent literature regarding the new paradigm for the treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock, which is most generally known as damage control resuscitation (DCR). Goals and endpoints for resuscitation and a review of initial fluid choice are discussed, along with the coagulopathy of trauma and its management, how to address hemorrhagic shock in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and new pharmacologic treatment for hemorrhagic shock. The primary conclusions include the administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) for all patients with uncontrolled hemorrhage (Class I), the implementation of a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) with fixed blood product ratios (Class II), avoidance of large-volume crystalloid resuscitation (Class III), and appropriate usage of permissive hypotension (Class III). The choice of fluid for initial resuscitation has not been shown to affect outcomes in trauma (Class I).

  10. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  11. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Terra, the Earth Observing System's (EOS) flagship satellite platform on December 18, 1999. The polar-orbiting Terra contains five remote sensing instruments, which enable the scientific study and analyses of global terrestrial processes and manifestations of global change. One of the five instruments is the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is built in Japan by a consortium of government, industry, and research groups. It has three spectral bands in the visible near-infrared region (VNIR), six bands in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR), and five bands in the thermal infrared region (TIR), with 15-, 30-, and 90-meter ground resolutions, respectively. This combination of wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution allows ASTER to discriminate among a wide variety of surface materials. The VNIR subsystem also has a backward-viewing telescope for high-resolution (15-meter) stereoscopic observation in the along-track direction, which facilitates the generation of digital elevation models (DEM).

  12. Advanced interface heat exchangers for the Space Station main thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.

    1990-01-01

    Future evolution and growth of the Space Station will place increasing demands on the thermal management system by the addition of new payloads and from increased activity in the habitat modules. To meet this need, Creare is developing advanced evaporators, condensors, and single-phase heat exchangers for operation in microgravity. The objective is to achieve a several-fold increase in the heat flux capability of these components, while operating at the same temperature difference as specified for the present interface heat exchangers. Two prototype interface heat exchangers are presently being developed: one to interface the main thermal bus to a payload two-phase ammonia bus, and the other, to interface with the crew module single-phase water loop. The results achieved to date in the development of these heat exchangers are reviewed.

  13. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  14. The Managing Epilepsy Well Network:: Advancing Epilepsy Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Sajatovic, Martha; Jobst, Barbara C; Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Begley, Charles E; Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Erica K; Pandey, Dilip K; Quarells, Rakale C; Scal, Peter; Spruill, Tanya M; Thompson, Nancy J; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy, a complex spectrum of disorders, affects about 2.9 million people in the U.S. Similar to other chronic disorders, people with epilepsy face challenges related to management of the disorder, its treatment, co-occurring depression, disability, social disadvantages, and stigma. Two national conferences on public health and epilepsy (1997, 2003) and a 2012 IOM report on the public health dimensions of epilepsy highlighted important knowledge gaps and emphasized the need for evidence-based, scalable epilepsy self-management programs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention translated recommendations on self-management research and dissemination into an applied research program through the Prevention Research Centers Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network. MEW Network objectives are to advance epilepsy self-management research by developing effective interventions that can be broadly disseminated for use in people's homes, healthcare providers' offices, or in community settings. The aim of this report is to provide an update on the MEW Network research pipeline, which spans efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination. Many of the interventions use e-health strategies to eliminate barriers to care (e.g., lack of transportation, functional limitations, and stigma). Strengths of this mature research network are the culture of collaboration, community-based partnerships, e-health methods, and its portfolio of prevention activities, which range from efficacy studies engaging hard-to-reach groups, to initiatives focused on provider training and knowledge translation. The MEW Network works with organizations across the country to expand its capacity, help leverage funding and other resources, and enhance the development, dissemination, and sustainability of MEW Network programs and tools. Guided by national initiatives targeting chronic disease or epilepsy burden since 2007, the MEW Network has been responsible for more than 43 scientific journal articles, two

  15. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B. D.; Caffrey, J.; Hedayat, A.; Stephens, J.; Polsgrove, R.

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic fluid management technology is critical to the success of future nuclear thermal propulsion powered vehicles and long duration missions. This paper discusses current capabilities in key technologies and their development path. The thermal environment, complicated from the radiation escaping a reactor of a nuclear thermal propulsion system, is examined and analysis presented. The technology development path required for maintaining cryogenic propellants in this environment is reviewed. This paper is intended to encourage and bring attention to the cryogenic fluid management technologies needed to enable nuclear thermal propulsion powered deep space missions.

  16. The intelligent user interface for NASA's advanced information management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Short, Nicholas, Jr.; Rolofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Intelligent Data Management Project to design and develop advanced information management systems. The project's primary goal is to formulate, design and develop advanced information systems that are capable of supporting the agency's future space research and operational information management needs. The first effort of the project was the development of a prototype Intelligent User Interface to an operational scientific database, using expert systems and natural language processing technologies. An overview of Intelligent User Interface formulation and development is given.

  17. Thermally conductive, dielectric PCM-boron nitride nanosheet composites for efficient electronic system thermal management.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Lihui; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Henderson, Doug; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-11-24

    Phase change materials (PCMs) possessing ideal properties, such as superior mass specific heat of fusion, low cost, light weight, excellent thermal stability as well as isothermal phase change behavior, have drawn considerable attention for thermal management systems. Currently, the low thermal conductivity of PCMs (usually less than 1 W mK(-1)) greatly limits their heat dissipation performance in thermal management applications. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional material known for its excellent thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties, which make it a promising candidate to be used in electronic systems for thermal management. In this work, a composite, consisting of h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs) and commercialized paraffin wax was developed, which inherits high thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties from BNNSs and substantial heat of fusion from paraffin wax. With the help of BNNSs, the thermal conductivity of wax-BNNS composites reaches 3.47 W mK(-1), which exhibits a 12-time enhancement compared to that of pristine wax (0.29 W mK(-1)). Moreover, an 11.3-13.3 MV m(-1) breakdown voltage of wax-BNNS composites was achieved, which shows further improved electrical insulating properties. Simultaneously enhanced thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties of wax-BNNS composites demonstrate their promising application for thermal management in electronic systems.

  18. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  19. Microgravity fluid management requirements of advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    The advanced solar dynamic system (ASDS) program is aimed at developing the technology for highly efficient, lightweight space power systems. The approach is to evaluate Stirling, Brayton and liquid metal Rankine power conversion systems (PCS) over the temperature range of 1025 to 1400K, identify the critical technologies and develop these technologies. Microgravity fluid management technology is required in several areas of this program, namely, thermal energy storage (TES), heat pipe applications and liquid metal, two phase flow Rankine systems. Utilization of the heat of fusion of phase change materials offers potential for smaller, lighter TES systems. The candidate TES materials exhibit large volume change with the phase change. The heat pipe is an energy dense heat transfer device. A high temperature application may transfer heat from the solar receiver to the PCS working fluid and/or TES. A low temperature application may transfer waste heat from the PCS to the radiator. The liquid metal Rankine PCS requires management of the boiling/condensing process typical of two phase flow systems.

  20. Investigation of Thermal Management and Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    create a metasurface (a 2-D metamaterial). This metasurface could have variable electrical and thermal conductivity via switching (opening/closing) of...selected for AFIT’s first thermal metamaterial design. The first potential application of this metasurface includes use as a thin film (less

  1. Thermal management for heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks)

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M.W.

    2000-04-03

    Thermal management is a crosscutting technology that has an important effect on fuel economy and emissions, as well as on reliability and safety, of heavy-duty trucks. Trends toward higher-horsepower engines, along with new technologies for reducing emissions, are substantially increasing heat-rejection requirements. For example, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which is probably the most popular near-term strategy for reducing NO{sub x} emissions, is expected to add 20 to 50% to coolant heat-rejection requirements. There is also a need to package more cooling in a smaller space without increasing costs. These new demands have created a need for new and innovative technologies and concepts that will require research and development, which, due to its long-term and high-risk nature, would benefit from government funding. This document outlines a research program that was recommended by representatives of truck manufacturers, engine manufacturers, equipment suppliers, universities, and national laboratories. Their input was obtained through personal interviews and a plenary workshop that was sponsored by the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies and held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 19--20, 1999. Major research areas that received a strong endorsement by industry and that are appropriate for government funding were identified and included in the following six tasks: (1) Program management/coordination and benefits/cost analyses; (2) Advanced-concept development; (3) Advanced heat exchangers and heat-transfer fluids; (4) Simulation-code development; (5) Sensors and control components development; and (6) Concept/demonstration truck sponsorship.

  2. Development and testing of advanced cryogenic thermal switch concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marland, B.; Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of two advanced cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW) options for use in long-life cryogenic space systems. The principal application for these two CTSW options in such systems is in implementing cryocooler redundancy with a minimum parasitic heating penalty. The two CTSW configurations covered in the paper are a hydrogen gas-gap (H2-GG) design, flown on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Hitchhiker flight experiment, and a differential thermal expansion (DTE) design. Both options are constructed primarily of beryllium for CTE compatibility with beryllium cryogenic components. The H2-GG design utilizes a flat 2-mil gap between two cylindrical beryllium halves that are supported by a thin-walled titanium tube. A highly convoluted stainless steel bellows seals the unit. The H2-GG CTSW is nominally ``off'' (evacuated) until actuated ``on'' by heating a metal hydride getter, which evolves hydrogen and provides thermal conductance across the gap. The H2-GG design has demonstrated an ``on'' conductance of 1.0 W/K, an ``off'' resistance of 1000-1500 K/W and a range of operation from 15K-300K. The DTE design, which has just three parts, is very similar to the H2-GG design except that a stainless steel tube replaces the titanium tube and the bellows and getter are no longer needed. The DTE CSTW is actuated ``on'' (both sides cold) by the higher CTE of stainless steel compared to beryllium and actuated ``off'' by temporarily applying power to a small heater on the stainless steel tube to expand the tube enough to open the gap. After the smaller of the two beryllium parts warms sufficiently, the heater is no longer needed and the DTE CTSW remains ``off'' (one side cold, one side warm). The DTE design has demonstrated the potential for an ``on'' conductance greater than 1.0 W/K, an ``off'' resistance of 1400 K/W and a range of operation from less than 4K to 300K. This paper describes the design of each CTSW option and the

  3. Advancing Project Management in Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Lynda; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2004-01-01

    Effective project managers are required to have both "hard" technical skills to help control the iron triangle of time, cost and functional scope as well as relationship management skills to work effectively with people and get the best out of them. This paper argues that project managers also need a third skill: we refer to it as tapping into the…

  4. Successful Advance Directives through Quality Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Parke, Bob; Krajewski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Recently there has been talk about the benefit of advance care planning. This is an issue which resurfaces from time to time, as is evident in recent New England Journal of Medicine articles and editorials (April 2010). It has also resurfaced in Canada in a recent document titled Advance Care Planning in Canada: National Framework for Consultation (Health Canada 2010). This document acknowledges that many of us believe in the value of advance directives, finding "that most of the general public (60-90%) is supportive of advance care planning. However, only 10-20% of the public in the US, Canada and Australia have completed an advance care plan of any kind" (Health Canada 2010: 6). In Muriel R. Gillick's editorial in the New England Journal Medicine, she strongly makes the point that few people complete advance directives and further states that "directives have been a resounding failure" (Gillick 2010: 1239). These statements, although not exhaustive on the subject, show that we have a problem translating the support for advance directives into actual plans.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  6. Thermal management of an unconsolidated shallow urban groundwater body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epting, J.; Händel, F.; Huggenberger, P.

    2013-05-01

    This study presents the development of tools for the sustainable thermal management of a shallow unconsolidated urban groundwater body in the city of Basel (Switzerland). The concept of the investigations is based on (1) a characterization of the present thermal state of the urban groundwater body, and (2) the evaluation of potential mitigation measures for the future thermal management of specific regions within the groundwater body. The investigations focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the subsurface as well as the thermal influence of river-groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include (1) short- and long-term data analysis, (2) high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring, as well as (3) 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows for the quantifying of the thermal influences on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and heated subsurface constructions. Subsequently, first implications for management strategies are discussed, including minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal potential.

  7. A Novel Silicon Micromachined Integrated MCM Thermal Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazmierczak, M. J.; Henderson, H. T.; Gerner, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    "Micromachining" is a chemical means of etching three-dimensional structures, typically in single- crystalline silicon. These techniques are leading toward what is coming to be referred to as MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems), where in addition to the ordinary two-dimensional (planar) microelectronics, it is possible to build three-dimensional n-ticromotors, electrically- actuated raicrovalves, hydraulic systems and much more on the same microchip. These techniques become possible because of differential etching rates of various crystallographic planes and materials used for semiconductor n-ticrofabfication. The University of Cincinnati group in collaboration with Karl Baker at NASA Lewis were the first to form micro heat pipes in silicon by the above techniques. Current work now in progress using MEMS technology is now directed towards the development of the next generation in MCM (Multi Chip Module) packaging. Here we propose to develop a complete electronic thermal management system which will allow densifica6on in chip stacking by perhaps two orders of magnitude. Furthermore the proposed technique will allow ordinary conu-nercial integrated chips to be utilized. Basically, the new technique involves etching square holes into a silicon substrate and then inserting and bonding commercially available integrated chips into these holes. For example, over a 100 1/4 in. by 1 /4 in. integrated chips can be placed on a 4 in. by 4 in. silicon substrate to form a Multi-Chip Module (MCM). Placing these MCM's in-line within an integrated rack then allows for three-diniensional stacking. Increased miniaturization of microelectronic circuits will lead to very high local heat fluxes. A high performance thermal management system will be specifically designed to remove the generated energy. More specifically, a compact heat exchanger with milli / microchannels will be developed and tested to remove the heat through the back side of this MCM assembly for moderate and high

  8. Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-02-11

    peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

  9. Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Kaukler, Donna; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will report risk issues associated with designing, manufacturing, and testing the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD). The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) will be developed as a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. This technology will add to the knowledge base for selection for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), Space Based Laser (SBL), Research Laboratory mission (AFRL), and other government agency programs.

  10. Recent Advances in Management of Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Laryngeal cancers account for approximately 1.5% (1~2%) of the total cancers in Korea, and 30% of all head and neck cancers, not including thyroid cancer. Early laryngeal cancer is treated by operation, including transoral laser excision or radiotherapy. Advanced laryngeal cancer has been treated with mutilating operations, such as a total laryngectomy. However, a laryngeal preserving approach, which can improve the quality of life, has recently been tried with advanced laryngeal cancer. PMID:20396561

  11. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  12. Thermal Management Architecture for Future Responsive Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Zimbeck, W.; Kroliczek, E.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal design architecture that enables satellites to be conceived, configured, launched, and operationally deployed very quickly. The architecture has been given the acronym SMARTS for Satellite Modular and Reconfigurable Thermal System and it involves four basic design rules: modest radiator oversizing, maximum external insulation, internal isothermalization and radiator heat flow modulation. The SMARTS philosophy is being developed in support of the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative which seeks to drastically improve small satellite adaptability, deployability, and design flexibility. To illustrate the benefits of the philosophy for a prototypical multi-paneled small satellite, the paper describes a SMARTS thermal control system implementation that uses: panel-to-panel heat conduction, intra-panel heat pipe isothermalization, radiator heat flow modulation via a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) cold-biased loop heat pipe (LHP) and maximum external multi-layer insulation (MLI). Analyses are presented that compare the traditional "cold-biasing plus heater power" passive thermal design approach to the SMARTS approach. Plans for a 3-panel SMARTS thermal test bed are described. Ultimately, the goal is to incorporate SMARTS into the design of future ORS satellites, but it is also possible that some aspects of SMARTS technology could be used to improve the responsiveness of future NASA spacecraft. [22 CFR 125.4(b)(13) applicable

  13. Vapor grown carbon fiber for space thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Max L.; Hickok, J. Kyle; Brito, Karren K.; Begg, Lester L.

    1990-01-01

    Research that uses a novel, highly graphitic, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) to fabricate composites for thermal management applications is described. These VGCF/Carbon composites have shown a specific thermal conductivity with values of twenty-to-ten times that of copper in the 500-900 K temperature range needed for waste heat management. It is concluded that development of this high specific thermal conductivity composite for thermal radiator panels will provide the foundation for a reevaluation of space power designs heretofore limited by the mass of waste heat dissipation systems. Further, it is suggested that through optimization of fiber handling and composite processing, thermal conductivities exceeding 1000 W/m-K (at 300 K) are achievable in composites reinforced with VGCF.

  14. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  15. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.

  16. Limiting Factors to Advancing Thermal Battery Technology for Naval Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    batteries are capable of supplanting lithium / thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal...supplanting lithium / thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power...the present lithium thermal battery technology. Improvements benefit missile, small vehicle, and sonobuoy capabilities. The Electrochemistry Branch

  17. Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Virginia E.

    It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…

  18. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  19. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  20. Thermal evaluation of advanced solar dynamic heat receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal performance of a variety of concepts for thermal energy storage as applied to solar dynamic applications is discussed. It is recognized that designs providing large thermal gradients or large temperature swings during orbit are susceptible to early mechanical failure. Concepts incorporating heat pipe technology may encounter operational limitations over sufficiently large ranges. By reviewing the thermal performance of basic designs, the relative merits of the basic concepts are compared. In addition the effect of thermal enhancement and metal utilization as applied to each design provides a partial characterization of the performance improvements to be achieved by developing these technologies.

  1. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    for creating initial alerts - we refer to this as software level detection, the next level building block Immersive 3D visual assessment for situational awareness and to manage the reaction process - we refer to this as automated intelligent situational awareness, a third building block Wide area command and control capabilities to allow control from a remote location - we refer to this as the management and process control building block integrating together the lower level building elements. In addition, this paper describes three live installations of complete, total systems that incorporate visible and thermal cameras as well as advanced video analytics. Discussion of both system elements and design is extensive.

  2. Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kesterson, Matt; Connel, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Southward, Robin E.; Working, Dennis; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes). This paper presents the initial system modeling studies, including a detailed liquid cooling garment model incorporated into the Wissler human thermal regulatory model, to quantify the necessary improvements in thermal conductivity and garment geometries needed to affect system performance. In addition, preliminary results of thermal conductivity improvements of the polymer components of the liquid cooled ventilation garment are presented. By improving thermal garment performance, major technology drivers will be addressed for lightweight, high thermal conductivity, flexible materials for spacesuits that are strategic technical challenges of the Exploration

  3. Advanced Data Collection for Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opresko, G. A.; Leet, J. H.; Mcgrath, D. F.; Eidson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Bar-coding, radio-frequency, and voice-operated systems selected. Report discusses study of state-of-the-art in automated collection of data for management of large inventories. Study included comprehensive search of literature on data collection and inventory management, visits to existing automated inventory systems, and tours of selected supply and transportation facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Information collected analyzed in view of needs of conceptual inventory-management systems for Kennedy Space Center and for manned space station and other future space projects.

  4. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  5. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  6. Management of dysphagia in advanced oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Jamie L; McClement, Susan E; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2007-05-01

    Individuals with advanced oropharyngeal cancer often experience dysphagia as a result of their illness and its treatment. Research consistently demonstrates that dysphagia and difficulty with oral intake have many implications, including a negative impact on quality of life. Nurses are in a key position to provide support and initiate appropriate interventions for individuals with dysphagia. Using the Human Response to Illness model (Mitchell et al, 1991) as an organising framework, this paper presents a critical review of the empirical literature regarding dysphagia in individuals with advanced oropharyngeal cancer that will: i) provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of dysphagia; ii) identify current gaps in our knowledge; and iii) establish the foundation for appropriate evidence-based interventions to optimise functioning and quality of life in this patient population.

  7. Advances in Radiotherapy Management of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vivek; Moreno, Amy C.; Lin, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data. We further discuss existing data and the potential for further development in the future, with an appraisal of the future outlook of technological advancements of RT for EC. PMID:27775643

  8. Characterization of PTFE Using Advanced Thermal Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A.; Meyer, M.; Strasser, C.

    2010-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in numerous industrial applications. It is often referred to by its trademark name, Teflon. Thermal characterization of a PTFE material was carried out using various thermal analysis and thermophysical properties test techniques. The transformation energetics and specific heat were measured employing differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal expansion and the density changes were determined employing pushrod dilatometry. The viscoelastic properties (storage and loss modulus) were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Combining thermal diffusivity data with specific heat and density allows calculation of the thermal conductivity of the polymer. Measurements were carried out from - 125 °C up to 150 °C. Additionally, measurements of the mechanical properties were carried out down to - 170 °C. The specific heat tests were conducted into the fully molten regions up to 370 °C.

  9. Advanced Quality of Service Management for Next Generation Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS ADVANCED QUALITY OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT FOR NEXT GENERATION INTERNET by Paulo R... Management for Next Generation Internet Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Paulo R. Silva Project Number Task Number Work...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC

  10. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, Gilbert

    2016-04-08

    The objective for this project is to develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter). Device- and system-level thermal analyses are conducted to determine the thermal limitations of current automotive power modules under elevated device temperature conditions. Additionally, novel cooling concepts and material selection will be evaluated to enable high-temperature silicon and WBG devices in power electronics components. WBG devices (silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN]) promise to increase efficiency, but will be driven as hard as possible. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability.

  11. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, R E

    1980-01-01

    The Office of the Associate Laboratory Director for Energy and Environmental Technology has established the OTEC Program Management Office to be responsible for the ANL-assigned tasks of the OTEC Program under DOE's Chicago Operations and Regional Office (DOE/CORO). The ANL OTEC Program Management Plan is essentially a management-by-objective plan. The principal objective of the program is to provide lead technical support to CORO in its capacity as manager of the DOE power-system program. The Argonne OTEC Program is divided into three components: the first deals with development of heat exchangers and other components of OTEC power systems, the second with development of biofouling counter-measures and corrosion-resistant materials for these components in seawater service, and the third with environmental and climatic impacts of OTEC power-system operation. The essential points of the Management Plan are summarized, and the OTEC Program is described. The organization of the OTEC Program at ANL is described including the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of the organizational groupings. The system and policies necessary for the support and control functions within the organization are discussed. These functions cross organizational lines, in that they are common to all of the organization groups. Also included are requirements for internal and external reports.

  13. Advances in managing pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The last 10-12 years have seen an avalanche of changes in both the management of incontinence and genital prolapse. So many new procedures continue to appear that often the clinician is confused as to which approach to adopt. Complications are now being reported, creating a need to reappraise the situation. PMID:20948691

  14. SOFC seal and cell thermal management

    DOEpatents

    Potnis, Shailesh Vijay; Rehg, Timothy Joseph

    2011-05-17

    The solid oxide fuel cell module includes a manifold, a plate, a cathode electrode, a fuel cell and an anode electrode. The manifold includes an air or oxygen inlet in communication with divergent passages above the periphery of the cell which combine to flow the air or oxygen radially or inwardly for reception in the center of the cathode flow field. The latter has interconnects providing circuitous cooling passages in a generally radial outward direction cooling the fuel cell and which interconnects are formed of different thermal conductivity materials for a preferential cooling.

  15. Advanced Thermal-Barrier Bond Coatings for Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secura, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    New and improved bond coatings developed for use in thermal-barrier systems on Ni, Co-, and Fe-base alloy substrates. Use of these new bond coatings, containing ytterbium instead of yttrium, significantly increased lives of resultant thermal-barrier systems. Uses include many load-bearing applications in high-temperature, hostile environments.

  16. Advances in understanding and managing bullous pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cathy Y.; Murrell, Dedee F.

    2015-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the commonest subtype of autoimmune blistering disease in most countries of the world. It occurs most frequently in elderly patients and is characterised clinically by large, tense blisters in the skin preceded by urticarial plaques and pruritus. Immunopathologically, it is characterised by autoantibodies directed against the 180 kD antigen (BP180) and the 230 kD antigen (BP230). New knowledge regarding BP is being continually uncovered. This article reviews the recent advances in BP, including newer diagnostic tests, standardised outcome measures and emerging therapeutic options, as well as the evidence supporting their use. PMID:26918143

  17. Advances in the management of malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mazen Y; Mapa, Marissa; Shin, Hyung Ju C; Shin, Dong M

    2003-07-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas are very aggressive tumors that originate from mesothelial cells, which form the serosal lining of the pleura, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Finding effective chemotherapeutic treatment for malignant mesothelioma is a challenge. There is no standard treatment because this tumor is relatively resistant to therapy. A resurgence of interest has been expressed in novel therapies and conventional treatments used in different ways. Several treatment modalities have been studied, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically or directly into the pleura. This review presents the results of the most recent trials and highlights the most promising advances in the battle against this aggressive disease.

  18. Advanced Thermal Control Technologies for "CEV" (New Name: ORION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric; Westheimer, David; Ewert, Michael; Hasan, Mojib; Anderson, Molly; Tuan, George; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating several technology options for advanced human spaceflight. This presentation covers some recent developments that relate to NASA's Orion spacecraft and future Lunar missions.

