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Sample records for advanced thermal protection

  1. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  2. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  3. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  4. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  5. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  6. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  7. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  8. Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.

  9. Thermal degradation study of silicon carbide threads developed for advanced flexible thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim; Sawko, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber is a material that may be used in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) for future aerospace vehicles. SiC fiber's mechanical properties depend greatly on the presence or absence of sizing and its microstructure. In this research, silicon dioxide is found to be present on the surface of the fiber. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) show that a thin oxide layer (SiO2) exists on the as-received fibers, and the oxide thickness increases when the fibers are exposed to high temperature. ESCA also reveals no evidence of Si-C bonding on the fiber surface on both as-received and heat treated fibers. The silicon oxide layer is thought to signal the decomposition of SiC bonds and may be partially responsible for the degradation in the breaking strength observed at temperatures above 400 C. The variation in electrical resistivity of the fibers with increasing temperature indicates a transition to a higher band gap material at 350 to 600 C. This is consistent with a decomposition of SiC involving silicon oxide formation.

  10. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  11. In-flight load testing of advanced shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, B. M.; Meyer, R., Jr.; Sawko, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has conducted in-flight airload testing of some advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The two flexible TPS materials tested, felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI), are currently certified for use on the Shuttle orbiter. The objectives of the flight tests were to evaluate the performance of FRSI and AFRSI at simulated launch airloads and to provide a data base for future advanced TPS flight tests. Five TPS configurations were evaluated in a flow field which was representative of relatively flat areas without secondary flows. The TPS materials were placed on a fin, the Flight Test fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of the fuselage of an F-104 aircraft. This paper describes the test approach and techniques used and presents the results of the advanced TPS flight test. There were no failures noted during post-flight inspections of the TPS materials which were exposed to airloads 40 percent higher than the design launch airloads.

  12. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  13. Uses of Advanced Ceramic Composites in the Thermal Protection Systems of Future Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Current ceramic composites being developed and characterized for use in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future space vehicles are reviewed. The composites discussed include new tough, low density ceramic insulation's, both rigid and flexible; ultra-high temperature ceramic composites; nano-ceramics; as well as new hybrid ceramic/metallic and ceramic/organic systems. Application and advantage of these new composites to the thermal protection systems of future reusable access to space vehicles and small spacecraft is reviewed.

  14. Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  15. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  16. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

  17. Manufacture and engine test of advanced oxide dispersion strengthened alloy turbine vanes. [for space shuttle thermal protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Oxide-Dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Ni-Cr-Al alloy systems were exploited for turbine engine vanes which would be used for the space shuttle thermal protection system. Available commercial and developmental advanced ODS alloys were evaluated, and three were selected based on established vane property goals and manufacturing criteria. The selected alloys were evaluated in an engine test. Candidate alloys were screened by strength, thermal fatigue resistance, oxidation and sulfidation resistance. The Ni-16Cr (3 to 5)Al-ThO2 system was identified as having attractive high temperature oxidation resistance. Subsequent work also indicated exceptional sulfidation resistance for these alloys.

  18. Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

    2001-01-01

    A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth I-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system JPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization.

  19. CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

  20. Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Izon, Stephen James

    2002-01-01

    The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle design. It provides Thermal Protection System (TPS) unit thicknesses and acreage percentages based on the geometry of the vehicle and a reference trajectory to be used in calculation of the total cost and weight of the vehicle design. TCAT has proven to be reasonably accurate at calculating the TPS unit weights for in-flight trajectories; however, it does not have the capability of sizing TPS materials above cryogenic fuel tanks for ground hold operations. During ground hold operations, the vehicle is held for a brief period (generally about two hours) during which heat transfer from the TPS materials to the cryogenic fuel occurs. If too much heat is extracted from the TPS material, the surface temperature may fall below the freezing point of water, thereby freezing any condensation that may be present at the surface of the TPS. Condensation or ice on the surface of the vehicle is potentially hazardous to the mission and can also damage the TPS. It is questionable whether or not the TPS thicknesses provided by the aeroheating analysis would be sufficiently thick to insulate the surface of the TPS from the heat transfer to the fuel. Therefore, a design tool has been developed that is capable of sizing TPS materials at these cryogenic fuel tank locations to augment TCAT's TPS sizing capabilities.

  1. Results of Two-Stage Light-Gas Gun Development Efforts and Hypervelocity Impact Tests of Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelison, C. J.; Watts, Eric T.

    1998-01-01

    Gun development efforts to increase the launching capabilities of the NASA Ames 0.5-inch two-stage light-gas gun have been investigated. A gun performance simulation code was used to guide initial parametric variations and hardware modifications, in order to increase the projectile impact velocity capability to 8 km/s, while maintaining acceptable levels of gun barrel erosion and gun component stresses. Concurrent with this facility development effort, a hypervelocity impact testing series in support of the X-33/RLV program was performed in collaboration with Rockwell International. Specifically, advanced thermal protection system materials were impacted with aluminum spheres to simulate impacts with on-orbit space debris. Materials tested included AETB-8, AETB-12, AETB-20, and SIRCA-25 tiles, tailorable advanced blanket insulation (TABI), and high temperature AFRSI (HTA). The ballistic limit for several Thermal Protection System (TPS) configurations was investigated to determine particle sizes which cause threshold TPS/structure penetration. Crater depth in tiles was measured as a function of impact particle size. The relationship between coating type and crater morphology was also explored. Data obtained during this test series was used to perform a preliminary analysis of the risks to a typical orbital vehicle from the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  2. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  3. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  4. Thermal Protection Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The main portion of this contract year was spent on the development of materials for high temperature applications. In particular, thermal protection materials were constantly tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high-temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to hostile environmental effects. The analytical laboratory at the Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB), NASA-Ames played an integral part in the process of materials development of high temperature aerospace applications. The materials development focused mainly on the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of specimens from the various research programs.

  5. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  6. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  7. Orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Curry, D. M.; Tillian, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The major material and design challenges associated with the orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia and the initial flight of the Orbiter Challenger provided the data necessary to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed, based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. Flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the orbiter TPS are met and that the overall performance is outstanding.

  8. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  9. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  10. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Moore, Troy K.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  11. Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

  12. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  13. A New Way of Doing Business: Reusable Launch Vehicle Advanced Thermal Protection Systems Technology Development: NASA Ames and Rockwell International Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Fleming, Mary; Hogenson, Pete; Green, Michael J.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and Rockwell International are partners in a Cooperative Agreement (CA) for the development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program. This Cooperative Agreement is a 30 month effort focused on transferring NASA innovations to Rockwell and working as partners to advance the state-of-the-art in several TPS areas. The use of a Cooperative Agreement is a new way of doing business for NASA and Industry which eliminates the traditional customer/contractor relationship and replaces it with a NASA/Industry partnership.

  14. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

    1995-05-01

    The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

  15. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

  16. Ablative Thermal Protection: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernie

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Why ablative thermal protections - TPS. Ablative TPS chronology: strategic reentry systems, solid rocket motor nozzles, space (manned missions and planetary entry probes). Ablation mechanisms. Ablation material testing. Ablative material testing.

  17. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    's rays directly impinging on the system. Heating rate of the lamps were calculated by knowing fraction of emitted energy in a wavelength interval and the filament temperature. This version of the model can be used to predict performance of the system under vacuum with extreme cold or hot conditions. Initial testing of the PTMS showed promise, and the thermal math model predicts even better performance in thermal vacuum testing. ii) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are required for vehicles which enter earth's atmosphere to protect from aerodynamic heating caused by the friction between the vehicle and atmospheric gases. Orion's heat shield design has two aspects which needed to be analyzed thermally: i) a small excess of adhesive used to bond the outer AVCOAT layer to the inner composite structure tends to seep from under the AVCOAT and form a small bead in between two bricks of AVCOAT, ii) a silicone rubber with different thermophysical properties than AVCOAT fills the gap between two bricks of AVCOAT. I created a thermal model using TD to determine temperature differences that are caused by these two features. To prevent false results, all TD models must be verified against something known. In this case, the TD model was correlated to CHAR, an ablation modelling software used to analyze TPS. Analyzing a node far from the concerning features, we saw that the TD model data match CHAR data, verifying the TD model. Next, the temperature of the silicone rubber as well as the bead of adhesive were analyzed to determine if they exceeded allowable temperatures. It was determined that these two features do not have a significant effect on the max temperature of the heat shield. This model can be modified to check temperatures at various locations of the heat shield where the composite thickness varies.

  18. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    Research is presently being initiated to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituents` size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. During the last quarter, model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder cermet composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technique. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a nickel matrix with an average size of alumina particles of 12 micrometers. The increase in volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to an increase in hardness of these composites from 85 to 180 HV{sub 1000}. The experimental procedure and preliminary microstructural characterization of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are presented in this progress report along with plans for the research in coming year. 3 figs.

  19. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  20. Advanced Wellbore Thermal Simulator

    1992-03-04

    GEOTEMP2, which is based on the earlier GEOTEMP program, is a wellbore thermal simulator designed for geothermal well drilling and production applications. The code treats natural and forced convection and conduction within the wellbore and heat conduction within the surrounding rock matrix. A variety of well operations can be modeled including injection, production, forward and reverse circulation with gas or liquid, gas or liquid drilling, and two-phase steam injection and production. Well completion with severalmore » different casing sizes and cement intervals can be modeled. The code allows variables, such as flow rate, to change with time enabling a realistic treatment of well operations. Provision is made in the flow equations to allow the flow areas of the tubing to vary with depth in the wellbore. Multiple liquids can exist in GEOTEMP2 simulations. Liquid interfaces are tracked through the tubing and annulus as one liquid displaces another. GEOTEMP2, however, does not attempt to simulate displacement of liquids with a gas or two-phase steam or vice versa. This means that it is not possible to simulate an operation where the type of drilling fluid changes, e.g. mud going to air. GEOTEMP2 was designed primarily for use in predicting the behavior of geothermal wells, but it is flexible enough to handle many typical drilling, production, and injection problems in the oil industry as well. However, GEOTEMP2 does not allow the modeling of gas-filled annuli in production or injection problems. In gas or mist drilling, no radiation losses are included in the energy balance. No attempt is made to model flow in the formation. Average execution time is 50 CP seconds on a CDC CYBER170. This edition of GEOTEMP2 is designated as Version 2.0 by the contributors.« less

  1. Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, John; Iannetti, Francesco

    1989-01-01

    The Thermal Protection System (TPS), introduced by NASA, continues to incorporate many of the advances in materials over the past two decades. A comprehensive, single-volume summary of the TPS, including system design rationales, key design features, and broad descriptions of the subsystems of TPS (E.g., reusable surface insulation, leading edge structural, and penetration subsystems) is provided. Details of all elements of TPS development and application are covered (materials properties, manufacturing, modeling, testing, installation, and inspection). Disclosures and inventions are listed and potential commercial application of TPS-related technology is discussed.

  2. 7 CFR 1951.227 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and real estate taxes, to preserve and protect the security, the lien, or the priority of the lien... in the best interest of the government. For insurance, factors such as the amount of advance... considered. (a) Protective advances are considered due and payable when advanced. Advances bear interest...

  3. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  4. Reusable Metallic Thermal Protection Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Martin, Carl J.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Poteet, Carl C.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) are being developed to help meet the ambitious goals of future reusable launch vehicles. Recent metallic TPS development efforts at NASA Langley Research Center are described. Foil-gage metallic honeycomb coupons, representative of the outer surface of metallic TPS were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, rain erosion, and subsequent arcjet exposure. TPS panels were subjected to thermal vacuum, acoustic, and hot gas flow testing. Results of the coupon and panel tests are presented. Experimental and analytical tools are being developed to characterize and improve internal insulations. Masses of metallic TPS and advanced ceramic tile and blanket TPS concepts are compared for a wide range of parameters.

  5. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  6. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  7. Hermes thermal protection system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumette, Daniel; Cretenet, Jean-Claude

    The HERMES thermal protection system for the reentry is a new challenge for the designer. Compared to the system operational to day which is the U.S. Orbiter, the smaller size and higher cross range of HERMES are inducing higher working temperatures and a longer duration for the hot phase of the reentry. Hence the overall weight of the TPS system is comparatively more critical than on the Orbiter. On the other hand since the conception of the Orbiter a lot of new materials, namely ceramic composites, have been developped, and may lead to more efficient concepts of TPS. In the initial studies on HERMES TPS systems a lot of possibilites were considered, including External passive TPS, Hot structures, Active TPS. This selection has been now shortlisted to three basic concepts, with a number of variant or back ups still under consideration: • Ceramic composites hot structures for the nose, leading edges, fins and control surfaces • External insulation : composite ceramic shingles covering a lightweight thermal insulation (or rigid surface insulation (tiles) as a back up solution) for the hot undersurfaces and part of the upper surface. • Flexible surface insulation for the lower temperature upper surfaces. The paper presents details on the concepts being studied, the optimisation methods and the concept selection criteria.

  8. Ablation Thermal Protection Systems: Suitability of ablation systems to thermal protection depends on complex physical and chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ungar, E W

    1967-11-10

    The performance of ablation thermal protection systems is intimately related to the mass transfer, heat transfer, and chemical reactions which occur within the gas boundary layer. Production of a liquid layer and phase change or chemical reaction heat sinks greatly improve materials performance. Materials are available which achieve many goals for thermal protection. However, advanced materials which are now being developed provide hope of further reductions in the weight of heat-shielding structures. PMID:17732614

  9. Thermal protection system and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

  10. Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

  11. A Method of Integrating Aeroheating into Conceptual Reusable Launch Vehicle Design: Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

    2001-01-01

    A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT, and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth 1-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system (TPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization. In some vehicles, the TPS accounts for a high percentage of the overall vehicle dry weight. Optimizing the weight of the TPS will thereby lower the percentage of the dry weight accounted for by

  12. Apollo experience report: Thermal protection subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlosky, J. E.; St.leger, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo command module was the first manned spacecraft to be designed to enter the atmosphere of the earth at lunar-return velocity, and the design of the thermal protection subsystem for the resulting entry environment presented a major technological challenge. Brief descriptions of the Apollo command module thermal design requirements and thermal protection configuration, and some highlights of the ground and flight testing used for design verification of the system are presented. Some of the significant events that occurred and decisions that were made during the program concerning the thermal protection subsystem are discussed.

  13. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  14. 7 CFR 4280.155 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective advances. 4280.155 Section 4280.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.155 Protective advances. All...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.155 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective advances. 4280.155 Section 4280.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.155 Protective advances. All...

  16. Active Wireless Temperature Sensors for Aerospace Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active wireless sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor sub-surface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuitry to enable acquisition and non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 2.54-cm square integrated circuit.

  17. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  18. 7 CFR 765.203 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Protecting the Agency's Security Interest § 765.203 Protective advances. When necessary to protect the Agency's security interest, costs incurred for the..., hazard, or flood insurance; (e) Pay harvesting costs; (f) Maintain Agency security instruments; (g)...

  19. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  20. Thermal cleavage of the fmoc protection group.

    PubMed

    Höck, Stefan; Marti, Roger; Riedl, Rainer; Simeunovice, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The Fmoc protection group is among the most commonly used protection groups for the amino function. A fast method for the thermal deavage of this protection group under base-free conditions without the need for dibenzofulvene scavengers is presented. The advantages of this method include straightforward testability by means of a simple high-temperature NMR experiment, usually high yields, and good selectivity towards the BOC protection group and t-butyl ethers.

  1. Thermal Conductivity and Sintering Behavior of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings, having significantly reduced long-term thermal conductivities, are being developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  2. Advanced Extravehicular Protective System (AEPS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of Advanced Extravehicular Protective Systems (AEPS) for the future missions beyond Skylab in earth orbit, on the lunar surface, and on the Martian surface. The study concentrated on the origination of regenerable life support concepts for use in portable extravehicular protective systems, and included evaluation and comparison with expendable systems, and selection of life support subsystems. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, subsystem concepts for performing life support functions in AEPS which are regenerable or partially regenerable were originated, and in addition, expendable subsystems were considered. Parametric data for each subsystem concept were evolved including subsystem weight and volume, power requirement, thermal control requirement; base regeneration equipment weight and volume, requirement. The second phase involved an evaluation of the impact of safety considerations involving redundant and/or backup systems on the selection of the regenerable life support subsystems. In addition, the impact of the space shuttle program on regenerable life support subsystem development was investigated.

  3. Thermal protection in space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salakhutdinov, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of heat protection for various elements of space flight apparata has great significance, particularly in the construction of manned transport vessels and orbital stations. A popular explanation of the methods of heat protection in rocket-space technology at the current stage as well as in perspective is provided.

  4. Transient thermal analysis of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The application of the SPAR thermal analyzer to the thermal analysis of a thermal protection system concept is discussed. The titanium multiwall thermal protection system concept consists of alternate flat and dimpled sheets which are joined together at the crests of the dimples and formed into 30 cm by 30 cm (12 in. by 12 in.) tiles. The tiles are mechanically attached to the structure. The complex tile geometry complicates thermal analysis. Three modes of heat transfer were considered: conduction through the gas inside the tile, conduction through the metal, and radiation between the various layers. The voids between the dimpled and flat sheets were designed to be small enough so that natural convection is insignificant (e.g., Grashof number 1000). A two step approach was used in the thermal analysis of the multiwall thermal protection system. First, an effective normal (through-the-thickness) thermal conductivity was obtained from a steady state analysis using a detailed SPAR finite element model of a small symmetric section of the multiwall tile. This effective conductivity was then used in simple one dimensional finite element models for preliminary analysis of several transient heat transfer problems.

  5. Advanced protective coating for superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. C.; Talboom, F. P.; Wilson, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    Superior oxidation protection for nickel-base alloys at temperatures up to 1367 K was obtained with cobalt-base alloy coating. Coating had 25 Cr, 14 Al, and 0.5 Y weight percent composition. Coating was applied by electron beam vapor deposition to thickness of 76 to 127 microns.

  6. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  7. Thermal response of integral multicomponent composite thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. A.; Leiser, D. B.; Smith, M.; Kolodziej, P.

    1985-01-01

    Integral-multicomponent thermal-protection materials are discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet airstream. In-depth temperature measurements are compared with predictions from a one-dimensional, finite-difference code using calculated thermal conductivity values derived from an engineering model. The effect of composition, as well as the optical properties of the bonding material between components, on thermal response is discussed. The performance of these integral-multicomponent composite materials is compared with baseline Space Shuttle insulation.

  8. 7 CFR 772.15 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective advances. 772.15 Section 772.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... and real estate taxes, to preserve and protect the security, the lien, or the priority of the...

  9. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  10. Investigation of Fundamental Modeling and Thermal Performance Issues for a Metallic Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. A current advanced metallic thermal protection system (TPS) concept was systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of design variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results of the study indicate that radiation, even in small gaps between panels, can reduce significantly the thermal performance of metallic TPS, so that gaps should be eliminated by design if possible. Thermal performance was also shown to be sensitive to several analytical assumptions that should be chosen carefully. One of the factors that was found to have the greatest effect on thermal performance is the heat capacity of the underlying structure. Therefore the structure and TPS should be designed concurrently.

  11. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  12. Thermal Protection during Percutaneous Thermal Ablation of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Anthony W.; Littrup, Peter J.; Walther, McClellan M.; Hvizda, Julia; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal injury to collateral structures is a known complication of thermal ablation of tumors. The authors present the use of CO2 dissection and inserted balloons to protect the bowel during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation and cryotherapy of primary and locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma. These techniques offer the potential to increase the number of tumors that can be treated with RF ablation or cryotherapy from a percutaneous approach. PMID:15231890

  13. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  14. Reusable thermal protection system development: A prospective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Howard

    1992-01-01

    The state of the art in passive reusable thermal protection system materials is described. Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, which was the first reusable vehicle, is discussed. The thermal protection materials and given concepts and some of the shuttle development and manufacturing problems are described. Evolution of a family of grid and flexible ceramic external insulation materials from the initial shuttle concept in the early 1970's to the present time is described. The important properties and their evolution are documented. Application of these materials to vehicles currently being developed and plans for research to meet the space programs future needs are summarized.

  15. Therma1 Conductivity and Durability of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling, thus helping to achieve engine emission and efficiency goals. Future TBCs must be designed with increased phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance in order to effectively protect engine hot-section components. Advanced low conductivity TBCs are being developed at NASA by incorporating multi-component oxide dopants into zirconia-yttria or hafnia-yttria to promote the formation of thermodynamically stable defect clusters within the coating structures. This presentation will primarily focus on thermal conductivity and durability of the novel defect cluster thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoil and combustor applications, determined by a unique CO2 laser heat-flux approach. The laser heat-flux testing approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity under simulated engine temperature and thermal gradient conditions. The conductivity increase due to coating sintering (and/or phase change) and the conductivity decrease due to coating delamination have been determined under steady-state, cyclic, uniform or non-uniform heat-flux conditions. The coating radiation flux resistance has been evaluated by varying coating thermal gradients, and also by using a laser-heated radiative-flux source. Advanced multi-component TBC systems have been shown to have significantly reduced thermal conductivity and improved high temperature stability due to the nano-sized, low mobility defect clusters associated with the paired rare earth dopant additions. The effect of oxide defect cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, thermal stability and furnace cyclic durability will also be discussed. The current low conductivity TBC systems have demonstrated long-term cyclic durability at very high

  16. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  17. Thermal Materials Protect Priceless, Personal Keepsakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA astronaut Scott Parazynski led the development of materials and techniques for the inspection and repair of the shuttle’s thermal protection system. Parazynski later met Chris Shiver of Houston-based DreamSaver Enterprises LLC and used concepts from his work at Johnson Space Center to develop an enclosure that can withstand 98 percent of residential fires.

  18. Sprayable Phase Change Coating Thermal Protection Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Rod W.; Hayes, Paul W.; Kaul, Raj

    2005-01-01

    NASA has expressed a need for reusable, environmentally friendly, phase change coating that is capable of withstanding the heat loads that have historically required an ablative thermal insulation. The Space Shuttle Program currently relies on ablative materials for thermal protection. The problem with an ablative insulation is that, by design, the material ablates away, in fulfilling its function of cooling the underlying substrate, thus preventing the insulation from being reused from flight to flight. The present generation of environmentally friendly, sprayable, ablative thermal insulation (MCC-l); currently use on the Space Shuttle SRBs, is very close to being a reusable insulation system. In actual flight conditions, as confirmed by the post-flight inspections of the SRBs, very little of the material ablates. Multi-flight thermal insulation use has not been qualified for the Space Shuttle. The gap that would have to be overcome in order to implement a reusable Phase Change Coating (PCC) is not unmanageable. PCC could be applied robotically with a spray process utilizing phase change material as filler to yield material of even higher strength and reliability as compared to MCC-1. The PCC filled coatings have also demonstrated potential as cryogenic thermal coatings. In experimental thermal tests, a thin application of PCC has provided the same thermal protection as a much thicker and heavier application of a traditional ablative thermal insulation. In addition, tests have shown that the structural integrity of the coating has been maintained and phase change performance after several aero-thermal cycles was not affected. Experimental tests have also shown that, unlike traditional ablative thermal insulations, PCC would not require an environmental seal coat, which has historically been required to prevent moisture absorption by the thermal insulation, prevent environmental degradation, and to improve the optical and aerodynamic properties. In order to reduce

  19. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  20. Thermal Protection System with Staggered Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); Robinson, Michael J. (Inventor); Andrews, Thomas L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The thermal protection system disclosed herein is suitable for use with a spacecraft such as a reentry module or vehicle, where the spacecraft has a convex surface to be protected. An embodiment of the thermal protection system includes a plurality of heat resistant panels, each having an outer surface configured for exposure to atmosphere, an inner surface opposite the outer surface and configured for attachment to the convex surface of the spacecraft, and a joint edge defined between the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint edges of adjacent ones of the heat resistant panels are configured to mate with each other to form staggered joints that run between the peak of the convex surface and the base section of the convex surface.

  1. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  2. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.472 - Protective advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Protective advances. 1980.472 Section 1980.472 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  8. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  9. Aerogel Composites for Aerospace Thermal Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Aerogel composites formed by infiltrating organic and/or inorganic aerogels into fiber matrix materials enable us to exploit the low thermal conductivity and low density of aerogels while maintaining the strength, structure and other useful properties of a porous fiber matrix. New materials for extreme heating ranges are needed to insulate future spacecraft against the extreme heat of planetary atmospheric entry, but the insulation mass must be minimized in order to maximize the payload. A reusable system passively insulates to survive heating unchanged for relatively low heating. Ablators, which sacrifice mass to control heating, are used to protect vehicles against more extreme heating for a single use thermal protection system (TPS). Aerogel composites were fabricated and tested for spacecraft thermal protection. The high-temperaturey high heat flux tests described in this paper were performed in NASA Ames arc-jet facilities to simulate spacecraft atmospheric entry, and include heating conditions predicted for the forebody and backshell of the Mars Science Lander (MSL) entry probe. The aerogel composites tested showed excellent thermal performance in the arc-jet tests, functioning both as reusuable insulation under lower heat fluxes, and as ablative aerogels under the extreme heating predicted for the MSL forebody.

  10. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  11. Thermal protection systems for hypersonic transport vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, G.; Hinger, J.; Huchler, M.

    1990-07-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic transport vehicles are described and evaluated. During the flight through the atmosphere moderate to high aerodynamic heating rates with corresponding high surface temperatures are generated. Therefore, a reliable light-weight but effective TPS is required, that limits the heat transfer into the central fuselage with the liquid hydrogen tank and that prevents the penetration of the temperature peak during stage separation to the load carrying structure. The heat transfer modes in the insulation are solid conduction, gas convection and radiation. Thermal protection systems based on different phenomena to reduce the heat transfer, like vacuum shingles, inert gas filled shingles, microporous insulations and multiwall structures, are described. It is demonstrated that microporous and multiwall insulations are efficient, light weight and reliable TPSs for future hypersonic transportation systems.

  12. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  13. Lightweight Thermal Protection System for Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David; Leiser, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    TUFROC (Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Reinforced Oxidation-resistant Composite) has been developed as a new thermal protection system (TPS) material for wing leading edge and nose cap applications. The composite withstands temperatures up to 1,970 K, and consists of a toughened, high-temperature surface cap and a low-thermal-conductivity base, and is applicable to both sharp and blunt leading edge vehicles. This extends the possible application of fibrous insulation to the wing leading edge and/or nose cap on a hypersonic vehicle. The lightweight system comprises a treated carbonaceous cap composed of ROCCI (Refractory Oxidation-resistant Ceramic Carbon Insulation), which provides dimensional stability to the outer mold line, while the fibrous base material provides maximum thermal insulation for the vehicle structure.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  15. Thermal Protection Materials: Development, Characterization and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Silvia M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are used to protect space vehicles from the heat experienced during entry into an atmosphere. The application for these materials is very specialized as are the materials. They must have specific properties to withstand conditions during specific entries. There is no one-size-fits-all TPS as the conditions experienced by a material are very dependent upon the atmosphere, the entry speed, the size and shape of the vehicle, and the location on the vehicle. However, all TPS must be reliable and efficient to ensure mission safety, that is to protect the vehicle while ensuring that payload is maximized. Types of TPS will be reviewed in relation to types of missions and applications. Both reusable and ablative materials will be discussed. Approaches to characterizing and evaluating these materials will be presented. The role of heritage versus new materials will be described.

  16. Thermal Protection System Development, Testing and Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.

    The science community currently has interest in planetary entry probe missions to improve our understanding of the atmospheres of Saturn and Venus [1,2]. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such data are critical to the understanding of not only the individual planets but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the solar system. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient [1] to provide the desired scientific data. The heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes and Venus are in the range of 2 - 5KW/cm2 . It is clear that new, mid-density Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission-enabling for mass efficiency [3] and also make the use of smaller vehicles possible from advancements in scientific instrumentation [4]. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet Arcjet Facility that was used to qualify Carbon Phenolic for the Galileo Probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technology and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arc jet that can be used for TPS development in test gases appropriate for the aforementioned, new planetary probe applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include a mid-density, chopped molded carbon phenolic (CMCP) material around 0.8g/cc and a densified variant of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) around 0.5g/cc. The small 5 MW arc jet facility, called the Development Arcjet Facility (DAF) and the methodology of testing TPS, both based on previous work, are discussed. Finally, the applications to Earth entry appropriate to speeds greater than lunar return (11km/s) are discussed as will facility-to-facility validation using air as a test gas. The use of other facilities for development, qualification and certification of TPS for Saturn and Venus is also discussed. [1] Atreya, S. K., et. al. Formation of Giant Planets and Their Atmospheres: Entry Probes for

  17. Deployable Aeroshell Flexible Thermal Protection System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Ware, Joanne S.; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Lugo, Rafael A.