  19. Advanced techniques in IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2006-04-01

    Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  20. Materials Opportunity for Spacecraft and Aerospace Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Roland J.; Kistner, Mark; Druma, Andriana M.; Alam, Khurial

    2005-02-01

    Carbon-carbon and polymer matrix composite materials for thermal panels are used in spacecrafts and planned for thermal management in high volume, aircraft electronics and power systems. The requirements are lightweight, highly performance conductive materials that can withstand the stresses in the specific applications. This evaluation investigates a number of emerging carbon-carbon composites and baseline polymer matrix composite panels to evaluate their potential for thermal transfer applications. Properties were measured from -250 °F to +250 °F for generic space orbital applications.

  1. Miniature Loop Heat Pipe (MLHP) Thermal Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2004-01-01

    The MLHP Thermal Management System consists of a loop heat pipe (LHP) with multiple evaporators and condensers, thermal electrical coolers, and deployable radiators coated with variable emittance coatings (VECs). All components are miniaturized. It retains all the performance characteristics of state-of-the-art LHPs and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, versatility, and reliability of the system, including flexible locations of instruments and radiators, a single interface temperature for multiple instruments, cooling the on instruments and warming the off instruments simultaneously, improving. start-up success, maintaining a constant LHP operating temperature over a wide range of instrument powers, effecting automatic thermal switching and thermal diode actions, and reducing supplemental heater powers. It can fully achieve low mass, low power and compactness necessary for future small spacecraft. Potential applications of the MLHP thermal technology for future missions include: 1) Magnetospheric Constellation; 2) Solar Sentinels; 3) Mars Science Laboratory; 4) Mars Scouts; 5) Mars Telecom Orbiter; 6) Space Interferometry Mission; 7) Laser Interferometer Space Antenna; 8) Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter; 9) Terrestrial Planet Finder; 10) Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory, and 11) Exploration Missions. The MLHP Thermal Management System combines the operating features of a variable conductance heat pipe, a thermal switch, a thermal diode, and a state-of-the-art LHP into a single integrated thermal system. It offers many advantages over conventional thermal control techniques, and can be a technology enabler for future space missions. Successful flight validation will bring the benefits of MLHP technology to the small satellite arena and will have cross-cutting applications to both Space Science and Earth Science Enterprises.

  2. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra-efficient and low-emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttria based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  3. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra efficient and low emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttna based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  4. Advances in the Endoscopic Management of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Behary, Jason; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with significant impact on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality rates. Over the past two decades, bariatric surgery has established itself as the most effective and durable treatment for patients with obesity and its associated comorbidities. However, despite the use of minimally invasive techniques, bariatric surgery is associated with complications in approximately 15% of patients, has a substantial cost, and is used by only 1% of patients who are eligible. Therefore, there is a need for effective minimally invasive therapies, which will be utilized by the large proportion of obese patients who are in desperate need of treatment but are not receiving any. Endoscopic approaches to the management of obesity have been developed, with the aim of delivering more effective, durable, and safer methods of weight reduction. In this paper, we review currently available and future endoscopic therapies that will likely join the armamentarium used in the management of obesity. PMID:26106413

  5. System and method for advanced power management

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Symons, Philip C.; Butler, Paul C.; Corey, Garth P.

    2009-07-28

    A power management system is provided that includes a power supply means comprising a plurality of power supply strings, a testing means operably connected to said plurality of power supply strings for evaluating performance characteristics of said plurality of power supply strings, and a control means for monitoring power requirements and comprising a switching means for controlling switching of said plurality of power supply strings to said testing means.

  6. Nursing Management of Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Pamela A; Freeman, Morganna L; Russell, Jeffery S

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and lethal skin cancer with few known treatment options. Management of this disease is challenging, and oncology nurses must understand the medical, physical, and psychosocial burden that MCC places on the patient and family caregivers. Patients must navigate a complex medical and insurance network that often fails to support patients with rare cancers. Nurses must advocate for these patients to ensure quality comprehensive cancer care.

  7. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  8. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  9. Thermal degradation study of silicon carbide threads developed for advanced flexible thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim; Sawko, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber is a material that may be used in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) for future aerospace vehicles. SiC fiber's mechanical properties depend greatly on the presence or absence of sizing and its microstructure. In this research, silicon dioxide is found to be present on the surface of the fiber. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) show that a thin oxide layer (SiO2) exists on the as-received fibers, and the oxide thickness increases when the fibers are exposed to high temperature. ESCA also reveals no evidence of Si-C bonding on the fiber surface on both as-received and heat treated fibers. The silicon oxide layer is thought to signal the decomposition of SiC bonds and may be partially responsible for the degradation in the breaking strength observed at temperatures above 400 C. The variation in electrical resistivity of the fibers with increasing temperature indicates a transition to a higher band gap material at 350 to 600 C. This is consistent with a decomposition of SiC involving silicon oxide formation.

  10. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  11. Advanced Battery Management Challenges for Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-06

    NCA, NCM) 2.5-4.1 7.5-12.3 10-16.4 15-24.6 17.5-28.7 20-32.8 L F P Nominal Voltage(V) ( LiFePO4 ) 3.3 9.9 13.2 19.8 23.1 26.4 n x 3.3 Voltage range...V) ( LiFePO4 ) 2.0-3.7 6-11.1 8-14.8 12-22.2 14-25.9 16-29.6 15 12V 6T 24V 6T UNCLASSIFIED Advanced Chemistry BMS • Required for Li-ion

  12. Advances in the management of chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Kay-Stacey, Margaret; Attarian, Hrayr

    2016-07-06

    Chronic insomnia is a common condition that affects people worldwide and has negative effects on patients' health and wellbeing. The treatment of insomnia can be complex and time consuming for patients and providers. Although behavioral interventions are the first line therapy, there are barriers to access for these treatments. However, in recent years, alternative ways of providing these behavioral therapies that make them more widely available have been investigated. Drugs also play an important role in the treatment of insomnia and new drugs have been introduced as options for treating patients with sleep initiation and sleep maintenance insomnia. In this review, we will discuss advances in the past six years in both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments for patients with chronic insomnia. We will also review the controversies surrounding some of the current drug treatments, as well as the role that technology and personal activity monitoring devices may play in treating insomnia.

  13. Recent advances in understanding & managing male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M.; Lo, Kirk C.

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility remains a struggle to definitively diagnose and treat with many men labelled as “idiopathic infertility” and eventually requiring assisted reproductive techniques.  Along those lines, research groups are continuing to explore current social and environmental factors, including the obesity epidemic, and their effects on male fertility potential.  Novel biomarkers of natural fertility status and azoospermia etiology have additionally seen recent attention with ACRV1 and TEX101/ECM1 assays either currently or soon to be commercially available.  Despite these advancements, however, medical treatment options have seen little progress.  Though surgical therapies have similarly seen little transformation, groups are exploring the use of testicular sperm for couples with elevated sperm DNA fragmentation and either planned or previously failed IVF/ICSI.  Concerted collaborative efforts will be needed as we move forward to better understand the challenges men face when struggling to conceive. PMID:27990271

  14. Thermal Properties of Carbon Nanotube–Copper Composites for Thermal Management Applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube–copper (CNT/Cu) composites have been successfully synthesized by means of a novel particles-compositing process followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The thermal conductivity of the composites was measured by a laser flash technique and theoretical analyzed using an effective medium approach. The experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity unusually decreased after the incorporation of CNTs. Theoretical analyses revealed that the interfacial thermal resistance between the CNTs and the Cu matrix plays a crucial role in determining the thermal conductivity of bulk composites, and only small interfacial thermal resistance can induce a significant degradation in thermal conductivity for CNT/Cu composites. The influence of sintering condition on the thermal conductivity depended on the combined effects of multiple factors, i.e. porosity, CNTs distribution and CNT kinks or twists. The composites sintered at 600°C for 5 min under 50 MPa showed the maximum thermal conductivity. CNT/Cu composites are considered to be a promising material for thermal management applications. PMID:20672107

  15. Advances in the management of insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Todd M.; Marcus, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent and associated with considerable morbidity. Several very efficacious treatments, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic, exist for the management of insomnia. New modes of delivery and new formulations of existing sedative-hypnotic medications have been introduced. Novel agents are still being developed and tested to arrive at a hypnotic that has limited side effects while still being efficacious. Innovations with respect to behavioral interventions, which are drastically under-utilized, have focused mainly on making these interventions more widely available through dissemination efforts, briefer formats and more accessible platforms. PMID:24991425

  16. Advanced wellbore thermal simulator GEOTEMP2 research report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    The development of the GEOTEMP2 wellbore thermal simulator is described. The major technical features include a general purpose air and mist drilling simulator and a two-phase steam flow simulator that can model either injection or production.

  17. A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Sijie; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery has emerged as an important power source for portable devices and electric vehicles due to its superiority over other energy storage technologies. A mild temperature variation as well as a proper operating temperature range are essential for a Li-ion battery to perform soundly and have a long service life. In this review paper, the heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion battery are firstly analyzed based on the energy conservation equations, followed by an examination of the hazardous effects of an above normal operating temperature. Then, advanced techniques in respect of electrode modification and systematic battery thermal management are inspected in detail as solutions in terms of reducing internal heat production and accelerating external heat dissipation, respectively. Specifically, variable parameters like electrode thickness and particle size of active material, along with optimization methods such as coating, doping, and adding conductive media are discussed in the electrode modification section, while the current development in air cooling, liquid cooling, heat pipe cooling, and phase change material cooling systems are reviewed in the thermal management part as different ways to improve the thermal performance of Li-ion batteries.

  18. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  19. Recent advances in understanding and managing urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Strohmaier, Walter L.

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, there has been relevant progress in both understanding and managing urolithiasis. Our knowledge of stone formation has changed; although the importance of urine biochemistry was questioned by several investigators years ago, the decisive role of cellular processes (induced by oxidative stress) and the renal papilla has only recently been generally accepted as the most important step in stone formation. For calcium oxalate urolithiasis, the formation of papillary calcifications plays a key role and is of prognostic relevance. Further research has to concentrate on these aspects of preventing urolithiasis. Stone prevention (metaphylaxis) is a major issue when considering the burden it places on healthcare systems. An effective metaphylaxis could lower the cost of stone therapy significantly. For uric acid urolithiasis, so far there is only preliminary information available showing that papillary plaques are not as important as they are in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Concerning stone management, endourology has improved stone therapy significantly during the last few years. Morbidity decreased and success (stone-free) rates increased. Therefore, the indications for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) narrowed. ESWL, however, still has its place in stone therapy. There is not one single treatment modality that is equally effective for all situations. It is important to observe the differential indications for different stones depending on size, localization, and composition. PMID:27853528

  20. A high power spacecraft thermal management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, J.; Kroliczek, E. J.; Mccabe, M. E., Jr.; Benner, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test results of an ammonia hybrid capillary pumped loop thermal control system. As a hytbrid, the system can operate as either a passive, capillary pumped loop, or, as a mechanically pumped system. The system is comprised of an evaporator section, a condenser section, 10 meters of liquid and vapor transport lines, a mechanical pump, and a reservoir. In the evaporator section, four capillary pumps are each integrated into three cold plates. The mechanical pump is installed in the liquid line and is in series with the capillary pumps. Testing has demonstrated that in the capillary pumped mode, the HPSTM can acquire and transport a total heat load of between 120 W and 24 kW, with a maximum heat flux density of 4.3 W/sq cm in the evaporator section. In the mechanically pumped configuration, a heat acquisition potential of 50 kW (9 W/sq cm heat flux density) has been demonstrated. The hybrid system still retains the proven capillary capabilities of temperature control, heat load sharing and fluid flow control between evaporator plates, rapid power cycling, and pressure priming recovery of deprimed evaporators.

  1. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals

  2. Current treatments and advances in pain and anxiety management.

    PubMed

    Huang, David; Wun, Edmund; Stern, Avichai

    2011-07-01

    In light of preoperative and postoperative mortality and morbidity, continued advancement in pain and anxiety management would benefit millions. Although significant strides have been made in the past few decades, it is imperative that research and development continue. This article discusses types of pain and anxiety, the relationship between pain and anxiety, the physiology of pain and anxiety, and current trends in pain and anxiety management.

  3. Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    January 2011, respectively. These savings were smaller compared with savings opportunities in the cooling season because of the cold weather during the...FINAL REPORT Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems ESTCP Project EW-201015 MAY 2013 Veronica Adetola... Management Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  4. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  5. High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Foam used for the Thermal Management of Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, R.D.; McMillan, A.D.; Choudhury, A.

    2006-02-02

    The need for maintaining a lower specific engine oil temperature is essential in enhancing the longevity of the oil and of the engine and its components. By decreasing the engine oil temperature the oil is able to perform its job more efficiently. It is proposed to use the carbon foam, with its exceptional thermal management capabilities, to aid in reducing and stabilizing the engine oil temperature during steady state operation. Also, it is possible to use the carbon foam to heat the engine oil during startup to reduce emissions and possibly engine wear. The mesophase pitch derived carbon foam, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a material that offers excellent thermal management capability. The foam has an open cell structure (0.98 fraction open porosity) with graphitic ligaments aligned parallel to the cell walls. The alignment of the graphitic ligaments in a three dimensional array gives the foam homogeneous thermal properties, unlike graphite fibers. The bulk thermal conductivity of the foam has been measured to be 175 W/m{center_dot}K, placing it on the level of 6061 aluminum, which has a bulk thermal conductivity of 180 W/m{center_dot}K. Copper has a bulk thermal conductivity over two times higher, at 400 W/m{center_dot}K. The proposed research will entail using the carbon foam, with its excellent thermal management capabilities, as a cooling and heating medium for engine oil, or in other words an oil temperature regulator. The foam will aid in maintaining a specific oil temperature during steady state operation and in heating of the engine oil at startup. Being able to maintain a consistent oil temperature will ensure better operation of engine oil, by extending the life of the oil and engine. All Parties will conduct research efforts in order to determine the best utilization of the carbon foam in managing engine oil temperatures.

  6. Irrigation system management assisted by thermal imagery and spatial statistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has the potential to assist with many aspects of irrigation management including scheduling water application, detecting leaky irrigation canals, and gauging the overall effectiveness of water distribution networks used in furrow irrigation. Many challenges exist for the use of therm...

  7. A Thermal Management of Electronics Course and Laboratory for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Nicole; Hsu, Tai-Ran; Bash, Cullen E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel thermal management of electronics course with an associated laboratory has been developed for mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering students. The lecture topics, term project, computer modeling project, and six associated experiments that were built from scratch are described. Over half of the course lectures as well as all lab…

  8. Thermal management of cryogenic coolers used in military infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, J.D.; Rawlings, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    High performance infrared (IR) sensors are based on IR detectors that must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to achieve the desired performance. The current IR sensors being developed utilize compact, linear drive cryocoolers based on the Stirling cycle to achieve the cryogenic temperatures. The integration of these coolers into the IR systems present a number of complex and unique challenges. One of the most significant affecting the reliability and performance of the system, is the thermal management of the cooler. Developing an effective heatsink design that maximizes cooling capacity and lifetime while meeting system requirements is a top priority. This paper discusses the thermal management issues of cryogenic coolers and the system requirements that influence the heatsink design. A thermal model and validation testing of the cooler is presented to show analytical capabilities for evaluating heatsink designs. The integration of the model and heatsink design into an IR system is demonstrated by comparing analytical results and empirical data.

  9. Advances in the management of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bielack, Stefan S.; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; Blattmann, Claudia; Kager, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, a bone cancer most commonly seen in adolescents and young adults, is usually a high-grade malignancy characterized by a very high risk for the development of pulmonary metastases. High-grade osteosarcomas are usually treated by preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy and surgery, with a very limited number of active agents available. Rarer lower-grade variants such as parosteal and periosteal osteosarcoma or low-grade central osteosarcoma are treated by surgery only. Imaging to search for possible metastases focuses on the lung. Computed tomography is the most sensitive method but cannot reliably distinguish small metastases from benign lesions. Advances of local imaging and surgical reconstruction now allow the use of limb-salvage in an ever-increasing proportion of patients. While still troubled by complications, non-invasive endoprosthesis-lengthening mechanisms have led to an increased uptake of limb-salvage, even for young, skeletally immature patients. Radiotherapy is employed when osteosarcomas cannot be removed with clear margins, but very high doses are required, and both proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy are under investigation. Unfortunately, the past 30 years have witnessed few, if any, survival improvements. Novel agents have not led to universally accepted changes of treatment standards. In patients with operable high-grade osteosarcomas, the extent of histological response to preoperative chemotherapy is a significant predictive factor for both local and systemic control. Attempts to improve prognosis by adapting postoperative treatment to response, recently tested in a randomized, prospective setting by the European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group, have not been proven to be beneficial. Many agree that only increased knowledge about osteosarcoma biology will lead to novel, effective treatment approaches and will be able to move the field forward. PMID:27990273

  10. Modern management of locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Cetina, Lucely; Mariscal, Ignacio; de la Garza, Jaime

    2003-10-01

    Radiation was until recently the key and only modality for the routine treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. However after years of studying multi-modality treatments as an alternative to radiation alone in randomized phase III trials, the standard treatment has changed to chemo-radiation based on cisplatin. Three recent meta-analyses have confirmed that cisplatin-based chemo-radiation adds an absolute 12% benefit in five-year survival over radiation therapy alone. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation has not been of proven benefit, but when neoadjuvant chemotherapy is followed by surgery, an absolute increase of 15% in five-year survival over radiation alone is seen. This benefit in survival is comparable to that obtained with the current chemo-radiation schedules based on cisplatin. Despite these encouraging results there remains room for improvement as the five-year survival of patients treated with chemo-radiation ranges from nearly 80% in bulky IB tumours to only 25% in stage IVA disease. Other therapeutic approaches need to be fully evaluated including the use of chemo-radiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; the use of new drug combinations and the multi-modality combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery plus adjuvant chemo-radiation. Likewise, the addition of radiosensitizers to cisplatin, preoperative chemo-radiation and/or adjuvant chemotherapy may eventually improve the currents results of cisplatin-based chemo-radiation. Nevertheless, it is hard to foresee a dramatic increase in cure rate, even with the most optimal combination of cytotoxic drugs, surgery and radiation, and thus the testing of molecular targeted therapies against cervical cancer is a logical step to follow.

  11. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian D.; Caffrey, Jarvis; Hedayat, Ali; Stephens, Jonathan; Polsgrove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic fluid management (CFM) is critical to the success of future nuclear thermal propulsion powered vehicles. While this is an issue for any propulsion system utilizing cryogenic propellants, this is made more challenging by the radiation flux produced by the reactor in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Managing the cryogenic fuel to prevent propellant loss to boil off and leakage is needed to limit the required quantity of propellant to a reasonable level. Analysis shows deposition of energy into liquid hydrogen fuel tanks in the vicinity of the nuclear thermal engine. This is on top of ambient environment sources of heat. Investments in cryogenic/thermal management systems (some of which are ongoing at various organizations) are needed in parallel to nuclear thermal engine development in order to one day see the successful operation of an entire stage. High durability, low thermal conductivity insulation is one developmental need. Light weight cryocoolers capable of removing heat from large fluid volumes at temperatures as low as approx. 20 K are needed to remove heat leak from the propellant of an NTR. Valve leakage is an additional CFM issue of great importance. Leakage rates of state of the art, launch vehicle size valves (which is approximately the size valves needed for a Mars transfer vehicle) are quite high and would result in large quantities of lost propellant over a long duration mission. Additionally, the liquid acquisition system inside the propellant tank must deliver properly conditioned propellant to the feed line for successful engine operation and avoid intake of warm or gaseous propellant. Analysis of the thermal environment and the CFM technology development are discussed in the accompanying presentation.

  12. Vegetation management with fire modifies peatland soil thermal regime.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lee E; Palmer, Sheila M; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation removal with fire can alter the thermal regime of the land surface, leading to significant changes in biogeochemistry (e.g. carbon cycling) and soil hydrology. In the UK, large expanses of carbon-rich upland environments are managed to encourage increased abundance of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) by rotational burning of shrub vegetation. To date, though, there has not been any consideration of whether prescribed vegetation burning on peatlands modifies the thermal regime of the soil mass in the years after fire. In this study thermal regime was monitored across 12 burned peatland soil plots over an 18-month period, with the aim of (i) quantifying thermal dynamics between burned plots of different ages (from <2 to 15 + years post burning), and (ii) developing statistical models to determine the magnitude of thermal change caused by vegetation management. Compared to plots burned 15 + years previously, plots recently burned (<2-4 years) showed higher mean, maximum and range of soil temperatures, and lower minima. Statistical models (generalised least square regression) were developed to predict daily mean and maximum soil temperature in plots burned 15 + years prior to the study. These models were then applied to predict temperatures of plots burned 2, 4 and 7 years previously, with significant deviations from predicted temperatures illustrating the magnitude of burn management effects. Temperatures measured in soil plots burned <2 years previously showed significant statistical disturbances from model predictions, reaching +6.2 °C for daily mean temperatures and +19.6 °C for daily maxima. Soil temperatures in plots burnt 7 years previously were most similar to plots burned 15 + years ago indicating the potential for soil temperatures to recover as vegetation regrows. Our findings that prescribed peatland vegetation burning alters soil thermal regime should provide an impetus for further research to understand the consequences of thermal regime

  13. Advanced endoscopic ultrasound management techniques for preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Bharmal, Sheila; Duman, Deniz Guney; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Turner, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions can be benign, premalignant or malignant. The recent increase in detection and tremendous clinical variability of pancreatic cysts has presented a significant therapeutic challenge to physicians. Mucinous cystic neoplasms are of particular interest given their known malignant potential. This review article provides a brief but comprehensive review of premalignant pancreatic cystic lesions with advanced endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) management approaches. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, OVID and EMBASE databases. Preneoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions include mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The 2012 International Sendai Guidelines guide physicians in their management of pancreatic cystic lesions. Some of the advanced EUS management techniques include ethanol ablation, chemotherapeutic (paclitaxel) ablation, radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy. In future, EUS-guided injections of drug-eluting beads and neodymium:yttrium aluminum agent laser ablation is predicted to be an integral part of EUS-guided management techniques. In summary, International Sendai Consensus Guidelines should be used to make a decision regarding management of pancreatic cystic lesions. Advanced EUS techniques are proving extremely beneficial in management, especially in those patients who are at high surgical risk. PMID:27574295

  14. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  15. Dynamic Thermal Management for High-Performance Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gurumurthi, Dr Sudhanva; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Thermal-aware design of disk drives is important because high temperatures can cause reliability problems. Dynamic Thermal Management (DTM) techniques have been proposed to operate the disk at the average case temperature, rather than at the worse case by modulating the activities to avoid thermal emergencies. The thermal emergencies can be caused by unexpected events, such as fan-breaks, increased inlet air temperature, etc. One of the DTM techniques is a delay-based approach that adjusts the disk seek activities, cooling down the disk drives. Even if such a DTM approach could overcome thermal emergencies without stopping disk activity, it suffers from long delays when servicing the requests. Thus, in this chapter, we investigate the possibility of using a multispeed disk-drive (called dynamic rotations per minute (DRPM)) that dynamically modulates the rotational speed of the platter for implementing the DTM technique. Using a detailed performance and thermal simulator of a storage system, we evaluate two possible DTM policies (- time-based and watermark-based) with a DRPM disk-drive and observe that dynamic RPM modulation is effective in avoiding thermal emergencies. However, we find that the time taken to transition between different rotational speeds of the disk is critical for the effectiveness of the DRPM based DTM techniques.

  16. Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - An advanced optics technology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Colin; Labaw, Clayton; Sobel, Harold; Kahle, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of a special optical filter, the Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne multispectral IR imaging instrument operating in the thermal emission region (7.5-14 microns), will achieve signal-to-noise ratios greater than 600 with ambient temperature optics. This instrument will be used to do compositional surface mapping of the terrain, and will refine the ability to categorize rock families and types by providing much higher spectral resolution in the emission region than was previously available. Details of the optical system, the detector, the cooler system, and the support electronics are described.

  17. Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuahai; Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yongzhou; Li, Changhao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is a routine but crucial strategy to ensure thermal stability and long-term durability of the lithium-ion batteries. An air-flow-integrated thermal management system is designed in the present study to dissipate heat generation and uniformize the distribution of temperature in the lithium-ion batteries. The system contains of two types of air ducts with independent intake channels and fans. One is to cool the batteries through the regular channel, and the other minimizes the heat accumulations in the middle pack of batteries through jet cooling. A three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer model is developed to describe the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion batteries with the integration of heat generation theory, and validated through both simulations and experiments. Moreover, the simulations and experiments show that the maximum temperature can be decreased to 33.1 °C through the new thermal management system in comparison with 42.3 °C through the traditional ones, and temperature uniformity of the lithium-ion battery packs is enhanced, significantly.