    2009-01-01

    Deployable aeroshells offer the promise of achieving larger aeroshell surface areas for entry vehicles than otherwise attainable without deployment. With the larger surface area comes the ability to decelerate high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. However, for an aeroshell to perform even at the low ballistic coefficients attainable with deployable aeroshells, a flexible thermal protection system (TPS) is required that is capable of surviving reasonably high heat flux and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction handling, high density packing, deployment, aerodynamic loading and aerothermal heating. The Program for the Advancement of Inflatable Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is tasked with developing the technologies required to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of inflatable deployable aeroshells, and one of several of the technologies PAIDAE is developing for use on inflatable aeroshells is flexible TPS. Several flexible TPS layups were designed, based on commercially available materials, and tested in NASA Langley Research Center's 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8ft HTT). The TPS layups were designed for, and tested at three different conditions that are representative of conditions seen in entry simulation analyses of inflatable aeroshell concepts. Two conditions were produced in a single run with a sting-mounted dual wedge test fixture. The dual wedge test fixture had one row of sample mounting locations (forward) at about half the running length of the top surface of the wedge. At about two thirds of the running length of the wedge, a second test surface drafted up at five degrees relative to the first test surface established the remaining running length of the wedge test fixture. A second row of sample mounting locations (aft) was positioned in the middle of the running length of the second test surface. Once the desired flow conditions were established in the test section the dual wedge

  18. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... jackets, insulation, and thermal protection. A complete record of each analysis shall be made, retained... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal protection systems. 179.18 Section 179.18... § 179.18 Thermal protection systems. (a) Performance standard. When the regulations in this...

  19. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... jackets, insulation, and thermal protection. A complete record of each analysis shall be made, retained... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thermal protection systems. 179.18 Section 179.18... § 179.18 Thermal protection systems. (a) Performance standard. When the regulations in this...

  20. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... jackets, insulation, and thermal protection. A complete record of each analysis shall be made, retained... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal protection systems. 179.18 Section 179.18... § 179.18 Thermal protection systems. (a) Performance standard. When the regulations in this...

  1. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... jackets, insulation, and thermal protection. A complete record of each analysis shall be made, retained... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal protection systems. 179.18 Section 179.18... § 179.18 Thermal protection systems. (a) Performance standard. When the regulations in this...

  2. Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

  3. Thermal Vacuum Facility for Testing Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Sikora, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A thermal vacuum facility for testing launch vehicle thermal protection systems by subjecting them to transient thermal conditions simulating re-entry aerodynamic heating is described. Re-entry heating is simulated by controlling the test specimen surface temperature and the environmental pressure in the chamber. Design requirements for simulating re-entry conditions are briefly described. A description of the thermal vacuum facility, the quartz lamp array and the control system is provided. The facility was evaluated by subjecting an 18 by 36 in. Inconel honeycomb panel to a typical re-entry pressure and surface temperature profile. For most of the test duration, the average difference between the measured and desired pressures was 1.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 7.4%, while the average difference between measured and desired temperatures was 7.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 6.5%. The temperature non-uniformity across the panel was 12% during the initial heating phase (t less than 500 sec.), and less than 2% during the remainder of the test.

  4. Overview of the Orion Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is being developed as part of the Constellation Exploration Program and will serve as the United States crewed transportation system to the International Space Station after the retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010 and as the eventual means to return U.S. astronauts to the Moon. Therefore, Orion is being designed for reentry missions from both low Earth orbit and from Lunar-return trajectories. This presentation will provide an overview of the development of the Orion TPS, a critical component in the development of the spacecraft. The thermal protection system (TPS) that protects the crew module from the extreme environments associated with Earth atmospheric reentry consists of a forward heatshield and an aft backshell. The requirements that drive the design of the TPS will be discussed, including several key requirements that establish a precedent for U.S. human-rated spacecraft. For the first time in U.S. human spaceflight, a vehicle s TPS is being designed with a specific, derived requirement for reliability. Also, due to the increased presence of spacecraft in Earth s orbit in recent decades, requirements for micro-meteoroid/orbital debris damage tolerance are also a driving requirement that has affected the selection of portions of the TPS. The efforts to select materials and to define a preliminary design for both the heatshield and the backshell will be described. This will include a discussion of the design challenges presented by the numerous penetrations on both the backshell and the heatshield. Finally, the verification and validation plan which is currently under development to certify the TPS for human-rated missions will be outlined. To support the execution of this plan, a ground test campaign for both thermal and structural performance is being designed. This test campaign will directly support thermal and thermal/structural analyses that also are fundamental to the certification effort.

  5. Thermal Protection Systems: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) have been critical to fulfilling humankinds desire to explore space. Composite and ceramic materials have enabled the early missions to orbit, the moon, the space station, Mars with robots, and sample return. Crewed missions to Mars are being considered, and this places even more demands on TPS materials. This talk will give some history on the materials used for earth and planetary entry and the demands placed upon such materials. TPS needs for future missions, especially to Mars, will be identified and potential solutions discussed.

  6. Commercial application of thermal protection system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon L.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal protection system process technology is examined which is used in the manufacture of the External Tank for the Space Shuttle system and how that technology is applied by private business to create new products, new markets, and new American jobs. The term 'technology transfer' means different things to different people and has become one of the buzz words of the 1980s and 1990s. Herein, technology transfer is defined as a means of transferring technology developed by NASA's prime contractors to public and private sector industries.

  7. Advances in scientific balloon thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohaboj, T.; Cathey, H.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office has long acknowledged that the accurate modeling of balloon performance and flight prediction is dependant on how well the balloon is thermally modeled. This ongoing effort is focused on developing accurate balloon thermal models that can be used to quickly predict balloon temperatures and balloon performance. The ability to model parametric changes is also a driver for this effort. This paper will present the most recent advances made in this area. This research effort continues to utilize the ``Thermal Desktop'' addition to AUTO CAD for the modeling. Recent advances have been made by using this analytical tool. A number of analyses have been completed to test the applicability of this tool to the problem with very positive results. Progressively detailed models have been developed to explore the capabilities of the tool as well as to provide guidance in model formulation. A number of parametric studies have been completed. These studies have varied the shape of the structure, material properties, environmental inputs, and model geometry. These studies have concentrated on spherical ``proxy models'' for the initial development stages and then to transition to the natural shaped zero pressure and super pressure balloons. An assessment of required model resolution has also been determined. Model solutions have been cross checked with known solutions via hand calculations. The comparison of these cases will also be presented. One goal is to develop analysis guidelines and an approach for modeling balloons for both simple first order estimates and detailed full models. This paper presents the step by step advances made as part of this effort, capabilities, limitations, and the lessons learned. Also presented are the plans for further thermal modeling work.

  8. Advances in thermal ink-jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Alfred I.

    1998-06-01

    In recent years, ink jet has emerged as one of the mainstream printing technologies. Since its market inception in 1985, Hewlett-Packard's thermal ink jet technology (TIJ) has evolved progressively from a 12 nozzle 96 dpi print head to a 300 nozzle 600 dpi print head. TIJ has made rapid progress enabling it to print text output on plain paper that challenges laser printers, and realistic photographic images that rival silver halide, at a low consumer price. Thermal ink jet technology continues to enjoy a greater unit market share than any other digital printing technology and all other ink jet technologies combined. The driving forces for the advancement of TIJ have been better, faster, and cheaper printers for consumers. These goals involve key attributes such as ink performance (gamut, sharpness, fastness), minimum deliverable colorant (drop volume), rate of colorant delivery (firing frequency, nozzle integration, firing chamber volume), and print engine cost per unit throughput. In this paper, key technology challenges for TIJ will be outlined. New materials and new processes that are required for the advancement of thermal ink jet printing are discussed. Recently, competing ink jet methods have (re-)emerged, notably piezoelectric ink jet. References will be made to piezoelectric ink jet when appropriate.

  9. Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

  10. Protection of Advanced Copper Alloys With Lean Cu-Cr Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor); Thomas-Ogbuji, L.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced copper alloys are used as liners of rocket thrusters and nozzle ramps to ensure dissipation of the high thermal load generated during launch, and Cr-lean coatings are preferred for the protection of these liners from the aggressive ambient environment. It is shown that adequate protection can be achieved with thin Cu-Cr coatings containing as little as 17 percent Cr.

  11. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  16. Design of Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callens, E. Eugene, Jr.; Vinet, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored three approaches for the utilization of transpiration cooling in thermal protection systems. One model uses an impermeable wall with boiling water heat transfer at the backface (Model I). A second model uses a permeable wall with a boiling water backface and additional heat transfer to the water vapor as it flows in channels toward the exposed surface (Model II). The third model also uses a permeable wall, but maintains a boiling condition at the exposed surface of the material (Model III). The governing equations for the models were developed in non-dimensional form and a comprehensive parametric investigation of the effects of the independent variables on the important dependent variables was performed. In addition, detailed analyses were performed for selected materials to evaluate the practical limitations of the results of the parametric study.

  17. Thermal protection using very high temperature ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, George R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to expose the reader to a technology that may solve some of the toughest materials problems facing thermal protection for use in aerospace. Supermaterials has created a system capable of producing unique material properties. Over 10 years and many man-hours have been invested in the development of this technology. Applications range from the food industry to the rigors of outer space. The flexibility of the system allows for customization not found in many other processes and at a reasonable cost. The ranges of materials and alloys that can be created are endless. Many cases with unique characteristics have been identified and we can expect even more with further development.

  18. Thermal Protection Test Bed Pathfinder Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snapp, Cooper

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase thermal protection capabilities for future reentry vehicles, a method to obtain relevant test data is required. Although arc jet testing can be used to obtain some data on materials, the best method to obtain these data is to actually expose them to an atmospheric reentry. The overprediction of the Orion EFT-1 flight data is an example of how the ground test to flight traceability is not fully understood. The RED-Data small reentry capsule developed by Terminal Velocity Aerospace is critical to understanding this traceability. In order to begin to utilize this technology, ES3 needs to be ready to build and integrate heat shields onto the RED-Data vehicle. Using a heritage Shuttle tile material for the heat shield will both allow valuable insight into the environment that the RED-Data vehicle can provide and give ES3 the knowledge and capability to build and integrate future heat shields for this vehicle.

  19. Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Levine, Stanley R.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill President George W. Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration" (2004) - successful human and robotic missions to and from other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) must reduce the trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that the payload and scientific experiments' capabilities can be maximized. The new project described in this paper will generate thermal protection system (TPS) product that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in the optimization of vehicle weights, and provide materials and processes templates for use in the development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans.

  20. Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Levine, Stanley R.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2005-02-01

    To fulfill President George W. Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration" (NASA, 2004) — successful human and robotic missions to and from other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces — the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) must reduce the trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that the payload and scientific experiments' capabilities can be maximized. The new project described in this paper will generate thermal protection system (TPS) products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in the optimization of vehicle weights, and provide materials and processes templates for use in the development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans.

  1. Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

  2. Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.

  3. Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R.

    1999-01-01

    The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

  4. High Temperature Aerogels for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Mbah, Godfrey C.

    2008-01-01

    High temperature aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 system are being investigated as possible constituents for lightweight integrated thermal protection system (TPS) designs for use in supersonic and hypersonic applications. Gels are synthesized from ethoxysilanes and AlCl3.6H2O, using an epoxide catalyst. The influence of Al:Si ratio, solvent, water to metal and water to alcohol ratios on aerogel composition, morphology, surface area, and pore size distribution were examined, and phase transformation on heat treatment characterized. Aerogels have been fabricated which maintain porous, fractal structures after brief exposures to 1000 C. Incorporation of nanofibers, infiltration of aerogels into SiC foams, use of polymers for crosslinking the aerogels, or combinations of these, offer potential for toughening and integration of TPS with composite structure. Woven fabric composites having Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels as a matrix also have been fabricated. Continuing work is focused on reduction in shrinkage and optimization of thermal and physical properties.

  5. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  6. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  7. Thermal Analysis and Design of an Advanced Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin H.; Campbell, Anthony B.; French, Jonathan D.; French, D.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dynamics and design of an Advanced Space Suit are considered. A transient model of the Advanced Space Suit has been developed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink to help with sizing, with design evaluation, and with the development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The model is described and the thermal characteristics of the Advanced Space suit are investigated including various parametric design studies. The steady state performance envelope for the Advanced Space Suit is defined in terms of the thermal environment and human metabolic rate and the transient response of the human-suit-MPLSS system is analyzed.

  8. Radiative metallic thermal protection systems - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohon, H. L.; Shideler, J. L.; Rummler, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    During the early stages of the space shuttle program there were a number of technological uncertainties concerning the applicability of metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) to the multimission environment of the shuttle. To resolve the uncertainties and to advance the state-of-the-art, the NASA-Langley Research Center initiated a broad-based technology program to develop metallic TPS over the temperature range from 810 K to 1590 K. Wind tunnel tests conducted to assess the influence of surface/stream interaction of wavy surfaces on the design of metallic TPS indicate small increases in heat flux and surface drag for flow angles less than 20 deg. Analytical and experimental investigations, recently completed, have significantly improved prediction methods for cyclic creep behavior of TPS components repeatedly exposed to complex mission cycles. Thermal/structural concept optimization studies to minimize mass while maintaining structural integrity have led to advanced designs with unit masses which are competitive with those for shuttle RSI. In addition, the durability and reusability of metallic TPS have been repeatedly demonstrated in tests of full-scale systems. The current state-of-the-art strongly suggests that radiative metallic TPS have come of age.

  9. Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

  10. X-33 Base Region Thermal Protection System Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycans, Randal W.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator for validating critical technologies and systems required for an operational Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusuable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Currently under development by a unique contractor/government team led by Lockheed- Martin Skunk Works (LMSW), and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the X-33 will be the prototype of the first new launch system developed by the United States since the advent of the space shuttle. This paper documents a design trade study of the X-33 base region thermal protection system (TPS). Two candidate designs were evaluated for thermal performance and weight. The first candidate was a fully reusable metallic TPS using Inconel honeycomb panels insulated with high temperature fibrous insulation, while the second was an ablator/insulator sprayed on the metallic skin of the vehicle. The TPS configurations and insulation thickness requirements were determined for the predicted main engine plume heating environments and base region entry aerothermal environments. In addition to thermal analysis of the design concepts, sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effect of variations in key parameters of the base TPS analysis.

  11. Development and Assessment of Advanced Reactor Core Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in, Wang-Kee; Park, Young-Ho; Baeg, Seung-Yeob

    An advanced core protection system for a pressurized water reactor, Reactor Core Protection System(RCOPS), was developed by adopting a high performance hardware platform and optimal system configuration. The functional algorithms of the core protection system were also improved to enhance the plant availability by reducing unnecessary reactor trips and increasing operational margin. The RCOPS consists of four independent safety channels providing a two-out-of-four trip logic. The reliability analysis using the reliability block diagram method showed the unavailability of the RCOPS to be lower than the conventional system. The failure mode and effects analysis demonstrated that the RCOPS does not lose its intended safety functions for most failures. New algorithms for the RCOPS functional design were implemented in order to avoid unnecessary reactor trips by providing auxiliary pre-trip alarms and signal validation logic for the control rod position. The new algorithms in the RCOPS were verified by comparing the RCOPS calculations with reference results. The new thermal margin algorithm for the RCOPS was expected to increase the operational margin to the limit for Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) by approximately 1%.

  12. Structural characteristics of the shuttle orbiter ceramic thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described as well as the results of dynamic reponse studies conducted in support of the efforts to certify the TPS for flight. The ceramic Thermal Protection System consists of ceramic tiles bonded to felt pads which are in turn bonded to the Orbiter substructure to protect the aluminum substructure from the heat of reentry.

  13. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  14. Materials and light thermal structures research for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The Light Thermal Structures Center at the University of Virginia sponsors educational and research programs focused on the development of reliable, lightweight structures to function in hostile thermal environments. Technology advances in materials and design methodology for light thermal structures will contribute to improved space vehicle design concepts with attendant weight savings. This paper highlights current research activities in three areas relevant to space exploration: low density, high temperature aluminum alloys, composite materials, and structures with thermal gradients. Advances in the development of new aluminum-lithium alloys and mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys are described. Material properties and design features of advanced composites are highlighted. Research studies in thermal structures with temperature gradients include inelastic panel buckling and thermally induced unstable oscillations. Current and future research is focused on the integration of new materials with applications to structural components with thermal gradients.

  15. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2006-01-01

    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

  16. Advanced thermal management materials for concentrator photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2010-08-01

    Thermal management is a critical issue for photovoltaics (PVs), especially concentrator photovoltaic systems. Thermal management problems are similar for all semiconductors, including those used in microelectronics and other optoelectronic applications, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), detectors and displays. We divide the thermal management problem into two parts: heat dissipation and thermal stresses. Heat dissipation affects efficiency and lifetime. Thermal stresses affect manufacturing yield and lifetime. Traditional thermal management materials all have serious deficiencies. Copper and aluminum have high coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), which can cause severe thermal stresses during manufacturing and in service. Compliant attach materials, used to minimize thermal stresses, all have major drawbacks. Traditional low-CTE thermal management materials have relatively low thermal conductivities and are hard to machine. In response to these deficiencies, new thermal management materials have been, and are continuing to be developed, which have low CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times that of copper. Some are reportedly are cheaper than copper. In this paper, we survey the six categories of advanced thermal materials, including properties, state of maturity and cost. We also review a CPV application in which an advanced metal matrix composite with a tailored CTE eliminated solder joint failure and provided other benefits.

  17. NASA Ames Develops Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

  18. Woven Thermal Protection System (Woven TPS) for Extreme Entry Environments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

  19. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  20. Game Changing Technology: Woven Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    New woven composite materials are an advanced space technology that mark a major milestone toward development of the space systems that will enable extending human and robotic presence throughout t...

  1. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  2. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fire for 30 minutes. (b) Thermal analysis. (1) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (a) of..., underframes, metal jackets, insulation, and thermal protection. A complete record of each analysis shall be... analyzing the fire effects on the entire surface of the tank car. (2) When the analysis shows the...

  3. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  4. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  5. Advanced Protection & Service Restoration for FREEDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Urvir

    A smart electric power distribution system (FREEDM system) that incorporates DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), SSTs (Solid State Transformers - that can limit the fault current to two times of the rated current) & RSC (Reliable & Secure Communication) capabilities has been studied in this work in order to develop its appropriate protection & service restoration techniques. First, a solution is proposed that can make conventional protective devices be able to provide effective protection for FREEDM systems. Results show that although this scheme can provide required protection but it can be quite slow. Using the FREEDM system's communication capabilities, a communication assisted Overcurrent (O/C) protection scheme is proposed & results show that by using communication (blocking signals) very fast operating times are achieved thereby, mitigating the problem of conventional O/C scheme. Using the FREEDM System's DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence) capability, an automated FLISR (Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration) scheme is proposed that is based on the concept of 'software agents' & uses lesser data (than conventional centralized approaches). Test results illustrated that this scheme is able to provide a global optimal system reconfiguration for service restoration.

  6. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

  7. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  8. An empirical analysis of thermal protective performance of fabrics used in protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sumit; Song, Guowen

    2014-10-01

    Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second-degree burns. Through the characterization of selected fabric systems in a particular thermal exposure, various factors affecting the performances were statistically analyzed. The key factors for a particular thermal exposure were recognized based on the t-test analysis. Using these key factors, the performance predictive multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed and compared. The identified best-fit ANN models provide a basic tool to study thermal protective performance of a fabric.

  9. Space vehicle integrated thermal protection/structural/meteoroid protection system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine the merit of a combined structure/thermal meteoroid protection system for a cryogenic vehicle propulsion module. Structural concepts were evaluated to identify least weight designs. Thermal analyses determined optimum tank arrangements and insulation materials. Meteoroid penetration experiments provided data for design of protection systems. Preliminary designs were made and compared on the basis of payload capability. Thermal performance tests demonstrated heat transfer rates typical for the selected design. Meteoroid impact tests verified the protection characteristics. A mockup was made to demonstrate protection system installation. The best design found combined multilayer insulation with a truss structure vehicle body. The multilayer served as the thermal/meteoroid protection system.

  10. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the subsystem studies are presented. Initial identification and evaluation of candidate subsystem concepts in the area of thermal control, humidity control, CO2 control/O2 supply, contaminant control and power supply are discussed. The candidate concepts that were judged to be obviously noncompetitive were deleted from further consideration and the remaining candidate concepts were carried into the go/no go evaluation. A detailed parametric analysis of each of the thermal/humidity control and CO2 control/O2 supply subsystem concepts which passed the go/no go evaluation is described. Based upon the results of the parametric analyses, primary and secondary evaluations of the remaining candidate concepts were conducted. These results and the subsystem recommendations emanating from these results are discussed. In addition, the parametric analyses of the recommended subsystem concepts were updated to reflect the final AEPS specification requirements. A detailed discussion regarding the selection of the AEPS operating pressure level is presented.

  11. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  12. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  13. Data Protection Issues in Higher Education with Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Adhering to laws whilst working or studying in an educational establishment is often fraught with challenges. The Irish Data Protection Act 1988 (Amendment 2003) strives to protect the individual where their personal data is potentially being abused. The advancements in technologies have facilitated educational establishments by improving…

  14. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  15. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  16. Thermal protection of the newborn in resource-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Lunze, K; Hamer, D H

    2012-05-01

    Appropriate thermal protection of the newborn prevents hypothermia and its associated burden of morbidity and mortality. Yet, current global birth practices tend to not adequately address this challenge. Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypothermia in the newborn, its prevention and therapeutic options with particular attention to resource-limited environments. Newborns are equipped with sophisticated mechanisms of body temperature regulation. Neonatal thermoregulation is a critical function for newborn survival, regulated in the hypothalamus and mediated by endocrine pathways. Hypothermia activates cellular metabolism through shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. In newborns, optimal temperature ranges are narrow and thermoregulatory mechanisms easily overwhelmed, particularly in premature and low-birth weight infants. Hyperthermia most commonly is associated with dehydration and potentially sepsis. The lack of thermal protection promptly leads to hypothermia, which is associated with detrimental metabolic and other pathophysiological processes. Simple thermal protection strategies are feasible at community and institutional levels in resource-limited environments. Appropriate interventions include skin-to-skin care, breastfeeding and protective clothing or devices. Due to poor provider training and limited awareness of the problem, appropriate thermal care of the newborn is often neglected in many settings. Education and appropriate devices might foster improved hypothermia management through mothers, birth attendants and health care workers. Integration of relatively simple thermal protection interventions into existing mother and child health programs can effectively prevent newborn hypothermia even in resource-limited environments. PMID:22382859

  17. Arcjet Testing of Micro-Meteoroid Impacted Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    There are several harsh space environments that could affect thermal protection systems and in turn pose risks to the atmospheric entry vehicles. These environments include micrometeoroid impact, extreme cold temperatures, and ionizing radiation during deep space cruise, all followed by atmospheric entry heating. To mitigate these risks, different thermal protection material samples were subjected to multiple tests, including hyper velocity impact, cold soak, irradiation, and arcjet testing, at various NASA facilities that simulated these environments. The materials included a variety of honeycomb packed ablative materials as well as carbon-based non-ablative thermal protection systems. The present paper describes the results of the multiple test campaign with a focus on arcjet testing of thermal protection materials. The tests showed promising results for ablative materials. However, the carbon-based non-ablative system presented some concerns regarding the potential risks to an entry vehicle. This study provides valuable information regarding the capability of various thermal protection materials to withstand harsh space environments, which is critical to sample return and planetary entry missions.

  18. Assessment of Thermal Control and Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    This final report is concerned with the tasks performed during the contract period which included spacecraft coating development, testing, and applications. Five marker coatings consisting of a bright yellow handrail coating, protective overcoat for ceramic coatings, and specialized primers for composites (or polymer) surfaces were developed and commercialized by AZ Technology during this program. Most of the coatings have passed space environmental stability requirements via ground tests and/or flight verification. Marker coatings and protective overcoats were successfully flown on the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) and the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiments flown on the Russian space station MIR. To date, most of the coatings developed and/or modified during this program have been utilized on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. For ISS, AZ Technology manufactured the 'UNITY' emblem now being flown on the NASA UNITY node (Node 1) that is docked to the Russian Zarya (FGB) utilizing the colored marker coatings (white, blue, red) developed by AZ Technology. The UNITY emblem included the US American flag, the Unity logo, and NASA logo on a white background, applied to a Beta cloth substrate.

  19. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  20. Thermal Protection During Percutaneous Thermal Ablation Procedures: Interest of Carbon Dioxide Dissection and Temperature Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Buy, Xavier; Tok, Chung-Hong; Szwarc, Daniel; Bierry, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin

    2009-05-15

    Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation of tumor is widely used, and thermal injury to collateral structures is a known complication of this technique. To avoid thermal damage to surrounding structures, several protection techniques have been reported. We report the use of a simple and effective protective technique combining carbon dioxide dissection and thermocouple: CO{sub 2} displaces the nontarget structures, and its low thermal conductivity provides excellent insulation; insertion of a thermocouple in contact with vulnerable structures achieves continuous thermal monitoring. We performed percutaneous thermal ablation of 37 tumors in 35 patients (4 laser, 10 radiofrequency, and 23 cryoablations) with protection of adjacent vulnerable structures by using CO{sub 2} dissection combined with continuous thermal monitoring with thermocouple. Tumor locations were various (19 intra-abdominal tumors including 4 livers and 9 kidneys, 18 musculoskeletal tumors including 11 spinal tumors). CO{sub 2} volume ranged from 10 ml (epidural space) to 1500 ml (abdominal). Repeated insufflations were performed if necessary, depending on the information given by the thermocouple and imaging control. Dissection with optimal thermal protection was achieved in all cases except two patients where adherences (one postoperative, one arachnoiditis) blocked proper gaseous distribution. No complication referred to this technique was noted. This safe, cost-effective, and simple method increases the safety and the success rate of percutaneous thermal ablation procedures. It also offers the potential to increase the number of tumors that can be treated via a percutaneous approach.

  1. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings for Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius; Carroll, Carol; Smith, Dane; Guzinski, Mike; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan; Ridge, Jerry; Tran, Duoc

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the evaluation and testing of high emissivity protective coatings applied to flexible insulations for the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology program. Ceramic coatings were evaluated for their thermal properties, durability, and potential for reuse. One of the major goals was to determine the mechanism by which these coated blanket surfaces become brittle and try to modify the coatings to reduce or eliminate embrittlement. Coatings were prepared from colloidal silica with a small percentage of either SiC or SiB6 as the emissivity agent. These coatings are referred to as gray C-9 and protective ceramic coating (PCC), respectively. The colloidal solutions were either brushed or sprayed onto advanced flexible reusable surface insulation blankets. The blankets were instrumented with thermocouples and exposed to reentry heating conditions in the Ames Aeroheating Arc Jet Facility. Post-test samples were then characterized through impact testing, emissivity measurements, chemical analysis, and observation of changes in surface morphology. The results show that both coatings performed well in arc jet tests with backface temperatures slightly lower for the PCC coating than with gray C-9. Impact testing showed that the least extensive surface destruction was experienced on blankets with lower areal density coatings.

  2. Study of skin model and geometry effects on thermal performance of thermal protective fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Ma, Suqin; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2008-05-01

    Thermal protective clothing has steadily improved over the years as new materials and improved designs have reached the market. A significant method that has brought these improvements to the fire service is the NFPA 1971 standard on structural fire fighters’ protective clothing. However, this testing often neglects the effects of cylindrical geometry on heat transmission in flame resistant fabrics. This paper deals with methods to develop cylindrical geometry testing apparatus incorporating novel skin bioheat transfer model to test flame resistant fabrics used in firefighting. Results show that fabrics which shrink during the test can have reduced thermal protective performance compared with the qualities measured with a planar geometry tester. Results of temperature differences between skin simulant sensors of planar and cylindrical tester are also compared. This test method provides a new technique to accurately and precisely characterize the thermal performance of thermal protective fabrics.