  18. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  19. A Thermal Management Systems Model for the NASA GTX RBCC Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traci, Richard M.; Farr, John L., Jr.; Laganelli, Tony; Walker, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Analysis Code (VITMAC) was further developed to aid the analysis, design, and optimization of propellant and thermal management concepts for advanced propulsion systems. The computational tool is based on engineering level principles and models. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides a simple and straightforward method to assess and evaluate multiple concepts before undertaking more rigorous analysis of candidate systems. The tool incorporates the Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) program and the RJPA code to permit heat transfer analysis of both rocket and air breathing propulsion systems. Key parts of the code have been validated with experimental data. The tool was specifically tailored to analyze rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems being considered for space transportation applications. This report describes the computational tool and its development and verification for NASA GTX RBCC propulsion system applications.

  20. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  1. Advanced Oxide Material Systems For 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are being developed for low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor containing combustion environments. The 1650 C T/EBC system is required to have better thermal stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance than current coating systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivity, water vapor stability and cyclic durability of selected candidate zirconia-/hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based T/EBC materials are evaluated. The test results have been used to downselect the T/EBC coating materials, and help demonstrate advanced 1650OC coatings feasibility with long-term cyclic durability.

  2. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  3. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  4. Techniques for measurement of the thermal expansion of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques available to measure small thermal displacements in flat laminates and structural tubular elements of advanced composite materials are described. Emphasis is placed on laser interferometry and the laser interferometric dilatometer system used at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. Thermal expansion data are presented for graphite-fiber reinforced 6061 and 2024 aluminum laminates and for graphite fiber reinforced AZ91 C and QH21 A magnesium laminates before and after processing to minimize or eliminate thermal strain hysteresis. Data are also presented on the effects of reinforcement volume content on thermal expansion of silicon-carbide whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum.

  5. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability, for the Advanced Turbine Systems program (gas turbine). The base program consists of three phases: Phase I, program planning (complete); Phase II, development; and Phase III (selected specimen-bench test). Work is currently being performed in Phase II.

  6. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  8. Thermal Management Techniques for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin; DellaCorte, Chris; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate three different methods of utilizing air to provide thermal management control for compliant journal foil air bearings. The effectiveness of the methods was based on bearing bulk temperature and axial thermal gradient reductions during air delivery. The first method utilized direct impingement of air on the inner surface of a hollow test journal during operation. The second, less indirect method achieved heat removal by blowing air inside the test journal to simulate air flowing axially through a hollow, rotating shaft. The third method emulated the most common approach to removing heat by forcing air axially through the bearing s support structure. Internal bearing temperatures were measured with three, type K thermocouples embedded in the bearing that measured general internal temperatures and axial thermal gradients. Testing was performed in a 1 atm, 260 C ambient environment with the bearing operating at 60 krpm and supporting a load of 222 N. Air volumetric flows of 0.06, 0.11, and 0.17 cubic meters per minute at approximately 150 to 200 C were used. The tests indicate that all three methods provide thermal management but at different levels of effectiveness. Axial cooling of the bearing support structure had a greater effect on bulk temperature for each air flow and demonstrated that the thermal gradients could be influenced by the directionality of the air flow. Direct air impingement on the journal's inside surface provided uniform reductions in both bulk temperature and thermal gradients. Similar to the direct method, indirect journal cooling had a uniform cooling effect on both bulk temperatures and thermal gradients but was the least effective of the three methods.

  9. Thermal management system options for high power space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Lehtinen, A.; Parish, R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal Management System (TMS) design options for a high power (75kWe), low earth orbit, multimodule space platform were investigated. The approach taken was to establish a baseline TMS representative of current technology, and to make incremental improvements through successive subsystem trades that lead to a candidate TMS. The TMS trades included centralized and decentralized transport, single-phase and two-phase transport, alternate working fluids, liquid loop and heat pipe radiators, deployed fixed, body mounted and steerable radiators, and thermal storage. The subsystem options were evaluated against criteria such as weight, TMS power requirement, reliability, system isothermality penalty, and growth potential.

  10. Management applications for thermal IR imagery of lake processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, J. M.; Haynes, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A thermal infrared scanning program was conducted in the Lake Ontario Basin region in an effort to determine: (1) limonologic data that could be collected by remote sensing techniques, and (2) local interest in and routine use of such data in water management programs. Difficulties encountered in the development of an infrared survey program in New York suggest that some of the major obstacles to acceptance of remotely sensed data for routine use are factors of psychology rather than technology. Also, terminology used should suit the measurement technique in order to encourage acceptance of the surface thermal data obtained.

  11. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  12. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  13. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOEpatents

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  14. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOEpatents

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  15. Advanced Liquid-Cooling Garment Using Highly Thermally Conductive Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This design of the liquid-cooling garment for NASA spacesuits allows the suit to remove metabolic heat from the human body more effectively, thereby increasing comfort and performance while reducing system mass. The garment is also more flexible, with fewer restrictions on body motion, and more effectively transfers thermal energy from the crewmember s body to the external cooling unit. This improves the garment s performance in terms of the maximum environment temperature in which it can keep a crewmember comfortable. The garment uses flexible, highly thermally conductive sheet material (such as graphite), coupled with cooling water lines of improved thermal conductivity to transfer the thermal energy from the body to the liquid cooling lines more effectively. The conductive sheets can be layered differently, depending upon the heat loads, in order to provide flexibility, exceptional in-plane heat transfer, and good through-plane heat transfer. A metal foil, most likely aluminum, can be put between the graphite sheets and the external heat source/sink in order to both maximize through-plane heat transfer at the contact points, and to serve as a protection to the highly conductive sheets. Use of a wicking layer draws excess sweat away from the crewmember s skin and the use of an outer elastic fabric ensures good thermal contact of the highly conductive underlayers with the skin. This allows the current state of the art to be improved by having cooling lines that can be more widely spaced to improve suit flexibility and to reduce weight. Also, cooling liquid does not have to be as cold to achieve the same level of cooling. Specific areas on the human body can easily be targeted for greater or lesser cooling to match human physiology, a warmer external environment can be tolerated, and spatial uniformity of the cooling garment can be improved to reduce vasoconstriction limits. Elements of this innovation can be applied to other embodiments to provide effective heat

  16. Thermal Properties of Oxides With Magnetoplumbite Structure for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Oxides having magnetoplumbite structure are promising candidate materials for applications as high temperature thermal barrier coatings because of their high thermal stability, high thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity. In this study, powders of LaMgAl11O19, GdMgAl11O19, SmMgAl11O19, and Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxides were synthesized by citric acid sol-gel method and hot pressed into disk specimens. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of these oxide materials were measured from room temperature to 1500 C. The average CTE value was found to be approx.9.6x10(exp -6)/C. Thermal conductivity of these magnetoplumbite-based oxide materials was also evaluated using steady-state laser heat flux test method. The effects of doping on thermal properties were also examined. Thermal conductivity of the doped Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 composition was found to be lower than that of the undoped GdMgAl11O19. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient was found to be independent of the oxide composition and appears to be controlled by the magnetoplumbite crystal structure. Thermal conductivity testing of LaMgAl11O19 and LaMnAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxide coatings plasma sprayed on NiCrAlY/Rene N5 superalloy substrates indicated resistance of these coatings to sintering even at temperatures as high as 1600 C.

  17. Advances in the Management of Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ciombor, Kristen Keon; Goff, Laura Williams

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTC), though uncommon, are highly fatal malignancies, and current treatments fail to cure or control the majority of tumors. Given the complexity of the anatomy and often aggressive nature of the disease, multidisciplinary treatment, including palliation, is often required. However, systemic therapy with cytotoxics and/or targeted agents are routinely the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced biliary tract cancers, and new targets and agents provide hope for this disease. This article focuses on recent advances in the management of biliary tract cancers, with a special focus on the molecular basis for current therapeutic investigation in this disease. PMID:23416860

  18. Advanced solar thermal storage medium test data and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, H.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of experimentally obtained heat transfer and heat storage characteristics of a solar thermal energy storage bed utilizing containerized water or phase change material (PCM) and rock or brick. It is shown that (1) containers with an L/D ratio of 0.80 and a mass/surface area ratio of 2.74 in a random stacking arrangement have the optimum heat transfer characteristics; and (2) vertical stacking has the least pressure drop across the test bed. It is also found that standard bricks with appropriate holes make an excellent storage medium.

  19. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  20. Development of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Using a High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, high temperature capability thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which initially rises under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later drops under the cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on damage accumulation and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The external radiation resistance of the coating is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser- heated intense radiation-flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature may be derived.

  1. Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Bowyer, J. M.; Gajanana, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic radiation is converted to thermal energy. A heat engine/generator assembly then converts the thermal energy captured by the receiver to electricity. Developmental activity has been concentrated on small power modules which employ 11- to 12-meter diameter dishes to generate nominal power levels of approximately 20 kWe. A comparison of advanced heat engines for the dish power module is presented in terms of the performance potential of each engine with its requirements for advanced technology development. Three advanced engine possibilities are the Brayton (gas turbine), Brayton/Rankine combined cycle, and Stirling engines.

  2. Effects of Doping on Thermal Conductivity of Pyrochlore Oxides for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2006-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides of general composition, A2B2O7, where A is a 3(+) cation (La to Lu) and B is a 4(+) cation (Zr, Hf, Ti, etc.) have high melting point, relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity which make them suitable for applications as high-temperature thermal barrier coatings. The effect of doping at the A site on the thermal conductivity of a pyrochlore oxide La2Zr2O7, has been investigated. Oxide powders of various compositions La2Zr2O7, La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 were synthesized by the citric acid sol-gel method. These powders were hot pressed into discs and used for thermal conductivity measurements using a steady-state laser heat flux test technique. The rare earth oxide doped pyrochlores La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 had lower thermal conductivity than the un-doped La2Zr2O7. The Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 co-doped composition showed the lowest thermal conductivity.

  3. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  4. Comparison of thermal management techniques for semiconductor disk lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giet, S.; Kemp, A. J.; Burns, D.; Calvez, S.; Dawson, M. D.; Suomalainen, S.; Harkonen, A.; Guina, M.; Okhotnikov, O.; Pessa, M.

    2008-02-01

    Semiconductor Disk Lasers (SDLs) are compact lasers suitable for watt to multi-watt direct generation in the 670- 2350nm waveband and frequency-doubled operation in the ultraviolet and visible regions. This is, however, critically dependent on the thermal management strategy used as, in this type of laser, the pump is absorbed over micrometer lengths and the gain and loss are temperature sensitive. In this paper, we compare the two heat dissipation techniques that have been successfully deployed to-date: the "thin device" approach where the semiconductor active mirror is bonded onto a heatsink and its substrate subsequently removed, and the "heatspreader" technique where a high thermal conductivity platelet is directly bonded onto the active part of the unprocessed epilayer. We show that for SDLs emitting at 1060nm with pump spots of ~80µm diameter, the heatspreader approach outperforms the thin-device alternative, with the best results being obtained with a diamond heatspreader. Indeed, the thermal resistances are measured to be 4.9, 10.4 and 13.0 K/W for diamond-bonded, SiC-bonded and flip-chip devices respectively. It is also observed, as expected, that the thermal management strategy indirectly affects the optimum output coupling and thus the overall performance of these lasers.

  5. Thermal helium desorption behavior in advanced ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Sugano, R.; Matsushita, Y.; Ukai, S.

    2005-02-01

    Thermal helium desorption measurements were performed to investigate the difference in the helium trapping and accumulation behavior among a reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel and oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels after implantation of He+ ions at room temperature. Thermal helium desorption spectra (THDS) were obtained during annealing to 1200 °C at a heating rate of 1 °C/s. The THDS of the ODS steels are very similar to that of the RAF steel, except for the presence of the peak in the temperature range from 800 to 1000 °C, where the α γ transformation related helium desorption from the γ-phase is considered to occur in the 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels. The fraction of helium desorption becomes larger at higher temperatures, and this trend is increased with the amount of implanted helium. In the 9Cr-ODS steels, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration mechanism was smaller than that in the RAF steel. This suggests that the bubble formation was suppressed in the ODS steels. In the 12Cr-ODS steel, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration reached more than 90%, suggesting that the trapping capacity of martensite phase in the 9Cr-ODS steel is rather large.

  6. Advances in Moire interferometry for thermal response of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, E. W., Jr.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.; Hyer, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental technique for the precise measurement of the thermal response of both sides of a laminated composite coupon specimen uses Moire interferometry with fringe multiplication which yields a sensitivity of 833 nm (32.8 micro in.) per fringe. The reference gratings used are virtual gratings and are formed by partially mirrorized glass prisms in close proximity to the specimen. Results are compared with both results obtained from tests which used Moire interferometry on one side of composite laminates, and with those predicted by classical lamination theory. The technique is shown to be capable of producing the sensitivity and accuracy necessary to measure a wide range of thermal responses and to detect small side to side variations in the measured response. Tests were conducted on four laminate configurations of T300/5208 graphite epoxy over a temperature range of 297 K (75 F) to 422 K (300 F). The technique presented allows for the generation of reference gratings for temperature regimes well outside that used in these tests.

  7. Advanced development receiver thermal vacuum tests with cold wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    The first ever testing of a full size solar dynamic heat receiver using high temperature thermal energy storage was completed. The heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements for operation on the Space Station Freedom. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partially simulate a low Earth orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to produce flux distributions typical of candidate concentrators. A closed Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles were completed during the test conduct period. The test hardware, execution of testing, test data, and post test inspections are described.

  8. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-07

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm.

  9. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet engine fuels has five components: development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer-sized and micrometer particles suspended in fuels during thermal stresses; characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct coal liquefaction. Progress is described.

  10. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  11. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  12. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  13. Microgravity fluid management in two-phase thermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    Initial studies have indicated that in comparison to an all liquid single phase system, a two-phase liquid/vapor thermal control system requires significantly lower pumping power, demonstrates more isothermal control characteristics, and allows greater operational flexibility in heat load placement. As a function of JSC's Work Package responsibility for thermal management of space station equipment external to the pressurized modules, prototype development programs were initiated on the Two-Phase Thermal Bus System (TBS) and the Space Erectable Radiator System (SERS). JSC currently has several programs underway to enhance the understanding of two-phase fluid flow characteristics. The objective of one of these programs (sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA-Headquarters) is to design, fabricate, and fly a two-phase flow regime mapping experiment in the Shuttle vehicle mid-deck. Another program, sponsored by OAST, involves the testing of a two-phase thermal transport loop aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft to identify system implications of pressure drop variation as a function of the flow quality and flow regime present in a representative thermal system.

  14. Regulatory Risk Management of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    George, Glenn R.

    2002-07-01

    Regulatory risk reflects both the likelihood of adverse outcomes during regulatory interactions and the severity of those outcomes. In the arena of advanced nuclear power plant licensing and construction, such adverse outcomes may include, for example, required design changes and construction delays. These, in turn, could significantly affect the economics of the plant and the generation portfolio in which it will operate. In this paper, the author addresses these issues through the lens of risk management. The paper considers various tools and techniques of regulatory risk management, including design diversity and hedging strategies. The effectiveness of alternate approaches is weighed and recommendations are made in several regulatory contexts. (author)

  15. Advanced Inverter Functions and Communication Protocols for Distribution Management

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Baggu, Murali

    2016-05-05

    This paper aims at identifying the advanced features required by distribution management systems (DMS) service providers to bring inverter-connected distributed energy resources into use as an intelligent grid resource. This work explores the standard functions needed in the future DMS for enterprise integration of distributed energy resources (DER). The important DMS functionalities such as DER management in aggregate groups, including the discovery of capabilities, status monitoring, and dispatch of real and reactive power are addressed in this paper. It is intended to provide the industry with a point of reference for DER integration with other utility applications and to provide guidance to research and standards development organizations.

  16. Conservative Management of an Advanced Abdominal Pregnancy at 22 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Marcellin, Louis; Ménard, Sophie; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Mignon, Alexandre; Aubelle, Marie Stephanie; Grangé, Gilles; Goffinet, François

    2014-01-01

    Objective We report an uneventful conservative approach of an advanced abdominal pregnancy discovered at 22 weeks of gestation. Study Design This study is a case report. Results Attempting to extend gestation of an advanced abdominal pregnancy is not a common strategy and is widely questioned. According to the couple's request, the management consisted in continuous hospitalization, regular ultrasound scan, and antenatal corticosteroids. While the woman remained asymptomatic, surgery was planned at 32 weeks, leading to the birth of a preterm child without any long-term complications. Placenta was left in situ with a prophylactic embolization, and its resorption was monitored. Conclusion Depending on multidisciplinary cares and agreement of the parents, when late discovered, prolonging advanced abdominal pregnancy appears to be a reasonable option. PMID:25032062

  17. Recent advances in organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Xie, Zongliang; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P

    2017-02-06

    Organic materials that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are an attractive class of functional materials that have witnessed a booming development in recent years. Since Adachi et al. reported high-performance TADF-OLED devices in 2012, there have been many reports regarding the design and synthesis of new TADF luminogens, which have various molecular structures and are used for different applications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress concerning this rapidly developing research field, in which the majority of the reported TADF systems are discussed, along with their derived structure-property relationships, TADF mechanisms and applications. We hope that such a review provides a clear outlook of these novel functional materials for a broad range of scientists within different disciplinary areas and attracts more researchers to devote themselves to this interesting research field.

  18. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  19. Management of locally advanced primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Ambarish S; Kumar, Rajiv; Purandare, Nilendu; Jiwnani, Sabita; Karimundackal, George; Pramesh, CS

    2017-01-01

    Primary mediastinal synovial sarcoma (PMSS) is a relatively rare disease, and patients are treated predominantly with surgery for resectable disease. Management of locally advanced borderline resectable and unresectable PMSS is not only challenging but also lacks standard guidelines. We present three patients with PMSS, who were unresectable or borderline resectable at presentation and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. PMID:28360472

  20. Advances in fuel management and on-line core monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Hansen, L.E.; Patten, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF) has developed and implemented advanced core power distribution monitoring methods for BWRs and PWRs based on the three dimensional nodal simulator codes used for incore fuel management design and analysis. The use of these methods has resulted in a more accurate assessment of the core power distribution and corresponding increased operating margins. These increased margins allow for more economical fuel cycle designs. Since the initial application in 1982, ANF has made enhancements to the incore monitoring system. These enhancements have permitted more rapid analysis of local power changes, power distribution projections during ascent to full power and on-line statistical analysis of the incore detector signal. The on-line analysis implemented in BWRs has also been developed for application PWRs. In the future, reactors are expected to operate with longer fuel cycles, more aggressive low radial leakage loadings, load follow and use higher burnup fuel. These advances will require more burnable neutron absorbers and more sophisticated fuel designs. To accommodate these advances, the fuel management methodologies and measurement system will require improvements. The state-of-the-art methods provided by ANF provide incore monitoring systems compatible with these expected needs.

  1. Thermal blanket insulation for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of weaving Nextel ceramic and Nicalon silicon carbide yarns into integrally woven, three dimensional fluted core fabrics was demonstrated. Parallel face fabrics joined with woven fabric ribs to form triangular cross section flutes between the faces were woven into three single and one double layer configuration. High warp yarn density in the double layer configuration caused considerable yarn breakage during weaving. The flutes of all four fabrics were filled with mandrels made from Q-Fiber Felt and FRCI-20-12 to form candidate insulation panels for advanced Space Transportation Systems. Procedures for preparing and inserting the mandrels were developed. Recommendations are made on investigating alternate methods for filling the flutes with insulation, and for improving the weaving of these types of fabrics.

  2. Advanced Thermal Emission Imaging Systems Definition and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, Karl; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Raytheon Company, is pleased to submit this quarterly progress report of the work performed in the third quarter of Year 2 of the Advanced THEMIS Project, July through September 2002. We review here progress in the proposed tasks. During July through September 2002 progress was made in two major tasks, Spectral Response Characterization and Flight Instrument Definition. Because of staffing problems and technical problems earlier in the program we have refocused the remaining time and budget on the key technical tasks. Current technical problems with a central piece of test equipment has lead us to request a 1 quarter extension to the period of performance. This request is being made through a separate letter independent of this report.

  3. PREFACE: Eurotherm Seminar 102: Thermal Management of Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punch, J.; Walsh, E.

    2014-07-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About EUROTHERM Seminar 102 (www.eurothermseminar102.com) This seminar, part of the long-running series of European seminars on the thermal sciences, took place in June 2014 at the University of Limerick in Limerick, Ireland. The seminar addressed the topic of 'Thermal Management of Electronic Systems', a critical contemporary application area which represents a vibrant challenge for practitioners of the thermal sciences. We convey special thanks to the reviewers who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This seminar was hosted by the Stokes Institute at the University of Limerick. It could not have been organized without the efficient help of our administrators and technicians for IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 27 articles presented at the seminar. Dr. Jeff Punch, Chair Stokes Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland Email: jeff.punch@ul.ie Prof. Edmond Walsh, Co-Chair Associate Professor, Osney Laboratories, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, UK Email: edmond.walsh@bnc.ox.ac.uk

  4. Advanced Thermal Storage for Central Receivers with Supercritical Coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Bruce D.

    2010-06-15

    The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept. The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver, two-tank (hot and cold) nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Plant Designation Receiver Fluid Thermal Storage Rankine Cycle Subcritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Subcritical Supercritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical Low temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Low temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Several conclusions have been drawn from the results of the study, as follows: 1) The use of supercritical H2O as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is likely not a practical approach. The specific heat of the fluid is a strong function of the temperatures at values near 400 °C, and the temperature profile in the bed during a charging cycle is markedly different than the profile during a discharging cycle. 2) The use of supercritical CO2 as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is judged to be technically feasible. Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory. The unit cost of the two-tank nitrate salt system is approximately $24/kWht, while the unit cost of the high pressure thermocline system is nominally 10 times as high. 3) For the supercritical fluids, the outer crown temperatures of the receiver tubes are in the range of 700 to 800 °C. At temperatures of 700 °C and above

  5. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James E.; Sabharwall, Piyush; Yoon, Su -Jong; Housley, Gregory K.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  6. Audio-band coating thermal noise measurement for Advanced LIGO with a multimode optical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, S.; Yu, H.; Yam, W.; Martynov, D.; Evans, M.

    2017-01-01

    In modern high precision optical instruments, such as in gravitational wave detectors or frequency references, thermally induced fluctuations in the reflective coatings can be a limiting noise source. This noise, known as coating thermal noise, can be reduced by choosing materials with low mechanical loss. Examination of new materials becomes a necessity in order to further minimize the coating thermal noise and thus improve sensitivity of next generation instruments. We present a novel approach to directly measure coating thermal noise using a high finesse folded cavity in which multiple Hermite-Gaussian modes coresonate. This method is used to probe surface fluctuations on the order 10-17 m /√{Hz } in the frequency range 30-400 Hz. We applied this technique to measure thermal noise and loss angle of the coating used in Advanced LIGO.

  7. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  8. A system for advanced real-time visualization and monitoring of MR-guided thermal ablations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothgang, Eva; Gilson, Wesley D.; Hornegger, Joachim; Lorenz, Christine H.

    2010-02-01

    In modern oncology, thermal ablations are increasingly used as a regional treatment option to supplement systemic treatment strategies such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The goal of all thermal ablation procedures is to cause cell death of disease tissue while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Real-time assessment of thermal damage is the key to therapeutic efficiency and safety of such procedures. Magnetic resonance thermometry is capable of monitoring the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of temperature changes during thermal ablations. In this work, we present an advanced monitoring system for MR-guided thermal ablations that includes multiplanar visualization, specialized overlay visualization methods, and additional methods for correcting errors resulting from magnetic field shifts and motion. To ensure the reliability of the displayed thermal data, systematic quality control of thermal maps is carried out on-line. The primary purpose of this work is to provide clinicians with an intuitive tool for accurately visualizing the progress of thermal treatment at the time of the procedure. Importantly, the system is designed to be independent of the heating source. The presented system is expected to be of great value not only to guide thermal procedures but also to further explore the relationship between temperature-time exposure and tissue damage. The software application was implemented within the eXtensible Imaging Platform (XIP) and has been validated with clinical data.

  9. Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.

  10. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  11. New advances in thermal plasma research. [in upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.; Baugher, C. R.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent measurements obtained of the cold or thermal plasma of the earth's magnetosphere, which is believed to originate in the ionosphere, are reviewed. Consideration is given to the results of ATS 6 measurements which indicated unexpectedly high plasma temperatures and varied pitch-angle distributions, and the data from the low-energy plasma experiments on board GEOS 1 and 2 and ISEE 1, which were intended to clarify the ATS 6 results. These later measurements of ion composition, plasma energy and plasma distribution are noted to have confirmed earlier data and discovered new plasma components (D(+) or He(+2)), an intermixing of cold ionospheric plasma and hot magnetospheric plasma, the ordering of the plasma by the magnetic field rather than the ram direction in the outer magnetosphere, and wave phenomena. Questions remaining concerning the temperature and composition distributions of the plasmasphere and plasma trough, the relative densities of the cold and warmer components of the magnetosphere, plasma energization mechanisms, and the relative mix of the various plasma distributions are indicated.

  12. Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

  13. Vacuum chamber thermal protection for the APS (Advanced Photon Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Crosbie, E.A.; Kim, S.; Wehrle, R.; Yoon, M.

    1989-01-01

    The addition of undulators and wigglers into synchrotron storage rings created new problems in terms of protecting the integrity of the ring vacuum chamber. If the photon beam from these devices were missteered into striking an inadequately cooled section of the storage ring vacuum chamber, the structural strength might be reduced sufficiently that the vacuum envelope could be penetrated, resulting in long downtime of the storage ring. The new generation of high-energy synchrotron light sources will produce photon beams of such high power density that cooling of the vacuum chamber will not prevent a potential penetration of the vacuum envelope, and other methods of preventing this occurrence will be required. Since active methods will be used to ensure that the beams are delivered to beam lines for users during normal operation, there is a need for passive protection methods during non-routine operation, such as turning on new beam lines, injection, etc., when the active systems may be disabled. In addition, the passive methods could prevent the problem from arising and provide the rapid time response necessary for the highest power beams, a property that might not be easily and reliably provided by active methods during the early operation of these machines. This paper summarizes the results of a task group that studied the problem and outlines passive methods of protection for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Recent advances in the management of brachial plexus injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Management of brachial plexus injury is a demanding field of hand and upper extremity surgery. With currently available microsurgical techniques, functional gains are rewarding in upper plexus injuries. However, treatment options in the management of flail and anaesthetic limb are still evolving. Last three decades have witnessed significant developments in the management of these injuries, which include a better understanding of the anatomy, advances in the diagnostic modalities, incorporation of intra-operative nerve stimulation techniques, more liberal use of nerve grafts in bridging nerve gaps, and the addition of new nerve transfers, which selectively neurotise the target muscles close to the motor end plates. Newer research works on the use of nerve allografts and immune modulators (FK 506) are under evaluation in further improving the results in nerve reconstruction. Direct reimplantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots into the spinal cord is another area of research in brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:25190913

  15. Advanced methods of microscope control using μManager software

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Arthur D.; Tsuchida, Mark A.; Amodaj, Nenad; Pinkard, Henry; Vale, Ronald D.; Stuurman, Nico

    2014-01-01

    μManager is an open-source, cross-platform desktop application, to control a wide variety of motorized microscopes, scientific cameras, stages, illuminators, and other microscope accessories. Since its inception in 2005, μManager has grown to support a wide range of microscopy hardware and is now used by thousands of researchers around the world. The application provides a mature graphical user interface and offers open programming interfaces to facilitate plugins and scripts. Here, we present a guide to using some of the recently added advanced μManager features, including hardware synchronization, simultaneous use of multiple cameras, projection of patterned light onto a specimen, live slide mapping, imaging with multi-well plates, particle localization and tracking, and high-speed imaging. PMID:25606571

  16. Advances in the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Sonal A.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common non-melanoma skin cancers worldwide. While most cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are easily managed, there is a high-risk subset of tumors that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Tumor characteristics as well as patient characteristics contribute to the classification of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as low-risk vs. high-risk. Advances in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas largely relate to the management of this high-risk subset. Surgical and non-surgical management options, including newer targeted molecular therapies, will be discussed here. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine the exact significance of individual risk factors with respect to aggressive clinical behavior and the risks of metastasis and death, as well as the role of surgical and adjuvant therapies in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25165569

  17. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  18. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-05-28

    Fullerenes were picked as first option for H storage because of potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Results indicate that about 6 wt% H (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model with thermally activated hydrogenation/dehydrogenation was developed. Activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, respectively; difference is interpreted as heat release during hydrogenation. The activation energies and hydrogenation heat may be modifiable by catalysts. Preliminary H storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed (a 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with inner dia 0.02 m filled with fullerene powders). Results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. Rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity, eg, by incorporating a metal mesh. The simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient H storage devices using fullerenes. More controlled experiments, model development, and physical property determinations are needed; catalyst use also needs to be pursued. Future ORNL/MER cooperative work is planned.

  19. Low-Thermal-Conductivity Pyrochlore Oxide Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    When turbine engines operate at higher temperatures, they consume less fuel, have higher efficiencies, and have lower emissions. The upper-use temperatures of the base materials (superalloys, silicon-based ceramics, etc.) used for the hot-section components of turbine engines are limited by the physical, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics of these materials. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied as thin layers on the surfaces of these materials to further increase the operating temperatures. The current state-of-the-art TBC material in commercial use is partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is applied on engine components by plasma spraying or by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. At temperatures higher than 1000 C, YSZ layers are prone to sintering, which increases thermal conductivity and makes them less effective. The sintered and densified coatings can also reduce thermal stress and strain tolerance, which can reduce the coating s durability significantly. Alternate TBC materials with lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance are needed to further increase the operating temperature of turbine engines.

  20. High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage for Spacecraft Solar Thermal Power and Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-12

    thermal insulation materials along with a select group of other materials that represent high-performance for other required properties. Aerogel is...AIAA-1998-3958. 20. Zeng, S.,Q., Hunt, A., Greif, R., Theoretical Modeling of Carbon Content to Minimize Heat Transfer in Silica Aerogel , Journal of

  1. Advanced numerical analyses for complex thermal-hydraulics in nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Seiichi Koshizuka; Yoshiaki Oka

    2002-07-01

    Complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the nuclear engineering have been solved by advanced numerical analyses based on fundamental governing equations excluding experimental correlations. A new method, called Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, is developed as one of the advanced methods. Governing equations are discretized to particle dynamics using particle interaction models. Grids are not necessary. Therefore, complex motion of interfaces can be calculated without grid tangling or numerical diffusion. This is advantageous to multi-fluid and multi-phase thermal-hydraulic problems which emerge in the nuclear engineering. The analyzed problems are vapor explosions, molten core-concrete interaction, fluid-structure interaction, nucleate boiling, transient boiling at reactivity initiated accidents, and the critical Weber number for droplet breakup. These examples show that the MPS method is being useful for direct simulation of complex thermal-hydraulics, particularly multi-phase flows, in the nuclear engineering. (authors)

  2. PCR thermal management in an integrated Lab on Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Janak; Ekaputri, Mayang

    2006-04-01

    Thermal management modelling and simulations of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device to be integrated on a lab on chip (LOC) have been carried out and presented. A typical MEMS PCR in symmetrical configuration is the base model for this study. When the PCR device is integrated on a fluidic chip with many other bio-analysis components such as DNA extraction, RNA extraction, electro-chemical sensor, flow through components and channels etc., thermal symmetry required for uniform temperature across the PCR chamber is normally lost. In this paper, ANSYS 8.0 simulations in varying conditions and corresponding physical basis have been investigated and presented. Model optimizations are carried out when PCR chamber is placed, one, in the centre (symmetry) and two, in the corner (asymmetry) of the integrated chip. In both cases, temperature uniformity within ±0.5 °C variation is obtained.

  3. Personal thermal management by metallic nanowire-coated textile.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Xiaoge; Liu, Chong; Xie, Xing; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Welch, Alex J; Zhao, Tom; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-14

    Heating consumes large amount of energy and is a primary source of greenhouse gas emission. Although energy-efficient buildings are developing quickly based on improving insulation and design, a large portion of energy continues to be wasted on heating empty space and nonhuman objects. Here, we demonstrate a system of personal thermal management using metallic nanowire-embedded cloth that can reduce this waste. The metallic nanowires form a conductive network that not only is highly thermal insulating because it reflects human body infrared radiation but also allows Joule heating to complement the passive insulation. The breathability and durability of the original cloth is not sacrificed because of the nanowires' porous structure. This nanowire cloth can efficiently warm human bodies and save hundreds of watts per person as compared to traditional indoor heaters.

  4. Applications and benefits of catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, S.D.; Keyser, M.A.; Colucci, C.P.; Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Biel, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    A catalytic converter thermal management system (TMS) using variable-conductance vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage can maintain the converter temperature above its operating temperature for many hours, allowing most trips to begin with minimal ``cold-start`` emissions. The latest converter TMS prototype was tested on a Ford Taurus (3.0 liter flex-fuel engine) at Southwest Research Institute. Following a 24-hour soak, the FTP-75 emissions were 0.031, 0.13, and 0.066 g/mile for NMHC, CO, and NOx, respectively. Tests were also run using 85% ethanol (E85), resulting in values of 0.005, 0.124, and 0.044 g/mile, and 0.005 g/mile NMOG. Compared to the baseline FTP levels, these values represent reductions of 84% to 96% for NMHC, NMOG, and CO.

  5. The Design and Testing of the LSSIF Advanced Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Robert A.; Keller, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF) provides a platform to design and evaluate advanced manned space systems at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The LSSIF Early Human Testing Initiative requires the integration of such subsystems to enable human occupancy of the 6 meter chamber for a 90 day closed volume test. The Advanced Thermal Control System (TCS) is an important component of the integrated system by supplying coolant to the subsystems within the chamber, such as the Air Revitalization System. The TCS incorporates an advanced high efficiency, heat pump to reject waste heat from the chamber to an external sink or 'lift' temperature that emulates a Lunar environment. The heat pump is the High Lift Heat Pump, developed by Foster-Miller, Inc., and is the main test article of the TCS. The heat pump prototype utilizes a non-CFC refrigerant in a design where the thermal requirements exceed existing terrestrial technology. These operating requirements provide a unique opportunity to design and test an advanced integrated thermal system and the associated controls. The design, control, and systems integration of the heat pump and the TCS also have terrestrial technology application. This paper addresses the design of the TCS and the heat pump, along with the control scheme to fully test the heat pump. Design approaches utilized in the LSSIF TCS are promoted for implementation in terrestrial thermal systems. The results of the preliminary thermal and fluid analyses used to develop the control of the thermal systems will also be discussed. The paper includes objectives for the 90 day human test and the test setup. Finally, conclusions will be drawn and recommendations for Earth design application are submitted.

  6. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 3: Space power and thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft integrated technology plan on thermal power and thermal management are presented. Topics covered include: space energy conversion research and technology; space photovoltaic energy conversion; chemical energy conversion and storage; thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high capacity power; surface power and thermal management; space platforms power and thermal management; and project SELENE.

  7. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  8. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  12. Thermometry and thermal management of carbon nanotube circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii

    2015-05-21

    Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal management is discussed for the carbon nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.

  13. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  14. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  15. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  16. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles - 12477

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Sutton, Mark; Howard, Robert

    2012-07-01

    A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Used Fuel Disposition campaign. Reference concepts are identified for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. These were analyzed for waste inventory cases representing a range of waste types that could be produced by advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress. All of these disposal concepts are enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. Enclosed modes have less capacity to dissipate heat than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Thermal analysis has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature limits for different disposal concepts. For the crystalline rock and clay/shale repository concepts, a waste package surface temperature limit of 100 deg. C was assumed to prevent changes in clay-based buffer material or clay-rich host rock. Surface decay storage of 50 to 100 years is needed for disposal of high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR packages, or disposal of HLW glass from reprocessing LWR uranium oxide (UOX) fuel. High-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of metal fuel used in a fast reactor could be disposed after decay storage of 50 years or less. For disposal in salt the rock thermal conductivity is significantly greater, and higher temperatures (200 deg. C) can be tolerated at the waste package surface. Decay storage of 10 years or less is needed for high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR

  17. [Management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Vincens, C; Dupaigne, D; de Tayrac, R; Mares, P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer, thanks to a literature review indexed in Medline((R)) (from 1980 till 2006 using those keywords: advanced cervix cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pregnancy), ScienceDirect (from 1990 till 2006) and the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale. It occurs that pregnancy is a privileged period to diagnose cervical cancer, particularly in early stages. We ought to beware of symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, which could be underestimated during pregnancy. Colposcopically selected biopsies are reference techniques to confirm the diagnostic. The assessment of extension includes an abdominal and pelvic MRI and echography and a radiography of the chest for locally advanced stages. The decision to interrupt pregnancy should be based on a collegial evaluation and depends on state and histology of disease, patient's desire for pregnancy, as well as gestational age and disease evolution. Cesarean is preferred to natural delivery even though survival rates are the same. The cesarean section prevents from short-term complications and recurrence on the episiotomy, but the hysterotomy type is controversial throughout literature. The prognosis of cervical cancer does not seem to be influenced by pregnancy. Management is the same, even though we have to adapt the treatment from the pregnancy state. No study could show the benefit and the safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy, due to few cases, but it could be a solution with patients suffering from an advanced cancer and not willing to stop pregnancy. To conclude, the detection by cervical smears should be systematic during pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed, cesarean section is the favourite way to deliver. Pregnancy does not modify disease's prognosis and the therapeutic choice depends on the stage of the disease.

  18. Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop: Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) Facility for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-11-01

    Effective and robust high temperature heat transfer systems are fundamental to the successful deployment of advanced reactors for both power generation and non-electric applications. Plant designs often include an intermediate heat transfer loop (IHTL) with heat exchangers at either end to deliver thermal energy to the application while providing isolation of the primary reactor system. In order to address technical feasibility concerns and challenges a new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility “Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test facility” (ARTIST) is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed

  19. NASA's New Thermal Management Systems Roadmap; Whats in it, What it Means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Ted

    2016-01-01

    In July of 2015 NASA publically released a new set of Technology Area Roadmaps that will be used to help guide future NASA-funded technology development efforts. One of these was the Thermal Management Systems Roadmap, often identified as TA14. This Roadmap identifies the time sequencing and interdependencies of high priority, advanced thermal control technology for the next 5 to 20 years. Available funding limits the development of new technology. The Roadmaps are the first step in the process of prioritizing HQ-supported technology funding. The 2015 Roadmaps are focused on planned mission architectures and needs, as identified in the NRC-led science Decadals and HEOMD's Design Reference Missions. Additionally, the 2015 Roadmaps focus on "applied " R&D as opposed to more basic research. The NASA Mission Directorates were all closely involved in development of 2015 Roadmaps, and an extensive external review was also conducted. This talk will discuss the Technology Roadmaps in general, and then focus on the specific technologies identified for TA 14, Thermal Management Systems.

  20. Advanced Thermal Energy Conversion of Temperature under 300°C by Thermoelectric Conversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Tadashi; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Shingu, Hiroyasu

    Many approaches have been developing for energy conversion throughout the world. However, it is difficult to achieve the global warming countermeasure based on “The Kyoto protocol”. Until now effective utilization of low temperature thermal energy (under 300°C) is not advancing one. For example, effective utilization method has not been established for waste heat energy which arise from industry machine tools, automobiles, internal combustion engines and thermal energy from natural environment, etc. In this paper, we reported the experiment for effective utilizing of low temperature (under 300°C) thermal energy conversion. The device used for the measurement is a copper thermo device. Thermo electromotive force of 150mW/cm2 was obtained at 200°C. The obtained thermo electromotive force is about 15 times higher in comparison with generally used alumal-chromal thermocouple. Our aim is that utilizes low temperature thermal energy effectively by converting into electricity.

  1. Micro- and Nano-Scale Electrically Driven Two-Phase Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses ground based proof of concept hardware under development at NASA GSFC to address high heat flux thermal management in silicon substrates. The goal is to develop proof of concept hardware for space flight validation. The space flight hardware will provide gravity insensitive thermal management for electronics applications such as transmit receive modules that are severely limited by thermal concerns.

  2. Design of an AdvancedTCA board management controller (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.; Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Mico, S.; Vasey, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the upgrade of the back-end electronics of the CMS and ATLAS experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . In this context, the electronic systems for experiments group at CERN is running a project to evaluate, specify, design and support xTCA equipment. As part of this project, an Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) for ATCA blades, based on a commercial solution, has been designed to be used on existing and future ATCA blades. This paper reports on the status of this project presenting the hardware and software developments.

  3. Advances and challenges in management of invasive mycoses.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Thomas F

    Invasive mycoses pose a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Advances in antifungal agents and diagnostic methods offer the potential for improved outcomes in patients with these infections, which are often lethal. Many fungal pathogens occur almost exclusively in opportunistic settings--in the immunocompromised host--and these infections are the focus of this review. Several areas of ongoing challenge remain, including the emergence of resistant organisms and the absence of reliable markers for early identification of patients at risk of developing invasive fungal disease. This Seminar reviews the changing epidemiology of invasive mycoses, new diagnostic methods, and recent therapeutic options and current management strategies for these opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  5. Pharmacotherapy Considerations for the Management of Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Craig J; Pandya, Komal A

    2016-03-01

    Health care providers should be aware of the pharmacotherapy considerations in the American Heart Association's guidelines for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Current evidence does not suggest a reduction in mortality with ACLS medications; however, these medications can improve return of spontaneous circulation. Proper agent selection and dosing are imperative to maximize benefit and minimize harm. The latest guideline update included major changes to the ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia and pulseless electrical activity/asystole algorithms, which providers should adopt. It is critical that providers be prepared for post-code management. Health care professionals should remain abreast of changing evidence and guidelines.

  6. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  7. Hafnia-Based Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, and thus help achieve engine goals of low emissions and high efficiency. Under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project, advanced T/EBCs are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vaporcontaining combustion environments. The coating system is required to have increased phase stability, lower lattice and radiation thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance under high-heat-flux and thermal-cycling engine conditions. Advanced heat-flux testing approaches (refs. 1 to 4) have been established at the NASA Glenn Research Center for 1650 C coating developments. The simulated combustion water-vapor environment is also being incorporated into the heat-flux test capabilities (ref. 3).

  8. Nano risk analysis: advancing the science for nanomaterials risk management.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, Jo Anne; Abbott, Linda Carolyn; Bradley, Ann E; Canady, Richard Alan; Guidotti, Tee; Kulinowski, Kristen M; Löfstedt, Ragnar E; Louis, Garrick; MacDonell, Margaret; Macdonell, Margaret; Maynard, Andrew D; Paoli, Greg; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Walker, Nigel; White, Ronald; Williams, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Scientists, activists, industry, and governments have raised concerns about health and environmental risks of nanoscale materials. The Society for Risk Analysis convened experts in September 2008 in Washington, DC to deliberate on issues relating to the unique attributes of nanoscale materials that raise novel concerns about health risks. This article reports on the overall themes and findings of the workshop, uncovering the underlying issues for each of these topics that become recurring themes. The attributes of nanoscale particles and other nanomaterials that present novel issues for risk analysis are evaluated in a risk analysis framework, identifying challenges and opportunities for risk analysts and others seeking to assess and manage the risks from emerging nanoscale materials and nanotechnologies. Workshop deliberations and recommendations for advancing the risk analysis and management of nanotechnologies are presented.

  9. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  10. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  11. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  12. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.W.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.; Weber, G.J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is being design to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores. 10 refs.

  13. Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

  14. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Geng, Steven M.; Schrieber, Jeffrey G.; Tobery, E. Wayne; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    One of the advantages of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used to maintain electronic components within a controlled temperature range, to warm propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and to gasify liquid propellants. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated a very large quantity of waste heat due to the relatively low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have much higher conversion efficiencies than their predecessors and therefore may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of approx. 6 to 7% and 200 C housing surface temperatures, would need to use large and heavy radiator heat exchangers to transfer the waste heat to the internal spacecraft components. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation by using the heat exchangers or additional shields. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22% and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can use the available waste heat more efficiently by more direct heat transfer methods such as heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures allow the SRG110 much more flexibility to the spacecraft designers in configuring the generator without concern of overheating nearby scientific instruments, thereby eliminating the need for thermal shields. This paper will investigate using a high efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander) to illustrate the advantages with regard to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings.

  15. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    PubMed

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  16. Recent advances in pathophysiology and current management of itch.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Malcolm W

    2007-09-01

    The neurophysiology of itch, the dominant symptom of skin disease, has previously received scant attention. Recent advances in the neurophysiology and molecular basis of itch include the use of microneurography to demonstrate the existence of a subset of itch-dedicated afferent C neurons distinct from neurons which transmit pain; use of functional positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to reveal an itch-specific activation matrix, and new evidence of a functional "dialogue" between C neuron terminals and dermal mast cells in which recently described proteinase-activated receptor type 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, proteases and endovanilloids play a major role. As a necessary prerequisite to diagnosis and management, a pathophysiologically based classification of itch is proposed. Recent advances in understanding of the pathomechanisms of itch of cholestasis include the role of opioids and opioid antagonists. Focusing on neurogenic itch (itch without visible rash), common causes are reviewed and guidelines for laboratory and radiological investigation are proposed. A stepwise approach to management of generalised itch is recommended, including broadband or narrow band ultraviolet (UV), tricyclics such as doxepin, opioid antagonists including naltrexone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as paroxetine. For troublesome localised itches such as insect bite reactions, physical urticaria, lichen simplex chronicus or, less commonly, notalgia paraesthetica, brachioradial pruritus, local cooling devices which rely on the cooling action of dimethyl ethers on thermosensitive TRP voltage-sensitive ion channels are now commercially available for shortterm relief.

  17. Cerebrovascular Disease in Children: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Karen J.; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Roach, E. Steve; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease in children manifests in many forms, all of which have devastating and long-lasting effects. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have revealed that this condition is much more common in the pediatric population than previously believed, affecting as many as 1 in 1500 neonates and 1 in 3000 children. The underlying mechanisms that cause stroke—ischemic stroke, sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke—are only beginning to be understood; however, progress has been made toward better understanding the mechanisms of disease, particularly in the fields of genetics, inflammation, and thrombus formation. Furthermore, new imaging techniques, and better understanding of how to use imaging in managing stroke, have enabled practitioners to more quickly and accurately identify cerebrovascular disease type in children, which is key to mitigation of negative outcomes. The 2010 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 39th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe clinical issues surrounding childhood stroke, including diagnosis and acute care; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of childhood stroke; (3) review current management of and therapies for childhood stroke, including controversial therapies; and (4) establish research directions for investigators. This article summarizes the speakers’ presentations and includes an edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions. PMID:21778188

  18. Advances in the management of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Wei; Yin, Yi-Mei; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon but dramatic clinical syndrome characterized by hepatic encephalopathy and a bleeding tendency due to abrupt loss of liver function caused by massive or submassive liver necrosis in a patient with a previously healthy liver. The causes of ALF encompass a wide variety of toxic, viral, metabolic, vascular and autoimmune insults to the liver, and identifying the correct cause can be difficult or even impossible. Many patients with ALF develop a cascade of serious complications involving almost every organ system, and death is mostly due to multi-organ failure, hemorrhage, infection, and intracranial hypertension. Fortunately, the outcome of ALF has been improved in the last 3 decades through the specific treatment for the disease of certain etiology, and the advanced intensive care management. For most severely affected patients who fail to recover after treatment, rapid evaluation for transfer to a transplantation center and consideration for liver transplantation is mandatory so that transplantation can be applied before contraindications develop. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of various contributing etiologies, the administration of etiology-specific treatment to alleviate the liver injury, and the management of complications (e.g., encephalopathy, coagulopathy, cardiovascular instability, respiratory failure, renal failure, sepsis and metabolic disturbance) in patients with ALF. Assessment of the need for liver transplantation is also presented. PMID:24222950

  19. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products.

  20. Analytical model for ring heater thermal compensation in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics in the design and analysis of thermal processes: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Norton, Tomás; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sun, Da Wen

    2013-01-01

    The design of thermal processes in the food industry has undergone great developments in the last two decades due to the availability of cheap computer power alongside advanced modelling techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD uses numerical algorithms to solve the non-linear partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and heat transfer so that the complex mechanisms that govern many food-processing systems can be resolved. In thermal processing applications, CFD can be used to build three-dimensional models that are both spatially and temporally representative of a physical system to produce solutions with high levels of physical realism without the heavy costs associated with experimental analyses. Therefore, CFD is playing an ever growing role in the development of optimization of conventional as well as the development of new thermal processes in the food industry. This paper discusses the fundamental aspects involved in developing CFD solutions and forms a state-of-the-art review on various CFD applications in conventional as well as novel thermal processes. The challenges facing CFD modellers of thermal processes are also discussed. From this review it is evident that present-day CFD software, with its rich tapestries of mathematical physics, numerical methods and visualization techniques, is currently recognized as a formidable and pervasive technology which can permit comprehensive analyses of thermal processing.