  3. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

  4. Thermal modeling of a metallic thermal protection tile for entry vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal Energy Flow Simulation (TEFS) computer program was developed to simulate transient heat transfer through composite solids and predict interfacial temperatures. The program and its usage are described. A simulation of the thermal response of a new thermal protection tile design for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is presented and graphically compared with actual data. An example is also provided which shows the program's usage as a design tool for theoretical models.

  5. Thermal Protection with 5% Dextrose Solution Blanket During Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Enn Alexandria Neeman, Ziv; Lee, Fred T.; Kam, Anthony; Wood, Brad

    2006-12-15

    A serious complication for any thermal radiofrequency ablation is thermal injury to adjacent structures, particularly the bowel, which can result in additional major surgery or death. Several methods using air, gas, fluid, or thermometry to protect adjacent structures from thermal injury have been reported. In the cases presented in this report, 5% dextrose water (D5W) was instilled to prevent injury to the bowel and diaphragm during radiofrequency ablation. Creating an Insulating envelope or moving organs with D5W might reduce risk for complications such as bowel perforation.

  6. Design and fabrication of metallic thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Bell, P.; Wolter, W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a lightweight, efficient metallic thermal protection system (TPS) for application to future shuttle-type reentry vehicles, advanced space transports, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Technical requirements were generally derived from the space shuttle. A corrugation-stiffened beaded-skin TPS design was used as a baseline. The system was updated and modified to incorporate the latest technology developments and design criteria. The primary objective was to minimize mass for the total system.

  7. Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2006-01-01

    As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

  8. Thermal batteries - Recent advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, K. K.; Laakso, E. R.

    A development status evaluation is presented for lithium aluminum-iron disulfide thermal battery systems employing inorganic salt eutectic electrolytes. A performance comparison is conducted between an LiAl/FeS2 battery and a similarly constructed Ca/CaCrO4 battery; it is found that the former is superior in virtue of both greater service life and greater energy density; energy densities of LiAl/FeS2 cells will with further development reach an energy density four times greater than that of the Ca/CaCrO4 type. In addition, LiAl/FeS2 batteries exhibit little or no electrical noise under low drain.

  9. Damage Detection/Locating System Providing Thermal Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas W. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Qamar, A. Shams (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A damage locating system also provides thermal protection. An array of sensors substantially tiles an area of interest. Each sensor is a reflective-surface conductor having operatively coupled inductance and capacitance. A magnetic field response recorder is provided to interrogate each sensor before and after a damage condition. Changes in response are indicative of damage and a corresponding location thereof.

  10. Thermal protection studies of plastic films and fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saad, Michel A.; Altman, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal protection properties of various film and woven materials were studied using an experimental method of radiant heating. The materials studied included aluminized and unaluminized synthetic plastic films and fibrous materials like silicon carbide and phenolic novolac. It is shown that a thin metallized coating with good reflectivity significantly enhances the heat blocking capability of a variety of insulative materials.

  11. Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

  12. European Directions for Hypersonic Thermal Protection Systems and Hot Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will overview European Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and Hot Structures activities in Europe. The Europeans have a lot of very good work going on in the area. The presentation will discuss their emphasis on focused technology development for their flight vehicles.

  13. Development of Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced multi-component, low conductivity oxide thermal barrier coatings have been developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities and improved thermal stability due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  14. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  15. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  16. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  17. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  18. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  19. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  20. Thermal System Interactions in Optimizing Advanced Thermoelectric Energy Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.

    2007-09-01

    Energy recovery is gaining importance in various transportation and industrial process applications because of rising energy costs and geopolitical uncertainties impacting basic energy supplies. Various advanced thermoelectric (TE) materials have properties that are inherently advantageous for particular TE energy recovery applications. Skutterudites, 0- and 1-dimensional quantum-well materials, and thin-film superlattice materials are providing enhanced opportunities for advanced TE energy recovery in transportation and industrial processes. This work demonstrates: 1) the potential for advanced thermoelectric systems in vehicle energy recovery, and 2) the inherently complex interaction between thermal system performance and thermoelectric device optimization in energy recovery. Potential power generation at specific exhaust temperature levels and for various heat exchanger performance levels is presented showing the current design sensitivities using different TE material sets. Mathematical relationships inherently linking optimum TE design variables and the thermal systems design (i.e., heat exchangers and required mass flow rates) are also investigated and characterized.

  1. Thermal System Interactions in Optimizing Advanced Thermoelectric Energy Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.

    2007-12-01

    Energy recovery is gaining importance in various transportation and industrial process applications because of rising energy costs and geopolitical uncertainties impacting basic energy supplies. Various advanced thermoelectric (TE) materials have properties that are inherently advantageous for particular TE energy recovery applications. Skutterudites, 0- and 1-dimensional quantum-well materials, and thin-film superlattice materials are providing enhanced opportunities for advanced TE energy recovery in transportation and industrial processes. This work demonstrates: 1) the potential for advanced thermoelectric systems in vehicle energy recovery, and 2) the inherently complex interaction between thermal system performance and thermoelectric device optimization in energy recovery. Potential power generation at specific exhaust temperature levels and for various heat exchanger performance levels are presented showing the current design sensitivities using different TE material sets. Mathematical relationships inherently linking optimum TE design variables and the thermal systems design (i.e., heat exchangers and required mass flow rates) are also investigated and characterized.

  2. Intumescent-ablators as improved thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nitroaromatic amine-based intumescent coatings were improved with regard to their thermal protection ability by adding endothermic decomposing fillers with endotherms at or near the exothermic reaction of the intumescent agent, since the effectiveness of the intumescent coatings without fillers is reduced by the exothermic behavior of the coatings during thermal activation. Fillers were dispersed directly in the base coating. Potassium fluoborate, ammonium fluoborate, zinc borate, and ammonium oxalate function as endothermic ablative materials at specific temperature regions, and also enhance the char formation during the intumescent process.

  3. Hypervelocity impact testing of Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Ortega, Javier

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a series of 22 hypervelocity impact tests carried out on the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Shuttle Orbiter. Both coated and uncoated low-density (0.14 g/cu cm) LI-900 and high-density (0.35 g/cu cm) LI-2200 tiles were tested. The results are used to develop the penetration and damage correlations which can be used in meteoroid and debris hazard analyses for spacecraft with a ceramic tile TPS. It is shown that tile coatings act as a 'bumper' to fragment the impacting projectile, with thicker coating providing increased protection.

  4. Thermal protection performance of survival suits in ice-water.

    PubMed

    Hayward, J S

    1984-03-01

    Five models of dry and insulative survival suits for cold-water immersion were studies for their thermal protection while worn by subjects floating in ice-water at 1 degree C for 6 h. Rectal temperature, extremity skin temperatures, and heart rate were monitored. No significant differences occurred in the thermal or heart rate responses of the subjects wearing the five models of suits. The immersion induced only mild hypothermia; the overall amount of rectal cooling during the 6-h period was 0.80 degree C, or a rate of 0.13 degree C/h. Extremity temperatures fell within the first 2 h to levels that induced strong sensation of cold and moderate shivering. The results show that dry and insulative survival suits can provide excellent protection against fatal levels of hypothermia resulting from ice-water immersion. Predicted survival time, given the very low cooling rate observed, exceeds 1 d if drowning can be avoided. PMID:6721808

  5. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  6. The Challenges of Credible Thermal Protection System Reliability Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses several of the challenges associated with developing a credible reliability estimate for a human-rated crew capsule thermal protection system. The process of developing such a credible estimate is subject to the quantification, modeling and propagation of numerous uncertainties within a probabilistic analysis. The development of specific investment recommendations, to improve the reliability prediction, among various potential testing and programmatic options is then accomplished through Bayesian analysis.

  7. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  8. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  9. Protection of Measles Virus by Sulfate Ions Against Thermal Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rapp, F; Butel, J S; Wallis, C

    1965-07-01

    Rapp, Fred (Baylor University College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.), Janet S. Butel, and Craig Wallis. Protection of measles virus by sulfate ions against thermal inactivation. J. Bacteriol. 90:132-135. 1965.-The infectivity of measles virus in water is rapidly destroyed at temperatures of 37 C and above. More than 50% of the infectivity is lost after 1 hr at 25 C, and almost 90% loss of infectivity occurs within 24 hr at 4 C. Magnesium chloride enhances the inactivation of the virus at all temperatures tested. Addition of either magnesium or sodium sulfate protects the virus against thermal inactivation. The stabilizing effect is demonstrable at temperatures ranging from 4 to 56 C, but is especially pronounced through 45 C. Prolonged storage (up to 6 weeks) of the virulent virus at 4 C in 1 m magnesium sulfate permits retention of substantial infectivity, whereas storage at 4 C in either water or 1 m magnesium chloride results in a loss of infectivity approximating 99% after 2 weeks. Magnesium chloride also enhances inactivation of the attenuated vaccine strain of measles virus. The attenuated virus, however, is strongly protected by magnesium sulfate against thermal inactivation, and retention of infectivity for long periods of time at 4 C seems feasible when the virus is kept in 1 m magnesium sulfate.

  10. Advances in urban-drainage management and flood protection.

    PubMed

    Verworn, Hans-Reinhard

    2002-07-15

    Since the beginning of modern urban drainage in the 19th century, the sole objective has been to get rid of sewage and storm water in the best possible way and design the systems according to accepted standards. In recent decades, advanced methods have been developed not only to refine the design but also especially to enable the assessment of hydraulic performance and pollutant emissions. Consequently, urban drainage has become part of an integrated approach concerning flood protection as well as ecological aspects for whole watersheds. Another major change concerns the management of urban systems: simple structural maintenance has been replaced by interactive operational management and control of the systems in order to make better use of the facilities. Rehabilitation has become a multi-objective task. This paper looks at today's basic principles of urban drainage and tomorrow's potential advances, and deals with their relevance to flood protection.

  11. Advances in urban-drainage management and flood protection.

    PubMed

    Verworn, Hans-Reinhard

    2002-07-15

    Since the beginning of modern urban drainage in the 19th century, the sole objective has been to get rid of sewage and storm water in the best possible way and design the systems according to accepted standards. In recent decades, advanced methods have been developed not only to refine the design but also especially to enable the assessment of hydraulic performance and pollutant emissions. Consequently, urban drainage has become part of an integrated approach concerning flood protection as well as ecological aspects for whole watersheds. Another major change concerns the management of urban systems: simple structural maintenance has been replaced by interactive operational management and control of the systems in order to make better use of the facilities. Rehabilitation has become a multi-objective task. This paper looks at today's basic principles of urban drainage and tomorrow's potential advances, and deals with their relevance to flood protection. PMID:12804259

  12. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1996-04-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components:(1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub- micrometer and micrometer sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct liquefaction of coal. Progress reports for these tasks are presented.

  13. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  14. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  15. Thermal-Acoustic Analysis of a Metallic Integrated Thermal Protection System Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Marlana N.; Sharma, Anurag; Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A study is undertaken to investigate the response of a representative integrated thermal protection system structure under combined thermal, aerodynamic pressure, and acoustic loadings. A two-step procedure is offered and consists of a heat transfer analysis followed by a nonlinear dynamic analysis under a combined loading environment. Both analyses are carried out in physical degrees-of-freedom using implicit and explicit solution techniques available in the Abaqus commercial finite-element code. The initial study is conducted on a reduced-size structure to keep the computational effort contained while validating the procedure and exploring the effects of individual loadings. An analysis of a full size integrated thermal protection system structure, which is of ultimate interest, is subsequently presented. The procedure is demonstrated to be a viable approach for analysis of spacecraft and hypersonic vehicle structures under a typical mission cycle with combined loadings characterized by largely different time-scales.

  16. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  17. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Thermal Power Model in Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Fabanich, William A.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal power model that was built using the Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit (EU) test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's Ideas TMG thermal model. ASRG performance under (1) ASC hot-end temperatures, (2) ambient temperatures, and (3) years of mission for the general purpose heat source fuel decay was predicted using this model for the flight unit. The results were compared with those reported by Lockheed Martin and showed good agreement. In addition, the model was used to study the performance of the ASRG flight unit for operations on the ground and on the surface of Titan, and the concept of using gold film to reduce thermal loss through insulation was investigated.

  18. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  19. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  20. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  1. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  2. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  3. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  4. Facility level thermal systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Fraser, Mark; Climent, Tània

    2012-09-01

    The management and control of the local aero-thermal environment is critical for success of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). In addition to minimizing disturbances to local seeing, the facility thermal systems must meet stringent energy efficiency requirements to minimize impact on the surrounding environment and meet federal requirements along with operational budgetary constraints. This paper describes the major facility thermal equipment and systems to be implemented along with associated energy management features. The systems presented include the central plant, the climate control systems for the computer room and coudé laboratory, the carousel cooling system which actively controls the surface temperature of the rotating telescope enclosure, and the systems used for active and passive ventilation of the telescope chamber.

  5. Cryogenic Thermal Management Advances during the CRYOTOOL Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.; Garzon, J.; Beres, M.; Gilchrist, A.; Roberts, T.; Davis, T.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic thermal management advances made during the AFRL-sponsored CRYOTOOL program. Advances occurred as a result of conducting four technology development tasks: (1) development of a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE-CTSW) made with high purity Al end-pieces and an Ultem support rod; (2) carrying out of a dual DTE-CTSW/dual cryocooler performance test to quantify CTSW benefits in a redundant cryocooler system; (3) development of a miniaturized cryogenic loop heat pipe (mini-CLHP) that combines flex link, conduction bar, and CTSW functionalities; and (4) development of an across-gimbal cryogenic thermal transport system (GCTTS) with large diameter transport line coils for optics cooling. The results are as follows. The DTE-CTSW achieved an ON conductance of 2-3.6 W/K (from 35-90 K) and an OFF resistance of 1100-2300 K/W (300-230 K warm end). The redundant cryocooler test showed modest parasitic heat leak savings when dual DTE-CTSWs were used versus when they were not used. The mini-CLHP, using neon as the working fluid, transported 2.5 W at 35 K, achieved an OFF resistance of 1555 K/W, and had cross/axial flexibilities of 100-450 N/m. Lastly, GCTTS, using nitrogen as the working fluid, transported 20 W at 100 K in a flat configuration. Additional work is needed to verify GCTTS operation in an elevated orientation.

  6. Ablation Modeling of Ares-I Upper State Thermal Protection System Using Thermal Desktop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.; Page, Arthur T.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal protection system (TPS) for the Ares-I Upper Stage will be based on Space Transportation System External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) heritage materials. These TPS materials were qualified via hot gas testing that simulated ascent and re-entry aerothermodynamic convective heating environments. From this data, the recession rates due to ablation were characterized and used in thermal modeling for sizing the thickness required to maintain structural substrate temperatures. At Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the in-house code ABL is currently used to predict TPS ablation and substrate temperatures as a FORTRAN application integrated within SINDA/G. This paper describes a comparison of the new ablation utility in Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT with the heritage ABL code and empirical test data which serves as the validation of the Thermal Desktop software for use on the design of the Ares-I Upper Stage project.

  7. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  8. MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/ - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - http://www.nasa.gov/offices/meo/home/index.html - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

  9. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical progress report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. In the first six months of this project, bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The results of microstructural characterization of these alloys were presented in the first semiannual report. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. An increase in the volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to a significant increase in hardness of these composites.

  10. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M.

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  11. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Chan, H.M.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc.). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  12. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  13. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal-Protection-Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the impact event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.

  14. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next large aperture UVOIR space observatory. A key science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet which will be 10(exp -10) times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront error (WFE). This paper investigates parametric relationships between primary mirror physical parameters and thermal WFE stability. Candidate mirrors are designed as a mesh and placed into a thermal analysis model to determine the temperature distribution in the mirror when it is placed inside of an actively controlled cylindrical shroud at Lagrange point 2. Thermal strains resulting from the temperature distribution are found and an estimation of WFE is found to characterize the effect that thermal inputs have on the optical quality of the mirror. This process is repeated for several mirror material properties, material types, and mirror designs to determine how to design a mirror for thermal stability.

  15. Advanced thermal management needs for Lunar and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C. ); Webb, B.J. )

    1993-01-15

    Significant improvements in thermal management technologies will be required to support NASA's planned Lunar and Mars missions. The developments needed include the application of advanced materials to reduce radiator system masses, enhanced survivability, and the use of alternative working fluids. Current thermal management systems utilize one of two heat rejection alternatives; either single phase pumped loops, or two phase heat pipes constructed with thick walled metal casings. These two technologies have proven themselves to be reliable performers in the transport and rejection of waste heat from spacecraft. As thermal management needs increase with increased power consumption and activity required on spacecraft, these metal based thermal management systems will become mission limiting. Investigations into the use of light weight ceramic materials for high temperature thermal management systems have been conducted by NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense since the early 1980s, with results showing that significant mass savings can be obtained by replacing some of the metallic functions with ceramic materials.

  16. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  17. MSFC Thermal Protection System Materials on MISSE-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Valentine, Peter G.; Gubert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology (LNTPMT) program studied a number of ceramic matrix composites, ablator materials, and tile materials for durability in simulated space environment. Materials that indicated low atomic oxygen reactivity and negligible change in thermo-optical properties in ground testing were selected to fly on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)-6. These samples were exposed for 17 months to the low Earth orbit environment on both the ram and wake sides of MISSE-6B. Thermo-optical properties are discussed, along with any changes in mass.

  18. Coated columbium thermal protection systems: An assessment of technological readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Grisaffe, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry simulation. Production of the alloy, the coating, and full-sized TPS panels is well within current manufacturing technology. Small defects which arise from impact damage or from local coating breakdown do not appear to have serious immediate consequences in the use environment anticipated for the space shuttle orbiter TPS.

  19. Design of experiments for thermal protection system process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longani, Hans R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) structures were protected from heating due to aeroshear, radiation and plume impingement by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) known as Marshall Sprayable Ablative (MSA-2). MSA-2 contains Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which due to strict environmental legislation was eliminated. MSA-2 was also classified as hazardous waste, which makes the disposal very costly. Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) replaced MSA-2, and eliminated the use of solvents by delivering the dry filler materials and the fluid resin system to a patented spray gun which utilizes Convergent Spray Technologies spray process. The selection of TPS material was based on risk assessment, performance comparisons, processing, application and cost. Design of Experiments technique was used to optimize the spraying parameters. .

  20. Thermal Protection Materials and Systems: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) protect vehicles from the heat generated when entering a planetary atmosphere. NASA has developed many TPS systems over the years for vehicle ranging from planetary probes to crewed vehicles. The goal for all TPS is efficient and reliable performance. Efficient means using the right material for the environment and minimizing the mass of the heat shield without compromising safety. Efficiency is critical if the payload such as science experiments is to be maximized on a particular vehicle. Reliable means that we understand and can predict performance of the material. Although much characterization and testing of materials is performed to qualify and certify them for flight, it is not possible to completely recreate the reentry conditions in test facilities, and flight-testing

  1. Bioassay of thermal protection afforded by candidate flight suit fabrics.

    PubMed

    Knox, F S; Wachtel, T L; McCahan, G R

    1979-10-01

    The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) porcine cutaneous bioassay technique was used to determine what mitigating effect four thermally protective flight suit fabrics would have on fire-induced skin damage. The fabrics were 4.8-ox twill weave Nomex aramide, 4.5-oz stabilized twill weave polybenzimidazole, 4.8-oz plain weave experimental high-temperature polymer (HT4), and 4.8-oz plain weave Nomex aramide (New Weave Nomex or NWN). Each fabric sample was assayed 20 times in each of four configurations: as a single layer in contact with the skin; as a single layer with a 6.35 mm (0.25 in) air gap between fabric and skin; in conjuction with a cotton T-shirt with no air gaps; and, finally, in conjuction with a T-shirt with a 6.35 mm air gap between T-shirt and fabric. Bare skin was used as a control. A JP-4 fueled furnace was used as a thermal source and was adjested to deliver a mean heat flux of 3.07 cal/cm2/s. The duration of exposure was 5 s. Four hundred burn sites were graded using clinical observation and microscopic techniques. Used as single layers, none of the fabrics demonstrated superiority in providing clinically significant protection. When used with a cotton T-shirt, protection was improved. Protection improved progressively for all fabrics and configuration when an air gap was introduced. The experimental high-temperature polymer consistently demonstrated lower heat flux transmission in all configurations, but did not significantly reduce clinical burns. PMID:518445

  2. Development of Thermal Protection Materials for Future Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Arnold, James O.; Hwang, Helen; Wright, Michael J.; Szalai, Christine E.; Blosser, Max; Poteet, Carl C.

    2010-01-01

    Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.

  3. Transient Analysis of Thermal Protection System for X-33 Aircraft using MSC/NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, M. K.; Bowles, J.; Tam, T.; Chu, D.; Chainyk, M.; Green, Michael J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator vehicle for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The thermal protection system (TPS) for the X-33 is composed of complex layers of materials to protect internal components, while withstanding severe external temperatures induced by aerodynamic heating during high speed flight. It also serves as the vehicle aeroshell in some regions using a stand-off design. MSC/NASTRAN thermal analysis capability was used to predict transient temperature distribution (within the TPS) throughout a mission, from launch through the cool-off period after landing. In this paper, a typical analysis model, representing a point on the vehicle where the liquid oxygen tank is closest to the outer mold line, is described. The maximum temperature difference between the outer mold line and the internal surface of the liquid oxygen tank can exceed 1500 F. One dimensional thermal models are used to select the materials and determine the thickness of each layer for minimum weight while insuring that all materials remain within the allowable temperature range. The purpose of working with three dimensional (3D) comprehensive models using MSC/NASTRAN is to assess the 3D radiation effects and the thermal conduction heat shorts of the support fixtures.

  4. Applications for thermal NDT on advanced composites in aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, Steve R.

    1998-03-01

    Following several years of investigating active thermal imaging techniques, Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems Company (LMASC) has introduced a portable, time-dependent thermography (TDT) system into the production inspection environment. Originally pursued as a rapid, non-contacting, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool for inspecting large surface areas, the TDT system has proven most useful as a rapid verification tool on advanced composite assemblies. TDT is a relatively new NDE methodology as compared to conventional ultrasonic and radiography testing. SEveral technical issues are being addressed as confidence in the system's capabilities increase. These include inspector training and certification, system sensitivity assessments, and test results interpretation. Starting in 1991, LMASC began a beta-site evaluation of a prototype TDT system developed by the Institute of Manufacturing Research at Wayne State University. This prototype was the forerunner of the current production system, which is offered commercially as a fully integrated thermal NDE system. Applications investigated to data include quality assurance of advanced aerospace composite structures/assemblies for disbonds/voids between skin and core. TDT has a number of advantages over traditional NDT methods. The process of acquiring thermal images is fast, and can decrease inspection time required to locate suspect areas. The system also holds promise for depot level inspections due to its portability. This paper describes a systematic approach to implementing TDT into the production inspection arena.

  5. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  7. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  8. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2004-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

  9. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  10. ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2002-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  11. Exercising divers' thermal protection as a function of water temperature.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, David R; Mollendorf, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Physiological adjustments and passive thermal insulation are not sufficient to protect divers in the cold and warm waters experienced by sport, professional and military divers. In a previous study of resting subjects, divers were protected by actively heated/cooled water that perfused a six-zone (head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet) tube suit. Subsequently a self-contained diver thermal protection system (DTPS) was developed and used in this study to test male divers (n = 8) wearing a 6-mm foam neoprene wetsuit in water temperatures (T(W)) of 10 degrees C-39 degrees C at 4 feet in depth. The DTPS is a scuba backpack containing five thermoelectric devices that heat/cool water to 30 degrees C, six pumps that circulate the water through a six-zone tube suit via two manifolds, and an electronic controller. Skin temperatures (T(S), n = 17) and core temperature (T(C), capsule) were measured. The DTPS and each zone of the tube suit were also instrumented. Divers were tested with the DTPS operational (protected) and turned off (unprotected) for 90 minutes. In the unprotected condition, T(S) decreased and approached T(W), while T(C) trended to decrease over the exposure time. Mean T(S) as a function of T(W) was T(S) = 0.44 T(W) + 21.23 degrees C while unprotected, but T(S) = 0.19 T(W) + 27.1 degrees C when the diver was protected. The average total heating/cooling power required to protect the diver was 166 +/- 78W, 86 +/- 95W, 9 +/- 75W, 72 +/- 45W, 135 +/- 73W, 279 +/- 87W and 336 +/- 95W at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 39 degrees C water temperatures, respectively. This power requirement was nominally split 4%, 22%, 22%, 14%, 25% and 13% for head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet, respectively. While unprotected, divers T(S) and T(C) did not remain within acceptable limits in T(W) below 25 degrees C or above 30 degrees C. When using the DTPS, however, they did remain within acceptable limits, and the divers reported they were comfortable.

  12. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  13. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-01-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  14. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, B. A.; Foreman, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/cu ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

  15. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Foreman, Cory

    2011-06-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are also highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on one of these systems. The materials considered are 8 lb/ft3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. A model extension to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state measurements is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

  16. Ballistic performance of porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.; Foreman, Cory D.

    2012-03-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/ft3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrousinsulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principles impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

  17. Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

  18. Thermal Cycling Assessment of Steel-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings for Al Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Dominique; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong interest from the transportation industry to achieve vehicle weight reduction through the replacement of steel components by aluminum parts. For some applications, aluminum requires protective coatings due to its limited wear and lower temperature resistance compared to steel. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of amorphous-type plasma-sprayed steel coatings and conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings as thermal barrier coatings, mainly through the evaluation of their spalling resistance under thermal cycling. The microstructures of the different coatings were first compared via SEM. The amorphicity of the coatings produced via plasma spraying of specialized alloyed steel and the crystalline phases of the conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings were confirmed through x-ray diffraction. The thermal diffusivity of all coatings produced was measured to be about a third of that of bulk stainless steel. Conventional arc-sprayed steel coatings typically offered better spalling resistance under thermal cycling than steel-based amorphous coatings due probably to their higher initial bond strength. However, the presence of vertical cracks in the steel-based amorphous coatings was found to have a beneficial effect on their thermal cycling resistance. The amorphous plasma-sprayed steel coatings presented indications of recrystallization after their exposure to high temperature.

  19. Development and flight qualification of the C-SiC thermal protection systems for the IXV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffenoir, François; Zeppa, Céline; Pichon, Thierry; Girard, Florent

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) atmospheric re-entry demonstrator, developed within the FLPP (Future Launcher Preparatory Programme) and funded by ESA, aimed at developing a demonstration vehicle that gave Europe a unique opportunity to increase its knowledge in the field of advanced atmospheric re-entry technologies. A key technology that has been demonstrated in real conditions through the flight of this ambitious vehicle is the thermal protection system (TPS) of the Vehicle. Within this programme, HERAKLES, Safran Group, has been in charge of the TPS of the windward and nose assemblies of the vehicle, and has developed and manufactured SepcarbInox® ceramic matrix composite (CMC) protection systems that provided a high temperature resistant non ablative outer mould line (OML) for enhanced aerodynamic control. The design and flight justification of these TPS has been achieved through extensive analysis and testing:

  20. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  1. Thermal face protection delays finger cooling and improves thermal comfort during cold air exposure.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N

    2011-12-01

    When people dress for cold weather, the face often remains exposed. Facial cooling can decrease finger blood flow, reducing finger temperature (T (f)). This study examined whether thermal face protection limits finger cooling and thereby improves thermal comfort and manual dexterity during prolonged cold exposure. T (f) was measured in ten volunteers dressed in cold-weather clothing as they stood for 60 min facing the wind (-15°C, 3 m s(-1)), once while wearing a balaclava and goggles (BAL), and once with the balaclava pulled down and without goggles (CON). Subjects removed mitts, wearing only thin gloves to perform Purdue Pegboard (PP) tests at 15 and 50 min, and Minnesota Rate of Manipulation (MRM) tests at 30 and 55 min. Subjects rated their thermal sensation and comfort just before the dexterity tests. T (f) decreased (p < 0.05 for time × trial interaction) by 15 min of cold exposure during CON (33.6 ± 1.4-28.7 ± 2.0°C), but not during BAL (33.2 ± 1.4-30.6 ± 3.2°C); and after 30 min T (f) remained warmer during BAL (23.3 ± 5.9°C) than CON (19.2 ± 3.5); however, by 50 min, T (f) was no different between trials (14.1 ± 2.7°C). Performance on PP fell (p < 0.05) by 25% after 50 min in both trials; MRM performance was not altered by cold on either trial. Subjects felt colder (p < 0.05) and more uncomfortable (p < 0.05) during CON, compared to BAL. Thermal face protection was effective for maintaining warmer T (f) and thermal comfort during cold exposure; however, local cooling of the hands during manual dexterity tests reduced this physiological advantage, and performance was not improved.