  2. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    Quasi two-dimensional (2D) materials obtained by the "graphene-like" exfoliation attracted tremendous attention. Such materials revealed unique electronic, thermal and optical properties, which can be potentially used in electronics, thermal management and energy conversion. This dissertation research addresses two separate but synergetic problems: (i) preparation and optical characterization of quasi-2D films of the bismuth-telluride (Bi 2Te3) family of materials, which demonstrate both thermoelectric and topological insulator properties; and (ii) investigation of thermal properties of composite materials prepared with graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG). The first part of dissertation reports properties of the exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3 and Sb 2Te3. Both non-resonant and resonant Raman scattering spectra have been investigated. It was found that the crystal symmetry breaking in few-quintuple films results in appearance of A1u-symmetry Raman peaks, which are not active in the bulk crystals. The scattering spectra measured under the 633-nm wavelength excitation reveals a number of resonant features, which could be used for analysis of the electronic and phonon processes in these materials. The obtained results help to understand the physical mechanisms of Raman scattering in the few-quintuple-thick films and can be used for nanometrology of topological insulator films on various substrates. The second part of the dissertation is dedicated to investigation of properties of composite materials prepared with graphene and FLG. It was found that the optimized mixture of graphene and multilayer graphene---produced by the high-yield inexpensive liquid-phase-exfoliation technique---can lead to an extremely strong enhancement of the cross-plane thermal conductivity K of the composite. The "laser flash" measurements revealed a record-high enhancement of K by 2300 % in the graphene-based polymer at the filler loading fraction f =10 vol. %. It was

  3. Advanced Hemodynamic Management in Patients with Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Wolfgang; Nierhaus, Axel; Kluge, Stefan; Reuter, Daniel A.; Wagner, Julia Y.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with sepsis and septic shock, the hemodynamic management in both early and later phases of these “organ dysfunction syndromes” is a key therapeutic component. It needs, however, to be differentiated between “early goal-directed therapy” (EGDT) as proposed for the first 6 hours of emergency department treatment by Rivers et al. in 2001 and “hemodynamic management” using advanced hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent large trials demonstrated that nowadays protocolized EGDT does not seem to be superior to “usual care” in terms of a reduction in mortality in emergency department patients with early identified septic shock who promptly receive antibiotic therapy and fluid resuscitation. “Hemodynamic management” comprises (a) making the diagnosis of septic shock as one differential diagnosis of circulatory shock, (b) assessing the hemodynamic status including the identification of therapeutic conflicts, and (c) guiding therapeutic interventions. We propose two algorithms for hemodynamic management using transpulmonary thermodilution-derived variables aiming to optimize the cardiocirculatory and pulmonary status in adult ICU patients with septic shock. The complexity and heterogeneity of patients with septic shock implies that individualized approaches for hemodynamic management are mandatory. Defining individual hemodynamic target values for patients with septic shock in different phases of the disease must be the focus of future studies. PMID:27703980

  4. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M.

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  5. Multifunctional Nanofluids with 2D Nanosheets for thermal management and tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha Tijerina, Jose Jaime

    Conventional heat-transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, standard oils and other lubricants are typically low-efficiency heat-transfer fluids. Thermal management plays a critical factor in many applications where these fluids can be used, such as in motors/engines, solar cells, biopharmaceuticals, fuel cells, high voltage power transmission systems, micro/nanoelectronics mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), and nuclear cooling among others. These insulating fluids require superb filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, and for certain applications as in electrical/electronic devices also electrical insulation. The miniaturization and high efficiency of electrical/electronic devices in these fields demand successful heat management and energy-efficient fluid-based heat-transfer systems. Recent advances in layered materials enable large scale synthesis of various two-dimensional (2D) structures. Some of these 2D materials are good choices as nanofillers in heat transfer fluids; mainly due to their inherent high thermal conductivity (TC) and high surface area available for thermal energy transport. Among various 2D-nanostructures, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene (G) exhibit versatile properties such as outstanding TC, excellent mechanical stability, and remarkable chemical inertness. The following research, even though investigate various conventional fluids, will focus on dielectric insulating nanofluids (mineral oil -- MO) with significant thermal performance. It is presented the plan for synthesis and characterization of stable high-thermal conductivity nanofluids using 2D-nanostructures of h-BN, which will be further incorporated at diverse filler concentrations to conventional fluids for cooling applications, without compromising its electrical insulating property. For comparison, properties of h-BN based fluids are compared with conductive fillers such as graphene; where graphene has similar crystal structure of h-BN and also has similar bulk

  6. Thermal and Irradiation Creep Behavior of a Titanium Aluminide in Advanced Nuclear Plant Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Chen, Jiachao; Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Titanium aluminides are well-accepted elevated temperature materials. In conventional applications, their poor oxidation resistance limits the maximum operating temperature. Advanced reactors operate in nonoxidizing environments. This could enlarge the applicability of these materials to higher temperatures. The behavior of a cast gamma-alpha-2 TiAl was investigated under thermal and irradiation conditions. Irradiation creep was studied in beam using helium implantation. Dog-bone samples of dimensions 10 × 2 × 0.2 mm3 were investigated in a temperature range of 300 °C to 500 °C under irradiation, and significant creep strains were detected. At temperatures above 500 °C, thermal creep becomes the predominant mechanism. Thermal creep was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C without irradiation with samples of the same geometry. The results are compared with other materials considered for advanced fission applications. These are a ferritic oxide-dispersion-strengthened material (PM2000) and the nickel-base superalloy IN617. A better thermal creep behavior than IN617 was found in the entire temperature range. Up to 900 °C, the expected 104 hour stress rupture properties exceeded even those of the ODS alloy. The irradiation creep performance of the titanium aluminide was comparable with the ODS steels. For IN617, no irradiation creep experiments were performed due to the expected low irradiation resistance (swelling, helium embrittlement) of nickel-base alloys.

  7. Gold-copper nanostars as photo-thermal agents: synthesis and advanced electron microscopy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazán-Díaz, Lourdes; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Romeu, David; Reyes-Gasga, José; Herrera-Becerra, Raúl; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Guisbiers, Grégory

    2015-12-01

    Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra.Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06491k

  8. A Novel Silicon Micromachined Integrated MCM Thermal Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazmierczak, M. J.; Henderson, H. T.; Gerner, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    This research concerned the development of a novel porous wick, fabricated totally out of silicon, using state-of-the-art MEMS technology. A comprehensive summary of results, as well as additional fabrication details, can be found in the following three documents located in the attached Appendices: A) Selected pages and excerpts from Year 2 progress report of the principal NASA Grant awarded from NASA Lewis Research Center, Grant Number NAG3-1706 entitled "A Novel Silicon Nficromachined Integrated MCM Thermal Management System" submitted to NASA LRC on 4/4/98. B) Selected viewgraphs from the joint NASA, TEES, and UC meeting held at the University of Cincinnati on April 24, 1998. C) Pre-print of the paper entitled "Coherent Macro Porous Silicon as a Wick Structure in an Integrated Nficrofluidic Two-Phase Cooling System" to be presented September 20-25, 1998 at the SPIE conference held in Santa Clara, Ca. To summarize,. nearly all of the proposed work was successfully accomplished (albeit a 3-month time extension was required), proving that micromachining can indeed be used to fabricate porous silicon wick structures with precise hole sizes and patterning control, thus permitting a substantial improvement in future wick designs. In addition, the appropriate range of thermal conductivities of the porous samples were theoretically predicted (see Appendix A). Although not part of the scope of work, the permeability of the test samples were measured (see results sections of Appendices B and C).

  9. Thermal analysis and management of lithium-titanate batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Michael R.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2011-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles demand batteries that can store large amounts of energy in addition to accommodating large charge and discharge currents without compromising battery life. Lithium-titanate batteries have recently become an attractive option for this application. High current thresholds allow these cells to be charged quickly as well as supply the power needed to drive such vehicles. These large currents generate substantial amounts of waste heat due to loss mechanisms arising from the cell's internal chemistry and ohmic resistance. During normal vehicle operation, an active cooling system must be implemented to maintain a safe cell temperature and improve battery performance and life. This paper outlines a method to conduct thermal analysis of lithium-titanate cells under laboratory conditions. Thermochromic liquid crystals were implemented to instantaneously measure the entire surface temperature field of the cell. The resulting temperature measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of an active cooling system developed and tested in our laboratory for the thermal management of lithium-titanate cells.

  10. Thermal Performance of a Cryogenic Fluid Management Cubesat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, J. J.; Oliveira, J. M.; Congiardo, J. F.; Walls, L. K.; Putman, P. T.; Haberbusch, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Development for an in-space demonstration of a CubeS at as a Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test bed is currently underway. The favorable economics of CubeSats make them appealing for technology development activity. While their size limits testing to smaller scales, many of the regimes relevant to CFM can still be achieved. The first demo flight of this concept, CryoCube®-1, will focus on oxygen liquefaction and low-gravity level sensing using Reduced Gravity CryoTracker®. An extensive thermal modeling effort has been underway to both demonstrate concept feasibility and drive the prototype design. The satellite will utilize both a sun- and earth-shield to passively cool its experimental tank below 115 K. An on-board gas generator will create high pressure gaseous oxygen, which will be throttled into a bottle in the experimental node and condensed. The resulting liquid will be used to perform various experiments related to level sensing. Modeling efforts have focused on the spacecraft thermal performance and its effects on condensation in the experimental node. Parametric analyses for both optimal and suboptimal conditions have been considered and are presented herein.

  11. Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

  12. Methods and Systems for Advanced Spaceport Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fussell, Ronald M. (Inventor); Ely, Donald W. (Inventor); Meier, Gary M. (Inventor); Halpin, Paul C. (Inventor); Meade, Phillip T. (Inventor); Jacobson, Craig A. (Inventor); Blackwell-Thompson, Charlie (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced spaceport information management methods and systems are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes coupling a test system to the payload and transmitting one or more test signals that emulate an anticipated condition from the test system to the payload. One or more responsive signals are received from the payload into the test system and are analyzed to determine whether one or more of the responsive signals comprises an anomalous signal. At least one of the steps of transmitting, receiving, analyzing and determining includes transmitting at least one of the test signals and the responsive signals via a communications link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility. In one particular embodiment, the communications link is an Internet link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility (e.g. a launch facility, university, etc.).

  13. Methods and systems for advanced spaceport information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fussell, Ronald M. (Inventor); Ely, Donald W. (Inventor); Meier, Gary M. (Inventor); Halpin, Paul C. (Inventor); Meade, Phillip T. (Inventor); Jacobson, Craig A. (Inventor); Blackwell-Thompson, Charlie (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced spaceport information management methods and systems are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes coupling a test system to the payload and transmitting one or more test signals that emulate an anticipated condition from the test system to the payload. One or more responsive signals are received from the payload into the test system and are analyzed to determine whether one or more of the responsive signals comprises an anomalous signal. At least one of the steps of transmitting, receiving, analyzing and determining includes transmitting at least one of the test signals and the responsive signals via a communications link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility. In one particular embodiment, the communications link is an Internet link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility (e.g. a launch facility, university, etc.).

  14. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  15. CAE for thermal management of aerospace electronic boards using the BETAsoft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobish, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace electronic boards require special attention to thermal management due to constraints such as their need to be light, small, and maintain high power densities. Also, cooling is mainly through conductive and radiative modes with minor or negligible convective cooling. Due to these particular requirements, thermal design has become an integrated part of the electronic design process in order to avoid expensive repeat prototyping and to ensure high reliability. To achieve high speed simulations, the BETAsoft code uses semi-empirical formulations and an advanced finite difference scheme that incorporates local adaptive grids. Detailed conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer is considered. Various benchmark verifications of the software simulation compared to infrared images typically prove to be within 10% of each other. The thermal analysis of a sample avionic card in a natural convection environment is shown. Then, the individual effects of attaching metal screws to the casing, increasing radiative emissivities of the casing, increasing the conductance of the wedge lock, adding an aluminum core to the board, adding metal strips in board layers, inserting conduction pads under components, and adding heat sinks to components are demonstrated.

  16. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  17. Advanced Computational Framework for Environmental Management ZEM, Version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    Vesselinov, Velimir V.; O'Malley, Daniel; Pandey, Sachin

    2016-11-04

    Typically environmental management problems require analysis of large and complex data sets originating from concurrent data streams with different data collection frequencies and pedigree. These big data sets require on-the-fly integration into a series of models with different complexity for various types of model analyses where the data are applied as soft and hard model constraints. This is needed to provide fast iterative model analyses based on the latest available data to guide decision-making. Furthermore, the data and model are associated with uncertainties. The uncertainties are probabilistic (e.g. measurement errors) and non-probabilistic (unknowns, e.g. alternative conceptual models characterizing site conditions). To address all of these issues, we have developed an integrated framework for real-time data and model analyses for environmental decision-making called ZEM. The framework allows for seamless and on-the-fly integration of data and modeling results for robust and scientifically-defensible decision-making applying advanced decision analyses tools such as Bayesian- Information-Gap Decision Theory (BIG-DT). The framework also includes advanced methods for optimization that are capable of dealing with a large number of unknown model parameters, and surrogate (reduced order) modeling capabilities based on support vector regression techniques. The framework is coded in Julia, a state-of-the-art high-performance programing language (http://julialang.org). The ZEM framework is open-source and can be applied to any environmental management site. The framework will be open-source and released under GPL V3 license.

  18. Thermal management of space-based, high-power solid-state RF amplifiers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.F.; Chow, L.C.; Johnson, J.H.

    1990-08-01

    The advanced weapons concepts envisioned by the SDIO employed a wide array of highly energetic devices, which due to inefficiencies, generate large quantities of waste heat. Power and thermal management are integrally related. In the vacuum of space, disposing of waste energy is a major problem which can contribute as much as 50% to the overall spacecraft mass and volume. The problem becomes more acute as the temperature at which the energy must be rejected is lowered. In an earlier study, thermal management issues associated with megawatt class RF microwave tubes were explored to determine if there were simple, approximately mass neutral schemes which might be adapted to dispose of the waste energy generated within a tube collector operating in space. The assumptions for that study were: (1) Tubes were in the megawatt class-70% efficient for single simple collector and 90% efficient for depressed collectors, (2) On-board, super critical hydrogen was available at a pressure of 35 bars and a temperature of 35 K. (3) The largest single event run time was 500 seconds. (4) The device would be dormant for long periods of time, be required to become active in tens of seconds followed by long periods of dormancy. (5) The only allowable effluent is hydrogen. (6) System impact must be minimal.

  19. Masters Study in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Kanchan

    2014-12-08

    There are currently three key drivers for the US energy sector a) increasing energy demand and b) environmental stewardship in energy production for sustainability and c) general public and governmental desire for domestic resources. These drivers are also true for energy nation globally. As a result, this sector is rapidly diversifying to alternate sources that would supplement or replace fossil fuels. These changes have created a need for a highly trained workforce with a the understanding of both conventional and emerging energy resources and technology to lead and facilitate the reinvention of the US energy production, rational deployment of alternate energy technologies based on scientific and business criteria while invigorating the overall economy. In addition, the current trends focus on the the need of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) graduate education to move beyond academia and be more responsive to the workforce needs of businesses and the industry. The SIUC PSM in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management (AEFM) program was developed in response to the industries stated need for employees who combine technical competencies and workforce skills similar to all PSM degree programs. The SIUC AEFM program was designed to provide the STEM graduates with advanced technical training in energy resources and technology while simultaneously equipping them with the business management skills required by professional employers in the energy sector. Technical training include core skills in energy resources, technology and management for both conventional and emerging energy technologies. Business skills training include financial, personnel and project management. A capstone internship is also built into the program to train students such that they are acclimatized to the real world scenarios in research laboratories, in energy companies and in government agencies. The current curriculum in the SIUC AEFM will help fill the need for training both recent

  20. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Howell, M.

    1990-09-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquidus temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, are presented. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  2. Simulation of Thin-Film Damping and Thermal Mechanical Noise Spectra for Advanced Micromachined Microphone Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Neal A.; Okandan, Murat; Littrell, Robert; Bicen, Baris; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2008-01-01

    In many micromachined sensors the thin (2–10 μm thick) air film between a compliant diaphragm and backplate electrode plays a dominant role in shaping both the dynamic and thermal noise characteristics of the device. Silicon microphone structures used in grating-based optical-interference microphones have recently been introduced that employ backplates with minimal area to achieve low damping and low thermal noise levels. Finite-element based modeling procedures based on 2-D discretization of the governing Reynolds equation are ideally suited for studying thin-film dynamics in such structures which utilize relatively complex backplate geometries. In this paper, the dynamic properties of both the diaphragm and thin air film are studied using a modal projection procedure in a commonly used finite element software and the results are used to simulate the dynamic frequency response of the coupled structure to internally generated electrostatic actuation pressure. The model is also extended to simulate thermal mechanical noise spectra of these advanced sensing structures. In all cases simulations are compared with measured data and show excellent agreement—demonstrating 0.8 pN/√Hz and 1.8 μPa/√Hz thermal force and thermal pressure noise levels, respectively, for the 1.5 mm diameter structures under study which have a fundamental diaphragm resonance-limited bandwidth near 20 kHz. PMID:19081811

  3. Simulation of Thin-Film Damping and Thermal Mechanical Noise Spectra for Advanced Micromachined Microphone Structures.

    PubMed

    Hall, Neal A; Okandan, Murat; Littrell, Robert; Bicen, Baris; Degertekin, F Levent

    2008-06-01

    In many micromachined sensors the thin (2-10 μm thick) air film between a compliant diaphragm and backplate electrode plays a dominant role in shaping both the dynamic and thermal noise characteristics of the device. Silicon microphone structures used in grating-based optical-interference microphones have recently been introduced that employ backplates with minimal area to achieve low damping and low thermal noise levels. Finite-element based modeling procedures based on 2-D discretization of the governing Reynolds equation are ideally suited for studying thin-film dynamics in such structures which utilize relatively complex backplate geometries. In this paper, the dynamic properties of both the diaphragm and thin air film are studied using a modal projection procedure in a commonly used finite element software and the results are used to simulate the dynamic frequency response of the coupled structure to internally generated electrostatic actuation pressure. The model is also extended to simulate thermal mechanical noise spectra of these advanced sensing structures. In all cases simulations are compared with measured data and show excellent agreement-demonstrating 0.8 pN/√Hz and 1.8 μPa/√Hz thermal force and thermal pressure noise levels, respectively, for the 1.5 mm diameter structures under study which have a fundamental diaphragm resonance-limited bandwidth near 20 kHz.

  4. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  5. Advanced study of thermal behaviour of CSZ comparing with the classic YSZ coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragomirescu, A.; Constantin, N.; Ştefan, A.; Manoliu, V.; Truşcă, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are advanced materials typically applied to metal surfaces subjected to extreme temperatures to protect them and increase their lifetime. Ceria stabilized zirconia ceramic layer (CSZ) is increasingly used as an alternative improved as replace for classical TBC system - yttria stabilized zirconia - thanks to superior properties, including mechanical and high resistance to thermal corrosion. The paper describes the thermal shock testing of two types of thermal barrier coatings used to protect a nickel super alloy. For the experimental procedure, it was used plate samples from nickel super alloy with a bond coat and a ceramic top coat. The top coat was different: on some samples, it was used YSZ and on others CSZ. Ni based super alloys have good corrosion resistance in reducing environments action, but poor in oxidizing conditions. Extreme environments can lead to loss of material by oxidation / corrosion, along with decreased mechanical properties of the substrate due to damaging elements which diffuses into the substrate at high temperatures. Using laboratory equipment, the TBC systems were exposed repeatedly to extreme high temperatures for a short time and then cooled. After the thermal shock tests, the samples were morph-structured characterized using electronic microscopy to analyze the changes. The experimental results were compared to rank the TBC systems in order of performance.

  6. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Caffrey, Jarvis; Hedayat, Ali; Stephens, Jonathan; Polsgrove, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate, facilitate a discussion and determine a path forward for technology development of cryogenic fluid management technology that is necessary for long duration deep space missions utilizing nuclear thermal propulsion systems. There are a number of challenges in managing cryogenic liquids that must be addressed before long durations missions into deep space, such as a trip to Mars can be successful. The leakage rate of hydrogen from pressure vessels, seals, lines and valves is a critical factor that must be controlled and minimized. For long duration missions, hydrogen leakage amounts to large increases in hydrogen and therefore vehicle mass. The size of a deep space vehicle, such as a mars transfer vehicle, must be kept small to control cost and the logistics of a multi launch, assembled in orbit vehicle. The boil off control of the cryogenic fluid is an additional obstacle to long duration missions. The boil off caused by heat absorption results in the growth of the propellant needs of the vehicle and therefore vehicle mass. This is a significant problem for a vehicle using nuclear (fission) propulsion systems. Radiation from the engines deposits large quantities of heat into the cryogenic fluid, greatly increasing boil off beyond that caused by environmental heat leakage. Addressing and resolving these challenges is critical to successful long duration space exploration. This paper discusses the state of the technology needed to address these challenges and discuss the path forward needed in technology development.

  7. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  8. Brazing of Carbon Carbon Composites to Cu-clad Molybdenum for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.; Shpargel, T> P.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced carbon carbon composites were joined to copper-clad molybdenum (Cu/Mo) using four active metal brazes containing Ti (Cu ABA, Cusin-1 ABA, Ticuni, and Ticusil) for potential use in thermal management applications. The brazed joints were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Knoop microhardness measurements across the joint region. Metallurgically sound C-C/Cu/Mo joints, devoid of interfacial cracks formed in all cases. The joint interfaces were preferentially enriched in Ti, with Cu ABA joints exhibiting the largest interfacial Ti concentrations. The microhardness measurements revealed hardness gradients across the joint region, with a peak hardness of 300-350 KHN in Cusin-1 ABA and Ticusil joints and 200-250 KHN in Cu ABA and Ticuni joints, respectively.

  9. Selective Mastectomy in the Management of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahern, Verity . E-mail: verity.ahern@swahs.healthnsw.gov.au; Boyages, John; Gebski, Val M. Stat; Moon, Dominic; Wilcken, Nicholas

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate local control for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer (LABC) managed by selective mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1996, 176 patients with LABC were prospectively managed by chemotherapy (CT)-irradiation (RT)-CT without routine mastectomy. All surviving patients were followed for a minimum of 5 years. Results: A total of 132 patients (75%) had a T4 tumor and 22 (12.5%) supraclavicular nodal disease. The clinical complete response rate was 91% (160/176), which included 13 patients who underwent mastectomy and 2 an iridium wire implant. The first site of failure was local for 43 patients (breast {+-} axilla for 38); 27 of these patients underwent salvage mastectomy and 11 did not for an overall mastectomy rate of 23% (40/176). If all 176 patients had undergone routine mastectomy (136 extra mastectomies), 11 additional patients may have avoided an unsalvageable first local relapse. The others would have either have not had a local relapse or would have suffered local relapse after distant disease. No tumor or treatment related factor was found to predict local disease at death. Median disease-free and overall survival for all patients was 26 and 52 months, respectively. Conclusions: Selective mastectomy in LABC may not jeopardize local control or survival.

  10. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-04-02

    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  11. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM): Early Site Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meza, Juan; Hubbard, Susan; Freshley, Mark D.; Gorton, Ian; Moulton, David; Denham, Miles E.

    2011-03-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, Technology Innovation and Development (EM-32), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high performance computing tool will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. As part of the initial development process, a series of demonstrations were defined to test ASCEM components and provide feedback to developers, engage end users in applications, and lead to an outcome that would benefit the sites. The demonstration was implemented for a sub-region of the Savannah River Site General Separations Area that includes the F-Area Seepage Basins. The physical domain included the unsaturated and saturated zones in the vicinity of the seepage basins and Fourmile Branch, using an unstructured mesh fit to the hydrostratigraphy and topography of the site. The calculations modeled variably saturated flow and the resulting flow field was used in simulations of the advection of non-reactive species and the reactive-transport of uranium. As part of the demonstrations, a new set of data management, visualization, and uncertainty quantification tools were developed to analyze simulation results and existing site data. These new tools can be used to provide summary statistics, including information on which simulation parameters were most important in the prediction of uncertainty and to visualize the relationships between model input and output.

  12. Design and Analysis of Advanced Materials in a Thermal/Acoustic Environment. Delivery Order 0007: Volume 1 - Structural Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2010-3028 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS IN A THERMAL/ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT Delivery Order 0007: Volume 1‒Structural...Final 15 July 2005 – 30 March 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS IN A THERMAL/ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT Delivery...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Wright State University Department of Mechanical and Materials

  13. Evaluation of Advanced Stirling Convertor Net Heat Input Correlation Methods Using a Thermal Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, numerous tasks have been performed which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs, including testing validation hardware, known as the Thermal Standard, to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This validation hardware provided a comparison for scrutinizing and improving empirical correlations and numerical models of ASC-E2 net heat input. This hardware simulated the characteristics of an ASC-E2 convertor in both an operating and non-operating mode. This paper describes the Thermal Standard testing and the conclusions of the validation effort applied to the empirical correlation methods used by the Radioisotope Power System (RPS) team at NASA Glenn.