  2. Mars transit vehicle thermal protection system: Issues, options, and trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman

    1986-01-01

    A Mars mission is characterized by different mission phases. The thermal control of cryogenic propellant in a propulsive vehicle must withstand the different mission environments. Long term cryogenic storage may be achieved by passive or active systems. Passive cryo boiloff management features will include multilayer insulation, vapor cooled shield, and low conductance structural supports and penetrations. Active boiloff management incorporates the use of a refrigeration system. Key system trade areas include active verses passive system boiloff management (with respect to safety, reliability, and cost) and propellant tank insulation optimizations. Technology requirements include refrigeration technology advancements, insulation performance during long exposure, and cryogenic fluid transfer system for mission vehicle propellant tanking during vehicle buildip in LEO.

  3. Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

  4. Biologically-Derived Photonic Materials for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.; Squire, Thomas H.; Lawson, John W.; Gusman, Michael; Lau, K.-H.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Space vehicles entering a planetary atmosphere at high velocity can be subject to substantial radiative heating from the shock layer in addition to the convective heating caused by the flow of hot gas past the vehicle surface. The radiative component can be very high but of a short duration. Approaches to combat this effect include investigation of various materials to reflect the radiation. Photonic materials can be used to reflect radiation. The wavelengths reflected depend on the length scale of the ordered microstructure. Fabricating photonic structures, such as layers, can be time consuming and expensive. We have used a biologically-derived material as the template for forming a high temperature photonic material that could be incorporated into a heatshield thermal protection material.

  5. High temperature electromagnetic characterization of thermal protection system tile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heil, Garrett G.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of elevated temperatures on the electromagnetic performance of the LI-2200 thermal protection system. A 15-kilowatt CO2 laser was used to heat an LI-2200 specimen to 3000 F while electromagnetic measurements were performed over the frequency range of l9 to 21 GHz. The electromagnetic measurement system consisted of two Dual-Lens Spot-Focusing (DLSF) antennas, a sample support structure, and an HP-8510B vector network analyzer. Calibration of the electromagnetic system was accomplished with a Transmission-Reflection-Line (TRL) procedure and was verified with measurements on a two-layer specimen of known properties. The results of testing indicated that the LI-2200 system's electromagnetic performance is slightly temperature dependent at temperatures up to 3000 F.

  6. Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

  7. Buffet loads on shuttle thermal-protection-system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of wind-tunnel and acoustic tests to investigate buffet loads on Shuttle Thermal-Protection-System (TPS) tiles are given. Also described is the application of these results to the prediction of tile buffet loads for the first shuttle flight into orbit. The wind-tunnel tests of tiles were conducted at transonic and supersonic Mach numbers simulating flow regions on the Orbiter where shock waves and boundary-layer separations occur. The acoustic tests were conducted in a progressive wave tube at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) approximately equal to the maximum OASPL measured during the wind-tunnel tests in a region of flow separation. The STS-1 buffet load predictions yielded peak tile stresses due to buffeting that were as much as 20 percent of the total stress for the design-load case when a shock wave was on a tile.

  8. Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics for Thermal Protection of Next Generation Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehman, R. E.; Ellerby, D. T.; Gusman, M. I.; Stackpoole, M.; Johnson, S. M.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Materials with improved properties are needed for thermal protection of next generation space vehicles. Sharp leading edges on these vehicles will have to withstand exposure to high temperatures (> 2200 C or 4000 F) and severe thermal cycling in both neutral and oxidizing environments. These extreme conditions will require materials that possess superior oxidation resistance, low creep, and excellent thermal shock properties. This presentation will first discuss the system requirements for thermal protection of advanced space vehicles and then show how they are driving development of new materials systems. The presentation will focus on ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs) that are promising candidates for such applications. ZrB2 and HfB2 and composites of those ceramics with SiC are two particular families of UHTCs that are currently under development for sharp leading edges. These ceramics are appealing because their melting temperatures are 3245 C (5873 F) for ZrB2 and 3380 C (6116 F) for HfB2 and because they may form protective, oxidation resistant coatings in use. The mechanical properties of the UHTCs are strongly dependent on phase purity and the processing route used to make them, both of which factors are being actively investigated. For example, oxide impurities could form glassy grain boundary phases that soften at high temperatures and make the ceramic susceptible to creep deformation. Results from scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies of the UHTCs have shown how their processing can be improved to give better properties. This presentation will discuss the UHTC characterization results in some detail, focusing particularly on the structure and composition of the ceramic grain boundaries. The presentation will conclude with some remarks on how the properties of these promising UHTCs can be further improved and how they might be made more economically.

  9. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  10. Nanostructured Thermal Protection Systems for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Chen, Y. K.; Squire, T.; Srivastava, D.; Allen, G., Jr.; Stackpoole, M.; Goldstein, H. E.; Venkatapathy, E.; Loomis, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    Strong research and development programs in nanotechnology and Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) exist at NASA Ames. Conceptual studies have been undertaken to determine if new, nanostructured materials (composites of existing TPS materials and nanostructured composite fibers) could improve the performance of TPS. To this end, we have studied various candidate heatshields, some composed of existing TPS materials (with known material properties), to provide a baseline for comparison with others that are admixtures of such materials and a nanostructured material. In the latter case, some assumptions were made about the thermal conductivity and strength of the admixture, relative to the baseline TPS material. For the purposes of this study, we have made the conservative assumption that only a small fraction of the remarkable properties of carbon nanotubes (for example) will be realized in the material properties of the admixtures employing them. The heatshields studied included those for Sharp leading edges (appropriate to out-of-orbit entry and aero-maneuvering), probes, an out-of-orbit Apollo Command Module (as a surrogate for NASA's new Crew Exploration Vehicle [CEV]), a Mars Sample Return Vehicle and a large heat shield for Mars aerocapture missions. We report on these conceptual studies, which show that in some cases (not all), significant improvements in the TPS can be achieved through the use of nanostructured materials.

  11. Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dec, John A.; Rezin, Marc D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Guo, Haiquan; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Cheatwood, McNeil

    2012-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HIAD project which is tasked with the research and development of the technology ranging from direct ground tests, modelling and simulation, characterization of TPS systems, manufacturing and handling, and standards and policy definition. The intent of flexible TPS is to enable large deployable aeroshell technologies, which increase the drag performance while significantly reducing the ballistic coefficient of high-mass entry vehicles. A HIAD requires a flexible TPS capable of surviving aerothermal loads, and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, high density packing, long duration exposure to extrinsic, in-situ environments, and deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of key work being performed within the Flexible TPS element of the HIAD project. Included in this paper is an overview of, and results from, each Flexible TPS research and development activity, which includes ground testing, physics-based thermal modelling, age testing, margins policy, catalysis, materials characterization, and recent developments with new TPS materials.

  12. Thermal certification tests of Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles coated with KSC coating slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milhoan, James D.; Pham, Vuong T.; Sherborne, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal tests of Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles, which were coated with borosilicate glass slurries fabricated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), were performed in the Radiant Heat Test Facility and the Atmospheric Reentry Materials & Structures Evaluation Facility at Johnson Space Center to verify tile coating integrity after exposure to multiple entry simulation cycles in both radiant and convective heating environments. Eight high temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) tiles and six low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were subjected to 25 cycles of radiant heat at peaked surface temperatures of 2300 F and 1200 F, respectively. For the LRSI tiles, an additional cycle at peaked surface temperature of 2100 F was performed. There was no coating crack on any of the HRSI specimens. However, there were eight small coating cracks (less than 2 inches long) on two of the six LRSI tiles on the 26th cycle. There was practically no change on the surface reflectivity, physical dimensions, or weight of any of the test specimens. There was no observable thermal-chemical degradation of the coating either. For the convective heat test, eight HRSI tiles were tested for five cycles at a surface temperature of 2300 F. There was no thermal-induced coating crack on any of the test specimens, almost no change on the surface reflectivity, and no observable thermal-chemical degradation with an exception of minor slumping of the coating under painted TPS identification numbers. The tests demonstrated that KSC's TPS slurries and coating processes meet the Orbiter's thermal specification requirements.

  13. Thermal Protection Studies of Synthetic And Woven Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saad, Michel A.; Altman, Robert L.; Ransky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental study to evaluate the thermal protection properties of synthetic felt and woven materials using an NBS smoke chamber. The chamber was modified to record the weight loss of the samples, which in turn, indicated the effectiveness of the insulation material. The following materials were tested: (a) aluminoborosilicate cloth (NEXTEL); (b) fiber glass cloth; (c) carbonized polyaacrylonitrile and rayon cloth; (d) aromatic nylon felt; (e) SiC (NICALON) CLOTH; and (f) phenolic novolac (KYNOL) cloth. Samples of these were put in front of fiber glass batting containing 18% phenolic resin (Owens Corning PF-204). They were exposed to a radiant heat of 5w cm-2 which resulted in an almost complete resin mass loss within four minutes. Results of this study are shown in various figures, where the mass loss from the fiber glass batting is plotted vs. time. In these figures, solid curves show the percent mass loss of the exposed fiber glass and dashed curves indicate the loss in another fiber glass sample of the same initial mass protected by the material under test.

  14. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  15. Hypervelocity Impact Test Results for a Metallic Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Katherine L.; Poteet, Carl C.; Blosser, Max L.

    2003-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on specimens representing metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) developed at NASA Langley Research Center for use on next-generation reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The majority of the specimens tested consists of a foil gauge exterior honeycomb panel, composed of either Inconel 617 or Ti-6Al-4V, backed with 2.0 in. of fibrous insulation and a final Ti-6Al-4V foil layer. Other tested specimens include titanium multi-wall sandwich coupons as well as TPS using a second honeycomb sandwich in place of the foil backing. Hypervelocity impact tests were performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Orbital Debris Simulation Facility. An improved test fixture was designed and fabricated to hold specimens firmly in place during impact. Projectile diameter, honeycomb sandwich material, honeycomb sandwich facesheet thickness, and honeycomb core cell size were examined to determine the influence of TPS configuration on the level of protection provided to the substructure (crew, cabin, fuel tank, etc.) against micrometeoroid or orbit debris impacts. Pictures and descriptions of the damage to each specimen are included.

  16. 75 FR 5495 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Pressurized Thermal Shock Events; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... (75 FR 13), that amends the NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events for pressurized water reactor (PWR)...

  17. Thermal-Structural Evaluation of TD Ni-20Cr Thermal Protection System Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eidinoff, H. L.; Rose, L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a thermal-structural test program to verify the performance of a metallic/radiative Thermal Protection System (TPS) under reentry conditions are presented. This TPS panel is suitable for multiple reentry, high L/D space vehicles, such as the NASA space shuttle, having surface temperatures up to 1200 C (2200 F). The TPS panel tested consists of a corrugation-stiffened, beaded-skin TD Ni-20Cr metallic heat shield backed by a flexible fibrous quartz and radiative shield insulative system. Test conditions simulated the critical heating and aerodynamic pressure environments expected during 100 repeated missions of a reentry vehicle. Temperatures were measured during each reentry cycle; heat-shield flatness surveys to measure permanent set of the metallic components were made every 10 cycles. The TPS panel, in spite of localized surface failures, performed its designated function.

  18. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response and Thermostructural Design of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    A finite element ablation and thermal response program is presented for simulation of three-dimensional transient thermostructural analysis. The three-dimensional governing differential equations and finite element formulation are summarized. A novel probabilistic design methodology for thermal protection systems is presented. The design methodology is an eight step process beginning with a parameter sensitivity study and is followed by a deterministic analysis whereby an optimum design can determined. The design process concludes with a Monte Carlo simulation where the probabilities of exceeding design specifications are estimated. The design methodology is demonstrated by applying the methodology to the carbon phenolic compression pads of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The maximum allowed values of bondline temperature and tensile stress are used as the design specifications in this study.

  19. Study of organic ablative thermal-protection coating for solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zenggong

    1992-06-01

    A study is conducted to find a new interior thermal-protection material that possesses good thermal-protection performance and simple manufacturing possibilities. Quartz powder and Cr2O3 are investigated using epoxy resin as a binder and Al2O3 as the burning inhibitor. Results indicate that the developed thermal-protection coating is suitable as ablative insulation material for solid rocket motors.

  20. Design of metallic foams as insulation in thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huadong

    Metallic foams are novel materials that can be used as thermal insulation in many applications. The low volume fraction of solid, the small cell size and the low conductivity of enclosed gases limit the heat flow in foams. Varying the density, geometry and or material composition from point to point within the foam, one can produce functionally graded foams that may insulate more efficiently. The goal of this research is to investigate the use of functionally graded metal foam in thermal protection systems (TPS) for reusable launch vehicles. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the foam is derived based on a simple cubic unit cell model. Then two problems under steady state of heat transfer have been considered. The first one is the optimization of functionally graded foam insulation for minimum heat transmitted to the structure and the second is minimizing the mass of the functionally graded foam insulation for a given aerodynamic heating. In both cases optimality conditions are derived in closed-form, and numerical methods are used to solve the resulting differential equations to determine the optimal grading of the foam. In order to simplify the analysis the insulation was approximated by finite layers of uniform foams when studying the transient heat transfer case. The maximum structure temperature was minimized by varying the solidity profile for a given total thickness and mass. The principles that govern the design of TPS for transient conditions were identified. To take advantage of the load bearing ability of metallic foams, an integrated sandwich TPS/structure with metallic foam core is proposed. Such an integrated TPS will insulate the vehicle interior from aerodynamic heating as well as carry the primary vehicle loads. Thermal-structural analysis of integrated sandwich TPS panel subjected to transient heat conduction is developed to evaluate their performances. The integrated TPS design is compared with a conventional fibrous Safill TPS design

  1. A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, Andy P.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

  2. Development of FIAT-based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven Andrew; Zarchi, Kerry Agnes; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  3. Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven; Trumble, Kerry A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2012-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  4. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas; Stahl, Phil; Arnold, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next Ultraviolet, Optical, Infrared (UVOIR) space observatory. A likely science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet that is 10-10 times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront. This paper investigates two topics: 1) parametric relationships between a primary mirror's thermal parameters and wavefront stability, and 2) optimal temperature profiles in the telescope's shroud and heater plate that minimize static wavefront error (WFE) in the primary mirror.

  5. Advanced component research in the solar thermal program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. T.

    The capabilities, equipment, and programs of the DoE advanced components test facility (ACTF) for developing solar thermal technologies are reviewed. The ACTF has a heliostat field, a rigid structural steel test tower at the geometric center of the heliostat field, an experiment platform on the tower, a heat rejection system, and computerized instrumentation. Tests have been performed on a directly-heated fluidized-bed solar receiver, a high pressure single-pass-to-superheat steam generator, a liquid Na heat pipe receiver, a flash pyrolysis biomass gasifier, and a grid-connected Stirling engine powered electrical generator. Helium served as the 720 C working fluid in the Stirling engine, and 18.8 kWe continuous was produced for the grid. Verified components qualified for further development are subjected to larger scale testing at a 5 MW facility in Albuquerque, NM.

  6. Advanced Neutron Source Reactor thermal analysis of fuel plate defects

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor designed to provide the highest continuous neutron beam intensity of any reactor in the world. The present technology for determining safe operations were developed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These techniques are conservative and provide confidence in the safe operation of HFIR. However, the more intense requirements of ANSR necessitate the development of more accurate, but still conservative, techniques. This report details the development of a Local Analysis Technique (LAT) that provides an appropriate approach. Application of the LAT to two ANSR core designs are presented. New theories of the thermal and nuclear behavior of the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are utilized. The implications of lower fuel enrichment and of modifying the inspection procedures are also discussed. Development of the computer codes that enable the automate execution of the LAT is included.

  7. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  8. Ocean thermal conversion (OTEC) project bottom cable protection study. Analysis and selection of protection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    General guidelines and procedures for cable protection are given for the four proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant sites and cable routes, together with seafloor scenarios and protection strategies for each site. Burial of the cable below the seafloor is the recommended and best method of protecting OTEC cables from the hazards existing at all sites, namely, chafe and corrosion, hydrodynamic forces, trawler/dredge, and ship anchor. For landslides and earthquakes the only feasible method of protection, although limited, is to provide slack, in the cable, i.e. lay extra length. Trenches for burying the cable are recommended to be constructed a) by blasting through hard bottom at Hawaii for the first nautical mile (n.m.) and at Puerto Rico for the first 0.9 n.m; b)by a plowing machine at Hawaii for the next 0.5 n.m.; c) by a trenching machine at Guam for the first 0.55 n.m.; d) by a trenching /laying machine at Florida for 110 n.m.; and e) by a conventional floating dredge for 15 n.m. For the outshore segments of the cable routes it is recommenced to lay the cable on th seafloor because bottom sediments are soft enough to permit the cable to bury itself. Except for the Florida route, a normal cable laying vessel is recommended for laying the cable from plant site to landfall and for performing the protection details which are temie concrete cover over the cable at Hawaii for 0.5 n.m. and split pipe and rock anchor at Puerto Rico for 0l2 n.m.

  9. Advanced Liquid-Cooling Garment Using Highly Thermally Conductive Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This design of the liquid-cooling garment for NASA spacesuits allows the suit to remove metabolic heat from the human body more effectively, thereby increasing comfort and performance while reducing system mass. The garment is also more flexible, with fewer restrictions on body motion, and more effectively transfers thermal energy from the crewmember s body to the external cooling unit. This improves the garment s performance in terms of the maximum environment temperature in which it can keep a crewmember comfortable. The garment uses flexible, highly thermally conductive sheet material (such as graphite), coupled with cooling water lines of improved thermal conductivity to transfer the thermal energy from the body to the liquid cooling lines more effectively. The conductive sheets can be layered differently, depending upon the heat loads, in order to provide flexibility, exceptional in-plane heat transfer, and good through-plane heat transfer. A metal foil, most likely aluminum, can be put between the graphite sheets and the external heat source/sink in order to both maximize through-plane heat transfer at the contact points, and to serve as a protection to the highly conductive sheets. Use of a wicking layer draws excess sweat away from the crewmember s skin and the use of an outer elastic fabric ensures good thermal contact of the highly conductive underlayers with the skin. This allows the current state of the art to be improved by having cooling lines that can be more widely spaced to improve suit flexibility and to reduce weight. Also, cooling liquid does not have to be as cold to achieve the same level of cooling. Specific areas on the human body can easily be targeted for greater or lesser cooling to match human physiology, a warmer external environment can be tolerated, and spatial uniformity of the cooling garment can be improved to reduce vasoconstriction limits. Elements of this innovation can be applied to other embodiments to provide effective heat

  10. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Terra, the Earth Observing System's (EOS) flagship satellite platform on December 18, 1999. The polar-orbiting Terra contains five remote sensing instruments, which enable the scientific study and analyses of global terrestrial processes and manifestations of global change. One of the five instruments is the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is built in Japan by a consortium of government, industry, and research groups. It has three spectral bands in the visible near-infrared region (VNIR), six bands in the shortwave infrared region (SWIR), and five bands in the thermal infrared region (TIR), with 15-, 30-, and 90-meter ground resolutions, respectively. This combination of wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution allows ASTER to discriminate among a wide variety of surface materials. The VNIR subsystem also has a backward-viewing telescope for high-resolution (15-meter) stereoscopic observation in the along-track direction, which facilitates the generation of digital elevation models (DEM).

  11. Assessment of the Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Protective Garments Using Manikins and Other Advanced Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, René M.; Psikuta, Agnes

    The assessment of the coupled heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is very complex as the layers of the system are a combination of fabric and air layers that constantly change with the movements of the wearer. The methods to measure these mechanisms become more and more sophisticated which increases the precision of models to predict the impact of heat and moisture fluxes on the human thermal physiology. The simulation of the human thermoregulatory mechanisms requires the combination of physical models representing the body (manikins) with physiological (mathematical) models. This chapter gives different examples of advanced measurement methods to characterize the thermal properties of fabrics and garments.

  12. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  13. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  15. Mechanical Testing of Carbon Based Woven Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, John; Agrawal, Parul; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Three Dimensional Woven thermal protection system (TPS) materials are one of the enabling technologies for mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator systems. These materials have been shown capable of serving a dual purpose as TPS and as structural load bearing members during entry and descent operations. In order to ensure successful structural performance, it is important to characterize the mechanical properties of these materials prior to and post exposure to entry-like heating conditions. This research focuses on the changes in load bearing capacity of woven TPS materials after being subjected to arcjet simulations of entry heating. Preliminary testing of arcjet tested materials [1] has shown a mechanical degradation. However, their residual strength is significantly more than the requirements for a mission to Venus [2]. A systematic investigation at the macro and microstructural scales is reported here to explore the potential causes of this degradation. The effects of heating on the sizing (an epoxy resin coating used to reduce friction and wear during fiber handling) are discussed as one of the possible causes for the decrease in mechanical properties. This investigation also provides valuable guidelines for margin policies for future mechanically deployable entry systems.

  16. Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

  17. Effectiveness of Thermal-Pneumatic Airfoil-Ice-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, William H., Jr.; Mulholland, Donald R.

    1951-01-01

    Icing and drag investigations were conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel employing a combination thermal-pneumatic de-icer mounted on a 42-inch-chord NACA 0018 airfoil. The de-icer consisted of a 3-inch-wide electrically heated strip symmetrically located about the leading edge with inflatable tubes on the upper and lower airfoil surfaces aft of the heated area. The entire de-icer extended to approximately 25 percent of chord. A maximum power density of 9.25 watts per square inch was required for marginal ice protection on the airfoil leading edge at an air temperature of 00 F and an airspeed of 300 miles per hour. Drag measurements indicated, that without icing, the de-icer installation increased the section drag to approximately 140 percent of that of the bare airfoil; with the tubes inflated, this value increased to a maximum of approximately 620 percent. A 2-minute tube-inflation cycle prevented excessive ice formation on the inflatable area although small scattered residual Ice formations remained after inflation and were removed intermittently during later cycles. Effects of the time lag of heater temperatures after initial application of power and the insulating effect of ice formations on heater temperatures were also determined.

  18. Advances in analytical technologies for environmental protection and public safety.

    PubMed

    Sadik, O A; Wanekaya, A K; Andreescu, S

    2004-06-01

    Due to the increased threats of chemical and biological agents of injury by terrorist organizations, a significant effort is underway to develop tools that can be used to detect and effectively combat chemical and biochemical toxins. In addition to the right mix of policies and training of medical personnel on how to recognize symptoms of biochemical warfare agents, the major success in combating terrorism still lies in the prevention, early detection and the efficient and timely response using reliable analytical technologies and powerful therapies for minimizing the effects in the event of an attack. The public and regulatory agencies expect reliable methodologies and devices for public security. Today's systems are too bulky or slow to meet the "detect-to-warn" needs for first responders such as soldiers and medical personnel. This paper presents the challenges in monitoring technologies for warfare agents and other toxins. It provides an overview of how advances in environmental analytical methodologies could be adapted to design reliable sensors for public safety and environmental surveillance. The paths to designing sensors that meet the needs of today's measurement challenges are analyzed using examples of novel sensors, autonomous cell-based toxicity monitoring, 'Lab-on-a-Chip' devices and conventional environmental analytical techniques. Finally, in order to ensure that the public and legal authorities are provided with quality data to make informed decisions, guidelines are provided for assessing data quality and quality assurance using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) methodologies. PMID:15173903

  19. The next generation in aircraft protection against advanced MANPADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the advanced and novel technologies and underlying systems capabilities that Selex ES has applied during the development, test and evaluation of the twin head Miysis DIRCM System in order to ensure that it provides the requisite levels of protection against the latest, sophisticated all-aspect IR MANPADS. The importance of key performance parameters, including the fundamental need for "spherical" coverage, rapid time to energy-on-target, laser tracking performance and radiant intensity on seeker dome is covered. It also addresses the approach necessary to ensure that the equipment is suited to all air platforms from the smallest helicopters to large transports, while also ensuring that it achieves an inherent high reliability and an ease of manufacture and repair such that a step change in through-life cost in comparison to previous generation systems can be achieved. The benefits and issues associated with open architecture design are also considered. Finally, the need for extensive test and evaluation at every stage, including simulation, laboratory testing, platform and target dynamic testing in a System Integration Laboratory (SIL), flight trial, missile live-fire, environmental testing and reliability testing is also described.

  20. Joint force protection advanced security system (JFPASS) "the future of force protection: integrate and automate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Carlos E.; Fagan, Joe E.

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) defines 'force protection' as "preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against DoD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information." Advanced technologies enable significant improvements in automating and distributing situation awareness, optimizing operator time, and improving sustainability, which enhance protection and lower costs. The JFPASS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) demonstrates a force protection environment that combines physical security and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) defense through the application of integrated command and control and data fusion. The JFPASS JCTD provides a layered approach to force protection by integrating traditional sensors used in physical security, such as video cameras, battlefield surveillance radars, unmanned and unattended ground sensors. The optimization of human participation and automation of processes is achieved by employment of unmanned ground vehicles, along with remotely operated lethal and less-than-lethal weapon systems. These capabilities are integrated via a tailorable, user-defined common operational picture display through a data fusion engine operating in the background. The combined systems automate the screening of alarms, manage the information displays, and provide assessment and response measures. The data fusion engine links disparate sensors and systems, and applies tailored logic to focus the assessment of events. It enables timely responses by providing the user with automated and semi-automated decision support tools. The JFPASS JCTD uses standard communication/data exchange protocols, which allow the system to incorporate future sensor technologies or communication networks, while maintaining the ability to communicate with legacy or existing systems.

  1. High Temperature Damping Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier and Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    A high temperature damping test apparatus has been developed using a high heat flux CO 2 laser rig in conjunction with a TIRA S540 25 kHz Shaker and Polytec OFV 5000 Vibrometer system. The test rig has been successfully used to determine the damping performance of metallic and ceramic protective coating systems at high temperature for turbine engine applications. The initial work has been primarily focused on the microstructure and processing effects on the coating temperature-dependence damping behavior. Advanced ceramic coatings, including multicomponent tetragonal and cubic phase thermal barrier coatings, along with composite bond coats, have also been investigated. The coating high temperature damping mechanisms will also be discussed.

  2. 10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING... Construction Permits § 50.61 Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock... specified in § 50.55a. (2) Pressurized Thermal Shock Event means an event or transient in pressurized...

  3. 10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING... Construction Permits § 50.61 Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock... specified in § 50.55a. (2) Pressurized Thermal Shock Event means an event or transient in pressurized...

  4. 10 CFR 50.61 - Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pressurized thermal shock events. 50.61 Section 50.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING... Construction Permits § 50.61 Fracture toughness requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock... specified in § 50.55a. (2) Pressurized Thermal Shock Event means an event or transient in pressurized...

  5. Advanced Planetary Protection Technologies for the Proposed Future Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, J. Andy; Conley, Catharine A

    2013-01-01

    Planetary protection is the discipline of protecting solar system objects from harmful contamination resulting from the activities of interplanetary spacecraft, and of similarly protecting the Earth from uncontrolled release of a putative extra-terrestrial organism from returned extra-terrestrial samples. Planetary protection requirements for Mars are becoming further refined as more is understood about the nature of the Martian environment as a potential habitat. Likewise, increased understanding of the limits of life on Earth is informing planetary protection policy. This presentation will discuss recent technology developments, ongoing work and future challenges of implementing planetary protection for the proposed future mission set.

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  7. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  8. SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the

  9. Thermal evaluation of advanced solar dynamic heat receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal performance of a variety of concepts for thermal energy storage as applied to solar dynamic applications is discussed. It is recognized that designs providing large thermal gradients or large temperature swings during orbit are susceptible to early mechanical failure. Concepts incorporating heat pipe technology may encounter operational limitations over sufficiently large ranges. By reviewing the thermal performance of basic designs, the relative merits of the basic concepts are compared. In addition the effect of thermal enhancement and metal utilization as applied to each design provides a partial characterization of the performance improvements to be achieved by developing these technologies.

  10. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  11. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  12. Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kesterson, Matt; Connel, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Southward, Robin E.; Working, Dennis; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes). This paper presents the initial system modeling studies, including a detailed liquid cooling garment model incorporated into the Wissler human thermal regulatory model, to quantify the necessary improvements in thermal conductivity and garment geometries needed to affect system performance. In addition, preliminary results of thermal conductivity improvements of the polymer components of the liquid cooled ventilation garment are presented. By improving thermal garment performance, major technology drivers will be addressed for lightweight, high thermal conductivity, flexible materials for spacesuits that are strategic technical challenges of the Exploration

  13. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass estimating relationships (MERs) are developed to predict the amount of thermal protection system (TPS) necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that are non-ITAR and closely match estimates from NASA's highfidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA- 561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER can under predict FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  14. Parametric Weight Comparison of Current and Proposed Thermal Protection System (TPS) Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    1999-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (1 -D) thermal finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to ac- count for coatings, fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a particular trajectory. Eight TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile systems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  15. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    System analysis and design of any entry system must balance the level fidelity for each discipline against the project timeline. One way to inject high fidelity analysis earlier in the design effort is to develop surrogate models for the high-fidelity disciplines. Surrogate models for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) are formulated as Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs). The TPS MERs are presented that predict the amount of TPS necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that closely match estimates from NASA's high-fidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA-561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER under predicts FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  16. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  17. Percutaneous thermal ablation: how to protect the surrounding organs.

    PubMed

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Buy, Xavier; Garnon, Julien; Enescu, Julian; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-09-01

    A variety of thermal ablation techniques have been advocated for percutaneous tumor management. Although the above techniques are considered safe, they can be complicated with unintended thermal injury to the surrounding structures, with disastrous results. In the present article we report a number of different insulation techniques (hydrodissection, gas dissection and balloon interposition, warming/cooling systems) that can be applied. Emphasis is given to the procedure-related details, and we present the advantages and drawbacks of the insulation techniques. We also provide tips on avoiding painful skin burns when treating superficial lesions. Finally, we point out the interest of temperature monitoring and how it can be achieved (use of thermocouples, fiberoptic thermosensors, or direct magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping). The above thermal insulation and temperature monitoring techniques can be applied alone or in combination. Familiarity with these techniques is essential to avoid major complications and to increase the indications of thermal ablation procedures.

  18. Advances in EXAFS Studies of Thermal Properties of Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasini, Paolo

    2007-02-02

    Thanks to the peculiar sensitivity to correlation of vibrational motion, EXAFS contains original information on thermal properties of crystals. The thermal expansions measured by EXAFS and by Bragg scattering have a different physical meaning. They can be experimentally distinguished by accurate temperature dependent measurements, leading to the evaluation of the perpendicular mean square relative displacement (MSRD). These results, besides giving a deeper insight on the connection between EXAFS and lattice dynamics, open new perspectives for studying the local origin of negative thermal expansion.

  19. Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

    2013-06-01

    Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

  20. Orion Flight Test-1 Thermal Protection System Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was originally under development to provide crew transport to the International Space Station after the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and to provide a means for the eventual return of astronauts to the Moon. With the current changes in the future direction of the United States human exploration programs, the focus of the Orion project has shifted to the project s first orbital flight test, designated Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1). The OFT-1 is currently planned for launch in July 2013 and will demonstrate the Orion vehicle s capability for performing missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), as well as extensibility beyond LEO for select, critical areas. Among the key flight test objectives are those related to validation of the re-entry aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, and the performance of the thermal protection system (TPS) when exposed to these environments. A specific flight test trajectory has been selected to provide a high energy entry beyond that which would be experienced during a typical low Earth orbit return, given the constraints imposed by the possible launch vehicles. This trajectory resulted from a trade study that considered the relative benefit of conflicting objectives from multiple subsystems, and sought to provide the maximum integrated benefit to the re-entry state-of-the-art. In particular, the trajectory was designed to provide: a significant, measureable radiative heat flux to the windward surface; data on boundary transition from laminar to turbulent flow; and data on catalytic heating overshoot on non-ablating TPS. In order to obtain the necessary flight test data during OFT-1, the vehicle will need to have an adequate quantity of instrumentation. A collection of instrumentation is being developed for integration in the OFT-1 TPS. In part, this instrumentation builds upon the work performed for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) suite to instrument the

  1. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  2. Development Of Metallic Thermal Protection System For The Expert Re-Entry Vehicle: Design Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Javad

    2011-05-01

    The thermal protection system of the EXPERT re-entry vehicle is subjected to accelerations, vibrations, acoustic and shock loads during launch and aero-heating loads and aerodynamic forces during re-entry. To fully understand the structural and thermomechanical performances of the TPS, heat transfer analysis, thermal stress analysis, and thermal buckling analysis must be performed. This requires complex three-dimensional thermal and structural models of the entire TPS including the insulation and sensors. Finite element (FE) methods are employed to assess the thermal and structural response of the TPS to the mechanical and aerothermal loads. The FE analyses results are used for the design verification and design improvement of the EXPERT thermal protection system.

  3. Advances in lightning protection that satisfies contemporary standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Roy B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the LEC, Inc. Spline Ball Ionizer (trademark) (SBI) and the Spline Ball Terminal (trademark) (SBT) families and how their use in a conventional lightning protection system can achieve strike prevention in a conventional setting. A properly completed standards based system which is composed of the SBI and SBT in a hybrid system will provide two modes of lightning protection: (1) a stroke prevention mode that reduces the risk of a strike to the protected facility in proportion to the size of that facility and the size and number of SBI/SBT's used; and (2) a Stroke Collector-Diverter System that is far superior to any system now in use because it collects strokes entering the protected area from any direction and angle.

  4. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  5. Advanced Thermal-Barrier Bond Coatings for Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secura, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    New and improved bond coatings developed for use in thermal-barrier systems on Ni, Co-, and Fe-base alloy substrates. Use of these new bond coatings, containing ytterbium instead of yttrium, significantly increased lives of resultant thermal-barrier systems. Uses include many load-bearing applications in high-temperature, hostile environments.

  6. [Thermal-spring parks within the ambit of protected areas: general trends in morphology and botany].

    PubMed

    Grossi, F; Battista, A; Ricci, B; Di Lascio, F; Gurgo, A M; Mastroianni, S

    1996-04-01

    It is remembered that, in contemporary era, the thermal parks arose in U.S.A. and in Canada: they represent the first example of national parks in the world. Are described legislation, classifications and various types of protected areas. The species of recommended plants for the formation, increase and/or improvement of italian thermal are mentioned.

  7. Fabrication of titanium thermal protection system panels by the NOR-Ti-bond process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    A method for fabricating titanium thermal protection system panels is described. The method has the potential for producing wide faying surface bonds to minimize temperature gradients and thermal stresses resulting during service at elevated temperatures. Results of nondestructive tests of the panels are presented. Concepts for improving the panel quality and for improved economy in production are discussed.

  8. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... function. II. Further Information DG-1264, was published in the Federal Register on May 02, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC or Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.106, ``Thermal Overload...

  9. Design, fabrication, and tests of a metallic shell tile thermal protection system for space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1989-01-01

    A thermal protection tile for earth-to-orbit transports is described. The tiles consist of a rigid external shell filled with a flexible insulation. The tiles tend to be thicker than the current Shuttle rigidized silica tiles for the same entry heat load but are projected to be more durable and lighter. The tiles were thermally tested for several simulated entry trajectories.

  10. Advanced Thermal Control Technologies for "CEV" (New Name: ORION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric; Westheimer, David; Ewert, Michael; Hasan, Mojib; Anderson, Molly; Tuan, George; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating several technology options for advanced human spaceflight. This presentation covers some recent developments that relate to NASA's Orion spacecraft and future Lunar missions.

  11. Corrosion resistant thermal barrier coating. [protecting gas turbines and other engine parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system for protecting metal surfaces at high temperature in normally corrosive environments is described. The thermal barrier coating system includes a metal alloy bond coating, the alloy containing nickel, cobalt, iron, or a combination of these metals. The system further includes a corrosion resistant thermal barrier oxide coating containing at least one alkaline earth silicate. The preferred oxides are calcium silicate, barium silicate, magnesium silicate, or combinations of these silicates.

  12. A radiant heating test facility for space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherborne, W. D.; Milhoan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A large scale radiant heating test facility was constructed so that thermal certification tests can be performed on the new generation of thermal protection systems developed for the space shuttle orbiter. This facility simulates surface thermal gradients, onorbit cold-soak temperatures down to 200 K, entry heating temperatures to 1710 K in an oxidizing environment, and the dynamic entry pressure environment. The capabilities of the facility and the development of new test equipment are presented.

  13. High temperature insulation materials for reradiative thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a two year program to evaluate packaged thermal insulations for use under a metallic radiative TPS of a shuttle orbiter vehicle. Evaluations demonstrated their survival for up to 100 mission reuse cycles under shuttle acoustic and thermal loads with peak temperatures of 1000 F, 1800 F, 2000 F, 2200 F and 2500 F. The specimens were composed of low density refractory fiber felts, packaged in thin gage metal foils. In addition, studies were conducted on the venting requirements of the packages, salt spray resistance of the metal foils, and the thermal conductivity of many of the insulations as a function of temperature and ambient air pressure. Data is also presented on the radiant energy transport through insulations, and back-scattering coefficients were experimentally determined as a function of source temperature.

  14. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1997--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-12

    Objectives of this program are to provide an advanced thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capabilities. This report describes the manufacturing, deposition, bonding, non-destructive analysis; maintenance, and repair.

  15. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra-efficient and low-emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttria based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  16. Advanced Multi-Component Defect Cluster Oxide Doped Zirconia-Yttria Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The advantages of using ceramic thermal barrier coatings in gas turbine engine hot sections include increased fuel efficiency and improved engine reliability. However, current thermal barrier coatings will not have the low thermal conductivity and necessary sintering resistance under higher operating temperatures and thermal gradients required by future advanced ultra efficient and low emission aircraft engines. In this paper, a novel oxide defect cluster design approach is described for achieving low thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability of the thermal barrier coating systems. This approach utilizes multi-component rare earth and other metal cluster oxide dopants that are incorporated in the zirconia-yttna based systems, thus significantly reducing coating thermal conductivity and sintering resistance by effectively promoting the formation of thermodynamically stable, essentially immobile defect clusters and/or nanoscale phases. The performance of selected plasma-sprayed cluster oxide thermal barrier coating systems has been evaluated. The advanced multi-component thermal barrier coating systems were found to have significantly lower initial and long-term thermal conductivities, and better high temperature stability. The effect of oxide cluster dopants on coating thermal conductivity, sintering resistance, oxide grain growth behavior and durability will be discussed.

  17. Today`s thermal imaging systems: Background and applications for civilian law enforcement and military force protection

    SciTech Connect

    Bisbee, T.L.; Pritchard, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    Thermal (infrared) imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, or commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. In the past, thermal imagers required cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost and maintenance requirements restricted their use. However, recent developments in reliable, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater accessibility and practicality for military as well as civilian security and force protection applications. This paper discusses recent advances in thermal imaging technology including uncooled and cryo-cooled. Applications of Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) systems are also discussed, including integration with a high-speed pan/tilt mount and remote control, video frame storage and recall, low-cost vehicle-mounted systems, and hand-held devices. Other facility installation topics will be discussed, such as site layout, assessment ranges, imager positioning, fields-of-view, sensor and alarm reporting systems, and communications links.

  18. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  19. Thermal protection of reentry vehicles by actively cooled nosetips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Hidahl, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical modeling efforts and clear-air ground test results of a transportation-cooled nosetips (TCNT) design are presented. The discrete water injection platelet TCNT described was conceived and created to achieve the performance requirements for severe reentry vehicle trajectories. Thermal performance computer modeling techniques, combing both local heat blockage and boundary layer recovery enthalpy reduction are outlined.

  20. Characterization of the thermal conductivity for Advanced Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Insulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.

    1993-07-01

    Advanced Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Insulations (TUFI) is discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet air stream. A modification of the existing Ames thermal conductivity program to predict the thermal response of these functionally gradient materials is described in the paper. The modified program was used to evaluate the effect of density, surface porosity, and density gradient through the TUFI materials on the thermal response of these insulations. Predictions using a finite-difference code and calculated thermal conductivity values from the modified program were compared with in-depth temperature measurements taken from TUFI insulations during short exposures to arc-jet hypersonic air streams.

  1. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  2. Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

  3. Advances in photo-thermal infrared imaging microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Chris; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing need for chemical imaging techniques in many fields of science and technology: forensics, materials science, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, just to name a few. While FTIR micro-spectroscopy is commonly used, its practical resolution limit of about 20 microns or more is often insufficient. Raman micro-spectroscopy provides better spatial resolution (~1 micron), but is not always practical because of samples exhibiting fluorescence or low Raman scattering efficiency. We are developing a non-contact and non-destructive technique we call photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). It involves photo-thermal heating of the sample with a tunable quantum cascade laser and measuring the resulting increase in thermal emission with an infrared detector. Photo-thermal emission spectra resemble FTIR absorbance spectra and can be acquired in both stand-off and microscopy configurations. Furthermore, PT-IRIS allows the acquisition of absorbance-like photo-thermal spectra in a reflected geometry, suitable for field applications and for in-situ study of samples on optically IR-opaque substrates (metals, fabrics, paint, glass etc.). Conventional FTIR microscopes in reflection mode measure the reflectance spectra which are different from absorbance spectra and are usually not catalogued in FTIR spectral libraries. In this paper, we continue developing this new technique. We perform a series of numerical simulations of the laser heating of samples during photo-thermal microscopy. We develop parameterized formulas to help the user pick the appropriate laser illumination power. We also examine the influence of sample geometry on spectral signatures. Finally, we measure and compare photo-thermal and reflectance spectra for two test samples.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon/Phenolic Composite Thermal Protection Materials: Atomistic to Effective Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Lawson, John W.; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation ablative thermal protection systems are expected to consist of 3D woven composite architectures. It is well known that composites can be tailored to achieve desired mechanical and thermal properties in various directions and thus can be made fit-for-purpose if the proper combination of constituent materials and microstructures can be realized. In the present work, the first, multiscale, atomistically-informed, computational analysis of mechanical and thermal properties of a present day - Carbon/Phenolic composite Thermal Protection System (TPS) material is conducted. Model results are compared to measured in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical and thermal properties to validate the computational approach. Results indicate that given sufficient microstructural fidelity, along with lowerscale, constituent properties derived from molecular dynamics simulations, accurate composite level (effective) thermo-elastic properties can be obtained. This suggests that next generation TPS properties can be accurately estimated via atomistically informed multiscale analysis.

  5. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for

  6. The development of an advanced generic solar dynamic heat receiver thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y. C.; Roschke, E. J.; Kohout, L.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced generic solar dynamic heat receiver thermal model under development which can analyze both orbital transient and orbital average conditions is discussed. This model can be used to study advanced receiver concepts, evaluate receiver concepts under development, analyze receiver thermal characteristics under various operational conditions, and evaluate solar dynamic system thermal performances in various orbit conditions. The model and the basic considerations that led to its creation are described, and results based on a set of baseline orbit, configuration, and operational conditions are presented to demonstrate the working of the receiver model.

  7. Field testing of the Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.J.E.; Hamill, D.

    1996-12-31

    AWPS is a life support system that allows a suited worker in operate in a chemically hazardous or radiologically hot environment for up to 2 hours with minimal heat stress and minimal encumbrance from his life support equipment. It consists of 3 parts: a backpack using liquid air to supply breathing gas and cooling power; a liquid cooling garment (LCG) that circulates water chilled from vaporizing and warming the cryogen; and a Level B protective garment which accommodates the low profile of the backpack, permits greater mobility and doesn`t require tape closure. The AWPS backpack and LCG are compatible with commercially available Level A protective garments. A one-hour demonstration of a AWPS prototype was done.

  8. Radiofrequency thermal treatment with chemoradiotherapy for advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHOJI, HISANORI; MOTEGI, MASAHIKO; OSAWA, KIYOTAKA; OKONOGI, NORIYUKI; OKAZAKI, ATSUSHI; ANDOU, YOSHITAKA; ASAO, TAKAYUKI; KUWANO, HIROYUKI; TAKAHASHI, TAKEO; OGOSHI, KYOJI

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that patients with a clinical complete response (CR) following radiofrequency thermal treatment exhibit significantly increased body temperature compared with other groups, whereas patients with a clinical partial response or stable disease depended on the absence or presence of output limiting symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation among treatment response, Hidaka radiofrequency (RF) output classification (HROC: termed by us) and changes in body temperature. From December 2011 to January 2014, 51 consecutive rectal cancer cases were included in this study. All patients underwent 5 RF thermal treatments with concurrent chemoradiation. Patients were classified into three groups based on HROC: with ≤9, 10–16, and ≥17 points, calculated as the sum total points of five treatments. Thirty-three patients received surgery 8 weeks after treatment, and among them, 32 resected specimens were evaluated for histological response. Eighteen patients did not undergo surgery, five because of progressive disease (PD) and 13 refused because of permanent colostomy. We demonstrated that good local control (ypCR + CR + CRPD) was observed in 32.7% of cases in this study. Pathological complete response (ypCR) was observed in 15.7% of the total 51 patients and in 24.2% of the 33 patients who underwent surgery. All ypCR cases had ≥10 points in the HROC, but there were no patients with ypCR among those with ≤9 points in the HROC. Standardization of RF thermal treatment was performed safely, and two types of patients were identified: those without or with increased temperatures, who consequently showed no or some benefit, respectively, for similar RF output thermal treatment. We propose that the HROC is beneficial for evaluating the efficacy of RF thermal treatment with chemoradiation for rectal cancer, and the thermoregulation control mechanism in individual patients may be pivotal in predicting the response to RF thermal treatment

  9. Multidimensional Testing of Thermal Protection Materials in the Arcjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Ellerby, Donald T.; Switzer, Matt R.; Squire, Thomas Howard

    2010-01-01

    Many thermal protection system materials used for spacecraft heatshields have anisotropic thermal properties, causing them to display significantly different thermal characteristics in different directions, when subjected to a heating environment during flight or arcjet tests. The anisotropic effects are enhanced in the presence of sidewall heating. This paper investigates the effects of anisotropic thermal properties of thermal protection materials coupled with sidewall heating in the arcjet environment. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and LI-2200 materials (the insulation material of Shuttle tiles) were used for this study. First, conduction-based thermal response simulations were carried out, using the Marc.Mentat finite element solver, to study the effects of sidewall heating on PICA arcjet coupons. The simulation showed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. Arcjet tests at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) at NASA Ames Research Center were performed later on instrumented coupons to obtain temperature history at sidewall and various radial locations. The details of instrumentation and experimental technique are the prime focus of this paper. The results obtained from testing confirmed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. The test results were later used to validate the two-dimensional ablation, thermal response, and sizing program, TITAN. The test data and model predictions were found to be in excellent agreement

  10. Multidimensional Tests of Thermal Protection Materials in the Arcjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Ellerby, Donald T.; Switzer, Mathew R.; Squire, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Many thermal protection system materials used for spacecraft heatshields have anisotropic thermal properties, causing them to display significantly different thermal characteristics in different directions, when subjected to a heating environment during flight or arcjet tests. This paper investigates the effects of sidewall heating coupled with anisotropic thermal properties of thermal protection materials in the arcjet environment. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and LI-2200 materials (the insulation material of Shuttle tiles) were used for this study. First, conduction-based thermal response simulations were carried out, using the Marc.Mentat finite element solver, to study the effects of sidewall heating on PICA arcjet coupons. The simulation showed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. Arcjet tests at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) at NASA Ames Research Center were performed later on instrumented coupons to obtain temperature history at sidewall and various radial locations. The details of instrumentation and experimental technique are the prime focus of this paper. The results obtained from testing confirmed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. The test results were later used to verify the two-dimensional ablation, thermal response, and sizing program, TITAN. The test data and model predictions were found to be in excellent agreement

  11. Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordlund, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Two of the three Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzles are exposed to significant reentry aeroheating loads. To ensure reusability of the Nozzle Assembly, the nozzle primary structure must not exceed specific temperature limits. Due to the thermal, pressure, and dynamic flexing of the nozzle during a mission cycle, an appropriate insulating system must have significant flexibility. Recent missions have demonstrated nozzle reentry aeroheating rates and heat loads much higher than predictions, higher than the capability of the original insulating system. A new insulating system has been developed using similar materials in an aerodynamically 'smooth' shape to both reduce the incoming heating and increase radiation cooling.

  12. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  13. Backscatter x-ray development for space vehicle thermal protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bartha, Bence B.; Hope, Dale; Vona, Paul; Born, Martin; Corak, Tony

    2011-06-23

    The Backscatter X-Ray (BSX) imaging technique is used for various single sided inspection purposes. Previously developed BSX techniques for spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) have been used for detecting defects in Space Shuttle External Tank foam insulation. The developed BSX hardware and techniques are currently being enhanced to advance Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods for future space vehicle applications. Various Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials were inspected using the enhanced BSX imaging techniques, investigating the capability of the method to detect voids and other discontinuities at various locations within each material. Calibration standards were developed for the TPS materials in order to characterize and develop enhanced BSX inspection capabilities. The ability of the BSX technique to detect both manufactured and natural defects was also studied and compared to through-transmission x-ray techniques. The energy of the x-ray, source to object distance, angle of x-ray, focal spot size and x-ray detector configurations were parameters playing a significant role in the sensitivity of the BSX technique to image various materials and defects. The image processing of the results also showed significant increase in the sensitivity of the technique. The experimental results showed BSX to be a viable inspection technique for space vehicle TPS systems.

  14. In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Thermal Protection System Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2006-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, integrated system for tile and leading edge repair (InSTALER) have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

  15. Advances in NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peecook, Keith M.; Stone, James R.

    1993-01-01

    The status of the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project for space exploration and the future plans for NTP technology are discussed. Current activities in the framework of the NTP project deal with nonnuclear material tests; instrumentation, controls, and health management; turbopumps; nozzles and nozzle extension; and an exhaust plume.

  16. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  17. Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

  18. Advanced Oxide Material Systems For 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are being developed for low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor containing combustion environments. The 1650 C T/EBC system is required to have better thermal stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance than current coating systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivity, water vapor stability and cyclic durability of selected candidate zirconia-/hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based T/EBC materials are evaluated. The test results have been used to downselect the T/EBC coating materials, and help demonstrate advanced 1650OC coatings feasibility with long-term cyclic durability.

  19. Techniques for measurement of the thermal expansion of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques available to measure small thermal displacements in flat laminates and structural tubular elements of advanced composite materials are described. Emphasis is placed on laser interferometry and the laser interferometric dilatometer system used at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. Thermal expansion data are presented for graphite-fiber reinforced 6061 and 2024 aluminum laminates and for graphite fiber reinforced AZ91 C and QH21 A magnesium laminates before and after processing to minimize or eliminate thermal strain hysteresis. Data are also presented on the effects of reinforcement volume content on thermal expansion of silicon-carbide whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum.

  20. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  1. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability, for the Advanced Turbine Systems program (gas turbine). The base program consists of three phases: Phase I, program planning (complete); Phase II, development; and Phase III (selected specimen-bench test). Work is currently being performed in Phase II.

  2. The effect of various cosmetic pretreatments on protecting hair from thermal damage by hot flat ironing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Rigoletto, R; Koelmel, D; Zhang, G; Gillece, T W; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Qu, X; Sun, C

    2011-01-01

    Hot flat irons are used to create straight hair styles. As these devices operate at temperatures over 200 °C they can cause significant damage to hair keratin. In this study, hair thermal damage and the effect of various polymeric pretreatments were investigated using FTIR imaging spectroscopy, DSC, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), AFM, SEM, and thermal image analysis. FTIR imaging spectroscopy of hair cross sections provides spatially resolved molecular information such as protein distribution and structure. This approach was used to monitor thermally induced modification of hair protein, including the conversion of α-helix to β-sheet and protein degradation. DSC measurements of thermally treated hair also demonstrated degradation of hair keratin. DVS of thermally treated hair shows the reduced water regain and lower water retention, compared to the non-thermally treated hair, which might be attributed to the protein conformation changes due to heat damage. The protection of native protein structure associated with selected polymer pretreatments leads to improved moisture restoration and water retention of hair. This contributes to heat control on repeated hot flat ironing. Thermally stressing hair led to significantly increased hair breakage when subjected to combing. These studies indicate that hair breakage can be reduced significantly when hair is pretreated with selected polymers such as VP/acrylates/lauryl methacrylate copolymer, polyquaternium-55, and a polyelectrolyte complex of PVM/MA copolymer and polyquaternium-28. In addition, polymeric pretreatments provide thermal protection against thermal degradation of keratin in the cortex as well as hair surface damage. The morphological improvement in cuticle integrity and smoothness with the polymer pretreatment plays an important role in their anti-breakage effect. Insights into structure-property relationships necessary to provide thermal protection to hair are presented.

  3. The effect of various cosmetic pretreatments on protecting hair from thermal damage by hot flat ironing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Rigoletto, R; Koelmel, D; Zhang, G; Gillece, T W; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Qu, X; Sun, C

    2011-01-01

    Hot flat irons are used to create straight hair styles. As these devices operate at temperatures over 200 °C they can cause significant damage to hair keratin. In this study, hair thermal damage and the effect of various polymeric pretreatments were investigated using FTIR imaging spectroscopy, DSC, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), AFM, SEM, and thermal image analysis. FTIR imaging spectroscopy of hair cross sections provides spatially resolved molecular information such as protein distribution and structure. This approach was used to monitor thermally induced modification of hair protein, including the conversion of α-helix to β-sheet and protein degradation. DSC measurements of thermally treated hair also demonstrated degradation of hair keratin. DVS of thermally treated hair shows the reduced water regain and lower water retention, compared to the non-thermally treated hair, which might be attributed to the protein conformation changes due to heat damage. The protection of native protein structure associated with selected polymer pretreatments leads to improved moisture restoration and water retention of hair. This contributes to heat control on repeated hot flat ironing. Thermally stressing hair led to significantly increased hair breakage when subjected to combing. These studies indicate that hair breakage can be reduced significantly when hair is pretreated with selected polymers such as VP/acrylates/lauryl methacrylate copolymer, polyquaternium-55, and a polyelectrolyte complex of PVM/MA copolymer and polyquaternium-28. In addition, polymeric pretreatments provide thermal protection against thermal degradation of keratin in the cortex as well as hair surface damage. The morphological improvement in cuticle integrity and smoothness with the polymer pretreatment plays an important role in their anti-breakage effect. Insights into structure-property relationships necessary to provide thermal protection to hair are presented. PMID:21635854

  4. The employment of a high density plasma jet for the investigation of thermal protection materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kezelis, R.; Grigaitiene, V.; Levinskas, R.; Brinkiene, K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of tests of thermal protection materials (TPM) at conditions that simulate the atmospheric re-entry of space vehicles, tested by means of a high velocity and enthalpy air plasma jet generated with a dc plasma torch. Such a high velocity and enthalpy air plasma jet allows us to investigate TPM by simulating heat flux values varying with time in accordance with real re-entry altitudes and trajectories. The main research interests include the measurements of plasma flow temperature and heat flux for the testing of materials used for thermal protection systems of space vehicles. The test results of investigations of light composite thermal protective system material and graphite are presented.