  14. Studies, Summary Tables, and Data Related to the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides further information about how EPA measures data for the annual Advancing Materials Management Report. Researchers can use the tables and studies to better understand how waste in managed in America

  15. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  16. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  17. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, August 1992--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.; Bortiatynski, J.; Burgess, C.; Dutta, R.; Gergova, K.; Lai, W.C.; Li, J.; McKinney, D.; Parfitt, D.; Peng, Y.; Sanghani, P.; Yoon, E.

    1993-02-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five borad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and miocrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Pyrolysis of four isomers of butylbenzene was investigated in static microautoclave reactors at 450{degrees}C under 0.69 MPa of UHP N{sub 2}. Thee rates of disappearance of substrates were found to depend upon the bonding energy of C{alpha}-C{beta} bond in the side chain in the initial period of pyrolysis reactions. Possible catalytic effects of metal surfaces on thermal degradation and deposit formation at temperatures >400{degrees}C have been studied. Carbon deposition depends on the composition of the metal surfaces, and also depends on the chemical compositions of the reactants. Thermal stressing of JP-8 was conducted in the presence of alumina, carbonaceous deposits recovered from earlier stressing experiments, activated carbon, carbon black, and graphite. The addition of different solid carbons during thermal stressing leads to different reaction mechanisms. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, along with {sup 13}C-labeling techniques, have been used to examine the thermal stability of a jet fuel sample mixed with 5% benzyl alcohol. Several heterometallic complexes consisting of two transition metals and sulfur in a single molecule were synthesized and tested as precursors of bimetallic dispersed catalysts for liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coals.

  18. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  19. Proactive nurse management guidelines for managing intensive chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, J; Ajani, J A

    2008-07-01

    Patients with advanced gastric cancer have a poor prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy regimens may be effective for the treatment of this disease but may be associated with a significant number of severe adverse events. Optimal management of these adverse events can improve outcome for the patient. Currently, there is little information in the literature about the nursing management of this particular group of patients. This American study involved the nursing management of all patients with gastric or gastroesophageal cancer enrolled in clinical trials at a single center. Patients had close contact with research nurses and received education about adverse events and how to deal with them. Patients completed a detailed treatment diary for each cycle of treatment. Protocols were established for the management of emergent adverse events. The guidelines developed during this study could help to underpin the role of the specialist oncology nurse and improve the management of patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for gastric and gastroesophageal cancer, with the potential of improving outcome, or at least quality of life, for the patients. The nurses' role should be pivotal in the management of intensive chemotherapy for gastric and gastroesophageal cancer.

  20. Advanced Health Management Algorithms for Crew Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Jones, Judit

    2005-01-01

    Achieving the goals of the President's Vision for Exploration will require new and innovative ways to achieve reliability increases of key systems and sub-systems. The most prominent approach used in current systems is to maintain hardware redundancy. This imposes constraints to the system and utilizes weight that could be used for payload for extended lunar, Martian, or other deep space missions. A technique to improve reliability while reducing the system weight and constraints is through the use of an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This system contains diagnostic algorithms and decision logic to mitigate or minimize the impact of system anomalies on propulsion system performance throughout the powered flight regime. The purposes of the AHMS are to increase the probability of successfully placing the vehicle into the intended orbit (Earth, Lunar, or Martian escape trajectory), increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort after it has developed anomalous performance during launch or ascent phases of the mission, and to minimize or mitigate anomalies during the cruise portion of the mission. This is accomplished by improving the knowledge of the state of the propulsion system operation at any given turbomachinery vibration protection logic and an overall system analysis algorithm that utilizes an underlying physical model and a wide array of engine system operational parameters to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. These algorithms are generic enough to be utilized on any propulsion system yet can be easily tailored to each application by changing input data and engine specific parameters. The key to the advancement of such a system is the verification of the algorithms. These algorithms will be validated through the use of a database of nominal and anomalous performance from a large propulsion system where data exists for catastrophic and noncatastrophic propulsion sytem failures.

  1. Recent advances in the understanding and management of delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Crowne, Elizabeth Clare

    2016-05-01

    Delayed puberty, especially in boys, is a common presentation in paediatrics. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the neuroendocrine, genetic and environmental factors controlling pubertal development, and hence inform the pathophysiology of delayed puberty. The discovery of kisspeptin signalling through its receptor identified neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator at the onset of puberty. Genetic mechanisms from single gene mutations to single nucleotide polymorphism associated with delayed puberty are being identified. Environmental factors, including nutritional factors and endocrine disruptors, have also been implicated in changes in secular trends and abnormal timing of puberty. Despite these advances, the key clinical question is to distinguish delayed puberty associated with an underlying pathology or hypogonadism from constitutional delay in growth and puberty, which remains challenging as biochemical tests are not always discriminatory. The diagnostic accuracies of newer investigations, including 36-hour luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) tests, GnRH-agonist tests, antimullerian hormone and inhibin-B, require further evaluation. Sex hormone replacement remains the main available treatment for delayed puberty, the choice of which is largely dictated by clinical practice and availability of the various sex steroid preparations. Spontaneous reversal of hypogonadism has been reported in boys with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism after a period of sex steroid treatment, highlighting the importance of reassessment at the end of pubertal induction. Novel therapies with a more physiological basis such as gonadotrophins or kisspeptin-agonist are being investigated for the management of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Careful clinical assessment and appreciation of the normal physiology remain the key approach to patients with delayed puberty.

  2. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    , in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  3. Thermal Testing and Model Correlation for Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter Instrument (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) part of the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2) is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This topic covers the analysis leading up to the test setup for ATLAS thermal testing as well as model correlation to flight predictions. Test setup analysis section will include areas where ATLAS could not meet flight like conditions and what were the limitations. Model correlation section will walk through changes that had to be made to the thermal model in order to match test results. The correlated model will then be integrated with spacecraft model for on-orbit predictions.

  4. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barsoum, Michel; Bentzel, Grady; Tallman, Darin J.; Sindelar, Robert; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda; Hoffman, Elizabeth

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  5. Conceptual design of an advanced water/steam receiver for a solar thermal central power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. F.; Narayanan, T. V.; Gorman, D. N.

    1981-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of an advanced water/steam receiver for a commercial-scale solar central receiver thermal power system. The objective was to develop a receiver concept featuring an optimum combination of cost, performance, and reliability. While interfaces with other major subsystems of the complete power plant were recognized, emphasis was on the design and performance of the receiver. The baseline thermal rating of this receiver was 550 MW, and the steam outlet conditions were 12,860 kPa and 516 C. After technical and economic evaluations, a quad-cavity, natural-circulation concept was selected as the preferred receiver design. It consists of four separate cavities in a single receiver unit, each cavity receiving concentrated solar energy from one quadrant of a surrounding heliostat field.

  6. Operative management of locally advanced, differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laura Y.; Nixon, Iain J.; Patel, Snehal G.; Palmer, Frank L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of differentiated thyroid cancer tends to present with limited locoregional disease, leading to excellent long-term survival after operative treatment. Even patients with advanced local disease may survive for long periods with appropriate treatment. The aim of this study is to present our institutional experience of the management of locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer and to analyze factors predictive of outcome. Methods We reviewed our institutional database of 3,664 previously untreated patients with differentiated thyroid cancer operated between 1986 and 2010. A total of 153 patients had tumor extension beyond the thyroid capsule that invaded the subcutaneous soft tissues, recurrent laryngeal nerve, larynx, trachea, or esophagus. Details on extent of operation and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Disease-specific survival and locoregional recurrence-free probability were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were determined by multivariate analysis. Results The median age of the 153 patients with tumor extension beyond the thyroid capsule was 55 years (range 11–91 years). Eighty-nine patients (58.2%) were female. Twenty-three patients (15.0%) were staged as M1 at presentation, and 122 (79.7%) had pathologically involved lymph nodes. The most common site of extrathyroidal extension was the recurrent laryngeal nerve (51.0%) followed by the trachea (46.4%) and esophagus (39.2%). Sixty-three patients (41%) required resection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve due to tumor involvement. After surgery, 20 patients (13.0%) had gross residual disease (R2), 63 (41.2%) had a positive margin of resection (R1), and 70 (45.8%) had complete resection with negative margins (R0). With a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 5-year, disease-specific survival, when stratified by R0/R1/R2 resection, was 94.4%, 87.6%, and 67.9%, respectively (P = .030). The data do not demonstrate a statistical difference in survival

  7. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. P.; Lee, W. Y.; Wright, I. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program is aimed at forecasting the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS turbines will require the use of different criteria in the design of the materials for the critical hot gas path components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. While such coatings are routinely used in high-performance aircraft engines and are becoming established in land-based turbines, the requirements of the ATS turbine application are sufficiently different that significant improvements in thermal barrier coating technology will be necessary. In particular, it appears that thermal barrier coatings will have to function on all airfoil sections of the first stage vanes and blades to provide the significant temperature reduction required. In contrast, such coatings applied to the blades and vances of advanced aircraft engines are intended primarily to reduce air cooling requirements and extend component lifetime; failure of those coatings can be tolerated without jeopardizing mechanical or corrosion performance. A major difference is that in ATS turbines these components will be totally reliant on thermal barrier coatings which will, therefore, need to be highly reliable even over the leading edges of first stage blades. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology.

  8. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  9. Recent Advances in SRS on Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Xin; Sessions, Henry T.; Heung, L. Kit

    2015-02-01

    The recent Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10th of the current production system’s footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects and medical isotope production.

  10. Advanced Information Management Services in SCOOP, an IOOS Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Keiser, K.; Graves, S.; Beaumont, B.; Drewry, M.; Maskey, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) represents a national initiative to create a new system for collecting and disseminating information about the oceans. The system will support a variety of practical applications, along with enabling research. A key partner in IOOS design and development, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) is a consortium of over sixty universities across the US. Building on the capabilities of its member universities, SURA seeks to develop a network of sensors and linked computers as part of the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) program, fully integrating several observing systems in the southern US. SCOOP's goal is to create a scalable, modular prediction system for storm surge and wind waves. The system will enable a "transition to operations" of cutting-edge modeling activities from the research community. This network will provide data in real-time and at high speed, for more reliable, accurate and timely information to help guide effective coastal stewardship, plan for extreme events, facilitate safe maritime operations, and support coastal security. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing a suite of advanced technologies to provide core data and information management services for SCOOP. This Scientific Catalog for Open Resource Exchange (SCORE) is built on UAH's information technology research for a variety of projects, including the NASA- funded Global Hydrology Resource Center and DISCOVER REASoN projects, NSF-funded Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) large Information Technology Research project, as well as for SCOOP, which is funded by NOAA and ONR. Key technologies include an extensible database schema and ontology for the target science domain. Web services provide low level catalog access, while an integrated search capability includes semantic searching and browsing, with the potential for specialized, innovative interfaces for specific research

  11. 3-D THERMAL EVALUATIONS FOR a FUELED EXPERIMENT in the ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, R.G.; Chang, G.S.; Utterbeck, D.J.

    2004-10-06

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Generation IV reactor programs are developing new fuel types for use in the current Light Water Reactors and future advanced reactor concepts. The Advanced Gas Reactor program is planning to test fuel to be used in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) nuclear reactor. Preliminary information for assessing performance of the fuel will be obtained from irradiations performed in the Advanced Test Reactor large ''B'' experimental facility. A test configuration has been identified for demonstrating fuel types typical of gas cooled reactors or fast reactors that may play a role in closing the fuel cycle or increasing efficiency via high temperature operation Plans are to have 6 capsules, each containing 12 compacts, for the test configuration. Each capsule will have its own temperature control system. Passing a helium-neon gas through the void regions between the fuel compacts and the graphite carrier and between the graphite carrier and the capsule wall will control temperature. This design with three compacts per axial level was evaluated for thermal performance to ascertain the temperature distributions in the capsule and test specimens with heating rates that encompass the range of initial heat generation rates.

  12. 3-D Thermal Evaluations for a Fueled Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Debra Utterbeck

    2004-10-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Generation IV reactor programs are developing new fuel types for use in the current Light Water Reactors and future advanced reactor concepts. The Advanced Gas Reactor program is planning to test fuel to be used in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) nuclear reactor. Preliminary information for assessing performance of the fuel will be obtained from irradiations performed in the Advanced Test Reactor large “B” experimental facility. A test configurations has been identified for demonstrating fuel types typical of gas cooled reactors or fast reactors that may play a role in closing the fuel cycle or increasing efficiency via high temperature operation Plans are to have 6 capsules, each containing 12 compacts, for the test configuration. Each capsule will have its own temperature control system. Passing a helium-neon gas through the void regions between the fuel compacts and the graphite carrier and between the graphite carrier and the capsule wall will control temperature. This design with three compacts per axial level was evaluated for thermal performance to ascertain the temperature distributions in the capsule and test specimens with heating rates that encompass the range of initial heat generation rates.

  13. In-flight load testing of advanced shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, B. M.; Meyer, R., Jr.; Sawko, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has conducted in-flight airload testing of some advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The two flexible TPS materials tested, felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI), are currently certified for use on the Shuttle orbiter. The objectives of the flight tests were to evaluate the performance of FRSI and AFRSI at simulated launch airloads and to provide a data base for future advanced TPS flight tests. Five TPS configurations were evaluated in a flow field which was representative of relatively flat areas without secondary flows. The TPS materials were placed on a fin, the Flight Test fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of the fuselage of an F-104 aircraft. This paper describes the test approach and techniques used and presents the results of the advanced TPS flight test. There were no failures noted during post-flight inspections of the TPS materials which were exposed to airloads 40 percent higher than the design launch airloads.

  14. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  15. Managing Linguistic Data Summaries in Advanced P2P Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Rabab; Raschia, Guillaume; Valduriez, Patrick; Mouaddib, Noureddine

    As the amount of stored data increases, data localization techniques become no longer sufficient in P2P systems. A practical approach is to rely on compact database summaries rather than raw database records, whose access is costly in large P2P systems. In this chapter, we describe a solution for managing linguistic data summaries in advanced P2P applications which are dealing with semantically rich data. The produced summaries are synthetic, multidimensional views over relational tables. The novelty of this proposal relies on the double summary exploitation in distributed P2P systems. First, as semantic indexes, they support locating relevant nodes based on their data descriptions. Second, due to their intelligibility, these summaries can be directly queried and thus approximately answer a query without the need for exploring original data. The proposed solution consists first in defining a summary model for hierarchical P2P systems. Second, appropriate algorithms for summary creation and maintenance are presented. A query processing mechanism, which relies on summary querying, is then proposed to demonstrate the benefits that might be obtained from summary exploitation.

  16. Advances in the medical management of paediatric IBD.

    PubMed

    Aloi, Marina; Nuti, Federica; Stronati, Laura; Cucchiara, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    IBD includes two classic entities, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and a third undetermined form (IBD-U), characterized by a chronic relapsing course resulting in a high rate of morbidity and impaired quality of life. Children with IBD are vulnerable in terms of growth failure, malnutrition and emotional effects. The aims of therapy have now transitioned from symptomatic control to the achievement of mucosal healing and deep remission. This type of therapy has been made possible by the advent of disease-modifying drugs, such as biologic agents, which are capable of interrupting the inflammatory cascade underlying IBD. Biologic agents are generally administered in patients who are refractory to conventional therapies. However, there is growing support that such agents could be used in the initial phases of the disease, typically in paediatric patients, to interrupt and cease the inflammatory process. Until several years ago, most therapeutic programmes in paediatric patients with IBD were borrowed from adult trials, whereas paediatric studies were often retrospective and uncontrolled. However, guidelines on therapeutic management of paediatric IBD and controlled, prospective, randomized trials including children with IBD have now been published. Here, the current knowledge concerning treatment options for children with IBD are reported. We also highlight the effectiveness and safety of new therapeutic advances in these paediatric patients.

  17. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  18. Recent advances in understanding and managing psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gladman, Dafna D.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) over the past several years with emphasis on early diagnosis, better understanding of pathogenesis, and new therapeutic approaches. Early diagnosis is important, since people who present late do not fare as well. There are a number of clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound features that can help identify patients destined to develop PsA, and several screening tools have been developed. It is recognized that genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as T cells and cytokines, play a role in the pathogenesis of PsA, and several targets have been identified for therapeutic interventions. New therapies have been developed and tested in PsA and have been found to be highly effective for both skin and joint manifestations of the disease. The expectation is that, in the future, PsA patients will be treated early and more aggressively and that there will not be significant progression of joint damage. Moreover, with effective treatment of the skin and joint disease and management of risk factors for the comorbidities, we can expect to reduce their occurrence and further reduce the excess mortality and reduced quality of life and function in these patients. PMID:27928500

  19. Recent advances in diagnosis and management of Mycotic Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Sharma, Namrata; Nagpal, Ritu; Jhanji, Vishal; Das, Sujata; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-01-01

    Mycotic keratitis is a major cause of corneal blindness, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The prognosis is markedly worse compared to bacterial keratitis. Delayed diagnosis and scarcity of effective antifungal agents are the major factors for poor outcome. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made to rapidly diagnose cases with mycotic keratitis and increase the efficacy of treatment. This review article discusses the recent advances in diagnosis and management of mycotic keratitis with a brief discussion on rare and emerging organisms. A MEDLINE search was carried out for articles in English language, with the keywords, mycotic keratitis, fungal keratitis, emerging or atypical fungal pathogens in mycotic keratitis, investigations in mycotic keratitis, polymerase chain reaction in mycotic keratitis, confocal microscopy, treatment of mycotic keratitis, newer therapy for mycotic keratitis. All relevant articles were included in this review. Considering the limited studies available on newer diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in mycotic keratitis, case series as well as case reports were also included if felt important. PMID:27380973

  20. Informative Top-k Retrieval for Advanced Skill Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simona; di Noia, Tommaso; Ragone, Azzurra; Ruta, Michele; Straccia, Umberto; Tinelli, Eufemia

    The paper presents a knowledge-based framework for skills and talent management based on an advanced matchmaking between profiles of candidates and available job positions. Interestingly, informative content of top-k retrieval is enriched through semantic capabilities. The proposed approach allows to: (1) express a requested profile in terms of both hard constraints and soft ones; (2) provide a ranking function based also on qualitative attributes of a profile; (3) explain the resulting outcomes (given a job request, a motivation for the obtained score of each selected profile is provided). Top-k retrieval allows to select most promising candidates according to an ontology formalizing the domain knowledge. Such a knowledge is further exploited to provide a semantic-based explanation of missing or conflicting features in retrieved profiles. They also indicate additional profile characteristics emerging by the retrieval procedure for a further request refinement. A concrete case study followed by an exhaustive experimental campaign is reported to prove the approach effectiveness.

  1. The positive attitudes and perceptions of care managers about advance directives.

    PubMed

    Golden, Adam G; Tewary, Sweta; Qadri, Syeda; Zaw, Khin; Ruiz, Jorge G; Roos, Bernard A

    2011-03-01

    In a previous intervention, we found that reminders from care managers failed to increase the number of their homebound older adult clients with advance directives. Thus, in the current study, we looked at the perceptions and attitudes of care managers about the need to discuss advance directives with their clients. Ninety-five care managers serving community-based nursing home-eligible older adults completed an 18-question survey, which found that care managers overwhelmingly believe it is important to address advance directives. Only 3.2% reported that discussing advance directives is time consuming. No attitudinal barriers were identified. Given their positive attitudes about advance directives, care managers need educational interventions that will provide the knowledge and skills to interact effectively with clients who are resistant to addressing end-of-life issues.

  2. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  3. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03].

  4. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, W.P.; Lee, W.Y.; Wright, I.G.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is aimed at fostering the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS machines will emphasize different criteria in the selection of materials for the critical components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. In fact, the goals of the ATS will require significant improvements in TBC technology, since these turbines will be totally reliant on TBCs, which will be required to function on critical components such as the first stage vanes and blades for times considerably in excess of those experienced in current applications. Issues that assume increased importance are the mechanical and chemical stability of the ceramic layer and of the metallic bond coat; the thermal expansion characteristics and compliance of the ceramic layer; and the thermal conductivity across the thickness of the ceramic layer. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBCs, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology. A significant TBC development effort is planned in the ATS program which will address these key issues.

  5. Transformation Laplacian metamaterials: recent advances in manipulating thermal and dc fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The full control of single or even multiple physical fields has attracted intensive research attention in the past decade, thanks to the development of metamaterials and transformation optics. Significant progress has been made in vector fields (e.g., optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics), leading to a host of strikingly functional metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks, illusion devices, concentrators, and rotators. However, metamaterials in vector fields, designed through coordinate transformation of Maxwell’s equations, usually require extreme parameters and impose challenges on the actual realization. In this context, metamaterials in scalar fields (e.g., thermal and dc fields), which are mostly governed by the Laplace equation, lead to more plausible and facile implementations, since there are native insulators and excellent conductors (serving as two extreme cases). This paper therefore is particularly dedicated to reviewing the most recent advances in Laplacian metamaterials in manipulating thermal (both transient and steady states) and dc fields, separately and (or) simultaneously. We focus on the theory, design, and realization of thermal/dc functional metamaterials that can be used to control heat flux and electric current at will. We also provide an outlook toward the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area.

  6. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  7. NASA systems autonomy demonstration project: Advanced automation demonstration of Space Station Freedom thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Jeffrey; Bull, John; Healey, Kathleen J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP) was initiated in response to Congressional interest in Space station automation technology demonstration. The SADP is a joint cooperative effort between Ames Research Center (ARC) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate advanced automation technology feasibility using the Space Station Freedom Thermal Control System (TCS) test bed. A model-based expert system and its operator interface were developed by knowledge engineers, AI researchers, and human factors researchers at ARC working with the domain experts and system integration engineers at JSC. Its target application is a prototype heat acquisition and transport subsystem of a space station TCS. The demonstration is scheduled to be conducted at JSC in August, 1989. The demonstration will consist of a detailed test of the ability of the Thermal Expert System to conduct real time normal operations (start-up, set point changes, shut-down) and to conduct fault detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) on the test article. The FDIR will be conducted by injecting ten component level failures that will manifest themselves as seven different system level faults. Here, the SADP goals, are described as well as the Thermal Control Expert System that has been developed for demonstration.

  8. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, William P.; Hoffman, Eugene E.; Lee, Woo Y.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is aimed at fostering the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS machines will emphasize different criteria in the selection of materials for the critical components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. In fact, the goals of the ATS will require significant improvements in TBC technology, since these turbines will be totally reliant on TBC's, which will be required to function on critical components such as the first stage vanes and blades for times considerably in excess of those experienced in current applications. Issues that assume increased importance are the mechanical and chemical stability of the ceramic layer and of the metallic bond coat; the thermal expansion characteristics and compliance of the ceramic layer; and the thermal conductivity across the thickness of the ceramic layer. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology. A significant TBC development effort is planned in the ATS program which will address these key issues.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic studies of the Advanced Neutron Source cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.T.; Lucas, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), in its conceptual design phase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was to be a user-oriented neutron research facility producing the most intense steady-state flux of thermal and cold neutrons in the world. Among its many scientific applications, the production of cold neutrons was a significant research mission for the ANS. The cold neutrons come from two independent cold sources positioned near the reactor core. Contained by an aluminum alloy vessel, each cold source is a 410-mm-diam sphere of liquid deuterium that functions both as a neutron moderator and a cryogenic coolant. With nuclear heating of the containment vessel and internal baffling, steady-state operation requires close control of the liquid deuterium flow near the vessel`s inner surface. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses supporting the cold source design were performed with heat conduction simulations of the vessel walls and multidimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of the liquid deuterium flow and heat transfer. This report presents the starting phase of a challenging program and describes the cold source conceptual design, the thermal-hydraulic feasibility studies of the containment vessel, and the future computational and experimental studies that were planned to verify the final design.

  10. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  11. Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pannala, S; D'Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T

    2002-02-26

    The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of

  12. Novel Material Systems and Methodologies for Transient Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of multifunctional and thermally switchable systems to address reduced mass and components, and tailored for both structural and transient thermal applications. Active, passive, and novel combinations of the two functional approaches are being developed along two lines of research investigation: switchable systems and transient heat spreading. The approach is to build in thermal functionality to structural elements to lay the foundation for a revolution in the way high energy space systems are designed.

  13. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S. , Casteel, J.

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  14. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  15. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Some of our accomplishments and findings are: The product distribution and reaction mechanisms for pyrolysis of alkylcyclohexanes at 450{degree}C have been investigated in detail. In this report we present results of pyrolysis of cyclohexane and a variety of alkylcyclohexanes in nitrogen atmospheres, along with pseudo-first order rate constants, and possible reaction mechanisms for the origin of major pyrolysis products are presented. Addition of PX-21 activated carbon effectively stops the formation of carbonaceous solids on reactor walls during thermal stressing of JPTS. A review of physical and chemical interactions in supercritical fluids has been completed. Work has begun on thermal stability studies of a second generation of fuel additives, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-naphthol, 9,10-phenanthrenediol, phthalan, and 1,2-benzenedimethanol, and with careful selection of the feedstock, it is possible to achieve 85--95% conversion of coal to liquids, with 40--50% of the dichloromethane-soluble products being naphthalenes. (Further hydrogenation of the naphthalenes should produce the desired highly stable decalins.)