  5. Design of a Thermal and Micrometeorite Protection System for an Unmanned Lunar Cargo Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Carlos A.; Sunder, Sankar; Vestgaard, Baard

    1989-01-01

    The first vehicles to land on the lunar surface during the establishment phase of a lunar base will be unmanned lunar cargo landers. These landers will need to be protected against the hostile lunar environment for six to twelve months until the next manned mission arrives. The lunar environment is characterized by large temperature changes and periodic micrometeorite impacts. An automatically deployable and reconfigurable thermal and micrometeorite protection system was designed for an unmanned lunar cargo lander. The protection system is a lightweight multilayered material consisting of alternating layers of thermal and micrometeorite protection material. The protection system is packaged and stored above the lander common module. After landing, the system is deployed to cover the lander using a system of inflatable struts that are inflated using residual fuel (liquid oxygen) from the fuel tanks. Once the lander is unloaded and the protection system is no longer needed, the protection system is reconfigured as a regolith support blanket for the purpose of burying and protecting the common module, or as a lunar surface garage that can be used to sort and store lunar surface vehicles and equipment. A model showing deployment and reconfiguration of the protection system was also constructed.

  6. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  7. [Advance in hepatic protective formulations of traditional Chinese medicine and their quality control methods].

    PubMed

    Ju, Li-Na; Tong, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang; Yu, Jiang-Nan; Xu, Xi-Ming

    2012-10-01

    As many traditional Chinese medicines have been founded to have protective effect on liver damage in recent years, they have also got involved in increasingly wide clinical application. Meanwhile, with the development of new hepatic protective formulations of traditional Chinese medicines, we have set increasingly higher requirements for quality control methods and measures. This essay summarizes the advance in studies on hepatic protective formulations of traditional Chinese medicine and their quality control methods in the combination of relevant domestic and foreign literatures, looking into the future of the development of new hepatic protective formulations of traditional Chinese medicines.

  8. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    A complete detection, management, and control security system is absolutely essential to preempting criminal and terrorist assaults on key assets and critical infrastructure. According to Tom Ridge, former Secretary of the US Department of Homeland Security, "Voluntary efforts alone are not sufficient to provide the level of assurance Americans deserve and they must take steps to improve security." Further, it is expected that Congress will mandate private sector investment of over $20 billion in infrastructure protection between 2007 and 2015, which is incremental to funds currently being allocated to key sites by the department of Homeland Security. Nearly 500,000 individual sites have been identified by the US Department of Homeland Security as critical infrastructure sites that would suffer severe and extensive damage if a security breach should occur. In fact, one major breach in any of 7,000 critical infrastructure facilities threatens more than 10,000 people. And one major breach in any of 123 facilities-identified as "most critical" among the 500,000-threatens more than 1,000,000 people. Current visible, nightvision or near infrared imaging technology alone has limited foul-weather viewing capability, poor nighttime performance, and limited nighttime range. And many systems today yield excessive false alarms, are managed by fatigued operators, are unable to manage the voluminous data captured, or lack the ability to pinpoint where an intrusion occurred. In our 2006 paper, "Critical Infrastructure Security Confidence Through Automated Thermal Imaging", we showed how a highly effective security solution can be developed by integrating what are now available "next-generation technologies" which include: Thermal imaging for the highly effective detection of intruders in the dark of night and in challenging weather conditions at the sensor imaging level - we refer to this as the passive thermal sensor level detection building block Automated software detection

  9. Re-design and fabrication of titanium multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TPS) test panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E., Jr.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Titanium Multi-wall Thermal Protection System (TIPS) panel was re-designed to incorporate Ti-6-2-4-2 outer sheets for the hot surface, ninety degree side closures for ease of construction and through panel fastness for ease of panel removal. Thermal and structural tests were performed to verify the design. Twenty-five panels were fabricated and delivered to NASA for evaluation at Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center.

  10. Simulation of Foam Impact Effects on Components of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System. Chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Park, Young-Keun

    2004-01-01

    A series of three dimensional simulations has been performed to investigate analytically the effect of insulating foam impacts on ceramic tile and reinforced carbon-carbon components of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system. The simulations employed a hybrid particle-finite element method and a parallel code developed for use in spacecraft design applications. The conclusions suggested by the numerical study are in general consistent with experiment. The results emphasize the need for additional material testing work on the dynamic mechanical response of thermal protection system materials, and additional impact experiments for use in validating computational models of impact effects.

  11. Probabilistic Design of a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The driving requirement for design of a Mars Sample Return mission is to assure containment of the returned samples. Designing to, and demonstrating compliance with, such a requirement requires physics based tools that establish the relationship between engineer's sizing margins and probabilities of failure. The traditional method of determining margins on ablative thermal protection systems, while conservative, provides little insight into the actual probability of an over-temperature during flight. The objective of this paper is to describe a new methodology for establishing margins on sizing the thermal protection system (TPS). Results of this Monte Carlo approach are compared with traditional methods.

  12. Design of thermal protection system for 8 foot HTST combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, S.

    1973-01-01

    The combustor in the 8-foot high temperature structures tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center has encountered cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A program was conducted which analyzed the failed combustor liner hardware and determined that the mechanism of failure was vibratory fatigue. A vibration damper system using wave springs located axially between the liner T-bar and the liner support was designed as an intermediate solution to extend the life of the current two-pass regenerative air-cooled liner. The effects of liner wall thickness, cooling air passage height, stiffener ring geometry, reflective coatings, and liner material selection were investigated for these designs. Preliminary layout design arrangements including the external water-cooling system requirements, weight estimates, installation requirements and preliminary estimates of manufacturing costs were prepared for the most promissing configurations. A state-of-the-art review of thermal barrier coatings and an evaluation of reflective coatings for the gasside surface of air-cooled liners are included.

  13. Thermal Properties of Oxides With Magnetoplumbite Structure for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Oxides having magnetoplumbite structure are promising candidate materials for applications as high temperature thermal barrier coatings because of their high thermal stability, high thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity. In this study, powders of LaMgAl11O19, GdMgAl11O19, SmMgAl11O19, and Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxides were synthesized by citric acid sol-gel method and hot pressed into disk specimens. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of these oxide materials were measured from room temperature to 1500 C. The average CTE value was found to be approx.9.6x10(exp -6)/C. Thermal conductivity of these magnetoplumbite-based oxide materials was also evaluated using steady-state laser heat flux test method. The effects of doping on thermal properties were also examined. Thermal conductivity of the doped Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 composition was found to be lower than that of the undoped GdMgAl11O19. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient was found to be independent of the oxide composition and appears to be controlled by the magnetoplumbite crystal structure. Thermal conductivity testing of LaMgAl11O19 and LaMnAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxide coatings plasma sprayed on NiCrAlY/Rene N5 superalloy substrates indicated resistance of these coatings to sintering even at temperatures as high as 1600 C.

  14. Dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Liang Wei, Jin-Long

    2015-03-15

    We study the dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in terms of genuinely tripartite concurrence, lower bound of concurrence and tripartite geometric quantum discord in a three-qubit system interacting with independent thermal bath. By comparing the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord for initial GHZ state and W state, we find that W state is more robust than GHZ state, and quantum discord performs better than entanglement against the decoherence induced by the thermal bath. When the bath temperature is low, for the initial GHZ state, combining weak measurement and measurement reversal is necessary for a successful protection of quantum correlations. But for the initial W state, the protection depends solely upon the measurement reversal. In addition, the protection cannot usually be realized irrespective of the initial states as the bath temperature increases.

  15. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  16. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John; Hooker, Jeffery; Immer, Christopher; Walker, James

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signals generated from projectile impacts on reinforced and advanced carbon/carbon (RCC and ACC) panels, fired from a compressed-gas gun, identify the type and severity of damage sustained by the target. This type of testing is vital in providing the required "return to flight" (RTF) data needed to ensure continued and safe operation of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet. The gas gun at Kennedy Space Center is capable of propelling 12-inch by 3-inch cylinders of external tank (ET) foam at exit velocities exceeding 1,000 feet per second. Conventional AE analysis techniques require time domain processing of impulse data, along with amplitude distribution analysis. It is well known that identical source excitations can produce a wide range of AE signals amplitudes. In order to satisfy RTF goals, it is necessary to identify impact energy levels above and below damage thresholds. Spectral analysis techniques involving joint time frequency analysis (JTFA) are used to reinforce time domain AE analysis. JTFA analysis of the AE signals consists of short-time Fourier transforms (STFT) and the Huang-Hilbert transform (HHT). The HHT provides a very good measure of the instantaneous frequency of impulse events dominated by a single component. Identifying failure modes and cracking of fibers from flexural and/or extensional mode acoustic signals will help support in-flight as well as postflight impact analysis.

  17. Recent advances of thermally responsive nanogels for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Xu, Hongjiang; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Thermally responsive nanogel drug delivery systems (TRNDDS) have been widely investigated as a new strategy for active targeting tumor therapy, as these can accumulate on the tumor site and/or release the payload at the desired site by structure changes rapidly once stimulated by temperature changes. In this review, we discuss the evolution of TRNDDS and future perspectives for antitumor drug and gene delivery. With further understanding of the specificity of tumor site at the cellular and molecular level, in parallel with the development of nanomaterial design and preparation, TRNDDS show great potential for tumor targeting therapy. PMID:26478174

  18. Earth Entry Requirements for Mars, Europa and Enceladus Sample Return Missions: A Thermal Protection System Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Ellerby, Don; Mahzari, Milad; Peterson, Keith; Stackpoole, Mairead; Young, Zion

    2016-01-01

    This oral presentation will be given at the 13th International Planetary Probe Workshop on June 14th, 2016 and will cover the drivers for reliability and the challenges faced in selecting and designing the thermal protection system (TPS). In addition, an assessment is made on new emerging TPS related technologies that could help with designs to meet the planetary protection requirements to prevent backward (Earth) contamination by biohazardous samples.

  19. Advanced phase change composite by thermally annealed defect-free graphene for thermal energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xin, Guoqing; Sun, Hongtao; Scott, Spencer Michael; Yao, Tiankai; Lu, Fengyuan; Shao, Dali; Hu, Tao; Wang, Gongkai; Ran, Guang; Lian, Jie

    2014-09-10

    Organic phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized as latent heat energy storage and release media for effective thermal management. A major challenge exists for organic PCMs in which their low thermal conductivity leads to a slow transient temperature response and reduced heat transfer efficiency. In this work, 2D thermally annealed defect-free graphene sheets (GSs) can be obtained upon high temperature annealing in removing defects and oxygen functional groups. As a result of greatly reduced phonon scattering centers for thermal transport, the incorporation of ultralight weight and defect free graphene applied as nanoscale additives into a phase change composite (PCC) drastically improve thermal conductivity and meanwhile minimize the reduction of heat of fusion. A high thermal conductivity of the defect-free graphene-PCC can be achieved up to 3.55 W/(m K) at a 10 wt % graphene loading. This represents an enhancement of over 600% as compared to pristine graphene-PCC without annealing at a comparable loading, and a 16-fold enhancement than the pure PCM (1-octadecanol). The defect-free graphene-PCC displays rapid temperature response and superior heat transfer capability as compared to the pristine graphene-PCC or pure PCM, enabling transformational thermal energy storage and management.

  20. Effects of Doping on Thermal Conductivity of Pyrochlore Oxides for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2006-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides of general composition, A2B2O7, where A is a 3(+) cation (La to Lu) and B is a 4(+) cation (Zr, Hf, Ti, etc.) have high melting point, relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity which make them suitable for applications as high-temperature thermal barrier coatings. The effect of doping at the A site on the thermal conductivity of a pyrochlore oxide La2Zr2O7, has been investigated. Oxide powders of various compositions La2Zr2O7, La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 were synthesized by the citric acid sol-gel method. These powders were hot pressed into discs and used for thermal conductivity measurements using a steady-state laser heat flux test technique. The rare earth oxide doped pyrochlores La(1.7)Gd(0.3)Zr2O7, La(1.7)Yb(0.3)Zr2O7 and La(1.7)Gd(0.15)Yb(0.15)Zr2O7 had lower thermal conductivity than the un-doped La2Zr2O7. The Gd2O3 and Yb2O3 co-doped composition showed the lowest thermal conductivity.

  1. Evaluation of coated columbium for thermal protection systems application. [spacecraft heat shielding material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummler, D. R.; Black, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Coated columbium alloys were evaluated for thermal protection system (TPS) application in the maximum operating temperature range from 1370 to 1590 K. Evaluation of materials combinations, subsize panels, and single panel TPS led to the development of a full-size nine-panel TPS array. This array was subjected to simulated shuttle missions of both thermal and acoustic loading. Results are presented which illustrate the structural and thermal adequacy under uniform heating and manufacturability of a full-size coated columbium-alloy TPS which is lightweight, reliable, and reusable.

  2. Thermal Cycling of Advanced Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; CA Lewisohn; M Singh; RE Loehman

    2003-08-25

    Thermal cycling was conducted on the compressive mica seals at 800 degrees C in air. Thin ({approx}0.1 mm) Muscovite mica was pressed between a metal tube and an alumina substrate and tested for leak rates at a stress of 100 psi in the advanced design and the plain design. The advanced design involves adding two glass interlayers and was found to greatly reduce the leak rates. Two metals (Inconcl No.600 and SS430) with high and low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) were used to evaluate the effect of CTE mismatch on thermal cycling. The results showed that the leak rates were lower for the advanced design than the plain micas. In addition, using the lower CTE (SS430) metal tube resulted in lower leak rates as compared to Inconel No.600 metal (high CTE). In general, the leak rates abruptly increased during the first couple of cycles, and the

  3. Advanced development receiver thermal vacuum tests with cold wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    The first ever testing of a full size solar dynamic heat receiver using high temperature thermal energy storage was completed. The heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements for operation on the Space Station Freedom. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partially simulate a low Earth orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to produce flux distributions typical of candidate concentrators. A closed Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles were completed during the test conduct period. The test hardware, execution of testing, test data, and post test inspections are described.

  4. Advances in Moire interferometry for thermal response of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, E. W., Jr.; Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.; Hyer, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental technique for the precise measurement of the thermal response of both sides of a laminated composite coupon specimen uses Moire interferometry with fringe multiplication which yields a sensitivity of 833 nm (32.8 micro in.) per fringe. The reference gratings used are virtual gratings and are formed by partially mirrorized glass prisms in close proximity to the specimen. Results are compared with both results obtained from tests which used Moire interferometry on one side of composite laminates, and with those predicted by classical lamination theory. The technique is shown to be capable of producing the sensitivity and accuracy necessary to measure a wide range of thermal responses and to detect small side to side variations in the measured response. Tests were conducted on four laminate configurations of T300/5208 graphite epoxy over a temperature range of 297 K (75 F) to 422 K (300 F). The technique presented allows for the generation of reference gratings for temperature regimes well outside that used in these tests.

  5. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm. PMID:25773383

  6. Flight Set 360L006 STS-34 field joint protection system, thermal protection system, and systems tunnel components, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the thermal protection system, field joint protection system, and systems tunnel components of Flight Set 360L006, are documented, as evaluated by postflight hardware inspection. The condition of both motors was similar to previous flights. Sixteen aft edge hits were noted on the ground environment instrumentation thermal protection system. Each hit left a clean substrate, indicating that the damage was caused by nozzle severance debris and/or water impact. No National Space and Transporation System debris criteria for missing thermal protection system were violated. One 5.0 by 1.0 in. unbond was observed on the left hand center field joint K5NA closeout and was elevated to an in-flight anomaly (STS-34-M-4) by the NASA Ice/Debris team. Aft edge damage to the K5NA and an associated black streak indicate that burning debris from the nozzle severance system was the likely cause of the damage. Minor divots caused by debris were seen on previous flights, but this is the first occurrence of a K5NA unbond. Since the unbond occurred after booster separation there is no impact on flight safety and no corrective actions was taken. The right hand center field joint primary heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test after joint closeout. The heater was then disabled by opening the circuit breaker, and the redundant heater was used. The redundant heater performed nominally during the launch countdown. A similar condition occurred on Flight 4 when a secondary joint heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test.

  7. Heat Shielding Characteristics and Thermostructural Performance of a Superalloy Honeycomb Sandwich Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Heat-transfer, thermal bending, and mechanical buckling analyses have been performed on a superalloy "honeycomb" thermal protection system (TPS) for future hypersonic flight vehicles. The studies focus on the effect of honeycomb cell geometry on the TPS heat-shielding performance, honeycomb cell wall buckling characteristics, and the effect of boundary conditions on the TPS thermal bending behavior. The results of the study show that the heat-shielding performance of a TPS panel is very sensitive to change in honeycomb core depth, but insensitive to change in honeycomb cell cross-sectional shape. The thermal deformations and thermal stresses in the TPS panel are found to be very sensitive to the edge support conditions. Slight corrugation of the honeycomb cell walls can greatly increase their buckling strength.

  8. An advanced Thermal-FSI approach to flow heating/cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badur, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zakrzewski, W.; Sławiński, D.; Kornet, S.; Kowalczyk, T.; Hernet, J.; Piotrowski, R.; Felincjancik, J.; Ziółkowski, P. J.

    2014-08-01

    Actually, two-way thermal-energy exchange between working fluid and solid material of a casing is a leading problem for modern - semi automatic - design techniques. Many questions should be solved, especially, the turbulent mode of thermal energy transport both in fluid and solid, should be re-examined and reformulated from the primary principles. In the present paper, a group of researchers from Energy Conversion Department of IMP PAN at Gdańsk, tries to summarise a last three-years efforts towards to mathematical modelling of advanced models of thermal energy transport. This extremely difficult problem in "thermal-FSI" ("Fluid Solid Interaction") means that the both for solid and fluid mathematical model of a surface layer should be self-equilibrated and self-concise. Taking these requirements into account, an advanced Reynolds-Stanton analogy has been discussed and implemented. Some numerical examples concerning of the benchmarks experiments and industrial applications have also been developed and presented.

  9. Heat Shield Employing Cured Thermal Protection Material Blocks Bonded in a Large-Cell Honeycomb Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a new way to integrate thermal protection materials on external surfaces of vehicles that experience the severe heating environments of atmospheric entry from space. Cured blocks of thermal protection materials are bonded into a compatible, large-cell honeycomb matrix that can be applied on the external surfaces of the vehicles. The honeycomb matrix cell size, and corresponding thermal protection material block size, is envisioned to be between 1 and 4 in. (.2.5 and 10 cm) on a side, with a depth required to protect the vehicle. The cell wall thickness is thin, between 0.01 and 0.10 in. (.0.025 and 0.25 cm). A key feature is that the honeycomb matrix is attached to the vehicle fs unprotected external surface prior to insertion of the thermal protection material blocks. The attachment integrity of the honeycomb can then be confirmed over the full range of temperature and loads that the vehicle will experience. Another key feature of the innovation is the use of uniform-sized thermal protection material blocks. This feature allows for the mass production of these blocks at a size that is convenient for quality control inspection. The honeycomb that receives the blocks must have cells with a compatible set of internal dimensions. The innovation involves the use of a faceted subsurface under the honeycomb. This provides a predictable surface with perpendicular cell walls for the majority of the blocks. Some cells will have positive tapers to accommodate mitered joints between honeycomb panels on each facet of the subsurface. These tapered cells have dimensions that may fall within the boundaries of the uniform-sized blocks.

  10. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  11. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  12. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet engine fuels has five components: development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer-sized and micrometer particles suspended in fuels during thermal stresses; characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct coal liquefaction. Progress is described.

  13. Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Mumm, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive

  14. Advanced wellbore thermal simulator GEOTEMP2 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, L.A.; Duda, L.E.

    1984-11-01

    GEOTEMP2 is a wellbore thermal simulator computer code designed for geothermal drilling and production applications. The code treats natural and forced convection and conduction within the wellbore and heat conduction within the surrounding rock matrix. A variety of well operations can be modeled including injection, production, forward, and reverse circulation with gas or liquid, gas or liquid drilling, and two-phase steam injection and production. Well completion with several different casing sizes and cement intervals can be modeled. The code allows variables suchas flow rate to change with time enabling a realistic treatment of well operations. This user manual describes the input required to properly operate the code. Ten sample problems are included which illustrate all the code options. Complete listings of the code and the output of each sample problem are provided.

  15. Innovative technical advances in the application of regenerative thermal oxidizers

    SciTech Connect

    Grzanka, R.; Truppi, T.

    1999-07-01

    Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (RTOs) have been applied in industry for over twenty (20) years to reduce the emissions of Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere from industrial process emissions. The Clean Air Act and its amendments have established a regulatory framework setting standards for allowable levels of VOC emissions. Several forces are driving the increasing use and acceptance of this technology: (1) High efficiency and increasing stringent standards require higher destruction efficiency; (2) Low operating cost and control of emission streams with less VOCs (therefore, less fuel value) causing higher use of natural gas for combustion; (3) Low NO{sub x}--the overlapping concern of NO{sub x} generation from the combustion process; (4) Low process upsets with improved productivity of industrial process require continuous integration of VOC abatement equipment; and (5) Reduced capital cost--capital cost criteria is $/ton of VOC abated. The latest development in RTO technology is the Single Can Oxidizer (SCO). This regenerative thermal oxidizer is the accumulation of developments in many subsystems of RTOs, combined with a dramatic new configuration. Several features of the system offer unique benefits to industrial end users: (1) Single can configuration gives reduced weight, material usage, and cost; (2) Rotary valve design gives smooth operation, and low pressure fluctuations; (3) Structured block heat recovery media reduces pressure drop, and lowers HP/operating cost; and (4) SMART system lowers NO{sub x} output/reduced operation cost. This paper will present a discussion of the features listed above. In addition, it will provide analytical documentation of test results for a full scale commercial unit.

  16. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

    1996-01-01

    The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

  17. Altitude Effects on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance; A Study of an Alternative Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene; Wright, Bill; Orchard, David; Oleskiw, Myron

    2015-01-01

    The quest for more energy-efficient green aircraft, dictates that all systems, including the ice protection system (IPS), be closely examined for ways to reduce energy consumption and to increase efficiency. A thermal ice protection systems must protect the aircraft from the hazardous effects of icing, and yet it needs to do so as efficiently as possible. The system can no longer be afforded the degree of over-design in power usage they once were. To achieve these more exacting designs, a better understanding of the heat and mass transport phenomena involved during an icing encounter is needed.

  18. Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL EVOLUTION IN THE MAGNETIC PROTECTION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian; Cuartas, Pablo A.; Hoyos, Jaime H. E-mail: sbustama@pegasus.udea.edu.co E-mail: jhhoyos@udem.edu.co

    2013-06-10

    Magnetic protection of potentially habitable planets plays a central role in determining their actual habitability and/or the chances of detecting atmospheric biosignatures. Here we develop a thermal evolution model of potentially habitable Earth-like planets and super-Earths (SEs). Using up-to-date dynamo-scaling laws, we predict the properties of core dynamo magnetic fields and study the influence of thermal evolution on their properties. The level of magnetic protection of tidally locked and unlocked planets is estimated by combining simplified models of the planetary magnetosphere and a phenomenological description of the stellar wind. Thermal evolution introduces a strong dependence of magnetic protection on planetary mass and rotation rate. Tidally locked terrestrial planets with an Earth-like composition would have early dayside magnetopause distances between 1.5 and 4.0 R{sub p} , larger than previously estimated. Unlocked planets with periods of rotation {approx}1 day are protected by magnetospheres extending between 3 and 8 R{sub p} . Our results are robust in comparison with variations in planetary bulk composition and uncertainties in other critical model parameters. For illustration purposes, the thermal evolution and magnetic protection of the potentially habitable SEs GL 581d, GJ 667Cc, and HD 40307g were also studied. Assuming an Earth-like composition, we found that the dynamos of these planets are already extinct or close to being shut down. While GL 581d is the best protected, the protection of HD 40307g cannot be reliably estimated. GJ 667Cc, even under optimistic conditions, seems to be severely exposed to the stellar wind, and, under the conditions of our model, has probably suffered massive atmospheric losses.

  20. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  1. Effect of NASA advanced designs on thermal behavior of Ni-H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga D.

    1987-01-01

    As part of an overall effort to advance the technology of nickel-hydrogen batteries for low Earth orbit (LEO) applications, advanced designs for individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells have been conceived. These designs incorporate alternative methods of oxygen recombination which affect the thermal behavior of the cells. The effect of these oxygen recombination methods on the cell temperature profiles is examined.

  2. Advanced Thermal Emission Imaging Systems Definition and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, Karl; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Raytheon Company, is pleased to submit this quarterly progress report of the work performed in the third quarter of Year 2 of the Advanced THEMIS Project, July through September 2002. We review here progress in the proposed tasks. During July through September 2002 progress was made in two major tasks, Spectral Response Characterization and Flight Instrument Definition. Because of staffing problems and technical problems earlier in the program we have refocused the remaining time and budget on the key technical tasks. Current technical problems with a central piece of test equipment has lead us to request a 1 quarter extension to the period of performance. This request is being made through a separate letter independent of this report.

  3. Thermal blanket insulation for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of weaving Nextel ceramic and Nicalon silicon carbide yarns into integrally woven, three dimensional fluted core fabrics was demonstrated. Parallel face fabrics joined with woven fabric ribs to form triangular cross section flutes between the faces were woven into three single and one double layer configuration. High warp yarn density in the double layer configuration caused considerable yarn breakage during weaving. The flutes of all four fabrics were filled with mandrels made from Q-Fiber Felt and FRCI-20-12 to form candidate insulation panels for advanced Space Transportation Systems. Procedures for preparing and inserting the mandrels were developed. Recommendations are made on investigating alternate methods for filling the flutes with insulation, and for improving the weaving of these types of fabrics.

  4. Robotic system for the servicing of the orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Todd; Bennett, Richard; Dowling, Kevin; Manouchehri, Davoud; Cooper, Eric; Cowan, Cregg

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a mobile robotic system to process orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. This work was justified by a TPS automation study which identified tile rewaterproofing and visual inspection as excellent applications for robotic automation.

  5. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  6. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  7. Identifying, protecting and restoring fine-scale thermal heterogeneity in Oregon coastal streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional role of thermal heterogeneity to fish in warm streams has been well recognized in the scientific literature, and is increasingly invoked as an important aspect of biodiversity conservation. Water temperature standards designed to protect cold-water taxa are also be...

  8. Identifying, Protecting, and Restoring (?) Fine-Scale Thermal Heterogeneity in Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional role of thermal heterogeneity to fish in warm streams has been well recognized in the scientific literature, and is increasingly invoked as an important aspect of biodiversity conservation. Water temperature standards designed to protect cold-water taxa are also be...

  9. Design, development and test of shuttle/Centaur G-prime cryogenic tankage thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Richard H.; Macneil, Peter N.; England, James E.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal protection systems for the shuttle/Centaur would have had to provide fail-safe thermal protection during prelaunch, launch ascent, and on-orbit operations as well as during potential abort. The thermal protection systems selected used a helium-purged polyimide foam beneath three rediation shields for the liquid-hydrogen tank and radiation shields only for the liquid-oxygen tank (three shields on the tank sidewall and four on the aft bulkhead). A double-walled vacuum bulkhead separated the two tanks. The liquid-hydrogen tank had one 0.75-in-thick layer of foam on the forward bulkhead and two layers on the larger area sidewall. Full scale tests of the flight vehicle in a simulated shuttle cargo bay that was purged with gaseous nitrogen gave total prelaunch heating rates of 88,500 Btu/hr and 44,000 Btu/hr for the liquid-hydrogen and -oxygen tanks, respectively. Calorimeter tests on a representative sample of the liquid-hydrogen tank sidewall thermal protection system indicated that the measured unit heating rate would rapidly decrease from the prelaunch rate of approx 100 Btu/hr/sq ft to a desired rate of less than 1.3 Btu/hr/sq ft once on orbit.

  10. Development of a Sheathed Miniature Aerothermal Reentry Thermocouple for Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Edward R.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Oishi, Tomo; Santos, Jose; Mach, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Sheathed Miniature Aerothermal Reentry Thermocouple is a micro-miniature thermocouple for high temperature measurement in extreme environments. It is available for use in Thermal Protection System materials for ground testing and flight. This paper discusses the heritage, and design of the instrument. Experimental and analytical methods used to verify its performance and limitations are described.

  11. GCD TechPort Data Sheets Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project consists of three distinct project elements: the 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D MAT) project element; the Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System (CA-TPS) project element; and the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project element. 3D MAT seeks to design, develop and deliver a game changing material solution based on 3-dimensional weaving and resin infusion approach for manufacturing a material that can function as a robust structure as well as a thermal protection system. CA-TPS seeks to develop and deliver a conformal ablative material designed to be efficient and capable of withstanding peak heat flux up to 500 W/ sq cm, peak pressure up to 0.4 atm, and shear up to 500 Pa. HEEET is developing a new ablative TPS that takes advantage of state-of-the-art 3D weaving technologies and traditional manufacturing processes to infuse woven preforms with a resin, machine them to shape, and assemble them as a tiled solution on the entry vehicle substructure or heatshield.

  12. Development of thermal runaway preventing ZnO varistor for surge protective device.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Young-Sung; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Jea-Chul; Lee, Sung-Gap

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the centre of electrode is suggested for heat conduction. Therefore, the specific reflow soldering process is needed. The comparison of temperature difference among the different areas of ZnO varistors is analyzed. With the nominal surge current, thermal behavior is analyzed. The operation point of temperature for disconnection is proposed. Accordingly, the thermal runaway-preventing ZnO varistors were covered with a fusible alloy, i.e., a thermal fuse, in the process of manufacture, which is expected to ensure there the liability of being resistant to lightning discharge and to ensure stability against thermal runaway in the failure mode. Additionally, it is expected to reduce much more limit voltage than the existing products to which the fuse was separately applied. The thermal runaway-preventing ZnO varistor of the surge protection devices can be widely used as part of the protection provisions of lightning discharge and surge protection demanded in connection with power IT about Green Growth which is nowadays becoming the buzzword in the electric power industry. PMID:25970989

  13. Aerodynamic heating environment definition/thermal protection system selection for the HL-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, K. E.; Stone, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Definition of the aerothermal environment is critical to any vehicle such as the HL-20 Personnel Launch System that operates within the hypersonic flight regime. Selection of an appropriate thermal protection system design is highly dependent on the accuracy of the heating-environment prediction. It is demonstrated that the entry environment determines the thermal protection system design for this vehicle. The methods used to predict the thermal environment for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle are described. Comparisons of the engineering solutions with computational fluid dynamic predictions, as well as wind-tunnel test results, show good agreement. The aeroheating predictions over several critical regions of the vehicle, including the stagnation areas of the nose and leading edges, windward centerline and wing surfaces, and leeward surfaces, are discussed. Results of predictions based on the engineering methods found within the MINIVER aerodynamic heating code are used in conjunction with the results of the extensive wind-tunnel tests on this configuration to define a flight thermal environment. Finally, the selection of the thermal protection system based on these predictions and current technology is described.

  14. Advanced Thermal Storage for Central Receivers with Supercritical Coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Bruce D.

    2010-06-15

    The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept. The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver, two-tank (hot and cold) nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Plant Designation Receiver Fluid Thermal Storage Rankine Cycle Subcritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Subcritical Supercritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical Low temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Low temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Several conclusions have been drawn from the results of the study, as follows: 1) The use of supercritical H2O as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is likely not a practical approach. The specific heat of the fluid is a strong function of the temperatures at values near 400 °C, and the temperature profile in the bed during a charging cycle is markedly different than the profile during a discharging cycle. 2) The use of supercritical CO2 as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is judged to be technically feasible. Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory. The unit cost of the two-tank nitrate salt system is approximately $24/kWht, while the unit cost of the high pressure thermocline system is nominally 10 times as high. 3) For the supercritical fluids, the outer crown temperatures of the receiver tubes are in the range of 700 to 800 °C. At temperatures of 700 °C and above

  15. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  16. Wireless Subsurface Microsensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Watters, David G.; Pallix, Joan B.; Bahr, Alfred J.; Huestis, David L.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and SRI International to develop 'SensorTags,' radio frequency identification devices coupled with event-recording sensors, that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. Two prototype SensorTag designs containing thermal fuses to indicate a temperature overlimit are presented and discussed.

  17. Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) a Novel Approach to Meet NASA's Most Demanding Reentry Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    NASA's future robotic missions to Venus and outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid-density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust Thermal Protection System (TPS) however its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high heat fluxes, pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This presentation will summarize maturation of the WTPS project.

  18. A new approach to characterize the effect of fabric deformation on thermal protective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Yehu; Wang, Yunyi

    2012-04-01

    It is very important to evaluate thermal protective performance (TPP) in laboratory-simulated fire scenes as accurately as possible. For this paper, to thoroughly understand the effect of fabric deformation on basic physical properties and TPP of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to flash fire, a new modified TPP testing apparatus was developed. Different extensions were employed to simulate the various extensions displayed during different body motions. The tests were also carried out with different air gaps. The results showed a significant decrease in air permeability after deformation. However, the change of thickness was slight. The fabric deformation had a complicated effect on thermal protection with different air gaps. The change of TPP depended on the balance between the surface contact area and the thermal insulation. The newly developed testing apparatus could be well employed to evaluate the effect of deformation on TPP of flame-resistant fabrics.

  19. Filler bar heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Patten, A. B.; Hamilton, H. H., II

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to investigate the excessive heating in the tile to tile gaps of the Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System due to stepped tiles. The excessive heating was evidence by visible discoloration and charring of the filler bar and strain isolation pad that is used in the attachment of tiles to the aluminum substrate. Two tile locations on the Shuttle orbiter were considered, one on the lower surface of the fuselage and one on the lower surface of the wing. The gap heating analysis involved the calculation of external and internal gas pressures and temperatures, internal mass flow rates, and the transient thermal response of the thermal protection system. The results of the analysis are presented for the fuselage and wing location for several step heights. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot gas flow in the tile gaps are also presented.

  20. Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

  1. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James E.; Sabharwall, Piyush; Yoon, Su -Jong; Housley, Gregory K.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  2. Thermal management of advanced fuel cell power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Hedstrom, J.; Huff, J.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that fuel cell devices are particularly attractive for the high-efficiency, high-reliability space hardware necessary to support upcoming space missions. These low-temperature hydrogen-oxygen systems necessarily operate with two-phase water. In either PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) or AFCs (alkaline fuel cells), engineering design must be critically focused on both stack temperature control and on the relative humidity control necessary to sustain appropriate conductivity within the ionic conductor. Water must also be removed promptly from the hardware. Present designs for AFC space hardware accomplish thermal management through two coupled cooling loops, both driven by a heat transfer fluid, and involve a recirculation fan to remove water and heat from the stack. There appears to be a certain advantage in using product water for these purposes within PEM hardware, because in that case a single fluid can serve both to control stack temperature, operating simultaneously as a heat transfer medium and through evaporation, and to provide the gas-phase moisture levels necessary to set the ionic conductor at appropriate performance levels. Moreover, the humidification cooling process automatically follows current loads. This design may remove the necessity for recirculation gas fans, thus demonstrating the long-term reliability essential for future space power hardware.

  3. Advanced microprocessor based power protection system using artificial neural network techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Kalam, A.; Zayegh, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an intelligent embedded microprocessor based system for fault classification in power system protection system using advanced 32-bit microprocessor technology. The paper demonstrates the development of protective relay to provide overcurrent protection schemes for fault detection. It also describes a method for power fault classification in three-phase system based on the use of neural network technology. The proposed design is implemented and tested on a single line three phase power system in power laboratory. Both the hardware and software development are described in detail.

  4. Advanced Two-Dimensional Thermal Neutron Detectors for Scattering Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, J.; Harder, J.; Mahler, G.J.; Makowiecki, D.S.; Mead, J.A.; Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B.

    2002-11-18

    Advances in neutron scattering studies will be given a large boost with the advent of new spallation and reactor sources at present under consideration or construction. An important element for future experiments is a commensurate improvement in neutron detection techniques. At Brookhaven, a development program is under way for greatly increasing the angular coverage, rate capability and resolution of detectors for scattering studies. For example, a curved detector with angular coverage of 120{sup o} by 15{sup o} has recently been developed for protein crystallography at a spallation source. Based on neutron detection using {sup 3}He, the detector has the following major, new attributes: eight identical proportional wire segments operating in parallel, a single gas volume with seamless readout at segment boundaries, parallax errors eliminated in the horizontal plane by the detector's appropriate radius of curvature, high-throughput front-end electronics, position decoding based on high performance digital signal processing. The detector has a global rate capability greater than 1 million per second, position resolution less than 1.5 mm FWHM, timing resolution about 1 {micro}s, efficiency of 50% and 90% at 1{angstrom} and 4 {angstrom} respectively, and an active area 1.5 m x 20 cm.

  5. Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

  6. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment.

  7. 31 CFR 13.4 - Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests. 13.4 Section 13.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN...

  8. 31 CFR 13.4 - Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests. 13.4 Section 13.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN...

  9. 31 CFR 13.4 - Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests. 13.4 Section 13.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN...

  10. 31 CFR 13.4 - Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requests for protection and advance notices of reimbursement requests. 13.4 Section 13.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN...

  11. Low-Thermal-Conductivity Pyrochlore Oxide Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    When turbine engines operate at higher temperatures, they consume less fuel, have higher efficiencies, and have lower emissions. The upper-use temperatures of the base materials (superalloys, silicon-based ceramics, etc.) used for the hot-section components of turbine engines are limited by the physical, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics of these materials. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied as thin layers on the surfaces of these materials to further increase the operating temperatures. The current state-of-the-art TBC material in commercial use is partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is applied on engine components by plasma spraying or by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. At temperatures higher than 1000 C, YSZ layers are prone to sintering, which increases thermal conductivity and makes them less effective. The sintered and densified coatings can also reduce thermal stress and strain tolerance, which can reduce the coating s durability significantly. Alternate TBC materials with lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance are needed to further increase the operating temperature of turbine engines.

  12. Advanced modeling of thermal NDT problems: from buried landmines to defects in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.; Burleigh, Douglas D.; Klimov, Alexey G.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced thermal models that can be used in the detection of buried landmines and the TNDT (thermographic nondestructive testing) of composites are discussed. The interdependence between surface temperature signals and various complex parameters, such as surface and volumetric moisture, the shape of a heat pulse, material anisotropy, etc., is demonstrated.

  13. Thermal, Radiation and Impact Protective Shields (TRIPS) for Robotic and Human Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, M. P.; Arnold, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    New concepts for protective shields for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEVs) and planetary probes offer improved mission safety and affordability. Hazards include radiation from cosmic rays and solar particle events, hypervelocity impacts from orbital debris/ micrometeorites, and the extreme heating environment experienced during entry into planetary atmospheres. The traditional approach for the design of protection systems for these hazards has been to create single-function shields, i.e. ablative and blanket-based heat shields for thermal protection systems (TPS), polymer or other low-molecular-weight materials for radiation shields, and multilayer, Whipple-type shields for protection from hypervelocity impacts. This paper introduces an approach for the development of a single, multifunctional protective shield, employing nanotechnology- based materials, to serve simultaneously as a TPS, an impact shield and as the first line of defense against radiation. The approach is first to choose low molecular weight ablative TPS materials, (existing and planned for development) and add functionalized carbon nanotubes. Together they provide both thermal and radiation (TR) shielding. Next, impact protection (IP) is furnished through a tough skin, consisting of hard, ceramic outer layers (to fracture the impactor) and sublayers of tough, nanostructured fabrics to contain the debris cloud from the impactor before it can penetrate the spacecraft s interior.

  14. The Design and Testing of the LSSIF Advanced Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Robert A.; Keller, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF) provides a platform to design and evaluate advanced manned space systems at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The LSSIF Early Human Testing Initiative requires the integration of such subsystems to enable human occupancy of the 6 meter chamber for a 90 day closed volume test. The Advanced Thermal Control System (TCS) is an important component of the integrated system by supplying coolant to the subsystems within the chamber, such as the Air Revitalization System. The TCS incorporates an advanced high efficiency, heat pump to reject waste heat from the chamber to an external sink or 'lift' temperature that emulates a Lunar environment. The heat pump is the High Lift Heat Pump, developed by Foster-Miller, Inc., and is the main test article of the TCS. The heat pump prototype utilizes a non-CFC refrigerant in a design where the thermal requirements exceed existing terrestrial technology. These operating requirements provide a unique opportunity to design and test an advanced integrated thermal system and the associated controls. The design, control, and systems integration of the heat pump and the TCS also have terrestrial technology application. This paper addresses the design of the TCS and the heat pump, along with the control scheme to fully test the heat pump. Design approaches utilized in the LSSIF TCS are promoted for implementation in terrestrial thermal systems. The results of the preliminary thermal and fluid analyses used to develop the control of the thermal systems will also be discussed. The paper includes objectives for the 90 day human test and the test setup. Finally, conclusions will be drawn and recommendations for Earth design application are submitted.

  15. Protection heater design validation for the LARP magnets using thermal imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Marchevsky, M.; Turqueti, M.; Cheng, D. W.; Felice, H.; Sabbi, G.; Salmi, T.; Stenvall, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Ferracin, P.; et al

    2016-03-16

    Protection heaters are essential elements of a quench protection scheme for high-field accelerator magnets. Various heater designs fabricated by LARP and CERN have been already tested in the LARP high-field quadrupole HQ and presently being built into the coils of the high-field quadrupole MQXF. In order to compare the heat flow characteristics and thermal diffusion timescales of different heater designs, we powered heaters of two different geometries in ambient conditions and imaged the resulting thermal distributions using a high-sensitivity thermal video camera. We observed a peculiar spatial periodicity in the temperature distribution maps potentially linked to the structure of themore » underlying cable. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of heat diffusion and spatial heat distribution have been conducted, and the results of simulation and experiment have been compared. Imaging revealed hot spots due to a current concentration around high curvature points of heater strip of varying cross sections and visualized thermal effects of various interlayer structural defects. Furthermore, thermal imaging can become a future quality control tool for the MQXF coil heaters.« less

  16. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  17. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  18. Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

  19. 71 FR 4958 - Advisory Circular 25.856-2, Installation of Thermal/Acoustic Insulation for Burnthrough Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 25.856-2, Installation of Thermal/Acoustic Insulation..., ``Installation of Thermal/Acoustic Insulation for Burnthrough Protection.'' The advisory circular provides... thermal/acoustic insulation. DATES: AC 25.856-2 was issued by the FAA Transport Airplane Directorate...

  20. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  1. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  2. An overview of advanced surface engineering technologies for protection against wear

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzman, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced engineering processes used to produce wear-resistant surfaces are reviewed. These include coating techniques, such as thermal spray, sol-gel, physical vapor deposition, and plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Surface modification treatments such as ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and centrifugal casting, are also considered. The coating techniques of evaporation, plasma-assisted deposition, and ion-beam-assisted deposition are used to examine the optimization of process complexity and control. Examples of commercial facilities and applications for advanced surface engineering are also described. Two issues affecting the expansion of commercial opportunities for surface engineering -- quality control and meaningful surface engineering properties -- are discussed. 67 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Advanced X ray Astrophysics Facility-Imaging (AXAF-I) thermal analyses using Integrated Thermal Analysis System (ITAS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Benny; Cummings, Ramona

    1993-01-01

    The complex geometry and stringent thermal requirements associated with the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) necessitate a detailed and accurate thermal analysis of the proposed system. A brief description of said geometry and thermal requirements is included. Among the tools considered for the aforementioned analysis is a PC-compatible version of the Integrated Thermal Analysis System (ITAS). Several bench-mark studies were performed to evaluate the capabilities of ITAS and to compare the corresponding results with those obtained using TRASYS and SINDA. Comparative studies were conducted for a typical Space Station module. Four models were developed using various combinations of the available software packages (i.e. ITAS, SINDA, and TRASYS). Orbital heating and heat transfer calculations were performed to determine the temperature distributions along the surfaces of this module. A comparison of the temperature distributions obtained for each of the four cases is presented. Results of this investigation were used to verify the different ITAS modules including those used for model generation, steady state and transient orbital heating analyses, radiative and convective heat flow analyses, and SINDA/TRASYS model translation. The results suggest that ITAS is well suited to subsequent analyses of the AXAF-I.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of Protected Polymers Using Thermal Energy Plasma Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Gebauer, Linda; Lamoreaux, Cynthia M.

    1995-01-01

    The durability evaluation of protected polymers intended for use in low Earth orbit (LEO) has necessitated the use of large-area, high-fluence, atomic oxygen exposure systems. Two thermal energy atomic oxygen exposure systems which are frequently used for such evaluations are radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers and electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. Plasma source testing practices such as ample preparation, effective fluence prediction, atomic oxygen flux determination, erosion measurement, operational considerations, and erosion yield measurements are presented. Issues which influence the prediction of in-space durability based on ground laboratory thermal energy plasma system testing are also addressed.

  5. Chemically modified thermal-spray zinc anodes for galvanic cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    1999-12-01

    Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were applied to new and previously aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes to improve the performance of galvanic cathodic protection systems. Anodes on steel-reinforced concrete were treated with aqueous solutions of the humectants lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}) and lithium bromide (LiBr). LiBr was the most beneficial humectant, increasing the average galvanic current density of new thermal-sprayed Zn anodes by as much as a factor of six.

  6. An atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchevskii, V. M.; Kislov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    Matters concerned with development of methodical and mathematical support for an atmosphere protection subsystem in the thermal power station automated process control system are considered taking as an example the problem of controlling nitrogen oxide emissions at a gas-and-oil-fired thermal power station. The combined environmental-and-economic characteristics of boilers, which correlate the costs for suppressing emissions with the boiler steam load and mass discharge of nitrogen oxides in analytic form, are used as the main tool for optimal control. A procedure for constructing and applying environmental-and-economic characteristics on the basis of technical facilities available in modern instrumentation and control systems is presented.

  7. Characterization of Textiles Used in Chefs' Uniforms for Protection Against Thermal Hazards Encountered in the Kitchen Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; McQueen, Rachel H; Batcheller, Jane C; Ehnes, Briana L; Paskaluk, Stephen A

    2015-10-01

    Within the kitchen the potential for burn injuries arising from contact with hot surfaces, flames, hot liquid, and steam hazards is high. The chef's uniform can potentially offer some protection against such burns by providing a protective barrier between the skin and the thermal hazard, although the extent to which can provide some protection is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fabrics used in chefs' uniforms were able to provide some protection against thermal hazards encountered in the kitchen. Fabrics from chefs' jackets and aprons were selected. Flammability of single- and multiple-layered fabrics was measured. Effect of jacket type, apron and number of layers on hot surface, hot water, and steam exposure was also measured. Findings showed that all of the jacket and apron fabrics rapidly ignited when exposed to a flame. Thermal protection against hot surfaces increased as layers increased due to more insulation. Protection against steam and hot water improved with an impermeable apron in the system. For wet thermal hazards increasing the number of permeable layers can decrease the level of protection due to stored thermal energy. As the hands and arms are most at risk of burn injury increased insulation and water-impermeable barrier in the sleeves would improve thermal protection with minimal compromise to overall thermal comfort. PMID:25925745

  8. Characterization of Textiles Used in Chefs' Uniforms for Protection Against Thermal Hazards Encountered in the Kitchen Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; McQueen, Rachel H; Batcheller, Jane C; Ehnes, Briana L; Paskaluk, Stephen A

    2015-10-01

    Within the kitchen the potential for burn injuries arising from contact with hot surfaces, flames, hot liquid, and steam hazards is high. The chef's uniform can potentially offer some protection against such burns by providing a protective barrier between the skin and the thermal hazard, although the extent to which can provide some protection is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fabrics used in chefs' uniforms were able to provide some protection against thermal hazards encountered in the kitchen. Fabrics from chefs' jackets and aprons were selected. Flammability of single- and multiple-layered fabrics was measured. Effect of jacket type, apron and number of layers on hot surface, hot water, and steam exposure was also measured. Findings showed that all of the jacket and apron fabrics rapidly ignited when exposed to a flame. Thermal protection against hot surfaces increased as layers increased due to more insulation. Protection against steam and hot water improved with an impermeable apron in the system. For wet thermal hazards increasing the number of permeable layers can decrease the level of protection due to stored thermal energy. As the hands and arms are most at risk of burn injury increased insulation and water-impermeable barrier in the sleeves would improve thermal protection with minimal compromise to overall thermal comfort.

  9. Recession Curve Generation for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Howard S.; Stuckey, C. Irvin; Davis, Darrell W.; Davis, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ablatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) coatings are used on the Space Shuttle Vehicle Solid Rocket Boosters in order to protect the aluminum structure from experiencing excessive temperatures. The methodology used to characterize the recession of such materials is outlined. Details of the tests, including the facility, test articles and test article processing are also presented. The recession rates are collapsed into an empirical power-law relation. A design curve is defined using a 95-percentile student-t distribution. based on the nominal results. Actual test results are presented for the current acreage TPS material used.

  10. Hafnia-Based Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, and thus help achieve engine goals of low emissions and high efficiency. Under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project, advanced T/EBCs are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vaporcontaining combustion environments. The coating system is required to have increased phase stability, lower lattice and radiation thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance under high-heat-flux and thermal-cycling engine conditions. Advanced heat-flux testing approaches (refs. 1 to 4) have been established at the NASA Glenn Research Center for 1650 C coating developments. The simulated combustion water-vapor environment is also being incorporated into the heat-flux test capabilities (ref. 3).

  11. Development and Verification of the Charring, Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver (CATPISS) is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) with first and second order fully implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton s method, while the linear system is solved via the Generalized Minimum Residual method (GMRES). Verification results from exact solutions and Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  12. Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.

  13. Multi-tube thermal fuse for nozzle protection from a flame holding or flashback event

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Davis, Jr., Lewis Berkley; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David

    2012-07-03

    A protection system for a pre-mixing apparatus for a turbine engine, includes: a main body having an inlet portion, an outlet portion and an exterior wall that collectively establish a fuel delivery plenum; and a plurality of fuel mixing tubes that extend through at least a portion of the fuel delivery plenum, each of the plurality of fuel mixing tubes including at least one fuel feed opening fluidly connected to the fuel delivery plenum; at least one thermal fuse disposed on an exterior surface of at least one tube, the at least one thermal fuse including a material that will melt upon ignition of fuel within the at least one tube and cause a diversion of fuel from the fuel feed opening to at least one bypass opening. A method and a turbine engine in accordance with the protection system are also provided.

  14. Effects of natural environment on first generation solid rocket booster thermal protection system materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. D.

    1988-01-01

    The effort to demonstrate, by real-time exposure, the effects of the natural environment at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, upon the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is summarized, and that the overall SRB TPS configuration is verified to meet all requirements for resistance to the conditions associated with outdoor weathering, including: solar radiation; temperature; humidity; precipitation; wind; sand/dust abrasion; static electricity; salt spray; fungus; and atmospheric oxidants. The evaluation criterion for this project was based upon flatwise tensile properties, visual inspection, color change, and thermal performance. Based upon the evaluation of the changes in these properties, it is concluded that properly applied and topcoat-protected TPS can satisfactorily withstand the conditions of the natural environment at KSC for exposures up to six months.

  15. Acoustic Characterization and Impact Sensing for Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhr, S. J.; Reibel, R.; Sathish, S.; Jata, K. V.

    2006-03-06

    A study was conducted to understand acoustic wave propagation characteristics in a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) wrapped tile thermal protection system (CMC+ Foam+ RTV+ SIP+ RTV+ Al) and ceramic foam. Sound velocities were measured in three orthogonal directions on the above material. The attenuation coefficients were also determined for a uncoated ceramic foam. Commercially available standard acoustic emission transducers, piezo-wafers and polymer based PVDF (polyvinylidiene fluoride) film were employed in the experiments to acquire the acoustic data. The performance characteristics of these sensors will be discussed in light of impact detection. Variation in the wave propagation characteristics along different directions and the role of processing in causing anisotropic acoustic properties in thermal protection systems will be discussed.

  16. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  17. Advancement in thermal interface materials for future high-performance electronic applications. Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Huber, Dale L.; Rightley, Michael J.; Emerson, John Allen

    2006-02-01

    As electronic assemblies become more compact and increase in processing bandwidth, escalating thermal energy has become more difficult to manage. The major limitation has been nonmetallic joining using poor thermal interface materials (TIM). The interfacial, versus bulk, thermal conductivity of an adhesive is the major loss mechanism and normally accounts for an order magnitude loss in conductivity per equivalent thickness. The next generation TIM requires a sophisticated understanding of material and surface sciences, heat transport at submicron scales, and the manufacturing processes used in packaging of microelectronics and other target applications. Only when this relationship between bond line manufacturing processes, structure, and contact resistance is well-understood on a fundamental level will it be possible to advance the development of miniaturized microsystems. This report examines using thermal and squeeze-flow modeling as approaches to formulate TIMs incorporating nanoscience concepts. Understanding the thermal behavior of bond lines allows focus on the interfacial contact region. In addition, careful study of the thermal transport across these interfaces provides greatly augmented heat transfer paths and allows the formulation of very high resistance interfaces for total thermal isolation of circuits. For example, this will allow the integration of systems that exhibit multiple operational temperatures, such as cryogenically cooled detectors.

  18. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  19. Heath Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems - Preliminary Measurements and Design Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. A.; Price, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported here is the first stage of a project that aims to develop a health monitoring system for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) that enables a vehicle to safely re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. The TPS health monitoring system is to be integrated into an existing acoustic emissions-based Concept Demonstrator, developed by CSIRO, which has been previously demonstrated for evaluating impact damage of aerospace systems.

  20. A Non Rigid Reusable Surface Insulation Concept for the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A reusable thermal protection system concept was developed for the space shuttle that utilizes a flexible, woven ceramic mat insulation beneath an aerodynamic skin and moisture barrier consisting of either a dense ceramic coating or a super alloy metallic foil. The resulting heat shield material has unique structural characteristics. The shear modulus of the woven mat is very low such that bending and membrane loads introduced into the underlying structural panel remain isolated from the surface skin.

  1. Analysis of gap heating due to stepped tiles in the shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Smith, D. M.; Edwards, C. L. W.; Carlson, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical methods used to investigate entry gap heating in the Shuttle orbiter thermal protection system are described. Analytical results are given for a fuselage lower-surface location and a wing lower-surface location. These are locations where excessive gap heating occurred on the first flight of the Shuttle. The results of a study to determine the effectiveness of a half-height ceramic fiber gap filler in preventing hot-gas flow in the tile gaps are also given.

  2. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  3. Protection of alodine coatings from thermal aging by removable polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, Brett R.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodine-treated panels of aluminum alloys 7075-T73 and 6061-T6 that were subsequently aged for 15 to 50 hours at temperatures between 135 F to 200 F. The corrosion resistance of the thermally aged panels was evaluated, after stripping the polymer coatings, by exposure to a standard salt-fog corrosion test and the extent of pitting of the polymer-coated and untreated panels compared. Removable polymer coatings mitigated the loss of corrosion resistance due to thermal aging experienced by the untreated alloys. An epoxide coating was more effective than a fluorosilicone coating as a dehydration barrier.

  4. Electrochemical aging of humectant-treated thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were studied to determine their effectiveness in improving the performance and extending the service life of both new and previously-aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in impressed current (ICCP) and galvanic cathodic protection (GCP) systems for steel-reinforced concrete structures. Potassium acetate, lithium nitrate, and lithium bromide were applied to a series of thermal-sprayed Zn-coated concrete slabs before starting the ICCP or GCP experiment. All of the humectants altered the behavior of the thermal-sprayed Zn anodes. LiNO{sub 3} was the most beneficial for ICCP anodes and LiBr was the most beneficial for GCP anodes. Circuit resistances for ICCP anodes and galvanic current density for GCP anodes are compared on the basis of electrochemical aging, humidity, and type of humectant.

  5. Impact of cabin environment on thermal protection system of crew hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao Wei; Zhao, Jing Quan; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Xi Kui

    2016-05-01

    Hypersonic crew vehicles need reliable thermal protection systems (TPS) to ensure their safety. Since there exists relative large temperature difference between cabin airflow and TPS structure, the TPS shield that covers the cabin is always subjected to a non-adiabatic inner boundary condition, which may influence the heat transfer characteristic of the TPS. However, previous literatures always neglected the influence of the inner boundary by assuming that it was perfectly adiabatic. The present work focuses on studying the impact of cabin environment on the thermal performance. A modified TPS model is created with a mixed thermal boundary condition to connect the cabin environment with the TPS. This helps make the simulation closer to the real situation. The results stress that cabin environment greatly influences the temperature profile inside the TPS, which should not be neglected in practice. Moreover, the TPS size can be optimized during the design procedure if taking the effect of cabin environment into account.