  16. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Phase II Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.; Hubbard, S.; Flach, G.; Freedman, V.; Agarwal, D.; Andre, B.; Bott, Y.; Chen, X.; Davis, J.; Faybishenko, B.; Gorton, I.; Murray, C.; Moulton, D.; Meyer, J.; Rockhold, M.; Shoshani, A.; Steefel, C.; Wainwright, H.; Waichler, S.

    2012-09-28

    In 2009, the National Academies of Science (NAS) reviewed and validated the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technology Program in its publication, Advice on the Department of Energy’s Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges. The NAS report outlined prioritization needs for the Groundwater and Soil Remediation Roadmap, concluded that contaminant behavior in the subsurface is poorly understood, and recommended further research in this area as a high priority. To address this NAS concern, the EM Office of Site Restoration began supporting the development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific approach that uses an integration of toolsets for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM modeling toolset is modular and open source. It is divided into three thrust areas: Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC), Platform and Integrated Toolsets, and Site Applications. The ASCEM toolsets will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. During fiscal year 2012, the ASCEM project continued to make significant progress in capabilities development. Capability development occurred in both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and Multi-Process HPC Simulator areas. The new Platform and Integrated Toolsets capabilities provide the user an interface and the tools necessary for end-to-end model development that includes conceptual model definition, data management for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and model output processing including visualization. The new HPC Simulator capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with the Platform, and model confidence testing and verification for

  17. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  18. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  19. Advanced leading edge thermal-structure concept. Direct bond reusable surface insulation to a composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Figueroa, H.; Coe, C. F.; Kuo, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced leading-edge concept was analyzed using the space shuttle leading edge system as a reference model. The comparison indicates that a direct-bond system utilizing a high temperature (2700 F) fibrous refractory composite insulation tile bonded to a high temperature (PI/graphite) composite structure can result in a weight savings of up to 800 lb. The concern that tile damage or loss during ascent would result in adverse entry aerodynamics if a leading edge tile system were used is addressed. It was found from experiment that missing tiles (as many as 22) on the leading edge would not significantly affect the basic force-and-moment aerodynamic coefficients. Additionally, this concept affords a degree of redundancy to a thermal protection system in that the base structure (being a composite material) ablates and neither melts nor burns through when subjected to entry heating in the event tiles are actually lost or damaged during ascent.

  20. Diagnosis of Thermal Efficiency of Advanced Combined Cycle Power Plants Using Optical Torque Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi

    A new optical torque measurement method was applied to diagnosis of thermal efficiency of advanced combined cycle, i.e. ACC, plants. Since the ACC power plant comprises a steam turbine and a gas turbine and both of them are connected to the same generator, it is difficult to identify which turbine in the plant deteriorates the performance when the plant efficiency is reduced. The sensor measures axial distortion caused by power transmission by use of He-Ne laser beams, small stainless steel reflectors having bar-code patterns, and a technique of signal processing featuring high frequency. The sensor was applied to the ACC plants of TOKYO ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, TEPCO, following the success in the application to the early combined cycle plants of TEPCO. The sensor performance was inspected over a year. After an improvement related to the signal process, it is considered that the sensor performance has reached a practical use level.

  1. An assessment of the impact of transition on advanced winged entry vehicle thermal protection system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the impact of turbulent heating on thermal protection system (TPS) mass for advanced winged entry vehicles. Four basic systems are considered: insulative, metallic hot structures, metallic standoff, and hybrid systems. TPS sizings are performed using entry trajectories tailored specifically to the characteristics of each TPS concept under consideration. Comparisons are made between systems previously sized under the assumption of all laminar heating and those sized using a baseline estimate of transition and turbulent heating. The relative effect of different transition criteria on TPS mass requirements is also examined. Also investigated are entry trajectories tailored to alleviate turbulent heating. Results indicate the significant impact of turbulent heating on TPS mass and demonstrate the importance of both accurate transition criteria and entry trajectory tailoring.

  2. Recent advances in SRS on hydrogen isotope separation using thermal cycling absorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, X.; Kit Heung, L.; Sessions, H.T.

    2015-03-15

    TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) is a gas chromatograph in principle using palladium in the column packing, but it is unique in the fact that the carrier gas, hydrogen, is being isotopically separated and the system is operated in a semi-continuous manner. TCAP units are used to purify tritium. The recent TCAP advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10 of the current production system's footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects.

  3. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2013-12-10

    Lighting system having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  4. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2016-08-23

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  5. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2016-08-30

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  9. Weight Optimization of Active Thermal Management Using a Novel Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William E.; Sherif, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient lightweight power generation and thermal management are two important aspects for space applications. Weight is added to the space platforms due to the inherent weight of the onboard power generation equipment and the additional weight of the required thermal management systems. Thermal management of spacecraft relies on rejection of heat via radiation, a process that can result in large radiator mass, depending upon the heat rejection temperature. For some missions, it is advantageous to incorporate an active thermal management system, allowing the heat rejection temperature to be greater than the load temperature. This allows a reduction of radiator mass at the expense of additional system complexity. A particular type of active thermal management system is based on a thermodynamic cycle, developed by the authors, called the Solar Integrated Thermal Management and Power (SITMAP) cycle. This system has been a focus of the authors research program in the recent past (see Fig. 1). One implementation of the system requires no moving parts, which decreases the vibration level and enhances reliability. Compression of the refrigerant working fluid is accomplished in this scheme via an ejector.

  10. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-10-30

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  11. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Uribe, Oscar; San Martin, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Alegre, María C.; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction. PMID:26528978

  12. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-03-01

    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A

  13. Advanced thermal hydrolysis: optimization of a novel thermochemical process to aid sewage sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira, Jose; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Portela, Juan R; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; Nebot, Enrique

    2012-06-05

    The aim of this work was to study in depth the behavior and optimization of a novel process, called advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH), to determine its utility as a pretreatment (sludge solubilization) or postreatment (organic matter removal) for anaerobic digestion (AD) in the sludge line of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). ATH is based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) addition and takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. On the basis of the response surface methodology (RSM) and a modified Doehlert design, an empirical second-order polynomial model was developed for the total yield of: (a) disintegration degree [DD (%)] (solubilization), (b) filtration constant [F(c) (cm(2)/min)] (dewaterability), and (c) organic matter removal (%). The variables considered were operation time (t), temperature reached after initial heating (T), and oxidant coefficient (n = oxygen(supplied)/oxygen(stoichiometric)). As the model predicts, in the case of the ATH process with high levels of oxidant, it is possible to achieve an organic matter removal of up to 92%, but the conditions required are prohibitive on an industrial scale. ATH operated at optimal conditions (oxygen amount 30% of stoichiometric, 115 °C and 24 min) gave promising results as a pretreatment, with similar solubilization and markedly better dewaterability levels in comparison to those obtained with TH at 170 °C. The empirical validation of the model was satisfactory.

  14. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  15. Managing the Perception of Advanced Technology Risks in Mission Proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellisario, Sebastian Nickolai

    2012-01-01

    Through my work in the project proposal office I became interested in how technology advancement efforts affect competitive mission proposals. Technology development allows for new instruments and functionality. However, including technology advancement in a mission proposal often increases perceived risk. Risk mitigation has a major impact on the overall evaluation of the proposal and whether the mission is selected. In order to evaluate the different approaches proposals took I compared the proposals claims of heritage and technology advancement to the sponsor feedback provided in the NASA debriefs. I examined a set of Discovery 2010 Mission proposals to draw patterns in how they were evaluated and come up with a set of recommendations for future mission proposals in how they should approach technology advancement to reduce the perceived risk.

  16. Highly Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanofibrillated Cellulose/Graphene Nanosheets Hybrid Films for Thermal Management.

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Jiao, Dejin; Cui, Siqi; Hou, Xingshuang; Ding, Peng; Shi, Liyi

    2017-01-25

    An anisotropic thermally conductive film with tailorable microstructures and macroproperties is fabricated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of graphene oxide (GO) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on a flexible NFC substrate driven by hydrogen bonding interactions, followed by chemical reduction process. The resulting NFC/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid film reveals an orderly hierarchical structure in which the RGO nanosheets exhibit a high degree of orientation along the in-plane direction. The assembly cycles dramatically increase the in-plane thermal conductivity (λX) of the hybrid film to 12.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1), while the cross-plane thermal conductivity (λZ) shows a lower value of 0.042 W·m(-1)·K(-1) in the hybrid film with 40 assembly cycles. The thermal conductivity anisotropy reaches up to λX/λZ = 279, which is substantially larger than that of similar polymeric nanocomposites, indicating that the LbL assembly on a flexible NFC substrate is an efficient technique for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites with improved heat conducting property. Moreover, the layered hybrid film composed of 1D NFC and 2D RGO exhibits synergetic mechnical properties with outstanding flexibility and a high tensile strength (107 MPa). The combination of anisotropic thermal conductivity and superior mechanical performance may facilitate the applications in thermal management.

  17. Producing Mosaiced Infrared Data on Natural Hazards for Real-time Emergency Management using UAS and Thermal Infrared Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P. W.; Saiet, E., II

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide a unique capability for emergency management and real-time hazard assessment with access to hazardous environments that maybe off limits for manned aircraft while reducing the risk to personnel and loss of ground assets. When dealing with hazards, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions, there is a need to assess the location of the fire/flow front and where best to assign ground personnel to reduce the risk to local populations and infrastructure. Thermal infrared cameras provide the ideal tool to detect subtle changes in the developing fire/flow front while providing data 24/7. There are limits to the detecting capabilities of these cameras given the wavelengths used and image resolution available. Given the large thermal contrast between the hot flow front and surrounding landscape then the data can be used to map out the location and changes seen as the front of the flow/fire advances. To map the complete hazard then either the UAS has to be flown at an altitude to capture the event in one image or the data has to be mosaiced together. Higher altitudes lead to coarser resolution imagery and therefore we will show how thermal infrared data can be mosaiced to provide the highest spatial resolution map of the hazard. We will present results using different UAS and thermal cameras including adding neutral density filters to detect hotter thermal targets. Timely generation of these mosaiced maps in a real-time environment is critical for those assessing the ongoing event and we will show how these maps can be generated quickly with the necessary spatial and thermal accuracy while discussing the requirements needed to generate thermal infrared maps of the hazardous events that are both useful for quick real-time assessment and also for further investigation in research projects.

  18. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.

    1996-08-05

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., California using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The technologies include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  19. Porous materials for thermal management under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Clyne, T W; Golosnoy, I O; Tan, J C; Markaki, A E

    2006-01-15

    A brief analysis is presented of how heat transfer takes place in porous materials of various types. The emphasis is on materials able to withstand extremes of temperature, gas pressure, irradiation, etc. i.e. metals and ceramics, rather than polymers. A primary aim is commonly to maximize either the thermal resistance (i.e. provide insulation) or the rate of thermal equilibration between the material and a fluid passing through it (i.e. to facilitate heat exchange). The main structural characteristics concern porosity (void content), anisotropy, pore connectivity and scale. The effect of scale is complex, since the permeability decreases as the structure is refined, but the interfacial area for fluid-solid heat exchange is, thereby, raised. The durability of the pore structure may also be an issue, with a possible disadvantage of finer scale structures being poor microstructural stability under service conditions. Finally, good mechanical properties may be required, since the development of thermal gradients, high fluid fluxes, etc. can generate substantial levels of stress. There are, thus, some complex interplays between service conditions, pore architecture/scale, fluid permeation characteristics, convective heat flow, thermal conduction and radiative heat transfer. Such interplays are illustrated with reference to three examples: (i) a thermal barrier coating in a gas turbine engine; (ii) a Space Shuttle tile; and (iii) a Stirling engine heat exchanger. Highly porous, permeable materials are often made by bonding fibres together into a network structure and much of the analysis presented here is oriented towards such materials.

  20. Advancement Information Resources Management: An Information Understanding Profession in Support of Philanthropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Anne E.

    Professional fundraising has given rise to a new information specialist profession. This career path, which has been known as prospect research or advancement research, should be more accurately characterized as information resources management for advancement. With primary emphasis on value-added information processes that involve analysis and…

  1. Advanced Technologies and Data Management Practices in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Mayernik, Matthew S.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Allen, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the…

  2. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  3. The influence of cooling on the advance of lava flows: insights from analogue experiments on the feedbacks between flow dynamics and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2012-12-01

    During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. The spreading of a lava flow, seen as a gravity current, depends on its "effective rheology" and the eruptive mass flux. These two parameters are not known a priori during an eruption and a key question is how to evaluate them in near real-time (rather than afterwards.) There is no generic macroscopic model for the rheology of an advancing lava flow, and analogue modelling is a precious tool to empirically estimate the rheology of a complex flow. We investigate through laboratory experiments the simultaneous spreading and cooling of horizontal currents fed at constant rate from a point source. The materials used are silicone oil (isoviscous), and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) wax injected in liquid state and solidiying during its advance. In the isoviscous case, the temperature field is a passive tracer of the flow dynamics, whereas in the PEG experiments there is a feedback between the cooling of the flow and its effective rheology. We focus on the evolution of the current area and of the surface thermal structure, imaged with an infrared camera, to assess how the thermal structure can be related to the flow rate. The flow advance is continuous in the viscous case, and follows the predictions of Huppert (1982); in that case the surface temperature become steady after a transient time and the radiated heat flux is shown to be proportional to the input rate. For the PEG experiments, the spreading occurs through an alternation of stagnation and overflow phases, with a mean spreading rate decreasing as the experiment goes on. As in the case of lava flows, these experiments can exhibit a compound flow field, solid levees, thermal erosion, liquid overflows and channelization. A key observation is that the effective rheology of the solifying PEG material depends on the input flow rate, with high input rates yielding a rheology closer to the

  4. Ablative thermal management structural material on the hypersonic vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shortland, H.; Tsai, C.

    1995-09-01

    A hypersonic vehicle is designed to fly at high Mach number in the earth`s atmosphere that will result in higher aerodynamic heating loads on specific areas of the vehicle. A thermal protection system is required for these areas that may exceed the operating temperature limit of structural materials. This paper delineates the application of ablative material as the passive type of thermal protection system for the nose or wing leading edges. A simplified quasi-steady-state one-dimensional computer model was developed to evaluate the performance and thermal design of a leading edge. The detailed description of the governing mathematical equations and results are presented. This model provides a quantitative information to support the design estimate, performance optimization, and assess preliminary feasibility of using ablation as a design approach.

  5. Advanced neutron source reactor thermal-hydraulic test loop facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Felde, D.K.; Farquharson, G.; Hardy, J.H.; King, J.F.; McFee, M.T.; Montgomery, B.H.; Pawel, R.E.; Power, B.H.; Shourbaji, A.A.; Siman-Tov, M.; Wood, R.J.; Yoder, G.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) is a facility for experiments constructed to support the development of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ANSR is both cooled and moderated by heavy water and uses uranium silicide fuel. The core is composed of two coaxial fuel-element annuli, each of different diameter. There are 684 parallel aluminum-clad fuel plates (252 in the inner-lower core and 432 in the outer-upper core) arranged in an involute geometry that effectively creates an array of thin rectangular flow channels. Both the fuel plates and the coolant channels are 1.27 mm thick, with a span of 87 mm (lower core), 70 mm (upper core), and 507-mm heated length. The coolant flows vertically upwards at a mass flux of 27 Mg/m{sup 2}s (inlet velocity of 25 m/s) with an inlet temperature of 45{degrees}C and inlet pressure of 3.2 MPa. The average and peak heat fluxes are approximately 6 and 12 MW/m{sup 2}, respectively. The availability of experimental data for both flow excursion (FE) and true critical heat flux (CHF) at the conditions applicable to the ANSR is very limited. The THTL was designed and built to simulate a full-length coolant subchannel of the core, allowing experimental determination of thermal limits under the expected ANSR thermal-hydraulic conditions. For these experimental studies, the involute-shaped fuel plates of the ANSR core with the narrow 1.27-mm flow gap are represented by a narrow rectangular channel. Tests in the THTL will provide both single- and two-phase thermal-hydraulic information. The specific phenomena that are to be examined are (1) single-phase heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors, (2) the point of incipient boiling, (3) nucleate boiling heat-transfer coefficients, (4) two-phase pressure-drop characteristics in the nucleate boiling regime, (5) flow instability limits, and (6) CHF limits.

  6. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

  7. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, Scot

    2015-06-10

    Presentation containing an update for the Power Electronics Thermal Management project in the Electric Drive Train task funded by the Vehicle Technology Office of DOE. This presentation outlines the purpose, plan, and results of research thus far for cooling and material selection strategies to manage heat in power electronic assemblies such as inverters, converters, and chargers.

  8. Non-functional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: Advances in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Jordan M; Poultsides, George A

    2015-08-28

    Nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Although rare, the incidence of NF-PNETs is increasing significantly. The classification of PNETs has evolved over the past decades and is now based on a proliferation grading system. While most NF-PNETs are slow growing, tumors with more aggressive biology may become incurable once they progress to unresectable metastatic disease. Tumors of higher grade can be suspected preoperatively based on the presence of calcifications, hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography, positron emission technology avidity and lack of octreotide scan uptake. Surgery is the only curative treatment and is recommended for most patients for whom complete resection is possible. Liver-directed therapies (thermal ablation, transarterial embolization) can be useful in controlling unresectable hepatic metastatic disease. In the presence of unresectable progressive disease, somatostatin analogues, everolimus and sunitinib can prolong progression-free survival. This article provides a comprehensive review of NF-PNETs with special emphasis on recent advances in diagnosis and management.

  9. Agile Thermal Management STT-RX, Modified Magnesium Hydride and Calcium Borohydride for High-Capacity Thermal Energy Storage (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    variety of areas from intermittent solar energy harvesting to thermal management of transient, high- flux heat loads. A variety of passive materials...have been developed and employed for TES including paraffin waxes, water tanks, and low-capacity reversible metal hydrides, among others. Paraffin...example materials that exceed 1 MJ/kg are water (liquid-vapor) and metal hydride (MgH2). Regarding water , the slow kinetics of boiling/evaporation

  10. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1979-01-01

    The performance and cost of the 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States were determined. The regional insolation data base is discussed. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several cades are presented.

  11. Design Manual for Two-Phase Components of Spacecraft Thermal Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    8217Valenzuela Creare Inc P.O. Box 7 1, Etna RoadT Hanover, NHi 03755 September 1992MRP8C M Final Report . PfIlLII’S LABORATORY Directorate of Space & Misil -ti T...ROBERT M . VACEK. Project Manager Chief, Thermal Management Branch ERNEST HERRERA, Lt Col, USAF Chief. Space Power & Thermal Management Division...41 2.29 SENSITIVITY OF COMPARISON WITH HILL-BEST DATA TO CRITICAL LIQUID FRACTION (D = li.1 m ) ...................... 2-41 2.30 COMPARISON WITH dILL

  12. Thermal shell fragment craniofacial injury: biophysics, pathophysiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to bring attention to unique risks and burns by thermal shell fragment craniofacial soft tissue injury. Hot shrapnel may inflict burns to major vessel walls and lead to life-threatening hemorrhaging or death, which adds a new challenge for craniofacial surgeons. Morbidity of thermal deep tissue may lead to deep tissue necrosis and infection.Thermal energy (TE) physics, biophysics, and pathophysiological effects relate directly to the amount of heat generated from shell casing detonation, which transfers to skin, deep tissue, as well as brain and leads to life-threatening burning of organs; this is different from shrapnel kinetic energy injury.The unprecedented increase in using a large range of explosives and high-heat thermobaric weapons contributes to the superfluous and unnecessary suffering caused by thermal injury wounds.Surgeons and medics should recognize that a surprising amount of TE can be found in an explosion or detonation of a steel-encased explosive, resulting in TEs ranging from 400 F up to 1000 F.

  13. High conductivity, low cost aluminum composite for thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    In order to produce an inexpensive packaging material that exhibits high thermal conductivity and low CTE, Technical Research Associates, Inc. (TRA) has shown in Phase I the feasibility of incorporating natural flake graphite in an aluminum matrix. TRA has developed a proprietary coating technique where graphite flakes have been coated with a thin layer of molybdenum/molybdenum carbide (approximately 0.2 microns). This barrier coating can protect the graphite flake from chemical reaction and high temperature degradation in molten aluminum silicon alloys. Methods to successfully vacuum infiltrate coated flake with molten aluminum alloys were developed. The resulted metal matrix composites exhibited lower CTE than aluminum metal. The CTE of the composites were significantly lower than aluminum and its alloys. The CTE can potentially be tailored for specific applications. The in plane thermal conductivity was higher than the aluminum matrix alloy. The thermal conductivity and CTE of the composite may be significantly improved by improving the bond strength of the molybdenum coating on the graphite flake. The flake can potentially be incorporated in the molten aluminum and pressure die cast to align the flakes within the aluminum matrix. By preferentially aligning high conductivity graphite flakes within a plane or direction, the thermal conductivity of the resulting composite will be above pure aluminum in the alignment direction.

  14. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  15. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1996--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    An improved thermal barrier coating system with good reliability and thermal performance is described. The report discusses the coating process, manufacturing, repair, deposition, and microstructure of the coatings.

  16. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  17. Role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced thymic tumors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracey L; Lynch, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    Chemotherapy has an important role in the treatment of advanced thymic tumors. Early stage tumors are successfully treated with surgery. Locally advanced tumors (Masaoka stage III and IVA) are often treated with combined modality treatment including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. For patients with curable thymic tumors, the ability to attain a complete resection is a critical prognostic factor. Locally advanced tumors have a relatively high risk of recurrence and decreased rates of long-term survival. A multimodality approach including induction chemotherapy and postoperative radiation therapy can improve complete resection rates and long-term outcomes. Thymic tumors are chemoresponsive with optimal responses achieved with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Chemotherapy with radiation can result in long-term progression-free survival for patients with locally advanced disease who remain inoperable following induction therapy. Patients with disseminated (stage IVB) thymic tumors can also have significant disease response and palliation of symptoms when treated with chemotherapy. Octreotide and corticosteroids also have shown efficacy. For best results, it is important that thoracic surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists work together to obtain the best local control of tumor and optimal treatment of metastases.

  18. Management and counseling of the male with advanced paternal age.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Michael O; Owen, Ryan C; Keefe, David; Kim, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    Increasing percentages of children are being born to older fathers. This has resulted in concerns about the potential adverse effects of advanced paternal age. To help clinicians counsel couples, a systemic review was performed to attempt to address questions that these couples may ask: Should routine sperm testing be performed in older males? Should preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) be performed? How do providers counsel patients about risk? Should young males freeze sperm if they plan to delay paternity? Using the terms "advanced paternal age", "semen testing", "preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening", and "cryopreservation", a comprehensive search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and numerous international societal guidelines were reviewed. In total, 42 articles or guidelines were reviewed. There were no limits placed on the timing of the articles. Thirty articles were found to be relevant and beneficial to answering the above questions. Each question was answered separately by the supporting literature. While primary research exists to support the role of semen testing, PGD/preimplantation genetic screening, and sperm banking in males who may be affected by advancing age, comprehensive studies on the possible clinical benefit of these interventions have yet to be performed. As a result, societal guidelines have yet to incorporate distinct best-practice guidelines on advanced paternal age.

  19. Advancing Student Achievement through Labor-Management Collaboration (Denver, Colorado, February 15-16, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of a conference entitled "Advancing Student Achievement through Labor-Management Collaboration" held in Denver, Colorado last February 15-16, 2011. This first-of-its-kind conference on labor-management collaboration is a historic effort to transform the relationships among local superintendents, school…

  20. Pakistan-Specific Cases for the Advanced Management Course in Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N., Ed.

    A compilation of management case studies concerning public administration in Pakistan and accompanying teaching notes, this document is intended to foster discussion in classes such as the advanced management course in public administration at the National Institute of Public Administration in Lahore, Pakistan. Included are case studies entitled…

  1. Emerging technological and cultural shifts advancing drylands research and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable provisioning of ecosystem services in dryland landscapes is complicated by extreme conditions that constrain biological responses to perturbation, vast spatial and temporal complexity, and uncertainty regarding the resilience of these ecosystems to management practices and climate change...