  6. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems to 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Foreman, Cory D.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. These materials are also highly exposed to solid particle space environment hazards. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles are a porous-ceramic insulator of nominally 8 lb/ft(exp 3) alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG).

  7. Ballistic Performance of Porous Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems at 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal-protection-systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive electronic components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles have a porous-batting of nominally 8 lb/cubic ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) insulating material coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation (TUFI) layer.

  8. Wireless Subsurface Sensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop "wireless" devices that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. These devices are sensors integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable non-contact communication of sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Both passive and active prototype devices have been developed. The passive device uses a thermal fuse to indicate the occurrence of excessive temperature. This device has a diameter under 0.13 cm. (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles on an RLV) and can withstand 370 C for 15 minutes. The active device contains a small battery to provide power to a thermocouple for recording a temperature history during flight. The bulk of the device must be placed beneath the TPS for protection from high temperature, but the thermocouple can be placed in a hot location such as near the external surface.

  9. Thermal Aggregation of Calcium-Fortified Skim Milk Enhances Probiotic Protection during Convective Droplet Drying.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Song; Fu, Nan; Jeantet, Romain; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2016-08-01

    Probiotic bacteria have been reported to confer benefits on hosts when delivered in an adequate dose. Spray-drying is expected to produce dried and microencapsulated probiotic products due to its low production cost and high energy efficiency. The bottleneck in probiotic application addresses the thermal and dehydration-related inactivation of bacteria during process. A protective drying matrix was designed by modifying skim milk with the principle of calcium-induced protein thermal aggregation. The well-defined single-droplet drying technique was used to monitor the droplet-particle conversion and the protective effect of this modified Ca-aggregated milk on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The Ca-aggregated milk exhibited a higher drying efficiency and superior protection on L. rhamnosus GG during thermal convective drying. The mechanism was explained by the aggregation in milk, causing the lower binding of water in the serum phase and, conversely, local concentrated milk aggregates involved in bacteria entrapment in the course of drying. This work may open new avenues for the development of probiotic products with high bacterial viability and calcium enrichment. PMID:27420726

  10. Altitude Effects on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance; a Study of an Alternative Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Orchard, David; Wright, William B.; Oleskiw, Myron

    2016-01-01

    Research has been conducted to better understand the phenomena involved during operation of an aircraft's thermal ice protection system under running wet icing conditions. In such situations, supercooled water striking a thermally ice-protected surface does not fully evaporate but runs aft to a location where it freezes. The effects of altitude, in terms of air pressure and density, on the processes involved were of particular interest. Initial study results showed that the altitude effects on heat energy transfer were accurately modeled using existing methods, but water mass transport was not. Based upon those results, a new method to account for altitude effects on thermal ice protection system operation was proposed. The method employs a two-step process where heat energy and mass transport are sequentially matched, linked by matched surface temperatures. While not providing exact matching of heat and mass transport to reference conditions, the method produces a better simulation than other methods. Moreover, it does not rely on the application of empirical correction factors, but instead relies on the straightforward application of the primary physics involved. This report describes the method, shows results of testing the method, and discusses its limitations.

  11. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Kim, D. S.; Vienna, J. D.; Piepel, G. F.; Schweiger, M. J.

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  12. Thermal analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8-meter primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The objective is to maintain the primary mirror at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop®1. A detailed model of the primary mirror was required in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew and a 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the solar environment that influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model is used to predict gradients across and through the primary mirror using an idealized boundary temperature on the back and sides of the mirror of 280 K.

  13. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products.

  14. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from countries that are not party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS...

  15. 10 CFR 73.74 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for advance notice and protection of import shipments of nuclear material from countries that are not party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. 73.74 Section 73.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS...

  16. A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

    2013-09-01

    Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

  17. Analytical model for ring heater thermal compensation in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. PMID:27139664

  18. Analytical model for ring heater thermal compensation in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics in the design and analysis of thermal processes: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Norton, Tomás; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sun, Da Wen

    2013-01-01

    The design of thermal processes in the food industry has undergone great developments in the last two decades due to the availability of cheap computer power alongside advanced modelling techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD uses numerical algorithms to solve the non-linear partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and heat transfer so that the complex mechanisms that govern many food-processing systems can be resolved. In thermal processing applications, CFD can be used to build three-dimensional models that are both spatially and temporally representative of a physical system to produce solutions with high levels of physical realism without the heavy costs associated with experimental analyses. Therefore, CFD is playing an ever growing role in the development of optimization of conventional as well as the development of new thermal processes in the food industry. This paper discusses the fundamental aspects involved in developing CFD solutions and forms a state-of-the-art review on various CFD applications in conventional as well as novel thermal processes. The challenges facing CFD modellers of thermal processes are also discussed. From this review it is evident that present-day CFD software, with its rich tapestries of mathematical physics, numerical methods and visualization techniques, is currently recognized as a formidable and pervasive technology which can permit comprehensive analyses of thermal processing.

  20. Performance of a Haynes 188 metallic standoff thermal protection system at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A flight weight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) model applicable to reentry and hypersonic vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating to evaluate its aerothermal performance and structural integrity. The TPS was designed for a maximum operating temperature of 1255 K and featured a shingled, corrugation stiffened corrugated skin heat shield of Haynes 188, a cobalt base alloy. The model was subjected to 3 radiant preheat/aerothermal tests for a total of 67 seconds and to 15 radiant heating tests for a total of 85.9 minutes at 1255 K. The TPS limited the primary structure to temperatures below 430 K in all tests. No catastrophic failures occurred in the heat shields, supports, or insulation system. The TPS continued to function even after exposure to a differential temperature 4 times the design value produced thermal buckles in the outer skin. The shingled thermal expansion joint effectively allowed for thermal expansion of the heat shield without allowing any appreciable hot gas flow into the model cavity, even though the overlap gap between shields increased after several thermal cycles.

  1. Developments in advanced and energy saving thermal isolations for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The cooling power consumption in large scale superconducting systems is huge and cryogenic devices used in space applications often require an extremely long cryogen holding time. To economically maintain the device at its operating temperature and minimize the refrigeration losses, high performance of thermal isolation is essential. The radiation from warm surrounding surfaces and conducting heat leaks through supports and penetrations are the dominant heat loads to the cold mass under vacuum condition. The advanced developments in various cryogenic applications to successfully reduce the heat loads through radiation and conduction are briefly and systematically discussed and evaluated in this review paper. These include: (1) thermal Insulation for different applications (foams, perlites, glass bubbles, aerogel and MLI), (2) sophisticated low-heat-leak support (cryogenic tension straps, trolley bars and posts with dedicated thermal intercepts), and (3) novel cryogenic heat switches.

  2. Development and Qualification of Alternate Blowing Agents for Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Charles W.; Cavalaris, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace industry has a long history of using low density polyurethane and polyurethane-modified isocyanurate foam systems as lightweight, low cost, easily processed cryogenic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for ascent vehicles. The Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is required so that quality liquid cryogenic propellant can be supplied to the Orbiter main engines and to protect the metal structure of the tanks from becoming too hot from aerodynamic heating, hence preventing premature break-up of the tank. These foams are all blown with CFC-1 I blowing agent which has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an ozone depleting substance. CFCs will not be manufactured after 1995, Consequently, alternate blowing agent substances must be identified and implemented to assure continued ET manufacture and delivery. This paper describes the various testing performed to select and qualify HCFC-1 41 b as a near term drop-in replacement for CFC-11. Although originally intended to be a one for one substitution in the formulation, several technical issues were identified regarding material performance and processability which required both formulation changes and special processing considerations to overcome. In order to evaluate these material changes, each material was subjected to various tests to qualify them to meet the various loads imposed on them during long term storage, pre-launch operations, launch, separation and re-entry. Each material was tested for structural, thermal, aeroshear, and stress/strain loads for the various flight environments each encounters. Details of the development and qualification program and the resolution of specific problems are discussed in this paper.

  3. Gold-copper nanostars as photo-thermal agents: synthesis and advanced electron microscopy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazán-Díaz, Lourdes; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Romeu, David; Reyes-Gasga, José; Herrera-Becerra, Raúl; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Guisbiers, Grégory

    2015-12-01

    Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra.Nanoalloys have emerged as multi-functional nanoparticles with applications in biomedicine and catalysis. This work reports the efficient production and the advanced transmission electron microscopy characterization of gold-copper pentagonal nanostars. The morphology of the branches is controlled by the adequate choice of the capping agent. When oleylamine is used rounded nanostars are produced, while pointed nanostars are obtained by using hexadecylamine. Both types of nanostars were proved to be thermally stable and could therefore be used as therapeutic agents in photo-thermal therapies as confirmed by the near-infrared absorption spectra. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06491k

  4. Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

    2011-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards.

  5. Advanced e-Infrastructures for Civil Protection applications: the CYCLOPS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Ayral, P. A.; Fiorucci, P.; Pina, A.; Oliveira, J.; Sorani, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the full cycle of the emergency management, Civil Protection operative procedures involve many actors belonging to several institutions (civil protection agencies, public administrations, research centers, etc.) playing different roles (decision-makers, data and service providers, emergency squads, etc.). In this context the sharing of information is a vital requirement to make correct and effective decisions. Therefore a European-wide technological infrastructure providing a distributed and coordinated access to different kinds of resources (data, information, services, expertise, etc.) could enhance existing Civil Protection applications and even enable new ones. Such European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure should be designed taking into account the specific requirements of Civil Protection applications and the state-of-the-art in the scientific and technological disciplines which could make the emergency management more effective. In the recent years Grid technologies have reached a mature state providing a platform for secure and coordinated resource sharing between the participants collected in the so-called Virtual Organizations. Moreover the Earth and Space Sciences Informatics provide the conceptual tools for modeling the geospatial information shared in Civil Protection applications during its entire lifecycle. Therefore a European Civil Protection e-infrastructure might be based on a Grid platform enhanced with Earth Sciences services. In the context of the 6th Framework Programme the EU co-funded Project CYCLOPS (CYber-infrastructure for CiviL protection Operative ProcedureS), ended in December 2008, has addressed the problem of defining the requirements and identifying the research strategies and innovation guidelines towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection. Starting from the requirement analysis CYCLOPS has proposed an architectural framework for a European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure. This architectural framework has

  6. A study on metallic thermal protection system panel for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caogen, Yao; Hongjun, Lü; Zhonghua, Jia; Xinchao, Jia; Yan, Lu; Haigang, Li

    2008-07-01

    A Ni-based superalloy honeycomb thermal protection system (TPS) panel has been fabricated. And a curved Ni-based superalloy honeycomb sandwich has also been fabricated. The preliminary thermal insulation results of a fabricated Ni-based superalloy honeycomb TPS panel (the areal density of this panel is 6.7 kg /m2 and total height is 32 mm) indicate that the maximum temperature of the lower surfaces of the panel is lower than 150∘ C when the temperature of outer surface is held at 650∘ C for 30 min. The flatwise tensile strength and compressive properties of a fabricated Ni-based superalloy honeycomb sandwich coupon was studied at room temperature. A multilayered coating has been developed on the surface of the superalloy honeycomb TPS panel for environmental protection and thermal control. The oxidation weight-change results show that the weight change of the Ni-based superalloy honeycomb sandwich with the oxidation resistant coating is extremely small at 1100∘ C in air for 10 h. The emittance layer of the multilayered coating imparts an emittance in excess of 0.85 during exposure at 850∘ C, which was at least 14% greater than that of the substrate with oxidation resistant alone.

  7. Replacement of Ablators with Phase-Change Material for Thermal Protection of STS Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K.; Stuckey, Irvin; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of the research and development program to develop new Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for aerospace applications at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), an experimental study was conducted on a new concept for a non-ablative TPS material. Potential loss of TPS material and ablation by-products from the External Tank (ET) or Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) during Shuttle flight with the related Orbiter tile damage necessitates development of a non-ablative thermal protection system. The new Thermal Management Coating (TMC) consists of phase-change material encapsulated in micro spheres and a two-part resin system to adhere the coating to the structure material. The TMC uses a phase-change material to dissipate the heat produced during supersonic flight rather than an ablative material. This new material absorbs energy as it goes through a phase change during the heating portion of the flight profile and then the energy is slowly released as the phase-change material cools and returns to its solid state inside the micro spheres. The coating was subjected to different test conditions simulating design flight environments at the NASA/MSFC Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF) to study its performance.

  8. Computational techniques for design optimization of thermal protective systems for the space shuttle vehicle. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A modular program for design optimization of thermal protection systems is discussed. Its capabilities and limitations are reviewed. Instructions for the operation of the program, output, and the program itself are given.

  9. Thermal Behavior of Advanced UO{sub 2} Fuel at High Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, E.; Lambert, T.; Silberstein, K.; Therache, B.

    2007-07-01

    To improve the fuel performance, advanced UO{sub 2} products are developed to reduce significantly Pellet-Cladding Interaction and Fission Gas Release to increase high burnup safety margins on Light Water Reactors. To achieve the expected improvements, doping elements are currently used, to produce large grain viscoplastic UO{sub 2} fuel microstructures. In that scope, AREVA NP is conducting the qualification of a new UO{sub 2} fuel pellet obtained by optimum chromium oxide doping. To assess the fuel thermal performance, especially the fuel conductivity degradation with increasing burnup and also the kinetics of fission gas release under transient operating conditions, an instrumented in-pile experiment, called REMORA, has been developed by the CEA. One segment base irradiated for five cycles in a French EDF commercial PWR ({approx} 62 GWd/tM) was consequently re-instrumented with a fuel centerline thermocouple and an advanced pressure sensor. The design of this specific sensor is based on the counter-pressure principle and avoids any drift phenomenon due to nuclear irradiation. This rodlet was then irradiated in the GRIFFONOS rig of the Osiris experimental reactor at CEA Saclay. This device, located in the periphery of the core, is designed to perform test under conditions close to those prevailing in French PWR reactor. Power variations are carried out by translating the device relatively to the core. Self - powered neutron detectors are positioned in the loop in order to monitor the power the whole time of the irradiation. The re-irradiation of the REMORA experiment consisted of a stepped ramp to power in order to point out a potential degradation of the fuel thermal conductivity with increasing burnup. During the first part of the irradiation, most of the measurements were performed at low power in order to take into account the irradiation effects on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity at high burnup in low range of temperature. The second part of the irradiation

  10. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  11. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualism is an often-complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and in exchange protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40°C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0°C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  12. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  13. Thermal Protection of the Huygens Probe During Titan Entry: Last Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouilly, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    CASSINI-HUYGENS mission is a cooperation between NASA and ESA, dedicated to the exploration of the Saturnian system. In the framework of this mission, the entry of the HUYGENS probe in the atmosphere of TITAN will be of major scientific interest. One of the essential points of the HUYGENS mission is therefore the good behavior of the thermal shield designed to maintain the aerodynamic shape and to protect the probe from excessive heating during the atmospheric entry on TITAN. The design and the qualification of this thermal shield were carried out between 1992 and 1995 (development phase). Currently, the final definition of mission parameters is being completed. As the performance of the thermal shield is one of all the parameters considered at system level, it is therefore necessary to reassess the thermal response of the TPS, taking into account some updated information that was not yet available during the development phase. After some recall of the results of 1992 to 1995, the paper will present a status of the current work on TPS.

  14. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  15. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress. PMID:25976784

  16. Sea buckthorn seed oil protects against the oxidative stress produced by thermally oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Sana

    2015-11-01

    Thermally oxidized vegetable ghee was fed to the rabbits for 14 days with specific doses of sea buckthorn seed oil (SO). The ghee and SO were characterized for quality parameters and fatty acid composition using GC-MS. Rabbits serum lipid profile, hematology and histology were investigated. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (44%) and oleic acid (46%) in ghee, while SO contains oleic acid (56.4%) and linoleic acid (18.7%). Results showed that oxidized vegetable ghee increases the serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and decrease the serum glucose. Oxidized ghee produced toxic effects in the liver and hematological parameters. Sea buckthorn oil supplementation significantly lowered the serum LDL-cholesterols, triglycerides and increased serum glucose and body weight of the animals. Sea buckthorn oil was found to reduce the toxic effects and degenerative changes in the liver and thus provides protection against the thermally oxidized lipids induced oxidative stress.

  17. Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) a Novel Approach to Meet Nasa's Most Demanding Reentry Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matt; Ventkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beerman, Adam; Boghozian, Tane; Gonzales, Gregory; Feldman, Jay; Peterson, Keith; Prabhu, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    NASA's future robotic missions to Venus and other planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heatshield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS, however, its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high fluxes, pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This presentation will summarize the maturation of the WTPS project.

  18. Thermal sprayed titanium anode for cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, S. D.; Covino, B. S.; Holcomb, G. R.; Bullard, S. J.; Collins, W. K.; Govier, R. D.; Wilson, R. D.; Laylor, H. M.

    1999-03-01

    Stable operation of cobalt catalyzed thermal sprayed titanium anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of bridge reinforcing steel was maintained in accelerated tests for a period equivalent to 23 years service at Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) bridge CP conditions with no evidence that operation would degrade with further aging. The cobalt catalyst dispersed into the concrete near the anodeconcrete interface with electrochemical aging to produce a more diffuse anode reaction zone. The titanium anode had a porous heterogeneous structure composed of α-titanium containing interstitial oxygen and nitrogen, and a fee phase thought to be Ti(O,N). Splat cooling rates were 10 to 150 K/s, and microstructures were produced by equilibrium processes at the splat solidification front. Nitrogen gas atomization during thermal spraying produced a coating with more uniform composition, less cracking, and lower resistivity than using air atomization.

  19. Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems Using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, and an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during re-entry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry

  20. Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

  1. Evaluation of nondestructive testing techniques for the space shuttle nonmetallic thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiede, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate nondestructive analysis techniques for the detection of defects in rigidized surface insulation (a candidate material for the Space Shuttle thermal protection system). Uncoated, coated, and coated and bonded samples with internal defects (voids, cracks, delaminations, density variations, and moisture content), coating defects (holes, cracks, thickness variations, and loss of adhesion), and bondline defects (voids and unbonds) were inspected by X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, high-frequency ultrasonic, beta backscatter, thermal, holographic, and visual techniques. The detectability of each type of defect was determined for each technique (when applicable). A possible relationship between microwave reflection measurements (or X-ray-radiography density measurements) and the tensile strength was established. A possible approach for in-process inspection using a combination of X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, and holographic techniques was recommended.

  2. CFD Analysis of Flexible Thermal Protection System Shear Configuration Testing in the LCAT Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison between runs and also current or future flight simulations.

  3. Conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in thermal protection reactors of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Mikhaylov, A. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal protection of heat-stressed surfaces of a high-speed vehicle flying in dense layers of atmosphere is one of the topical issues. Not of a less importance is also the problem of hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow. In the concept under development, it is supposed that in the most high-stressed parts of airframe and engine, catalytic thermochemical reactors will be installed, wherein highly endothermic processes of steam conversion of hydrocarbon fuel take place. Simultaneously with heat absorption, hydrogen generation will occur in the reactors. This paper presents the results of a study of conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in a slit reactor.

  4. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  5. Position Paper External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Manually Sprayed fly-as-is Foam Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.

    2009-01-01

    During manufacture of the existing External Tanks (ETs), the Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam manual spray application processes lacked the enhanced controls/procedures to ensure that defects produced were less than the critical size. Therefore the only remaining option to certify the "fly-as-is" foam is to verify ET120 tank hardware meets the new foam debris requirements. The ET project has undertaken a significant effort studying the existing "fly-as-is" TPS foam. This paper contains the findings of the study.

  6. Refurbishment cost study of the thermal protection system of a space shuttle vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The labor costs and techniques associated with the refurbishment and maintenance of representative thermal protection system (TPS) components and their attachment concepts suitable for space shuttle application are defined, characterized, and evaluated from the results of an experimental test program. This program consisted of designing selected TPS concepts, fabricating and assembling test hardware, and performing a time and motion study of specific maintenance functions of the test hardware on a full-scale- mockup. Labor requirements and refurbishment techniques, as they relate to the maintenance functions of inspection, repair, removal, and replacement were identified.

  7. Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

  8. Thermal Protection Materials and Systems: Where Have We Been, Where are We Going?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) have been critical to fulfilling humankind's desire to explore space. Composite and ceramic materials have enable the early missions to orbit, the moon, the space station, Mars with robots, and sample return. Crewed missions to Mars are being considered, and this places even more demands on TPS materials. This talk will give some history on the materials used for earth and planetary entry and the demands placed upon such materials. TPs needs for future missions, especially to Mars, will be identified and potential solutions discussed.

  9. Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

  10. Development of 3D Woven Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Ellerby, Don; Stackpoole, Mairead; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new class of thermal protection system (TPS) materials known as 3D Woven TPS led by the Entry Systems and Technology Division of NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) will be discussed. This effort utilizes 3D weaving and resin infusion technologies to produce heat shield materials that are engineered and optimized for specific missions and requirements. A wide range of architectures and compositions have been produced and preliminarily tested to prove the viability and tailorability of the 3D weaving approach to TPS.

  11. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Sanjay

    2015-04-02

    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  12. Measuring the spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials during atmospheric reentry simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marble, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Hypersonic spacecraft reentering the earth's atmosphere encounter extreme heat due to atmospheric friction. Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials shield the craft from this searing heat, which can reach temperatures of 2900 F. Various thermophysical and optical properties of TPS materials are tested at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility, which has the capability to simulate critical environmental conditions associated with entry into the earth's atmosphere. Emissivity is an optical property that determines how well a material will reradiate incident heat back into the atmosphere upon reentry, thus protecting the spacecraft from the intense frictional heat. This report describes a method of measuring TPS emissivities using the SR5000 Scanning Spectroradiometer, and includes system characteristics, sample data, and operational procedures developed for arc-jet applications.

  13. Personal, closed-cycle cooling and protective apparatus and thermal battery therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James W.; Klett, Lynn B.

    2004-07-20

    A closed-cycle apparatus for cooling a living body includes a heat pickup body or garment which permits evaporation of an evaporating fluid, transmission of the vapor to a condenser, and return of the condensate to the heat pickup body. A thermal battery cooling source is provided for removing heat from the condenser. The apparatus requires no external power and provides a cooling system for soldiers, race car drivers, police officers, firefighters, bomb squad technicians, and other personnel who may utilize protective clothing to work in hostile environments. An additional shield layer may simultaneously provide protection from discomfort, illness or injury due to harmful atmospheres, projectiles, edged weapons, impacts, explosions, heat, poisons, microbes, corrosive agents, or radiation, while simultaneously removing body heat from the wearer.

  14. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 3; The Validation of Antice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Horvath, Charles; Miller, Dean R.; Wright, William B.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental program was generated by the Icing Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center to validate two ice protection simulation codes: (1) LEWICE/Thermal for transient electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing simulations, and (2) ANTICE for steady state hot gas and electrothermal anti-icing simulations. An electrothermal ice protection system was designed and constructed integral to a 36 inch chord NACA0012 airfoil. The model was fully instrumented with thermo-couples, RTD'S, and heat flux gages. Tests were conducted at several icing environmental conditions during a two week period at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. Experimental results of running-wet and evaporative cases were compared to the ANTICE computer code predictions and are presented in this paper.

  15. Evaluation of Advanced Stirling Convertor Net Heat Input Correlation Methods Using a Thermal Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, numerous tasks have been performed which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs, including testing validation hardware, known as the Thermal Standard, to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This validation hardware provided a comparison for scrutinizing and improving empirical correlations and numerical models of ASC-E2 net heat input. This hardware simulated the characteristics of an ASC-E2 convertor in both an operating and non-operating mode. This paper describes the Thermal Standard testing and the conclusions of the validation effort applied to the empirical correlation methods used by the Radioisotope Power System (RPS) team at NASA Glenn.

  16. Revitalizing the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System with Reverse Engineering and 3D Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brad; Galatzer, Yishai

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is protected by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) made of tens of thousands of individually shaped heat protection tile. With every flight, tiles are damaged on take-off and return to earth. After each mission, the heat tiles must be fixed or replaced depending on the level of damage. As part of the return to flight mission, the TPS requirements are more stringent, leading to a significant increase in heat tile replacements. The replacement operation requires scanning tile cavities, and in some cases the actual tiles. The 3D scan data is used to reverse engineer each tile into a precise CAD model, which in turn, is exported to a CAM system for the manufacture of the heat protection tile. Scanning is performed while other activities are going on in the shuttle processing facility. Many technicians work simultaneously on the space shuttle structure, which results in structural movements and vibrations. This paper will cover a portable, ultra-fast data acquisition approach used to scan surfaces in this unstable environment.

  17. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, August 1992--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.; Bortiatynski, J.; Burgess, C.; Dutta, R.; Gergova, K.; Lai, W.C.; Li, J.; McKinney, D.; Parfitt, D.; Peng, Y.; Sanghani, P.; Yoon, E.

    1993-02-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five borad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and miocrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Pyrolysis of four isomers of butylbenzene was investigated in static microautoclave reactors at 450{degrees}C under 0.69 MPa of UHP N{sub 2}. Thee rates of disappearance of substrates were found to depend upon the bonding energy of C{alpha}-C{beta} bond in the side chain in the initial period of pyrolysis reactions. Possible catalytic effects of metal surfaces on thermal degradation and deposit formation at temperatures >400{degrees}C have been studied. Carbon deposition depends on the composition of the metal surfaces, and also depends on the chemical compositions of the reactants. Thermal stressing of JP-8 was conducted in the presence of alumina, carbonaceous deposits recovered from earlier stressing experiments, activated carbon, carbon black, and graphite. The addition of different solid carbons during thermal stressing leads to different reaction mechanisms. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, along with {sup 13}C-labeling techniques, have been used to examine the thermal stability of a jet fuel sample mixed with 5% benzyl alcohol. Several heterometallic complexes consisting of two transition metals and sulfur in a single molecule were synthesized and tested as precursors of bimetallic dispersed catalysts for liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coals.

  18. Quantitative assessment of the relationship between radiant heat exposure and protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing during dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Fu, M; Weng, W G; Yuan, H Y

    2014-07-15

    The beneficial effect of clothing on a person is important to the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires. The thermal protective performance of multilayer thermal protective clothing exposed to low heat fluxes during dry and wet conditions was studied using two designed bench-scale test apparatus. The protective clothing with four fabric layers (outer shell, moisture barrier, thermal linear and inner layer) was exposed to six levels of thermal radiation (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10kW/m(2)). Two kinds of the moisture barrier (PTFE and GoreTex) with different vapor permeability were compared. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer were measured. The fitting analysis was used to quantitatively assess the relationship between the temperature of each layer during thermal exposure and the level of external heat flux. It is indicated that there is a linear correlation between the temperature of each layer and the radiant level. Therefore, a predicted equation is developed to calculate the thermal insulation of the multilayer clothing from the external heat flux. It can also provide some useful information on the beneficial effects of clothing for the exposure criteria of radiant heat flux from fire.

  19. Joining and Integration of Advanced Carbon-Carbon Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal management applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of carbon-carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal management applications.

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of advanced impregnation materials for HTS cables and coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrets, N.; Otten, S.; Weiss, K.-P.; Kario, A.; Goldacker, W.

    2015-12-01

    In the growing field of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) applications, finding an appropriate impregnation material for cables and coils remains a challenging task. In HTS cables and coils, tapes have to be able to withstand mechanical loads during operation. Impregnation is playing a role as mechanical stabilization. However, material properties usually change significantly when going to low temperatures which can decrease performance of superconducting devices. For example, a large mismatch in thermal expansion between a conductor and impregnation material at low temperatures can lead to delamination and to degradation of the critical current. Impregnation materials can insulate tapes thermally which can lead to damage of the superconducting device in case of quench. Thus, thermal conductivity is an important property which is responsible for the temperature distribution in a superconducting cable or in a coil. Due to Lorentz forces acting on structural materials in a superconducting device, the mechanical properties of these materials should be investigated at operating temperatures of this device. Therefore, it is important to identify an advanced impregnation material meeting all specific requirements. In this paper, thermal and mechanical properties of impregnation material candidates with added fillers are presented in a temperature range from 300 K to 4 K.