  2. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  3. Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Mahmoud; Al Beshir, Mohammad; Al-Judaibi, Bandar; Al-Ameel, Turki; Saleem, Abdulaziz; Bessissow, Talat; Ghosh, Subrata; Almadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several advances have been made in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from both evaluative and therapeutic perspectives. This review discusses the medical advancements that have recently been made as the standard of care for managing patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) and to identify the challenges associated with implementing their use in clinical practice. A comprehensive literature search of the major databases (PubMed and Embase) was conducted for all recent scientific papers (1990–2013) giving the recent updates on the management of IBD and the data were extracted. The reported advancements in managing IBD range from diagnostic and evaluative tools, such as genetic tests, biochemical surrogate markers of activity, endoscopic techniques, and radiological modalities, to therapeutic advances, which encompass medical, endoscopic, and surgical interventions. There are limited studies addressing the cost-effectiveness and the impact that these advances have had on medical practice. The majority of the advances developed for managing IBD, while considered instrumental by some IBD experts in improving patient care, have questionable applications due to constraints of cost, lack of availability, and most importantly, insufficient evidence that supports their role in improving important long-term health-related outcomes. PMID:24705146

  4. Advances in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease: challenges and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Mahmoud; Al Beshir, Mohammad; Al-Judaibi, Bandar; Al-Ameel, Turki; Saleem, Abdulaziz; Bessissow, Talat; Ghosh, Subrata; Almadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several advances have been made in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from both evaluative and therapeutic perspectives. This review discusses the medical advancements that have recently been made as the standard of care for managing patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) and to identify the challenges associated with implementing their use in clinical practice. A comprehensive literature search of the major databases (PubMed and Embase) was conducted for all recent scientific papers (1990-2013) giving the recent updates on the management of IBD and the data were extracted. The reported advancements in managing IBD range from diagnostic and evaluative tools, such as genetic tests, biochemical surrogate markers of activity, endoscopic techniques, and radiological modalities, to therapeutic advances, which encompass medical, endoscopic, and surgical interventions. There are limited studies addressing the cost-effectiveness and the impact that these advances have had on medical practice. The majority of the advances developed for managing IBD, while considered instrumental by some IBD experts in improving patient care, have questionable applications due to constraints of cost, lack of availability, and most importantly, insufficient evidence that supports their role in improving important long-term health-related outcomes.

  5. Thermally Stratified Compression Ignition: A new advanced low temperature combustion mode with load flexibility

    DOE PAGES

    Lawler, Benjamin; Splitter, Derek; Szybist, James; ...

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a new advanced combustion mode, called Thermally Stratified Compression Ignition (TSCI), which uses direct water injection to control both the average temperature and the temperature distribution prior to ignition, thereby providing cycle-to-cycle control over the start and rate of heat release in Low Temperature Combustion (LTC). Experiments were conducted to fundamentally understand the effects of water injection on heat release in LTC. Our results show that water injection retards the start of combustion due to the latent heat of vaporization of the injected water. Furthermore, for start of water injection timings between 20 and 70 degrees before topmore » dead center, combustion is significantly elongated compared to without water injection. The 10–90% burn duration with 6.6 and 9.0 mg of water per cycle was 77% and 146% longer than without water injection, respectively. Forced thermal stratification result from a direct water injection which reduces the heat release rate by local evaporative cooling. Finally, the load limits with and without water injection were determined experimentally. Without water injection, the load range was 2.3–3.6 bar gross IMEP. By using water injection to control heat release, the load range in TSCI was 2.3–8.4 bar gross IMEP, which is a range expansion of over 350%. These results demonstrate that direct water injection can provide significant improvements to both controllability and the range of operability of LTC, thereby resolving the major challenges associated with HCCI.« less

  6. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  7. Advanced linear Fresnel optics for solar thermal energy (STE) production (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    One path towards low electricity cost is the use of ever higher concentration values, since that, in turn, will provide less thermal losses at higher temperatures and high temperature operation means higher thermodynamic efficiency in the conversion of heat into electricity. However concentration has an added value, since it is associated with larger primaries (see below) and thus with a reduction of collector rows in any given collector field. That, in turn, will reduce receiver length, connecting pipe lengths, number of components, thermal losses in pipes, heat transfer fluid mass, pumping power required (thus less parasitics), OM necessary, and all of that will contribute towards a lower electricity production cost. Conventional PT and LFR concentrators are, essentially, focusing optics solutions and thus very far from the concentration limits set by Non Imaging Optics. However if a conventional PT optics is designed to accommodate a second stage concentrator (or, even better, if a parabolic like primary is designed in an optimal way with a secondary concentrator for a given receiver) the result will have a much higher concentration, but also, as a consequence, a much larger size, since available evacuated tubular receivers come in basically one (standard) size : 70mm diameter. Thus from a typical aperture size of 6m and a concentration value of 26, to double the concentration value with n.i.o., would bring the aperture close to 12m, a value which is not practical for manufacture, transportation, field installation and operation (think about wind loads, for instance) . But with LFR technology this size limitation is not there at all, and low concentration values can now be substituted by much higher ones, and primaries between 20 and 30 m can be produced for the same tube. Some LFRs on the market do have second stage concentration and offer primaries of about 12m total mirror width when designed for those evacuated tubes. These correspond to a CPC type second

  8. Development of CNT based carbon-carbon composites for thermal management system (TMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jhon; Krishnakumar, G.; Rajarajan, A.; Rakesh, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon-Fibre-Carbon matrix composites having high thermal conductivity per unit density is a competitive material for thermal management for aerospace applications. Due to anisotropic nature of Carbon-Carbon(C-C) composites, the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction which is dominated by the matrix carbon is comparatively low. In the present study, work is carried to increase the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of 2D-CC composites. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalised and dispersed in Phenolic Resin. C-C composites were densified with MWNT dispersed Phenolic Resin through impregnation, curing & carbonisation cycle. CNT-CC composites were densified through Chemical Vapor Infiltration process and further graphitised. The effects of MWNT in amorphous carbon for thermal conductivity were investigated. The result shows that Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) can induce the ordered arrangement of micro-crystallites in amorphous carbon leading to increase in thermal conductivity of the bulk composites. There exists an optimum MWNT concentration in resin to enhance the thermal conductivity of C-C composites in the perpendicular direction. However, excess MWNT in resin is disadvantageous to enhance the thermal conductivity due to problems like agglomeration, resulting in reduced thermal conductivity. This can be attributed to the interfacial contact resistance due to improper heat transmission channels arising due to agglomeration. Investigation has been carried out to study the effect of agglomeration for the thermal conductivity of the bulk composites.

  9. A Computational Methodology for Simulating Thermal Loss Testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Terry V.; Wilson, Scott D.; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, numerous tasks have been performed which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs, including the use of multidimensional numerical models. Validation test hardware has also been used to provide a direct comparison of numerical results and validate the multi-dimensional numerical models used to predict convertor net heat input and efficiency. These validation tests were designed to simulate the temperature profile of an operating Stirling convertor and resulted in a measured net heat input of 244.4 W. The methodology was applied to the multi-dimensional numerical model which resulted in a net heat input of 240.3 W. The computational methodology resulted in a value of net heat input that was 1.7 percent less than that measured during laboratory testing. The resulting computational methodology and results are discussed.

  10. The evaluation and management of thermal injuries: 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Jimmy; Singer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Burns are among the most common injuries presenting to the emergency department. While burns, especially large ones, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, most are minor and can be managed by emergency practitioners and discharged home with close follow-up. In contrast, patients with large burns require aggressive management of their airway, breathing and circulation in order to reduce mortality and morbidity. While early endotracheal intubation of patients with actual or impending airway compromise and aggressive fluid resuscitation have been emphasized, it appears that the pendulum may have swung a bit too far towards the extreme. The current review will briefly cover the epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis of burn injuries with greater emphasis on airway and fluid management. We will also discuss the local management of the burn wound, which is all that is required for most burn patients in the emergency department. PMID:27752547

  11. Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-12-26

    A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

  12. [Thermal therapy for the management of cardiovascular pathology].

    PubMed

    Persiianova-Dubrova, A L; Badalov, N G

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of the study on the effect of thermal therapy in the patients presenting with cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, and myocardial infarction. It is shown that the correct application of the "Finnish" and infrared sauna taking into consideration specific clinical characteristics of the disease in question and with strict compliance to the relevant methodological recommendations can produce beneficial effects in the form of the improved endothelial function, reduced heart rate variability and oxidative stress as well as enhanced physical performance. It is concluded that full-scale studies in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine are needed to further improve the effectiveness of the thermal treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the reliability of the data obtained.

  13. Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2014-08-19

    A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

  14. Thermal Remote Sensing for Reservoir Modelling and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti-Cardona, Belen; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Prats-Rodriquez, Jordi; Pipia, Luca

    2016-08-01

    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank.The high spatial resolution images of the Ribarroja reservoir, acquired by the airborne hyperspectral TASI sensor, show spatial patterns which complemented the in-situ point measurements and contributed valuable data for validating the three-dimensional thermo- hydrodynamic model of the reservoir.

  15. Thermal analysis for the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment (CFMFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolak, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to identify recent thermal analysis efforts and to review that part of the analysis that addresses the prediction of fluid and container temperature gradients during low gravity storage in space. It was concluded that both small and large tanks require hundreds of hours to reach even 60 PSIA. In about 1000 hours, the small tank is close to equilibrium; the large tank requires many thousands of hours to reach equilibrium.

  16. Advances in remote sensing for vegetation dynamics and agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Puma, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  17. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  18. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation

  19. Advancing Information Technology in the Waste Management World

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, B.; Smylie, G.; Thompson, S.; Bruemmer, H.

    2008-07-01

    The development and utilization of software for the waste management world is critical, yet complex. Numerous and sometimes conflicting regulations, coupled with demands for streamlined efficiency and high standards of safety, require innovative information technology solutions and closely-managed processes. The primary goal of this paper is to demonstrate how this challenge can be met by applying software engineering best practices to the waste management domain. This paper presents two case studies highlighting how IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) software engineering standards have proven to be effective within the CH-TRU and RH-TRU waste management arena. These examples show how adherence to best practices has enabled software to meet institutional expectations for usability, consistency, reusability, documentation, quality assurance, and adherence to regulations. Specific techniques, such as the use of customisable software life-cycle management software, and the integration of subject matter experts and the information technology specialists through the change control board, will be presented in detail. With an eye to the future, we will show the software resulting from a best practices approach can be further enhanced with the use of artificial intelligence techniques to tackle problems such as accounting for unexpected user inputs, analyzing the relationship between data fields, and recognizing aberrant patterns in the data. (authors)

  20. Thermal Management Design for the X-33 Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouslog, S.; Mammano, J.; Strauss, B.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 Advantage Technology Demonstrator offers a rare and exciting opportunity in Thermal Protection System development. The experimental program incorporates the latest design innovation in re-useable, low life cycle cost, and highly dependable Thermal Protection materials and constructions into both ground based and flight test vehicle validations. The unique attributes of the X-33 demonstrator for design application validation for the full scale Reusable Launch Vehicle, (RLV), are represented by both the configuration of the stand-off aeroshell, and the extreme exposures of sub-orbital hypersonic re-entry simulation. There are several challenges of producing a sub-orbital prototype demonstrator of Single Stage to Orbit/Reusable Launch Vehicle (SSTO/RLV) operations. An aggressive schedule with budgetary constraints precludes the opportunity for an extensive verification and qualification program of vehicle flight hardware. However, taking advantage of off the shelf components with proven technologies reduces some of the requirements for additional testing. The effects of scale on thermal heating rates must also be taken into account during trajectory design and analysis. Described in this document are the unique Thermal Protection System (TPS) design opportunities that are available with the lifting body configuration of the X-33. The two principal objectives for the TPS are to shield the primary airframe structure from excessive thermal loads and to provide an aerodynamic mold line surface. With the relatively benign aeroheating capability of the lifting body, an integrated stand-off aeroshell design with minimal weight and reduced procurement and operational costs is allowed. This paper summarizes the design objectives of the X-33 TPS, the flight test requirements driven configuration, and design benefits. Comparisons are made of the X-33 flight profiles and Space Shuttle Orbiter, and lifting body Reusable Launch Vehicle aerothermal environments. The X-33

  1. [Advances in low impact development technology for urban stormwater management].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi

    2015-06-01

    Low impact development ( LID), as an innovative technology for stormwater management, is effective to mitigate urban flooding and to detain pollutants. This paper systemically introduced the LID technology system, and summarized the reduction effects of three typical LID facilities (i.e. , bio-retention, green roof and permeable pavement) on stormwater runoff and main pollutants in recent literature, as well as research outcomes and experiences of LID technology on model simulation, cost-benefit analysis and management system. On this basis, we analyzed the problems and limitations of current LID technology studies. Finally, some suggestions about future research directions, appropriate design and scientific management were put forth. This work intended to provide scientific basis and suggestions for widespread use and standard setting of LID technology in China by referencing overseas studies.

  2. Clinical Management of Pain in Advanced Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Claribel P.L.; MacLeod, Nicholas; Laird, Barry J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world and pain is its most common symptom. Pain can be brought about by several different causes including local effects of the tumor, regional or distant spread of the tumor, or from anti-cancer treatment. Patients with lung cancer experience more symptom distress than patients with other types of cancer. Symptoms such as pain may be associated with worsening of other symptoms and may affect quality of life. Pain management adheres to the principles set out by the World Health Organization’s analgesic ladder along with adjuvant analgesics. As pain can be caused by multiple factors, its treatment requires pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures from a multidisciplinary team linked in with specialist palliative pain management. This review article examines pain management in lung cancer. PMID:23115483

  3. Recent advances in the surgical management of rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Jaksha, Alexandria F.; Weitzel, Erik K.; Laury, Adrienne M.

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis affects a significant portion of the US population, and its management imposes a substantial burden on the healthcare system. The treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis includes initial medical management prior to consideration of surgical intervention. However, if surgery does become necessary, several factors must be considered in order to optimize outcomes. This review evaluates surgical patient selection, perioperative medical management, and the extent of operative intervention, with the goal of improving surgical results, decreasing the need for revision surgery, and enhancing the patient’s quality of life. Specific variations in patient genotypes and phenotypes will be further explored with regard to their implications on surgical outcomes. Additionally, the evidence behind pre- and post-operative antibiotic and steroid use will be evaluated. Finally, we will review evolving surgical tools and techniques that are currently being utilized for the treatment of specific subsets of rhinosinusitis. PMID:27746900

  4. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  5. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydt, Gerald T.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation, and the history of the process is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory in Hawaii, which are discussed in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  6. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation. The process is not new--and its history is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory--Hawaii (NELH). The NELH work is summarized in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  7. Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  8. Advanced Multiphysics Thermal-Hydraulics Models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K; Freels, James D

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design studies to determine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Conversion Program. HFIR is a very high flux pressurized light-water-cooled and moderated flux-trap type research reactor. HFIR s current missions are to support neutron scattering experiments, isotope production, and materials irradiation, including neutron activation analysis. Advanced three-dimensional multiphysics models of HFIR fuel were developed in COMSOL software for safety basis (worst case) operating conditions. Several types of physics including multilayer heat conduction, conjugate heat transfer, turbulent flows (RANS model) and structural mechanics were combined and solved for HFIR s inner and outer fuel elements. Alternate design features of the new LEU fuel were evaluated using these multiphysics models. This work led to a new, preliminary reference LEU design that combines a permanent absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, a burnable absorber in the inner element side plates, and a relocated and reshaped (but still radially contoured) fuel zone. Preliminary results of estimated thermal safety margins are presented. Fuel design studies and model enhancement continue.

  9. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  10. A Combined Method for Segmentation and Registration for an Advanced and Progressive Evaluation of Thermal Images

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Emilio Z.; Caminhas, Walmir M.; Ribeiro, Eraldo; Pimenta, Eduardo M.; Palhares, Reinaldo M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a method that combines image analysis techniques, such as segmentation and registration, is proposed for an advanced and progressive evaluation of thermograms. The method is applied for the prevention of muscle injury in high-performance athletes, in collaboration with a Brazilian professional soccer club. The goal is to produce information on spatio-temporal variations of thermograms favoring the investigation of the athletes' conditions along the competition. The proposed method improves on current practice by providing a means for automatically detecting adaptive body-shaped regions of interest, instead of the manual selection of simple shapes. Specifically, our approach combines the optimization features in Otsu's method with a correction factor and post-processing techniques, enhancing thermal-image segmentation when compared to other methods. Additional contributions resulting from the combination of the segmentation and registration steps of our approach are the progressive analyses of thermograms in a unique spatial coordinate system and the accurate extraction of measurements and isotherms. PMID:25414972

  11. Intelligent fault management for the Space Station active thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Tim; Faltisco, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thermal Advanced Automation Project (TAAP) approach and architecture is described for automating the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). The baseline functionally and advanced automation techniques for Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) will be compared and contrasted. Advanced automation techniques such as rule-based systems and model-based reasoning should be utilized to efficiently control, monitor, and diagnose this extremely complex physical system. TAAP is developing advanced FDIR software for use on the SSF thermal control system. The goal of TAAP is to join Knowledge-Based System (KBS) technology, using a combination of rules and model-based reasoning, with conventional monitoring and control software in order to maximize autonomy of the ATCS. TAAP's predecessor was NASA's Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS) project which was the first large real-time expert system to use both extensive rules and model-based reasoning to control and perform FDIR on a large, complex physical system. TEXSYS showed that a method is needed for safely and inexpensively testing all possible faults of the ATCS, particularly those potentially damaging to the hardware, in order to develop a fully capable FDIR system. TAAP therefore includes the development of a high-fidelity simulation of the thermal control system. The simulation provides realistic, dynamic ATCS behavior and fault insertion capability for software testing without hardware related risks or expense. In addition, thermal engineers will gain greater confidence in the KBS FDIR software than was possible prior to this kind of simulation testing. The TAAP KBS will initially be a ground-based extension of the baseline ATCS monitoring and control software and could be migrated on-board as additional computation resources are made available.

  12. Electrically Driven Single Phase Thermal Management: STP-H5 EHD Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrically Driven Single Phase Thermal Management: STP-H5 iEHDS Experiment is a technology demonstration of prototype proof of concept hardware to establish the feasilibilty and long term operation of this hardware. This is a structural thermal plate that will operate continuous as part of the STP-H5 ISEM experiment for up to 18 months. This presentation discusses the design, fabrication and environmental operational paramertes of the experiment hardware.

  13. Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xuhui; Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the thermal performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) in-production automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The thermal performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY16, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system were characterized. Comparison of the two power electronics thermal management systems was also conducted to provide insight into the various cooling strategies to understand the current SOA in thermal management for automotive power electronics and electric motors.

  14. Thermal Interface Materials Selection and Application Guidelines: In Perspective of Xilinx Virtex-5QV Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook; Dillon, R. Peter; Tseng, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The heat from high-power microdevices for space, such as Xilinx Virtex 4 and 5 (V4 and V5), has to be removed mainly through conduction in the space vacuum environment. The class-Y type packages are designed to remove the heat from the top of the package, and the most effective method to remove heat from the class-Y type packages is to attach a heat transfer device on the lid of the package and to transfer the heat to frame or chassis. When a heat transfer device is attached to the package lid, the surfaces roughness of the package lid and the heat transfer device reduces the effective contact area between the two. The reduced contact area results in increased thermal contact resistance, and a thermal interface material is required to reduce the thermal contact resistance by filling in the gap between the surfaces of the package lid and the heat transfer device. The current report describes JPL's FY14 NEPP task study on property requirements of TIM and impact of TIM properties on the packaging reliability. The current task also developed appratuses to investigate the performances of TIMs in the actual mission environment.

  15. Encapsulated nano-heat-sinks for thermal management of heterogeneous chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Hu, Jianjun; Fan, Yunxiao; Voevodin, Andrey A; Su, Ming

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a new way to control temperatures of heterogeneous exothermic reactions such as heterogeneous catalytic reaction and polymerization by using encapsulated nanoparticles of phase change materials as thermally functional additives. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and silica encapsulated paraffin nanoparticles are used to absorb heat released in catalytic reaction and to mitigate gel effect of polymerization, respectively. The local hot spots that are induced by non-homogenous catalyst packing, reactant concentration fluctuation, and abrupt change of polymerization rate lead to solid to liquid phase change of nanoparticle cores so as to avoid thermal runaway by converting energies from exothermic reactions to latent heat of fusion. By quenching local hot spots at initial stage, reaction rates do not rise significantly because the thermal energy produced in reaction is isothermally removed. Nanoparticles of phase change materials will open a new dimension for thermal management of exothermic reactions to quench local hot spots, prevent thermal runaway of reaction, and change product distribution.

  16. Encapsulated nano-heat-sinks for thermal management of heterogeneous chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minghui; Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Hu, Jianjun; Fan, Yunxiao; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Su, Ming

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a new way to control temperatures of heterogeneous exothermic reactions such as heterogeneous catalytic reaction and polymerization by using encapsulated nanoparticles of phase change materials as thermally functional additives. Silica-encapsulated indiumnanoparticles and silica encapsulated paraffin nanoparticles are used to absorb heat released in catalytic reaction and to mitigate gel effect of polymerization, respectively. The local hot spots that are induced by non-homogenous catalyst packing, reactant concentration fluctuation, and abrupt change of polymerization rate lead to solid to liquid phase change of nanoparticle cores so as to avoid thermal runaway by converting energies from exothermic reactions to latent heat of fusion. By quenching local hot spots at initial stage, reaction rates do not rise significantly because the thermal energy produced in reaction is isothermally removed. Nanoparticles of phase change materials will open a new dimension for thermal management of exothermic reactions to quench local hot spots, prevent thermal runaway of reaction, and change product distribution.

  17. Fabrication of High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Greene, Sandra E.; Singh, Jogender

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process development for fabricating a high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond composite (NARloy-Z-D) combustion chamber liner for application in advanced rocket engines. The fabrication process is challenging and this paper presents some details of these challenges and approaches used to address them. Prior research conducted at NASA-MSFC and Penn State had shown that NARloy-Z-40%D composite material has significantly higher thermal conductivity than the state of the art NARloy-Z alloy. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40 %D is much lighter than NARloy-Z. These attributes help to improve the performance of the advanced rocket engines. Increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power, increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and specific impulse. Early work on NARloy-Z-D composites used the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST, Ref. 1, 2) for fabricating discs. NARloy-Z-D composites containing 10, 20 and 40vol% of high thermal conductivity diamond powder were investigated. Thermal conductivity (TC) data. TC increased with increasing diamond content and showed 50% improvement over pure copper at 40vol% diamond. This composition was selected for fabricating the combustion chamber liner using the FAST technique.

  18. Atom interferometry in space: Thermal management and magnetic shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Milke, Alexander; Kubelka-Lange, André; Gürlebeck, Norman Rievers, Benny; Herrmann, Sven; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus

    2014-08-15

    Atom interferometry is an exciting tool to probe fundamental physics. It is considered especially apt to test the universality of free fall by using two different sorts of atoms. The increasing sensitivity required for this kind of experiment sets severe requirements on its environments, instrument control, and systematic effects. This can partially be mitigated by going to space as was proposed, for example, in the Spacetime Explorer and Quantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) mission. However, the requirements on the instrument are still very challenging. For example, the specifications of the STE-QUEST mission imply that the Feshbach coils of the atom interferometer are allowed to change their radius only by about 260 nm or 2.6 × 10{sup −4} % due to thermal expansion although they consume an average power of 22 W. Also Earth's magnetic field has to be suppressed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. We show in this article that with the right design such thermal and magnetic requirements can indeed be met and that these are not an impediment for the exciting physics possible with atom interferometers in space.

  19. Atom interferometry in space: thermal management and magnetic shielding.

    PubMed

    Milke, Alexander; Kubelka-Lange, André; Gürlebeck, Norman; Rievers, Benny; Herrmann, Sven; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus

    2014-08-01

    Atom interferometry is an exciting tool to probe fundamental physics. It is considered especially apt to test the universality of free fall by using two different sorts of atoms. The increasing sensitivity required for this kind of experiment sets severe requirements on its environments, instrument control, and systematic effects. This can partially be mitigated by going to space as was proposed, for example, in the Spacetime Explorer and Quantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) mission. However, the requirements on the instrument are still very challenging. For example, the specifications of the STE-QUEST mission imply that the Feshbach coils of the atom interferometer are allowed to change their radius only by about 260 nm or 2.6 × 10(-4) % due to thermal expansion although they consume an average power of 22 W. Also Earth's magnetic field has to be suppressed by a factor of 10(5). We show in this article that with the right design such thermal and magnetic requirements can indeed be met and that these are not an impediment for the exciting physics possible with atom interferometers in space.

  20. Overview of composite materials for optomechanical, data storage, and thermal management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl H.

    1999-09-01

    Composites offer major improvements in key properties over monolithic materials, including high stiffness, strength and thermal conductivity and low density and coefficient of thermal expansion. They are now baseline in a large and increasing number of dimensionally stable structures, optomechanical systems components and in electronic packaging and thermal management. They also are under development in a number of data storage component, including disks and actuators. In this paper, we present an overview of key materials, including polymer matrix composites, metal matrix composites and carbon/carbon composites.